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Ly Thuyet Khuon(6 Chuong)

Ly Thuyet Khuon(6 Chuong)

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vn Chaang 1 : G/a/ th/ea cong nghe ep phan

1
CHUONG 1 : GIOI THIEU CONG NGHE EP PHUN
1.1. Cong nghe ep phun la gì ?
Mot cach don gian nhat, cong nghe ep phun la qua trình phun nhua nong chay
dien day long khuon. Mot khi nhua duoc lam nguoi va dong cung lai trong long khuon
thì khuon duoc mo ra va san pham duoc day ra khoi khuon nho he thong day. Trong
qua trình nay khong co bat ky mot phan ung hoa hoc nao.
1.2. Nhu cau thuc te va hieu qua kinh te ma cong nghe ep phun mang lai :
Bang cach quan sat thong thuong nhat, chung ta co the thay co
rat nhieu san pham nhua xung quanh chung ta. Tu cac san pham don
gian la dung cu hoc tap nhu : thuoc, viet, compa hay do choi tre
em....cho den nhung san pham phuc tap nhu : ban, ghe, vo tivi, vi
tính hay cac chi tiet dung trong oto va xe may....deu duoc lam bang
nhua. Hau het cac san pham nay co hình dang va mau sac rat phong
phu va chung da gop phan lam cho cuoc song cua chung ta tro nen
dep va tien nghi hon. Ðieu nay dong nghïa voi viec san pham nhua
ma phan lon duoc tao ra bang cong nghe ep phun da tro thanh mot
phan khong the thieu trong cuoc song cua chung ta. Voi cac tính chat
nhu : do deo dai, nhe, co the tai che, khong co nhung phan ung hoa
hoc voi khong khí trong dieu kien bình thuong....vat lieu nhua da
thay the cac loai vat lieu khac nhu : sat, nhom, gang, dong
thau....dang ngay cang can kiet trong tu nhien. Do do ta co the noi
rang nhu cau su dung vat lieu nhua trong tuong lai se con rat lon.
Ðieu nay dua den mot he qua la gia thanh khuon se khong duoc cho
la qua dac boi loi nhuan ma no mang lai la rat lon vì tu mot khuon ep
phun ta co the cho ra hang chuc tham chí hang tram ngan san pham
nho may ep nhua.
Tom lai, nhu cau ve san pham nhua cua con nguoi la mai mai cho
den khi nao nguoi ta co the tìm ra mot vat lieu khac co nhung dac tính
tuong tu va tot hon co the thay the cho nhua. Tuy nhien, song song voi
nhu cau ay, dieu chung ta can quan tam them nua la phai su dung nhua
mot cach hop lí nhat de tranh nhung he luy khong tot cho moi truong.
http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chaang 1 : G/a/ th/ea cong nghe ep phan

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1.3. Kha nang cong nghe :
- Tao ra nhung san pham co hình dang phuc tap tuy y.
- Tren cung mot san pham hình dang giua mat trong va mat
ngoai co the khac nhau (day la mot the manh so voi cac cong
nghe san xuat san nhua khac).
- Kha nang tu dong hoa va chi tiet co tính lap lai cao.
- San pham sau khi ep phun co mau sac rat phong phu
va do nhan bong be mat rat cao nen khong can gia cong lai.
- Phu hop cho san xuat hang khoi va don chiec (trong
nhung truong hop dac biet).

1.4 .Cac yeu to co ban va qui trình cong nghe thiet ke khuon ep phun :
1.4.1. Cac yeu to co ban cua khuon : (khuon cho san pham vo dao cat giay)
1.Vít luc giac
2.Vong dinh vi
3.Bac cuon phun
4.Coi khuon (khuon cai)
5.Bac dinh vi
6.Tam kep truoc
7.Vo khuon cai
8.Chot hoi
9.Chay khuon (khuon duc)
10.Chot dinh vi
11.Vo khuon duc
12.Tam do
13.Goi do
14.Tam giu
15.Tam day
16.Tam kep sau
17.Goi do phu
http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chaang 1 : G/a/ th/ea cong nghe ep phan

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1.4.2. Chuc nang cua cac yeu to co ban :
1. Vít luc giac : lien ket cac tam khuon va tao tính tham my.
2. Vong dinh vi : dinh tam giua bac cuong phun va voi phun.
3. Bac cuong phun : dan nhua tu may ep phun vao cac kenh dan nhua.
4. Khuon cai : tao hình cho san pham.
5. Bac dinh vi : dam bao vi trí tuong quan giua khuon duc va khuon cai.
6. Tam kep truoc : giu chat phan co dinh cua khuon vao may ep nhua.
7&11. Vo khuon cai va khuon duc : thuong duoc lam bang vat lieu re tien hon so
voi khuon cai nen giup giam gia thanh khuon nhung van dam bao hieu qua kinh te
cua khuon.
8. Chot hoi : hoi he thong day ve vi trí ban dau khi khuon dong.
9. Khuon duc : tao hình cho san pham.
10. Chot dinh vi : chui vao bac dinh vi khi khuon dong, giup khuon duc va khuon cai
lien ket mot cach chính xac.
12. Tam do : tang ben cho khuon trong qua trình ep phun.
13. Goi do : tao khoang trong de tam day hoat dong.
14. Tam giu : giu cac chot day.
15. Tam day : day cac chot day de loi san pham roi khoi khuon.
16. Tam kep sau : giu chat phan di dong cua khuon tren may ep nhua.
17. Goi do phu : tang ben cho khuon trong qua trình ep phun.
1.4.3. Qui trình cong nghe thiet ke khuon :

http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chaang 2 : Th/et ke hình hoc cho san pham nhaa

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CHUONG 2 : THIET KE HÌNH HOC CHO SAN PHAM NHUA
2.1. Be day :
2.1.1.Hieu qua thiet ke :
- Rut ngan thoi gian chu ky ep phun va che tao khuon.
- Giam gia thanh san pham va khuon.
- Tiet kiem vat lieu nhua ma van mang lai hieu qua su dung cho san pham.
- Tranh duoc mot so hong hoc tren san pham nhu : cong venh, vet lom , lo
rong va duong han .v...v.
2.1.2. Mot so dieu can chu y :
Tuy thuoc vao tung loai san pham ma be day se khac nhau, thuong tu 0.5mm
den 4mm . Tuy nhien, trong mot so truong hop dac biet san pham can dat duoc cac
tính chat nhu cach dien, chiu nhiet..thì do day co the day hon. Thuc te cho thay be
day cua san pham duoc lam cang mong khi co the va cang dong deu cang tot. Bang
cach nay, viec dien day long khuon va su co rut cua nhua long se dat duoc tot nhat.
Ung suat trong cung duoc giam di dang ke.
Mot khi nhan thay san pham khong du ben thì ta co the :
Tang be day (neu no that su khong qua day).
Dung vat lieu khac co tính ben cao hon.
Tao cac gan tang cung hoac cac goc luon de tang ben.
Viec dam bao san pham co be day dong deu la rat quan trong vì thoi gian dong
cung cua nhua long la khac nhau o nhung phan co be day khac nhau. Khi khong the
dam duoc dieu nay thì cac hong hoc tren be mat rat co kha nang xay ra. Tuy nhien, ta
co the han che cac hong hoc bang cach thiet ket cac doan chuyen tiep.
Khong tot Tot Tot nhat
: Chí huong dong chay cua nhua long.
Hình 2.1 - Cac cach thiet ke phan chuyen tiep.

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Cac khuyet tat thuong gap khi thiet ke be day khong phu hop :


Hình 2.2 - Vet lom. Hình 2.3 - Lo trong.










Khong tot Tot

Hình 2.4 - Su uu tien dong chay khi be day khac nhau gay duong han va lo khí.









Hình 2.5 - Cong venh.
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2.2. Goc bo :
2.2.1. Hieu qua thiet ke :
- San pham duoc lam nguoi dong deu.
- Giam kha nang san pham bi cong venh.
- Giam su can dong.
- Nhua long de dien day long khuon.
- Giam su tap trung ung suat. Hình 2.6 - Goc bo.
2.2.2. Mot so dieu can luu y :
Ban kính bo (ban kính trong) nen nam trong pham vi tu 25% den 60% be day san
pham nhung tot nhat nen la 50%. Ban kính ngoai nen bang ban kính trong cong them
be day cua san pham.






Hình 2.7 - Kích thuoc thiet ke goc bo.
Mot khi dieu nay khong duoc thoa man thì san pham de bi cong venh boi su nguoi
khong deu giua phan nhua ben trong va be mat ngoai san pham khien su co rut khong
deu. Them vao do, ung suat tap trung cung tang len.









Hình 2.8 - Ðuong cong the hien quan he giua tí so R/T va ung suat tap trung.
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Cac khuyet tat thuong gap phai :







a) b) c)
Hình 2.9 - a) Vet nut ; b) Vet khía hình V ; c) Nep gap be mat.
2.3. Gan :
2.3.1. Hieu qua thiet ke :
- Tang ben.
- Tang kha nang chong uon.











Hình 2.10 - Tac dung cua gan.
2.3.2. Mot so dieu can luu y :
Be day cua gan khong nen vuot qua 1/2 be day dat gan nhung o nhung cho vat
lieu ít co rut va khong anh den tính tham my thì co the day hon mot chut. Tuy nhien ta
nen can nhac khi thiet ke vì dieu nay de dua den cac vet lom tren be mat doi dien dat
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gan. Them vao do, be day gan cung co tac dong den su uu tien dong chay trong qua
trình ep phun - nguyen nhan dua den cac khuyet tat duong han va ro khí.



t ≤ 0.5T
h ≤ 3T
r ≥ ( 0.25÷0.5) T
φ ≥ 0.5
0

S ≥ 2T



Hình 2.11 - Thong so hình hoc cua gan.
Chieu cao gan nen khong vuot qua 3 lan be day. Ðo nghieng moi ben nen tu 1
0

den 1,5
0
va nho nhat la 0.5
0
. Ban kính chuyen tiep tai noi dat gan nen bang 25-50%
be day. Ban kính nay se loai tru kha nang tap trung ung suat va cai thien dong chay
cung nhu su lam nguoi quanh gan. Khi ban kính lon hon se lam tang nguy co tao ra vet
lom tren be mat doi dien voi be mat dat gan.
Cac gan nen duoc thiet ke song song va khoang cach giua cac gan nen ít nhat la
bang 2 lan be day. Ðieu nay giup giam bot he thong lam nguoi va cac ranh thoat khí
trong khuon.
Cac gan nen duoc dat doc theo mot huong de dat do cung vung tot. Ta co the dat
ngang nhung viec nay khong mang lai hieu qua cao bang dat doc.






Hình 2.12 - Cac kieu dat gan.
http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chaang 2 : Th/et ke hình hoc cho san pham nhaa

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Ben canh viec thiet ke gan de tang ben, ta co the thiet ke cac nep gap de thay
the. Cac nep gap nay cung mang lai hieu qua khong kem gì cac gan va ta cung khong
phai ton them nhieu vat lieu va thoi gian lam nguoi.

Hình 2.13 - Cac kieu nep gap.
Khi thiet ke cac gan cheo giao nhau thì cho chuyen tiep nen la mot diem vì co nhu
vay moi dam bao duoc do cung va kha nang chong lai ung suat cho san pham.

















Hình 2.14 - Cac kieu gan cheo giao nhau.
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2.3.3. Gan tang cung :
Dung de tang cung cho cac goc , mat ben va cac vau loi cua san pham.

Hinh 2.15 -Cac thong so de thiet ke gan tang cung.
2.4. Vau loi :
Cac vau loi thuong duoc dung de bat vít hay cac chot
de lap rap cac chi tiet lai voi nhau.
Be day cua vau nen nho hon 75% be day dat vau, luu
y khi ma be day vau vuot 50% thì de dua den cac vet lom
tren be mat vì ung suat tap trung tang.












Hình 2.17 - Cac thong so thiet ke vau loi.
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Ban kính ngoai chuyen tiep nen bang 25% be day dat vau hay ít nhat cung bang 0.4
mm de giam ung suat. Mot khi ta tang chieu sau vau nen lam ban kính chuyen tiep de
giam bot su chuyen dong hon loan cua vat lieu trong qua trình ep phun va giu ung
suat o muc nho nhat. Tuy nhien dieu nay dua den mot he qua la be mat doi dien de bi
khuyet tat.
Cac goc con ngoai o mat ben nen nho nhat la 0.5
0
va goc con trong nho nhat nen la
0.25
0
de dam bao su thoat khuon.







Ðe ben hon, cac vau loi dat cach xa thanh san pham nen thiet ke them cac gan
tang cung. Cac vau nay nen dat cach thanh ít nhat la 3mm de tiet kiem vat lieu va
giam thoi gian chu ky. Khoang cach giua hai gan nen bang ít nhat hai lan be day
thanh san pham vì neu dat gan qua se kho nguoi.












Hình 2.19 - Thiet ke vau ket hop voi gan tang cung.
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Hình 2.20 - Cac thong so thiet ke gan tang cung.
2.5. Lo tren san pham :
2.5.1. Lo khong thong :
Chieu sau cua lo thuong khong vuot qua 3 lan duong kính lo. Ðoi voi cac lo co
duong kính nho hon 5mm (xap xí 3/16 inch) thì tí le nay la 2. Be day cua phan vat lieu
duoi cung nen lon hon 20% duong kính lo de loai tru khuyet tat cho mat doi dien.
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Mot thiet ket tot la be day cua thanh lo luon dong deu va khong co cac goc sac canh
noi ma co su tap trung cua ung suat.








Hình 2.21 - Cac thong so thiet ke lo khong thong.
2.5.2. Lo thong suot :
Khoang cach giua hai lo hoac giua cac lo voi mep ngoai cua san pham nen bang
hai lan be day hoac hai lan kích thuoc lon nhat duoc do theo chu vi cua lo. Kích thuoc
thiet ke duoc chí o hình 2.22
Hinh 2.22 - Cac thong so thiet ke lo thong suot.
Nen thiet ke de huong cua dong chay doc xuong theo lo de tranh duong han.Neu
duong han o muc khong chap nhan duoc thì ta khong nen thiet ke lo ma se khoan lo
cho san pham sau khi ep phun. Ben trong thanh lo nen bong nhan de tang kha nang
dien day.
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Hình 2.23 - Cac kieu be mat lo
2.6. Goc vat thoat khuon : (goc thoat khuon)
Ðoi voi cac san pham co gan, vau loi, ranh sau. hay co be mat vat thì ta nen thiet
ke goc vat theo huong mo cua khuon de chac rang san pham se thoat khoi long khuon
mot cach de dang.
Ta co the dua vao do thi sau de thiet ke goc vat thích hop :













Hình 2.24 - Goc vat va chieu cao vat.
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Gia tri goc vat phu thuoc vao tính co rut cua nhua va chieu cao vat. Thong thuong
gia tri nay nam trong khoang 0.25
0
-3
0
cho moi mat ben. Tuy nhien doi voi nhung san
pham co chieu cao can vat tu 5mm tro xuong thì ta co the khong can tao goc thoat
khuon vì ma sat giua mat san pham va thanh khuon la khong lon do viec xu ly be mat
trong qua trình lam nguoi nen san pham duoc day ra mot cach de dang.
Khi khong thiet ke goc thoat khuon hay thiet ke khong dung thì ma sat giua be
mat san pham va mat khuon se rat lon. Khi do san pham se bi ket lai trong khuon
hoac neu duoc day ra ngoai di chang nua thì be mat san pham cung se bi loi boi luc
chot day qua lon lam thun be mat.






a) b)
Hình 2.25 - a) San pham bi ket lai trong khuon ; b) San pham thoat khuon de dang.
http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chuong Chuong Chuong Chuong 3 33 3 : : : : Thiet ke khuon Thiet ke khuon Thiet ke khuon Thiet ke khuon ep phun ep phun ep phun ep phun

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CHUONG 3 : CHUONG 3 : CHUONG 3 : CHUONG 3 : THIET KE THIET KE THIET KE THIET KE KHUON EP PHUN KHUON EP PHUN KHUON EP PHUN KHUON EP PHUN
3 33 3.1. .1. .1. .1. Cac van de can quan tam khi thiet ke Cac van de can quan tam khi thiet ke Cac van de can quan tam khi thiet ke Cac van de can quan tam khi thiet ke : : : :
Mot thiet ke moi duoc bat dau khi nha thiet ke nhan duoc mot ban ve hay mau san
pham . Cac thong tin co ban luc nay se la : may gia cong
khuon thuoc loai nao ?, co bao nhieu long khuon trong
mot khuon ?, loai nhua dung cho san pham ?. Nhan thay
rang viec dua vao nhung thong tin nay la that su quan
trong. Tuy nhien cung co mot so van de ma ta can phai
quan tam them. Ðo la :
1. Cac tính chat cua nhua dung lam san pham.
2. So luong san pham can san xuat la bao nhieu de ta
co the tính toan so bo tuoi ben cua khuon.
3. Chu ky ep phun mat bao nhieu thoi gian ?
4. Noi san pham duoc su dung va duoc dung vao viec gì ? Hình 3.1- Ket cau
5. Dung sai lap ghep giua cac san pham (neu co) khuon dien hình
6. Ðo co rut cua nhua.
7. Goc thoat khuon la bao nhieu thì phu hop ?
8. Loai he thong kenh dan nao la phu hop ? : kenh dan nguoi, kenh dan nong hay
ca hai loai ?
9. Vi trí mieng phun, dong chay, duong han, noi loi san pham ?
10. Kích thuoc va kieu mieng phun ?
11. Tren khuon co khac cac hoa van hay chu khong ?
12. Cac chi tiet thay the cho khuon khi can thiet ?
13. Cac thong so cua may ep phun: Kích co ? kích thuoc dau phun ? cong suat lam
deo ?
14. Tính tu dong hoa cua may ?
15. Thoi gian hoan tat ?
16. Gia thanh ?
Ngoai cac van de tren, nha thiet ke cung can phai tiep nhan them mot so thong tin
tu phía khach hang de co mot thiet ke thoa man nhu cau khac hang.

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3.2. 3.2. 3.2. 3.2. Chon loai khuon Chon loai khuon Chon loai khuon Chon loai khuon cho thiet ke cho thiet ke cho thiet ke cho thiet ke : :: :
3.2.1. Khuon hai tam : 3.2.1. Khuon hai tam : 3.2.1. Khuon hai tam : 3.2.1. Khuon hai tam :
3.2.1.1. 3.2.1.1. 3.2.1.1. 3.2.1.1. Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nguoi : Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nguoi : Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nguoi : Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nguoi :
Khuon hai tam la loai khuon pho bien nhat. So voi khuon ba tam thì khuon hai
tam don gian hon, re hon va co chu ky ep phun ngan hon.
+ Ðoi voi khuon hai tam co mot long khuon thì khong can den kenh dan nhua ma
nhua se dien day truc tiep vao long khuon thong qua bac cuong phun.
+ Ðoi voi khuon hai tam co nhieu long khuon thì ta can quan tam den viec thiet
ke kenh dan va mieng phun sao cho nhua co the dien day cac long khuon cung luc
(van de can bang dong chay cua nhua). Truoc khi bat dau thiet ke khuon loai nay ta
nen dung mot mau de phan tích thu tren phan mem de tìm ra vi trí dat mieng phun
thích hop nhat. Khi xet thay vi trí cac mieng phun co the dat thang hang voi cac long
khuon thì viec dung khuon hai tam la thích hop.











a) a) a) a) b) b) b) b)
Hình 3.2 - a), b) :Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nguoi.
Vì van de can bang dong va doi hoi cac mieng phun phai duoc bo trí thang hang voi
cac long khuon ma viec thiet ke khuon hai tam co nhieu long khuon gap nhieu han che
doi voi mot so san pham nhua nhat dinh. Do do de khac phuc nhuoc diem nay nguoi ta
dung den khuon ba tam hoac khuon hai tam co kenh dan nong.

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Hình 3.3 - Ket cau khuon hai tam.
3.2.1.2 3.2.1.2 3.2.1.2 3.2.1.2. Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nong : . Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nong : . Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nong : . Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nong :
Khuon hai tam dung kenh dan nong luon giu cho nhua nong chay trong bac cuong
phun, kenh dan va mieng phun, nhua chí dong dac khi nao no chay vao long khuon.
Khi khuon mo ra thì chí co san pham (doi khi co them kenh dan nguoi) duoc lay ra
ngoai. Khi khuon dong lai thì nhua trong cac kenh dan van nong va tiep tuc dien day
vao long khuon mot cach truc tiep. Kenh dan trong khu6on co the gom ca kenh dan
nguoi va kenh dan nong.






Hình 3.4 - Khuon hai tam co kenh dan nong.
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Ðoi voi loai khuon nay, cac mieng phun phai duoc dat o vi trí trung tam cua cac long
khuon . Ðieu nay co nghïa la cac kenh dan phai duoc dat xa mat phan khuon. Nhung
dieu nay khong gay bat ky tro ngai nao cho viec thiet ke. Loai khuon nay cung phu
hop voi khuon co nhieu long khuon voi kích thuoc nho hay nhung khuon ma he thong
kenh dan phuc tap va phí nhieu vat lieu.
Uu d Uu d Uu d Uu diem : iem : iem : iem :
+ Tiet kiem vat lieu.
+ Khong co vet cua mieng phun tren san pham.
+ Giam thoi gian chu ky.
+ Ðieu khien duoc su dien day va dong chay cua nhua.
Nhuoc diem : Nhuoc diem : Nhuoc diem : Nhuoc diem :
+ Gia thanh cao hon khuon hai tam co kenh dan nguoi.
+ Kho doi mau vat lieu.
+ He thong dieu khieu nhiet do de bi hong.
+ Khong thích hop voi nhung vat lieu chiu nhiet kem.
3.2.2. 3.2.2. 3.2.2. 3.2.2. Khuon ba tam Khuon ba tam Khuon ba tam Khuon ba tam : : : :
So voi khuon hai tam thì he thong kenh dan cua khuon ba tam duoc dat tren tam
thu hai song song voi mat phan khuon chính. Chính nho tam thu hai nay ma kenh dan
va cuong phun co the duoc roi ra khoi san pham khi khuon mo ( tu cat duoi keo).











Hình 3.5 - Khuon ba tam.
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Khuon ba tam duoc dung khi ma toan bo he thong kenh dan khong the bo trí tren
cung mot mat phang nhu o khuon hai tam. Ðieu nay co the la do :
+ Khuon co nhieu long khuon.
+ Khuon co mot long khuon nhung phuc tap nen can hon mot vi trí phun nhua.
+ Kho khan trong viec chon ra mot vi trí phun thích hop khac.
+ Vì phai can bang dong nhua giua cac kenh dan voi nhau nen buoc phai thiet ke
kenh dan khong nam trenmat phan khuon.
Ðiem dac trung cua khuon ba tam la tu cat duoi keo.












1) 2)



Hình 3.6 - 1), 2), 3) : Trình tu mo cac tam
khuon trong khuon ba tam.
3)




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Uu diem : Uu diem : Uu diem : Uu diem :
+ Gia thanh thap hon so voi khuon hai tam co kenh dan nong.
+ Ít bi hong hoc hon khuon co kenh dan nong.
+ Co the phu hop voi nhung vat lieu chiu nhiet kem.
Nhuoc diem : Nhuoc diem : Nhuoc diem : Nhuoc diem :
+ Chu ky ep phun tang do hanh trình cua dong nhua de den duoc long khuon
dai.
+ Lang phí nhieu vat lieu.
+ Can ap suat phun lon de dien day.
3 33 3.3. .3. .3. .3. Tính gia thanh khuon Tính gia thanh khuon Tính gia thanh khuon Tính gia thanh khuon : :: :
Sau khi chon duoc loai khuon cho thiet ke, dieu quan trong la nguoi thiet ke phai
dua ra mot gia khuon phu hop cho khach hang. Thong thuong gia khuon duoc tính boi
nguoi thiet ke hay nguoi chuyen bao gia cua bo phan kinh doanh. Khi bao gia, nguoi
bao gia thuong dua vao kinh nghiem va gia cua cac loai khuon da duoc thiet ke truoc
do. Ngoai ra, nguoi bao gia cung co the dua vao tính phuc tap hay tính moi la cua san
pham de bao gia. Muc dích cuoi cung cua viec bao gia la dua ra mot gia hop ly va co
tính canh tranh tren thi truong. Do do, nguoi bao gia va nguoi thiet ke can phai hieu ro
loai khuon se duoc lam va ho phai thuc su an khop¨ voi nhau de tranh truong hop
bao gia qua cao hay qua thap. Tuy nhien, co mot so khach hang da tính so bo gia
khuon truoc khi ho dat hang vì the gia khuon cung co the duoc dinh ngay thoi diem dat
hang.
3.4. 3.4. 3.4. 3.4. Thiet ke long khuon Thiet ke long khuon Thiet ke long khuon Thiet ke long khuon : :: :
3.4.1. So long khuon : 3.4.1. So long khuon : 3.4.1. So long khuon : 3.4.1. So long khuon :
Ta co the can nhac de chon so long khuon phu hop nho cac thong tin sau :
+ Kích co cua may ep phun ( nang suat phun lon nhat va luc kep lon nhat ).
+ Thoi gian giao hang.
+ Yeu cau ve chat luong san pham.
+ Ket cau va kích thuoc khuon.
+ Gia thanh khuon.
So long khuon thong thuong duoc thiet ke theo day so : 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 48,
64, 96, 128 vì cac long khuon se de dang duoc xep theo hình chu nhat hoac hình tron.
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Thong thuong, ta co the tính so long khuon can thiet tren khuon bang cach dua vao
: so luong san pham, nang suat phun va nang suat lam deo cua may ep phun, luc kep
khuon cua may.
3.4.1 3.4.1 3.4.1 3.4.1. .. .1 11 1. .. . So long khuon tính theo so luong san pham t So long khuon tính theo so luong san pham t So long khuon tính theo so luong san pham t So long khuon tính theo so luong san pham trong don dat hang : rong don dat hang : rong don dat hang : rong don dat hang :
n = L x K x t n = L x K x t n = L x K x t n = L x K x t
c cc c
/ ( 24 x 3600 x t / ( 24 x 3600 x t / ( 24 x 3600 x t / ( 24 x 3600 x t
m mm m
) ) ) )
trong do :
n : so long khuon toi thieu tren khuon.
L : so san pham trong mot lo san xuat.
K : he so do phe pham, K = 1/(1-k). Voi k la tí le phe pham.
t
c
: thoi gian cua mot chu ky ep phun ( s ).
t
m
: thoi gian hoan tat lo san pham (ngay).
3.4.1.2 3.4.1.2 3.4.1.2 3.4.1.2. So long khuon tính theo nang suat phun cua may ep phun : . So long khuon tính theo nang suat phun cua may ep phun : . So long khuon tính theo nang suat phun cua may ep phun : . So long khuon tính theo nang suat phun cua may ep phun :
n = 0.8 x S/W n = 0.8 x S/W n = 0.8 x S/W n = 0.8 x S/W
trong do :
n : so long khuon toi thieu tren khuon.
S : nang suat phun cua may (gam/mot lan phun).
W : trong luong cua san pham (g).
3.4.1.3 3.4.1.3 3.4.1.3 3.4.1.3. So long khuon tình theo nang suat lam . So long khuon tình theo nang suat lam . So long khuon tình theo nang suat lam . So long khuon tình theo nang suat lam deo cua may : deo cua may : deo cua may : deo cua may :
n = P / ( X x W ) n = P / ( X x W ) n = P / ( X x W ) n = P / ( X x W )
trong do :
n : so long khuon toi thieu tren khuon.
P : nang suat lam deo cua may (g/ph).
X : tan so phun (uoc luong) trong 1 phut (1/ph).
W : trong luong cua san pham (g).
3.4.1.4 3.4.1.4 3.4.1.4 3.4.1.4. So long khuon tính theo luc kep khuon c . So long khuon tính theo luc kep khuon c . So long khuon tính theo luc kep khuon c . So long khuon tính theo luc kep khuon cua may : ua may : ua may : ua may :
p
F
SxP
n =
trong do :
n : so long khuon toi thieu tren khuon.
F
p
: luc kep khuon toi da cua may (N).
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S : dien tích be mat trung bình cua san pham ke ca cac ranh dong theo huong
dong khuon. (mm
2
)
P : ap suat trong khuon (Mpa).
3.4.2. Cac cach bo trí long khuon : 3.4.2. Cac cach bo trí long khuon : 3.4.2. Cac cach bo trí long khuon : 3.4.2. Cac cach bo trí long khuon :
Tren thuc te, nguoi ta thuong bo trí long khuon
theo kinh nghiem ma khong co bat ky su tính
toan hay mo phong nao. Nhung neu lam nhu vay
doi khi ta gap phai mot so loi tren san pham, dac
biet doi voi nhung khuon co nhung long khuon
khac nhau tren cung mot khuon va khi ay ta phai
sua lai khuon (dieu nay rat mat cong va ton kem
thoi gian va tien bac). Do do de tranh viec nay
xay ra ta nen mo phong qua trình dien day cua
tung long khuon ma khong co he thong kenh dan de biet chung duoc dien day nhu the
nao. Khi ay ta se thiet ke he thong kenh dan de tao su can bang dong cho tung long
khuon.
Khi bo trí so long khuon, ta nen bo trí cac long khuon theo cac so do sau :

Hình 3.8 - Cac kieu bo trí long khuon dang hình chu nhat.
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Hình 3.9 - Kieu bo trí long khuon dang tron va dang thang

3.5. 3.5. 3.5. 3.5. Thiet ke he Thiet ke he Thiet ke he Thiet ke he thong dan nhua thong dan nhua thong dan nhua thong dan nhua : :: :
He thong dan nhua trong khuon lam nhiem vu dua nhua tu voi phun cua may ep
phun vao cac long khuon. He thong nay gom : cuong phun, kenh dan va mieng phun.
Thong thuong trong thiet ke nguoi ta thiet ke kenh dan va mieng phun truoc roi moi
den cuong phun vì kích thuoc cua cuong phun phu thuoc vao kích thuoc kenh dan va
mieng phun.









Hình 3.9 - He thong dan nhua.
3.5.1. Cuong phun (sprue) : 3.5.1. Cuong phun (sprue) : 3.5.1. Cuong phun (sprue) : 3.5.1. Cuong phun (sprue) :
Cuong phun noi truc tiep voi voi phun cua may ep phun de dua nhua vao kenh
dan qua mieng phun va vao cac long khuon.

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Hình 3.10 - Vi trí cuong phun.
Ðau cuong phun nen cang nho cang tot nhung van phai dam bao su dien day dong
deu giua cac long khuon voi nhau. Goc con cua cuong phun can phai du lon de de
thoat khuon nhung duong kính cuong phun thì dung qua lon vì se lam tang thoi gian
lam nguoi va ton vat lieu.











Hình 3.11 - Kích thuoc cuong
phun cho thiet ke.
Tren thuc te nguoi ta ít khi gia cong lo cuong phun lien tren khuon (tru nhung khuon
don gian) ma nguoi ta dung bac cuong phun de tien viec gia cong va thay the.
Hien tai, tren thi truong co 3 loai bac cuong phun pho bien co cac duong kính ngoai
12mm, 16mm, 20mm. Tuy thuoc vao khoi luong san pham, kích thuoc kenh dan va
duong kính cua voi phun tren may phun ma ta dung loai bac cuong phun nao cho phu
hop.
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Hình 3.12 - Mot so loai bac cuong phun.



Hình 3.13 - Mot so loai vong dinh vi.
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Hình 3.12 - Bac cuong phun tren khuon.
Tren khuon, cuong phun se duoc day roi khoi khuon cung luc voi san pham. Do do
can co bo phan keo cuong phun o lai tren tam di dong (tam khuon duc) khi khuon mo
de ma cuong phun co the roi khoi bac cuong phun. Them vao do, nguoi thiet ke co the
loi dung phan nhua de giu cuong phun lam duoi nguoi cham (cold slug well) nho do
ma qua trình dien day cac long khuon tot hon.

Hình 3.13 - a) Dang cuong phun duoc keo nho con nguoc (tot nhat).
b) Dang cuong phun chu Z¨ (tot).
c) Dang cuong phun duoc keo nho ranh vong (ít dung).
d) Dang cuong phun duoc keo nho chot day dau bi (ít dung).
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3.5.2. Cac kenh dan (runner 3.5.2. Cac kenh dan (runner 3.5.2. Cac kenh dan (runner 3.5.2. Cac kenh dan (runners) : s) : s) : s) :
Cac kenh dan nhua la cau noi giua cac mieng phun va cuong phun. Chung lam
nhiem vu dua nhua vao cac long khuon. Vì the khi thiet ke chung can phai tuan thu
mot so cac nguyen tac ky thuat de dam bao chat luong cho hau het san pham. Sau day
la mot so nguyen tac ma ta can phai tuan thu :
1. Giam den muc toi thieu su thay doi tiet dien kenh dan.
2. Nhua kenh dan phai thoat khuon de dang.
3. Toan bo chieu dai kenh dan nen cang ngan neu co the de tranh mat ap va mat
nhiet trong qua trình dien day.
4. Mat cat kenh dan phai du lon de dam bao su dien day cho toan bo san pham ma
khong lam thoi gian chu ky qua dai, ton nhieu vat lieu va luc kep lon.
3.5.2.1. Kenh dan nguoi : 3.5.2.1. Kenh dan nguoi : 3.5.2.1. Kenh dan nguoi : 3.5.2.1. Kenh dan nguoi :
a) Cac loai tiet die a) Cac loai tiet die a) Cac loai tiet die a) Cac loai tiet dien ngang cua kenh dan nhua : n ngang cua kenh dan nhua : n ngang cua kenh dan nhua : n ngang cua kenh dan nhua :
Kenh dan co nhieu dang mat cat ngang khac nhau nhung pho bien la cac loai
kenh dan co mat cat ngang hình tron, hình thang hieu chính, hình thang, hình chu nhat
va hình ban nguyet.

Hình 3.14 - Tiet dien ngang cua mot so loai kenh dan.
Tuy vao tung loai khuon ma ta thiet ke tiet dien kenh dan cho phu hop. Mac du
loai kenh dan co tiet dien ngang hình tron la tot nhat nhung gia thanh gia cong rat cao
nen tren thuc te nguoi ta hay dung kenh dan co tiet dien ngang hình thang hieu chính
hoac hình thang vì gia thanh thap va de gia cong.
Loai kenh dan co tiet dien ngang hình thang thuong dung trong khuon 3 tam vì o
loai khuon nay mat phan khuon se de bi lech neu ta dung kenh dan co tiet dien ngang
hình tron.

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Hình 3.15 - Kho gia cong kenh dan co tiet dien ngang hình tron
Ðe so sanh cac loai kenh dan nguoi ta dung chí so duong kính thuy luc va su can
dong (Hydraulic diameter and flow resistance). Khi duong kính cang lon thì su can
dong cang be. Ta co the tính duong kính thuy luc dua vao cong thuc sau :
D
h
: duong kính thuy kuc.
D DD D
h hh h
= 4A / P = 4A / P = 4A / P = 4A / P A : dien tích mat cat ngang.
P : chu vi.
b) Kích thuoc cua kenh dan : b) Kích thuoc cua kenh dan : b) Kích thuoc cua kenh dan : b) Kích thuoc cua kenh dan :
Viec tính toan de co duoc duong kính va chieu dai kenh dan hop ly la rat quan
trong vì khi mot kenh dan qua lon hay qua dai se lam can tro dong chay va gay ra :
mat ap tren chính no, ton nhieu vat lieu va lam tang thoi gian chu ky. Do do, ta nen
thiet ke kenh dan nho o muc co the de co the loi dung nhiet ma sat tren no gia nhiet
cho nhua long giup qua trình dien day long khuon thuan loi hon va san pham ít bi qua
nhiet.
Hình 3.16 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke kenh dan.

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Ngoai ra, ta co the tính toan kích thuoc kenh dan theo cac cong thuc sau :
3,7
.L W
D
1/4 1/2
=
trong do : D : duong kính kenh dan (mm).
W : khoi luong san pham (mm).
L : chieu dai kenh dan (mm).
Hoac :
L
I D D .
'
=
trong do :
'
D : duong kính kenh dan tham khao

L
I : he so chieu dai.
Ta co the dung cac do thi sau de xac dinh hai he so nay :











G : khoi luong san pham (g).
S : be day danh nghïa cua thanh san pham (mm).
D
`
: duong kính kenh dan tham khao (mm).
Hình 3.17 - Quan he giua khoi luong, be day danh nghïa cua thanh san pham voi duong
kính kenh dan tham khao.




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Hình 3.18 - Quan he giua he so chieu dai va chieu dai kenh dan.
Kích thuoc kenh dan chính Kích thuoc kenh dan chính Kích thuoc kenh dan chính Kích thuoc kenh dan chính : moi lan re nhanh thì duong kính kenh dan nhanh nen
nho hon duong kính kenh dan chính mot chut vì se kinh te hon neu ta dung ít vat lieu.
Cong thuc tính duong kính kenh dan chính :

3 1
n c
N D D
/
. = D
c
: duong kính kenh dan chính (mm).
D
c
: duong kính kenh dan nhanh (mm).
N : so nhanh re.
Ðuoi nguoi cham tren kenh dan va cuong phun Ðuoi nguoi cham tren kenh dan va cuong phun Ðuoi nguoi cham tren kenh dan va cuong phun Ðuoi nguoi cham tren kenh dan va cuong phun : de phan vat lieu o cho re nhanh
khong bi dong dac som gay nghen dong ta nen thiet ke them duoi nguoi cham. Ðuoi
nguoi cham se giup cho qua trình dien day dien ra nhanh va tot hon.

Hình 3.19 - Kích thuoc thiet ke duoi nguoi cham.

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Uu nhuoc diem cua cac loai tiet dien ngang cua kenh dan : Uu nhuoc diem cua cac loai tiet dien ngang cua kenh dan : Uu nhuoc diem cua cac loai tiet dien ngang cua kenh dan : Uu nhuoc diem cua cac loai tiet dien ngang cua kenh dan :

Loai kenh dan Loai kenh dan Loai kenh dan Loai kenh dan Uu die Uu die Uu die Uu die m mm m Nhuoc diem Nhuoc diem Nhuoc diem Nhuoc diem
Full round

1. Tí le the tích qua mat cat
ngang la lon nhat
2. Toc do nguoi cham.
3. Ít mat nhiet va ít ma sat.
4. Tam kenh dan nguoi sau
cung va duy trì ap suat giu.
Viec gia cong rat kho
khan vì can gia cong tren
hai nua khuon va phai
dam bao su dong tam cua
hai nua vong tron.
Modified Trapezoid

De gia cong hon so voi kenh
dan tron (full round) vì chí can
gia cong tren mot tam khuon.
Mat nhiet va ton nhieu
vat lieu hon so voi kenh
dan tron.
Trapezoid

De gia cong
Mat nhiet nhieu hon so
voi kenh dan hình thang
hieu chính (Modified
trapeziod)
Box section

De gia cong
1. Lam nho mat cat
ngang.
2. Giam kha nang truyen
ap.
3. Kho thoat khuon.
Hafl round

De gia cong
1. Dien tích mat cat
ngang nho nhat.
2. Khong tot bang cac
loai kenh dan khac.
3. Truyen ap rat te.
4. Ma sat lon.

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3.5.2.2 3.5.2.2 3.5.2.2 3.5.2.2. . . . Kenh dan nong Kenh dan nong Kenh dan nong Kenh dan nong : (khuon khong kenh dan) : (khuon khong kenh dan) : (khuon khong kenh dan) : (khuon khong kenh dan)
Kenh dan nong duoc dung cho nhung san pham co kích thuoc lon (vo tivi, vi tính,
cac chi tiet tren xe hoi.) hoac mong hoac lam bang loai nhua can phai duy trì nhiet
chay deo nhu : HDPE, LDPE, POM, PBT, PC.Ben trong kenh dan nhua se luon duoc
duy trì trang thai chay deo de dam bao san pham duoc dien day dong bo.

Hình 3.20 - Mot so he thong kenh dan nong.
a) Cac loai kenh dan nong : a) Cac loai kenh dan nong : a) Cac loai kenh dan nong : a) Cac loai kenh dan nong :
Co hai loai kenh dan nong : kenh dan cach ly va kenh dan gia nhiet
Kenh dan cach ly Kenh dan cach ly Kenh dan cach ly Kenh dan cach ly (insulated runner) : (insulated runner) : (insulated runner) : (insulated runner) :
Kenh dan cach ly co cau tao gom mot lop nhua nguoi dong vai tro lam lop cach ly
va mot loi nhua luon duoc duy trì o trang thai chay deo nho ong nhiet dien. Ben trong
ong nhiet dien la chot nhon co the chuyen dong len xuong de dong ngat dong phun
nhua. Nhu vay, kích thuoc mieng phun lon hay nho se tuy thuoc vao khe ho ma chot
cho dong nhua chay qua.


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Hình 3.21 - Kenh dan cach ly.
Uu diem : Uu diem : Uu diem : Uu diem :
- De thiet ke.
- Gia thanh thap.
- Tiet kiem vat lieu do phe lieu kenh dan.
Nhuoc Nhuoc Nhuoc Nhuoc diem : diem : diem : diem :
- Thoi gian chu ky qua ngan de duy trì trang thai chay deo cho nhua.
- Can khoang thoi gian khoi dong dai de on dinh nhiet chay deo.
- Ðoi khi gap mot so loi trong qua trình dien day.
- Kho doi mau vat lieu.
Ken Ken Ken Kenh dan co gia nhiet (heated runner) : h dan co gia nhiet (heated runner) : h dan co gia nhiet (heated runner) : h dan co gia nhiet (heated runner) :
Kenh dan co gia nhiet gom hai loai : loai gia nhiet trong va loai gia nhiet ngoai.
Kenh dan gia nhiet ngoai co bo gia nhiet bao quanh loi nhua nong. Con kenh dan gia
nhiet trong thì nhua bao quanh chot nong. Tuong tu nhu kenh dan cach ly, luu luong
phun duoc dieu khien boi su di chuyen cua chot.




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+ Mot so loai kenh dan gia nhiet ngoai thuong dung :
- Loai mot dau phun :



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- Loai nhieu dau phun :





























Hình 3.22 - Cau tao kenh dan gia nhiet ngoai.
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+ Mot so loai kenh dan gia nhiet trong thuong dung :





























Hình 3.23 - Cau tao kenh dan gia nhiet trong.
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b) Cau tao mot he thong kenh dan co gia nhiet dien hình : b) Cau tao mot he thong kenh dan co gia nhiet dien hình : b) Cau tao mot he thong kenh dan co gia nhiet dien hình : b) Cau tao mot he thong kenh dan co gia nhiet dien hình :

Hình 3.24 - He thong kenh dan co gia nhiet.
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Uu nhuoc diem cua cac kenh dan co gia nhiet : Uu nhuoc diem cua cac kenh dan co gia nhiet : Uu nhuoc diem cua cac kenh dan co gia nhiet : Uu nhuoc diem cua cac kenh dan co gia nhiet :

Loai kenh dan Uu diem Nhuoc diem
Gia nhiet trong
- Cai thien viec phan phoi
nhiet do.
- Gia thanh cao va thiet ke
phuc tap.
- Phai tính den su gian no
nhiet khac nhau cua cac bo
phan tren khuon.
- Kho khan trong viec dieu
khien nhiet.
Gia nhiet ngoai
- Cai thien viec phan phoi
nhiet do.
- Ðieu khien nhiet do tot
hon.
- Gia thanh cao va thiet ke
phuc tap.
- Phai tính den su gian no
nhiet khac nhau cua cac bo
phan tren khuon

3.5.3 3.5.3 3.5.3 3.5.3. . . . Mieng phun cho ke Mieng phun cho ke Mieng phun cho ke Mieng phun cho kenh dan nguoi nh dan nguoi nh dan nguoi nh dan nguoi : :: :
Mieng phun la ngo noi kenh dan va long khuon. Mieng phun co chua nang rat quan
trong la dua nhua long dien day long khuon vì the viec tính toan kích thuoc va bo trí
mieng phun co y nghïa quyet dinh den chat luong cua san pham.










Hình 3.25 - Mieng phun tren khuon.

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3.5.3.1 3.5.3.1 3.5.3.1 3.5.3.1. .. . Phan loai mieng phun : Phan loai mieng phun : Phan loai mieng phun : Phan loai mieng phun :
a) Mieng a) Mieng a) Mieng a) Mieng p pp phun cat bang ta hun cat bang ta hun cat bang ta hun cat bang tay : y : y : y :
Mieng phun cat bang tay la loai mieng phun dính theo san pham sau khi ep phun.
Ta de dang nhan biet cac san pham nhua co mieng phun cat bang tay qua vet cat con
lai tren be mat cua chung. Do do, voi loai mieng phun nay nen thiet ke kích thuoc nho
o muc co the de dam bao tính tham my cho san pham.
Mot vai ly do de dung kieu mieng phun cat bang tay :
- San pham can mieng phun lon giup dien day tot.
- San pham lam bang vat lieu ít bi bien dang.
- Can tiet dien rong de co su phan phoi luu luong dong thoi, nho do ma cac phan tu soi
dat duoc su dinh huong dac trung.
b) Mieng phun tu cat : b) Mieng phun tu cat : b) Mieng phun tu cat : b) Mieng phun tu cat :
Mieng phun tu cat la loai mieng phun tu roi san pham sau khi khuon mo. Ðieu nay
dat duoc nho vao ket cau khuon (khuon ba tam) hoac he thong day cuong phun va san
pham.
Mot so ly do de dung mieng phun kieu tu cat :
- Khong phai them nguyen cong cat de hoan thien san pham.
- Tính tham my cua san pham (san pham se co vet mieng phun rat nho).
- Giu thoi gian chu ky can thiet hau nhu khong doi qua tat ca cac lan phun.
3.5.3.2 3.5.3.2 3.5.3.2 3.5.3.2. .. . Cac loai mieng phun cat bang tay : Cac loai mieng phun cat bang tay : Cac loai mieng phun cat bang tay : Cac loai mieng phun cat bang tay :
a) Mieng phun truc tiep a) Mieng phun truc tiep a) Mieng phun truc tiep a) Mieng phun truc tiep (Sprue gate or direct gate) (Sprue gate or direct gate) (Sprue gate or direct gate) (Sprue gate or direct gate) : :: :
Loai mieng phun truc tiep thuong dung cho cac khuon co mot long khuon, noi ma
vat lieu duoc dien day vao khuon mot cach truc tiep ma khong qua he thong kenh dan.
Chính vì khong co he thong kenh dan nen viec mat ap trong qua trình dien day la rat
be. Tuy nhien, nhuoc diem cua mieng phun loai nay la de lai vet cat lon tren be mat
san pham. Su co rut duoc quyet dinh boi be day cua san pham va duong kính mieng
phun. Ðien hình la su co rut cua phan nhua gan mieng phun se nho va tai mieng phun
se lon. Ðieu nay dua den hau qua la ung suat cang gan mieng phun lon.
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Hình 3.26 - Mieng phun truc tiep va vet cat ma no de lai tren san pham.
Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :

Hình 3.27 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun truc tiep.

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b) Mieng phun kieu bang (Tab gate) : b) Mieng phun kieu bang (Tab gate) : b) Mieng phun kieu bang (Tab gate) : b) Mieng phun kieu bang (Tab gate) :
Mieng phun kieu bang thuong dung de lam giam ung suat trong long khuon va
ngan ngua loi tao duoi cho cac chi tiet phang va mong. Ung suat sinh ra trong long
khuon se duoc tap trung o bang, ma se duoc cat bo sau khi ep phun.
Mieng phu kieu bang phu hop dung cho cac loai nhua PC, Acrylic, SAN, ABS.











Hình 3.28 - Mieng phun kieu bang va vet cat ma no de lai tren san pham.
Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :












Hình 3.29 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun kieu bang.
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c) Mieng phun canh ( c) Mieng phun canh ( c) Mieng phun canh ( c) Mieng phun canh (Edge gate) : Edge gate) : Edge gate) : Edge gate) :
La loai mieng phun thong dung, co the dung cho nhieu loai san pham boi ket cau
rat don gian va khong can do chính xac cao.
Mieng phun kieu canh duoc dat tren mat phan khuon va dien day long khuon tu ben
hong, tren hay duoi.










Hình 3.30 - Mieng phun kieu canh va vet cat ma no de lai tren san pham.
Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :













Hình 3.31 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun canh.
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d) Mieng phun kieu goi d) Mieng phun kieu goi d) Mieng phun kieu goi d) Mieng phun kieu goi (Overlap gate) (Overlap gate) (Overlap gate) (Overlap gate) : :: :
La loai mieng phun tuong tu nhu mieng phun kieu canh, chí khac nhau o cho la
mieng phun nam lap tren be mat san pham.











Hình 3.32 - Mieng phun kieu goi.
e) Mieng phun kieu quat : e) Mieng phun kieu quat : e) Mieng phun kieu quat : e) Mieng phun kieu quat :
Mieng phun kieu quat thuc chat cung la mieng phun canh co be rong bi bien doi.
Mieng phun kieu nay tao dong chay em va cho phep dien day long khuon mot cach
nhanh chong nen rat phu hop cho nhung san pham lon va day. Them vao do, mieng
phun kieu quat cung tao ra dong chay lan toa nen giup tranh duoc duong han o noi co
be day mong tren san pham.









Hình 3.33 - Mieng phun kieu quat va vet cat ma no de lai tren san pham.
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Mieng phun kieu quat nen duoc lam con o ca be rong lan be day de co mat cat
ngang khong doi. Ðieu nay giup dam bao :
+ Van toc chay la hang so.
+ Toan bo be rong duoc dung cho luu luong.
+ Ap suat la nhu nhau qua toan be rong.
Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :

Hình 3.34 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun kieu quat.
f) Mieng phun kieu f) Mieng phun kieu f) Mieng phun kieu f) Mieng phun kieu d dd dïa ïa ïa ïa (Dis gate or diaphragm gate) (Dis gate or diaphragm gate) (Dis gate or diaphragm gate) (Dis gate or diaphragm gate) : :: :
Mieng phun kieu dïa thuong dung cho cac chi tiet co dang tru rong ma co yeu cau
cao ve do dong tam va khong co duong han. Mieng phun kieu nay thuc chat la mieng
phun mang bao vong quanh thanh san pham. Khi nhua qua cuong phun, nho mang phun
vong quanh thanh san pham ma long khuon duoc dien day mot cach dong deu.






Hình 3.35 - San pham voi mieng phun kieu dïa.
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Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :












Hình 3.36 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun kieu dïa.
g) Mieng phun lieu vong (Ring gate) : g) Mieng phun lieu vong (Ring gate) : g) Mieng phun lieu vong (Ring gate) : g) Mieng phun lieu vong (Ring gate) :
Mieng phun kieu vong thích hop cho nhung san pham co dang tru rong va giup
han che vet han, ket khí trong qua trình dien day va giam ung suat tap trung quanh
mieng phun. Co hai loai mieng phun kieu vong : kieu vong ngoai va kieu vong trong.










a) b)
Hình 3.37 - a) Mieng phun kieu vong ngoai.
b) Mieng phun kieu vong trong.
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Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke
D = S + 1.5 ÷ (4/3)S + k (mm)
L = 0.5÷1.5 (mm)
H = (2/3)S÷ 2 (mm)
r = 0.2S (mm)
k = 2 mm voi san pham co do dai dong chay
ngan va day.
k = 4 mm voi san pham co do dai dong chay dai
va mong.








Hình 3.38 - a) Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun kieu vong ngoai.
b) Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun kieu vong trong.
h) Mieng phun kieu nan hoa (Spoke gate or spider gate) : h) Mieng phun kieu nan hoa (Spoke gate or spider gate) : h) Mieng phun kieu nan hoa (Spoke gate or spider gate) : h) Mieng phun kieu nan hoa (Spoke gate or spider gate) :
Mieng phun kieu nan hoa thuong dung cho san pham co hình ong, de cat bo va tiet
kiem vat lieu. Nhuoc diem cua loai mieng phun nay la san pham co the bi nhieu duong
han va khong tron hoan toan.







Hình 3.39 - Mieng phun kieu nan hoa.
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Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke : be day 0.8÷4.8mm, be rong 1.6÷6.4mm
i ii i) Mieng phun kieu mang ) Mieng phun kieu mang ) Mieng phun kieu mang ) Mieng phun kieu mang ( (( (Flash gate) Flash gate) Flash gate) Flash gate) : :: :
Mieng phun kieu mang phu hop cho san pham lon va phang (dac biet la san pham
lam bang nhua Acrylic) vì no giup giam do cong venh cho san pham nho su phan bo
nhua dong deu.











Hình 3.40 - Mieng phun kieu mang va vet cua no de lai tren san pham.
Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :
D = S÷ (4/3) S + k (mm)
k = 2 voi san pham co do dai dong chay ngan va day.
k = 4 voi san pham co do dai dong chay dai va mong.
L = 0.5÷ 2 (mm)
H = (0.2÷ 0.7)S (mm)

Hình 3.41 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun kieu
mang.
3.5.3.3. Mieng phun tu cat : 3.5.3.3. Mieng phun tu cat : 3.5.3.3. Mieng phun tu cat : 3.5.3.3. Mieng phun tu cat :
a) a) a) a) Mieng phun Mieng phun Mieng phun Mieng phun diem (Point gate) : diem (Point gate) : diem (Point gate) : diem (Point gate) :
Mieng phun kieu diem thuong duoc dung trong khuon 3 tam co nhieu long khuon
hay co kích thuoc long khuon lon. Khi thiet ke mieng phun diem, nguoi ta thuong dung
kenh dan dang hình thang hay hình thang bien doi de tien viec gia cong va lap chot
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keo he thong kenh dan de mieng phun roi san pham de dang hon. Uu diem chính cua
mieng phun diem la giup bo trí nhieu mieng phun vao cung mot long khuon khi long
khuon co kích thuoc lon. Ðieu nay giup qua trình dien day dong thoi giua cac vung
khac nhau tren san pham dien ra nhanh chong va tot hon. Tuy nhien, can luu y khuon
co the bi tang nhiet gay qua nhiet doi voi nhung vat lieu co cau truc soi dai va do nhot
thap do mieng phun co kích thuoc nho.
Hình 3.42 - Mieng phun diem va vet cat ma no de lai tren san pham.
Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :










Hình 3.43 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun diem.
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Hình 3.43 - Cac kieu lo chot keo kenh dan.
b) Mieng phun nga b) Mieng phun nga b) Mieng phun nga b) Mieng phun ngam (Tunnel gate or submarine gate) : m (Tunnel gate or submarine gate) : m (Tunnel gate or submarine gate) : m (Tunnel gate or submarine gate) :
Mieng phu ngam thuong duoc dung trong khuon hai tam co nhieu long khuon. Khi
thiet ke san pham nho va can cat keo mat ben ta nen nghï den kieu mieng phun nay.









Hình 3.44 - Mieng phun ngam va vet cat ma no de lai tren san pham.
Co hai loai mieng phun ngam : Mieng phun ngam dang thang va mieng phun ngam
dang cong.
Mieng phun ngam dang thang :







a) Loai dung chot day. b) Loai dung ket cau long khuon.
Hình 3.45 - Cac loai mieng phun ngam dang thang
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a) Loai dung chot day. b) Loai dung ket cau long khuon.
Hình 3.46 - Qua trình cat mieng phun ngam dang thang.
Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :











Hình 3.47 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun ngam tieu chuan.
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Hình 3.48 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ket mieng phun ngam hieu chính.
Mieng phun ngam dang cong :








Hình 3.49 - Qua trình cat mieng phun ngam dang cong.
Kích thuoc khuyen dung cho thiet ke :









Hình 3.50 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke kenh dan va cuong phun kieu ngam.
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Hình 3.51 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke mieng phun ngam dang cong.
c) Mieng phun cua c) Mieng phun cua c) Mieng phun cua c) Mieng phun cua kenh dan nong : kenh dan nong : kenh dan nong : kenh dan nong :
Mieng phun loai nay da duoc tien chuan hoa cung voi he thong kenh dan va cuong
phun. Do do, khi can dung ta chí viec lien he voi cac nha san xuat va tiep thu cac loi
khuyen tu ho de co duoc thiet ke thích hop.
Kieu khong co van : mieng phun kieu nay se bi ngat khi khuon mo ra vì nhua o
mieng phun rat nong. Su dinh hình cua san pham duoc dieu khien boi phan nhua dong
cung gan mieng phun.









Hình 3.52 - Mieng phun khong co van.
Kieu co van : trong kenh dan co them vao mot chot, chot nay co tac dung nhu
mot van co the dong mieng phun ngay truoc khi nhua gan mieng phun dong dac. Ðieu
nay cho phep tang duong kính mieng phun lon hon va dieu khien qua trình dinh hình tot
hon.
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Hình 3.53 - Mieng phun kieu co van.
3.5.3.4. 3.5.3.4. 3.5.3.4. 3.5.3.4. Loi khuyen cho thiet ke mieng phun Loi khuyen cho thiet ke mieng phun Loi khuyen cho thiet ke mieng phun Loi khuyen cho thiet ke mieng phun trong he thong trong he thong trong he thong trong he thong k kk kenh dan nguoi : enh dan nguoi : enh dan nguoi : enh dan nguoi :
Loi khuyen chung de dat duoc hieu qua tot trong viec thiet ke mieng phun la dung
phan mem mo phong qua trình dien day long khuon de thay duoc cac khuyet tat tren
san pham sau khi ep phun. Khi thiet ke mieng phun can luu y mot so dieu sau :
a) V a) V a) V a) Vi trí i trí i trí i trí : :: :
- Neu co the nen dat mieng phun o cho day nhat cua san pham. Khong nen dat
mieng phun o nhung vung chuyen tiep tu day sang mong de tranh su ngac ngu dong
chay va vet lom hay lo trong tren san pham.
- Neu co the nen bo trí mieng phun doi dien voi cac ranh thoat khí de khí trong
long khuon bi day ra ngoai hoan toan.
- Bo trí mieng phun han che duong han ít nhat.
- Ðam bao huong dong chay tao ra su dien day dong bo tren toan bo san pham.
Ðieu nay giup tranh duoc hien tuong ket khí trong qua trình dien day. Neu khí bi ket
thì san pham se de co nhung vet chay den.
- Khong nen dat mieng phun tai nhung vung chiu luc tren san pham vì vung gan
mieng phun sau qua trình ep phun con ton tai ung suat du nen rat de bi hong khi chiu
luc.
b) Kích thuoc : b) Kích thuoc : b) Kích thuoc : b) Kích thuoc :
- Mieng phun phai co kích thuoc va vi trí thích hop de tranh hien tuong tao duoi
tren san pham.
- Trong truong hop khuon co nhieu long khuon thì tat ca cac mieng phun nen
cung kích thuoc (duong kính, be day.) de co duoc su can bang dong va ap.
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c) Tính tham my : c) Tính tham my : c) Tính tham my : c) Tính tham my :
- Vet mieng phun co the anh huong den tính tham my cua san pham. Do do, nen
dat mieng phun o cho kho thay tren san pham khi co the.
3.6. 3.6. 3.6. 3.6. He thong dan huong He thong dan huong He thong dan huong He thong dan huong : :: :
He thong dan huong gom chot dan huong va bac dan huong.













Hình 3.54 - He thong dan huong tren khuon.
3.6.1 3.6.1 3.6.1 3.6.1. .. . Chot dan huong : Chot dan huong : Chot dan huong : Chot dan huong :
3.6.1.1. 3.6.1.1. 3.6.1.1. 3.6.1.1. Loai tron (khong co vai) : Loai tron (khong co vai) : Loai tron (khong co vai) : Loai tron (khong co vai) :






3.6.1.2. 3.6.1.2. 3.6.1.2. 3.6.1.2. Loai co vai : Loai co vai : Loai co vai : Loai co vai :





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3.6.2. Bac 3.6.2. Bac 3.6.2. Bac 3.6.2. Bac dan huong : dan huong : dan huong : dan huong :
3.6.2.1. 3.6.2.1. 3.6.2.1. 3.6.2.1. Loai tron : Loai tron : Loai tron : Loai tron :






3.6.2.2. 3.6.2.2. 3.6.2.2. 3.6.2.2. Loai co vai : Loai co vai : Loai co vai : Loai co vai :







3.6.2.3. 3.6.2.3. 3.6.2.3. 3.6.2.3. Loai khong vai tu boi tron : Loai khong vai tu boi tron : Loai khong vai tu boi tron : Loai khong vai tu boi tron :






3.6.2.4. 3.6.2.4. 3.6.2.4. 3.6.2.4. Loai co vai tu boi tron : Loai co vai tu boi tron : Loai co vai tu boi tron : Loai co vai tu boi tron :







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3. 3. 3. 3.7 77 7. . . . He thong loi mat ben He thong loi mat ben He thong loi mat ben He thong loi mat ben : :: : (he thong truot)
Sau khi thiet ke xong mat phan khuon cho san pham, nhieu khi co mot so phan tren
san pham bi vuong, khong thao ra duoc theo huong mo khuon. Luc nay ta can phai co
mot he thong goi la he thong loi mat ben de thao cac phan bi vuong ay.
3.7.1. Cac 3.7.1. Cac 3.7.1. Cac 3.7.1. Cac ket cau th ket cau th ket cau th ket cau thao loi mat ben nho huong mo khuon ao loi mat ben nho huong mo khuon ao loi mat ben nho huong mo khuon ao loi mat ben nho huong mo khuon : :: :
3.7.1.1. 3.7.1.1. 3.7.1.1. 3.7.1.1. Cam Chot Cam Chot Cam Chot Cam Chot xien : xien : xien : xien :












Hình 3.55 - Thao loi mat ben bang cam chot xien.












Hình 3.56 - Thao loi mat ben bang cam chot xien ket hop lo xo.
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- Mot so kieu chan cu duoc che tao san cho loi mat ben :
Kieu 1 :


Kieu 2 :

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Kieu 3 : cot sap hoac bi sap (doi khi de don gian hoa thiet ke nguoi ta chí dung
mot vien bi va mot lo xo la du)


3.7.1.2. 3.7.1.2. 3.7.1.2. 3.7.1.2. Chot co mat cam : Chot co mat cam : Chot co mat cam : Chot co mat cam :












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3.7.1.3. 3.7.1.3. 3.7.1.3. 3.7.1.3. Chot deo : Chot deo : Chot deo : Chot deo :














3.7.1.4. 3.7.1.4. 3.7.1.4. 3.7.1.4. Chot xien : Chot xien : Chot xien : Chot xien :

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3.7.1.5. 3.7.1.5. 3.7.1.5. 3.7.1.5. Chot xien kep : Chot xien kep : Chot xien kep : Chot xien kep :
















Hình 3.57 - Khuon dung chot xien kep.
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3.7.1.6. 3.7.1.6. 3.7.1.6. 3.7.1.6. Cam chan cho : Cam chan cho : Cam chan cho : Cam chan cho :











Khuon bat dau mo Khuon mo hoan toan

3.7.1.7. 3.7.1.7. 3.7.1.7. 3.7.1.7. Chot thao co loi con : Chot thao co loi con : Chot thao co loi con : Chot thao co loi con :




















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- Mot so kieu dau thao cua chot co loi con :
3.7.1.8. 3.7.1.8. 3.7.1.8. 3.7.1.8. Truot theo duong cam : Truot theo duong cam : Truot theo duong cam : Truot theo duong cam :
















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3.7.2. Thao loi mat ben bang xylanh 3.7.2. Thao loi mat ben bang xylanh 3.7.2. Thao loi mat ben bang xylanh 3.7.2. Thao loi mat ben bang xylanh- -- -pitong : pitong : pitong : pitong :
3.7.2.1. 3.7.2.1. 3.7.2.1. 3.7.2.1. Kieu co nem khoa : Kieu co nem khoa : Kieu co nem khoa : Kieu co nem khoa :








3.7.2.2. 3.7.2.2. 3.7.2.2. 3.7.2.2. Kieu Kieu Kieu Kieu khong dung nem khong dung nem khong dung nem khong dung nem
khoa : khoa : khoa : khoa :








3.8. 3.8. 3.8. 3.8. He thong lam nguoi khuon He thong lam nguoi khuon He thong lam nguoi khuon He thong lam nguoi khuon : :: :
Nhua long sau khi vao khuon phai duoc lam nguoi that nhanh de dat duoc hình
dang ma ta mong muon. Neu lam nguoi khuon khong tot thì nhua nong se gia nhiet cho
khuon va the la qua trình dinh hình se keo dai lam tang thoi gian chu ky ep phun. Do
do, he thong lam nguoi khuon co vai tro het suc quan trong vì no quyet dinh toan bo
chu ky ep phun.
3.8.1. Cac phuong phap lam nguoi : 3.8.1. Cac phuong phap lam nguoi : 3.8.1. Cac phuong phap lam nguoi : 3.8.1. Cac phuong phap lam nguoi :
3.8.1.1. 3.8.1.1. 3.8.1.1. 3.8.1.1. Lam nguoi bang khí Lam nguoi bang khí Lam nguoi bang khí Lam nguoi bang khí : khuon duoc lam nguoi bang khí nho vao su buc xa
nhiet cua thep lam khuon ra moi truong xung quanh.



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Hình 3.58 - Khuon duoc lam nguoi bang khí.




3.8.1.2. 3.8.1.2. 3.8.1.2. 3.8.1.2. Lam nguoi bang nuoc hoac hon hop ethylene glycol va nuoc : Lam nguoi bang nuoc hoac hon hop ethylene glycol va nuoc : Lam nguoi bang nuoc hoac hon hop ethylene glycol va nuoc : Lam nguoi bang nuoc hoac hon hop ethylene glycol va nuoc :
Ðay la phuong phap duoc dung rong rai nhat hien nay. Theo phuong phap nay,
khuon duoc lam nguoi nho vao cac kenh dan chua chat lam nguoi duoc bo trí trong cac
tam khuon.











Hình 3.59 - Khuon duoc lam nguoi bang nuoc.


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Hình 3.60 - Khuon duoc lam nguoi bang hon hop Ethylene Glycol va nuoc.
3.8.2. Thiet ke he thong kenh lam nguoi : 3.8.2. Thiet ke he thong kenh lam nguoi : 3.8.2. Thiet ke he thong kenh lam nguoi : 3.8.2. Thiet ke he thong kenh lam nguoi :
3.8.2.1. 3.8.2.1. 3.8.2.1. 3.8.2.1. Cac bo phan trong he thong : Cac bo phan trong he thong : Cac bo phan trong he thong : Cac bo phan trong he thong :
Hình 3.61 - He thong lam nguoi hoan chính.
A AA A = Be chua (Collection manifold).
B BB B = Khuon (Mold).
C CC C = Ong phan phoi nuoc hoac hon hop lam nguoi (Supply manifold).
D DD D = Bom (Pump).
E EE E = Kenh lam nguoi (Regular Cooling Channels).
F FF F = Ong dan (Hoses).
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G GG G = Vach lam nguoi (Baffles).
H HH H = Bo dieu khien nhiet (Temperature controller).










Hình 3.62 - He thong lam nguoi tren khuon.
3.8.2.2. 3.8.2.2. 3.8.2.2. 3.8.2.2. Nhung dieu can luu y khi thiet ke : Nhung dieu can luu y khi thiet ke : Nhung dieu can luu y khi thiet ke : Nhung dieu can luu y khi thiet ke :
- Ðam bao lam nguoi dong deu toan san pham. Do do, can chu y den viec lam
nguoi nhung phan day nhat cua san pham.

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2)
Hình 3.63 - 1), 2) : Bo trí kenh dan nguoi lam nguoi deu san pham.
- Kenh lam nguoi nen duoc dat gan mat long khuon khi co the de lam nguoi tot hon.
- Ðuong kính kenh lam nguoi (thuong lon hon 8mm) nen khong doi tren toan bo
chieu dai kenh de tranh can dong vì su ngat nghen se lam trao doi nhiet khong tot.
- Nhiet chenh lech giua dau vao va dau ra ( t ∆ ) nen nam trong khoang 2-3
0
C.
Thong thuong, nhiet do dau vao nen thap hon nhiet do khuon ma ta mong muon la 10 -
20
0
.Nhiet chenh lech giua chat lam nguoi va thanh kenh lam nguoi nen nam trong
khoang 2-5
0
C la tot nhat. (theo tai lieu Moldflow).
- Nen chia kenh lam nguoi thanh nhieu vong lam nguoi. Khong nen thiet ke chieu
dai kenh lam nguoi qua dai vì de dan den mat ap va tang nhiet tren no khien t ∆ vuot
qua 3
0
C.

Hình 3.64 - Kenh dan nguoi khong nen qua dai.
- Kenh lam nguoi phai duoc khoan de co do nham tao ra ra su chay roi ben trong
kenh. Dong chay roi se trao doi nhiet tot hon dong chay khong roi (chay tang) tu 3 -5
lan.
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Hình 3.65 - Dong chay roi trao doi nhiet tot hon.
Dong chay roi duoc dac trung boi so Reynold. Khi so Reynold ~10000 ta co dong
chay roi. Ta co the tham khao bang sau de xac dinh trang thai dong chay.






So reynold co the duoc tính theo cong thuc sau :

=
trong do : ρ : ty trong rieng cua chat lam nguoi (kg/m
3
).
U : van toc trung bình cua domg chat lam nguoi (m/s).
d : duong kính kenh lam nguoi (m).
η: he so nhot cua chat lam nguoi (m
2
/s).
- Can xem xet do ben co cua tam khuon khi khoan cac kenh lam nguoi.
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3.8.2.3. 3.8.2.3. 3.8.2.3. 3.8.2.3. Kích thuoc kenh l Kích thuoc kenh l Kích thuoc kenh l Kích thuoc kenh lam nguoi cho thiet ke : am nguoi cho thiet ke : am nguoi cho thiet ke : am nguoi cho thiet ke :
















Hình 3.66 - Kích thuoc kenh lam nguoi cho thiet ke.
3.8.2.4. 3.8.2.4. 3.8.2.4. 3.8.2.4. Cac chi tiet khuon can lam nguoi : Cac chi tiet khuon can lam nguoi : Cac chi tiet khuon can lam nguoi : Cac chi tiet khuon can lam nguoi :
a) a) a) a) Loi khuon va long khuon Loi khuon va long khuon Loi khuon va long khuon Loi khuon va long khuon (chay khuon va coi khuon) : (chay khuon va coi khuon) : (chay khuon va coi khuon) : (chay khuon va coi khuon) :
Trong qua trình ep phun, loi khuon va long khuon luon tiep xuc truc tiep voi nhua
nong. Do do, neu muon san pham nguoi nhanh, thoi gian lam nguoi ngan lai, giam chu
ky ep phun thì nhat thiet ta phai lam nguoi chung.








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Hình 3.67 - Lam nguoi long khuon. Hình 3.68 - Lam nguoi loi.













a) b)
Hình 3.69 - a) - Lam nguoi loi khuon va long khuon bang kenh lam nguoi xoan oc ket
hop voi vach lam nguoi dang tron.
b) - Lam nguoi loi khuon va long khuon bang kenh lam nguoi dang xoan oc.



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b) b) b) b) Chot Chot Chot Chot (hay loi khuon co kích thuoc nho) : (hay loi khuon co kích thuoc nho) : (hay loi khuon co kích thuoc nho) : (hay loi khuon co kích thuoc nho) :
- Ðoi voi nhung chot qua nho ta co the dung khí de lam nguoi chot hoac dung
han chot lam bang dong hay dong-beryllium (vì giai nhiet tot).









Hình 3.70 - Lam nguoi bang khí.
- Ðoi voi nhung chot lon hon (d ≥ 40mm) ta co the dung ong dan nhiet tu chot xuong
kenh lam nguoi de giai nhiet.














Hình 3.71 - Lam nguoi bang ong dan nhiet.

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3.8.2.5. 3.8.2.5. 3.8.2.5. 3.8.2.5. Cac kieu bo trí kenh lam nguoi : Cac kieu bo trí kenh lam nguoi : Cac kieu bo trí kenh lam nguoi : Cac kieu bo trí kenh lam nguoi :
a) a) a) a) Bo trí theo tun Bo trí theo tun Bo trí theo tun Bo trí theo tung kenh rieng biet : g kenh rieng biet : g kenh rieng biet : g kenh rieng biet :

Hình 3.72 - Kieu bo trí kenh nguoi theo tung kenh rieng biet.
b) b) b) b) Bo trí kieu vong mot cap : Bo trí kieu vong mot cap : Bo trí kieu vong mot cap : Bo trí kieu vong mot cap :






Hình 3.73 - Kieu bo trí kenh nguoi dang vong mot cap.
c) c) c) c) Bo trí kieu vong nhieu cap : Bo trí kieu vong nhieu cap : Bo trí kieu vong nhieu cap : Bo trí kieu vong nhieu cap :










Hình 3.74 - Kieu bo trí kenh nguoi dang vong nhieu cap.
3.8.2. 3.8.2. 3.8.2. 3.8.2.6. 6. 6. 6. Cac chi tiet dung trong he thong lam nguoi : Cac chi tiet dung trong he thong lam nguoi : Cac chi tiet dung trong he thong lam nguoi : Cac chi tiet dung trong he thong lam nguoi :
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a) a) a) a) Cac nut ch Cac nut ch Cac nut ch Cac nut chính dong (Pressure plugs) ính dong (Pressure plugs) ính dong (Pressure plugs) ính dong (Pressure plugs) : :: : dung de khoa hoac dieu khien dong chay
cua chat lam nguoi trong kenh lam nguoi theo y muon cua nguoi thiet ke.
Hình 3.75 - Cac nut chính dong duoc lap tren khuon.
Hình 3.76 - Mot so loai nut chính dong.
b) b) b) b) Nut va que lam chech huong dong (Diverting plug and Rod) : Nut va que lam chech huong dong (Diverting plug and Rod) : Nut va que lam chech huong dong (Diverting plug and Rod) : Nut va que lam chech huong dong (Diverting plug and Rod) :

Hình 3.77 - Nut va que lam chech huong tren khuon.

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Hình 3.78 - Mot loai nut va que lam chech huong dong.
c) c) c) c) Cascade water jun Cascade water jun Cascade water jun Cascade water junc cc ction : tion : tion : tion : dung de lam nguoi cac loi duoc cay vao khuon hoac o
nhung vung kho thiet ke kenh lam nguoi.









Hình 3.79 - Lam nguoi bang Cascade water junction.




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Hình 3.80 - Mot so loai Cascade water juntion.
d) d) d) d) Vach tron (Bubbler tube) : Vach tron (Bubbler tube) : Vach tron (Bubbler tube) : Vach tron (Bubbler tube) : la loai ong dung de lam nguoi nhung loi nho duoc cay
vao khuon.

Hình 3.81 - Lam nguoi bang vach tron.
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Hình 3.82 - Mot so loai vach tron.
e) e) e) e) Vach phang hoa Vach phang hoa Vach phang hoa Vach phang hoac vach c vach c vach c vach xoan (Baffle or Spiral baffle xoan (Baffle or Spiral baffle xoan (Baffle or Spiral baffle xoan (Baffle or Spiral baffle) : ) : ) : ) : dung de chia lo khoan lam
nguoi ra thanh hai phan. Cac vach phang se giup chat lam nguoi chay len xuong ben
trong cac lo khoan va tao ra dong chay roi ben trong chung de giup qua trình lam nguoi
dien ra nhanh hon.










Hình 3.83 - Lam nguoi bang vach phang va vach xoan.











Hình 3.84 - Mot so loai vach phang va vach xoan.
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f) f) f) f) O OO Ong dan nhiet (Thermal pin) : ng dan nhiet (Thermal pin) : ng dan nhiet (Thermal pin) : ng dan nhiet (Thermal pin) : dung de lam nguoi loi cay hoac cac loi truoc mat ben
...

Hình 3.85 - Lam nguoi bang ong dan nhiet.
g) g) g) g) Ðau noi chuyen tiep (Elbow) : Ðau noi chuyen tiep (Elbow) : Ðau noi chuyen tiep (Elbow) : Ðau noi chuyen tiep (Elbow) : dung de noi cac doan gap khuc cua kenh lam nguoi.









Hình 3.86 - Cac doan gap khuc cua kenh lam nguoi dung dau noi chuyen tiep.







Hình 3.87 - Mot so loai dau noi chuyen tiep.
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h) h) h) h) Ðau noi (Connector) : Ðau noi (Connector) : Ðau noi (Connector) : Ðau noi (Connector) : dung ket noi ong dan chat lam nguoi voi kenh lam nguoi.







Hình 3.88 - Ðau noi tren khuon.

Hình 3.89 - Mot so loai dau noi.
i) i) i) i) Ong phan phoi chat lam nguoi : Ong phan phoi chat lam nguoi : Ong phan phoi chat lam nguoi : Ong phan phoi chat lam nguoi :











Hình 3.90 - Ong phan phoi duoc lap tren khuon.
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Hình 3.91 - Mot loai ong phan phoi co dong ho do ap.
3.8.3. Thoi gian lam nguoi 3.8.3. Thoi gian lam nguoi 3.8.3. Thoi gian lam nguoi 3.8.3. Thoi gian lam nguoi : :: :
Thoi gian lam nguoi chiem khoang 70 - 80% chu ky ep phun. Do do, de giam phan
lon thoi gian chu ky ta can giam thoi gian lam nguoi (xem muc 5.1.3).







Hình 3.92 - Thoi gian lam nguoi chiem phan lon thoi gian chu ky.
Thoi gian lam nguoi co the duoc tính theo cong thuc sau :
( )
nhiet nhiet nhiet nhiet tan tan tan tan khuech khuech khuech khuech so so so so He He He He
pham pham pham pham san san san san cua cua cua cua nhat nhat nhat nhat lon lon lon lon day day day day Be Be Be Be
t tt t
2 22 2
nguoi nguoi nguoi nguoi
=
trong do :
t
nguoi
: thoi gian lam nguoi (s).
he so khuech tan nhiet
p pp p

K KK K
a aa a = K : he so truyen nhiet cua nhua ). ( K
m
W

ρ : tí trong rieng cua nhua (kg/m
3
).

p
C : nhiet dung rieng cua nhua .








K
kg
J

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3. 3. 3. 3.9 99 9. . . . He thong gia nhiet He thong gia nhiet He thong gia nhiet He thong gia nhiet : :: :
Ðoi voi mot so loai nhua can nhiet do cao moi co the chay deo tot trong khuon va
dien day toan bo long khuon thì ta can phai gia nhiet them cho khuon. Cac moi chat
gia nhiet thuong dung la nuoc nong, dau nong va hoi nuoc. Trong do, nuoc nong la moi
chat pho bien nhat duoc dung gia nhiet cho khuon co kenh dan nguoi. Nguon nhiet do
mot he thong khong nam tren may ep phun cung cap (doi voi khuon can lam nguoi thì
he thong cung cap moi chat lam nguoi nam tren may ep phun).
3.9.1. Cac ph 3.9.1. Cac ph 3.9.1. Cac ph 3.9.1. Cac phuong phap gia nhiet uong phap gia nhiet uong phap gia nhiet uong phap gia nhiet : :: :
3.9.1.1. 3.9.1.1. 3.9.1.1. 3.9.1.1. Gia nhiet bang nuoc nong : Gia nhiet bang nuoc nong : Gia nhiet bang nuoc nong : Gia nhiet bang nuoc nong : kenh dan nuoc nong duoc khoan quanh long
khuon va loi khuon. Nuoc nong duoc gia nhiet va dieu khien nhiet boi dien tro nhiet.









Hình 3.93 - Khuon duoc gia nhiet bang nuoc nong.
3.9.1.2. 3.9.1.2. 3.9.1.2. 3.9.1.2. Gia nhiet bang dau nong : Gia nhiet bang dau nong : Gia nhiet bang dau nong : Gia nhiet bang dau nong : giong phuong phap gia nhiet bang nuoc nong
nhung moi chat duoc dung o day la dau nong.








Hình 3.94 - Khuon duoc gia nhiet bang dau.
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3.9.1.3. 3.9.1.3. 3.9.1.3. 3.9.1.3. Gia nhiet bang hoi nuo Gia nhiet bang hoi nuo Gia nhiet bang hoi nuo Gia nhiet bang hoi nuoc : c : c : c : phuong phap gia nhiet nay ít khi duoc dung
cho khuon co kenh dan nguoi vì kho dieu khien nhiet do va khong an toan.










Hình 3.95 - Khuon duoc gia nhiet bang hoi nuoc.
3.9.2. Cac chi 3.9.2. Cac chi 3.9.2. Cac chi 3.9.2. Cac chi ti ti ti tiet dung trong he thong : et dung trong he thong : et dung trong he thong : et dung trong he thong :
3. 3. 3. 3.9.2.1. 9.2.1. 9.2.1. 9.2.1. Bang gia nhiet : Bang gia nhiet : Bang gia nhiet : Bang gia nhiet :
Co hai loai bang gia nhiet : mot loai dung tren may ep phun va mot loai dung tren
khuon. Ca hai loai deu co the cap nhiet den 900
0
F ≈ 482
0
C
+ Loai dung tren may ep phun : dung de gia nhiet cho khoang chua lieu va voi
phun.
+ Loai dung tren khuon : dung de gia nhiet quanh bac cuong phun de tranh su dong
dac som cua nhua nong ben trong no.









Hình 3.96 - Cac bang gia nhiet tren may ep phun va tren khuon.
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Hình 3.97 - Cac bang gia nhiet.
3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9. .. .2.2. 2.2. 2.2. 2.2. Cartridge heater : Cartridge heater : Cartridge heater : Cartridge heater :
Cac cartridge heater dung de tang nhiet o mot vung nao do tren khuon, co the la
long khuon hoac loi khuon .Chung thuong duoc dung de gia nhiet cho khuon ep nhua
nhiet deo hay cac khuon co kenh dan nong. Ðe gia nhiet cho khuon thì cac cartridge
heater duoc noi voi mot modun dieu khien nhiet.

Hình 3.98 - Cartridge heater.
3.9.2.3. 3.9.2.3. 3.9.2.3. 3.9.2.3. Cap nhi Cap nhi Cap nhi Cap nhiet dien (Thermo et dien (Thermo et dien (Thermo et dien (Thermo- -- -couple) : couple) : couple) : couple) :
Cap nhiet dien dung de do nhiet cac vung quanh truc vít hay voi phun va cac tam
khuon. Ðoi khi mot so loai bang gia nhiet cung san co cap nhiet dien ben trong de viec
lap dat thuan tien hon.
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Hình 3.99 - Cap nhiet dien.
3.9.2.4. 3.9.2.4. 3.9.2.4. 3.9.2.4. Lop cach nhiet (insulator sheet) : Lop cach nhiet (insulator sheet) : Lop cach nhiet (insulator sheet) : Lop cach nhiet (insulator sheet) :
Lop cach nhiet thuong duoc dung trong khuon can nhiet do cao de ngan su mat
nhiet do su truyen nhiet giua tam kep va tam co dinh hay giua tam di dong va mat day
cua tam day.
Hình 3.100 - Lop cach nhiet tren khuon.
3.10. 3.10. 3.10. 3.10. He thong thoat khí He thong thoat khí He thong thoat khí He thong thoat khí : :: :
Khi nhua duoc phun vao long khuon thì toan bo khí trong long khuon phai thoat ra
ngoai. Neu bo trí he thong thoat khí khong tot se lam cho san pham sau ep phun co the
bi lo khí, cac vet chay tren be mat (burn marks), khong dien day hoan toan (short shot)
va duong han (xem cach xu ly o chuong 6). Nhu vay he thong thoat khí rat quan trong
vì no cung phan nao quyet dinh su dinh hình va tính tham my cho san pham. hình 3.101
va hình 3.102 se cho ta thay ro dieu nay.
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Hình 3.101 - San pham bi phe pham do thoat khí khong tot.












Hình 3.102 - Long khuon duoc dien day hoan toan.
He thong thoat khí duoc dung pho bien nhat la cac ranh thoat khí tren mat phan
khuon va mat mai quanh ti loi (ti day) san pham. Ngoai ra, khí trong khuon cung co the
thoat ra ngoai qua cac khe ho nho cua he thong truot, phan ghep (cuc cay)..
3.10.1. Thiet ke ranh thoat khí tren mat phan khuon : 3.10.1. Thiet ke ranh thoat khí tren mat phan khuon : 3.10.1. Thiet ke ranh thoat khí tren mat phan khuon : 3.10.1. Thiet ke ranh thoat khí tren mat phan khuon :

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Hình 3.103 - Kích thuoc cho thiet ke cac ranh thoat khí.
Bang tra chieu sau t cho mot so loai nhua :






Cac ranh
thoat khí nen duoc bo trí o nhung cho ma vat lieu duoc dien day sau cung de tranh ket
khí gay ra cac vet chay hoac san pham khong duoc dien day hoan toan. Chieu sau cua
ranh thoat khí (t) nen tuan thu theo kích thuoc khuyen dung ben tren de tranh san
pham bi banh trang¨ (xem loi nay o chuong 6).








Hình 3.104 - Bo trí ranh thoat khí o nhung cho de gay phe pham.
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3.10.2. Mat mai tren ti loi : 3.10.2. Mat mai tren ti loi : 3.10.2. Mat mai tren ti loi : 3.10.2. Mat mai tren ti loi :








Hình 3.105 - Kích thuoc mat mai khuyen dung tren ti loi.
3. 3. 3. 3.11 11 11 11. . . . He thong day He thong day He thong day He thong day : :: :
Sau khi san pham trong khuon duoc lam nguoi, khuon duoc mo ra. Luc nay, san
pham van con dính tren coi khuon do su hut cua chan khong nen can he thong day de
day san pham rot ra.
3.11 3.11 3.11 3.11.1. .1. .1. .1. Cac Cac Cac Cac loai he thong day thuong dung : loai he thong day thuong dung : loai he thong day thuong dung : loai he thong day thuong dung :
3.11.1.1. 3.11.1.1. 3.11.1.1. 3.11.1.1. He thong day dung chot day : He thong day dung chot day : He thong day dung chot day : He thong day dung chot day :
Cac chot day duoc gia cong rat chính xac va duoc chon theo tieu chuan. Thong
thuong, cac chot day chí duoc gia cong chính xac o phan dan huong va duoc lap theo
he thong truc. Ðo cung cua than chot khoang 60÷65Rc, do cung cua dau chot khoang
30÷35Rc.











Hình 3.106 - Cac phan tu trong he thong day.
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Mot so loai chot day :













3.11.1.2. 3.11.1.2. 3.11.1.2. 3.11.1.2. He thong day dung luoi day : He thong day dung luoi day : He thong day dung luoi day : He thong day dung luoi day :
Luoi day dung de day nhung san pham co thanh mong va hình dang phuc tap. Trong
truong hop nay neu ta dung chot day tron thì se khong hieu qua vì se khong du luc
day, neu co du luc day di nua thì mat san pham se bi co dau lun vao.












Hình 3.107 - He thong day dung luoi day.

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3.11.1.3. 3.11.1.3. 3.11.1.3. 3.11.1.3. He tho He tho He tho He thong day dung ong day : ng day dung ong day : ng day dung ong day : ng day dung ong day :
Ong day dung de day nhung san pham co dang tron xoay hoac tam mong.
















: chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 3.108 - He thong day dung ong day.









Hình 3.109 - Ong day.
3.11.1. 3.11.1. 3.11.1. 3.11.1.4. 4. 4. 4. He tho He tho He tho He tho ng day dung tam thao : ng day dung tam thao : ng day dung tam thao : ng day dung tam thao :
Tam thao dung de thao nhung san pham dang hình tru tron hay hình hop chu nhat
co be day thanh mong. Khuon su dung he thong nay, san pham se khong co vet chot
day nen luon dam bao duoc tính tham my.


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: chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 3.110 - He thong day dung tam thao.
3.11.1.5. 3.11.1.5. 3.11.1.5. 3.11.1.5. He thong day dung khí nen He thong day dung khí nen He thong day dung khí nen He thong day dung khí nen : :: : (dung van khí)
Ðoi voi nhung san pham nhu xo, chau .v.v.co long khuon sau, khi san pham
nguoi thì do chan khong trong long khuon va loi khuon la rat lon nen san pham kho co
the thoat khuon. Do do, can co mot luc day lon va phan bo deu de day san pham thoat
khuon. Loi khuyen la ta nen dung luc khí nen ket hop voi tam thao de day san pham.










: chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 3.111 - He thong day dung khí nen ket hop tam thao.




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Hình 3.112 - Cau tao van khí.
Neu cam thay ruom ra khi thiet ke them tam thao thì ta co the bo trí hai dong khí
qua hai van khí tren ca hai tam khuon de day san pham.









Hình 3.113 - Thoi khí tren ca hai tam khuon de day san pham.

Hình 3.114 - Hai kieu van khí thuong dung cho he thong thoi khí trong hai nua khuon.
3.11 3.11 3.11 3.11.2. Ðieu khien .2. Ðieu khien .2. Ðieu khien .2. Ðieu khien tam day tam day tam day tam day : :: :
3.11.2.1. 3.11.2.1. 3.11.2.1. 3.11.2.1. Gia toc them cho mot chot day : Gia toc them cho mot chot day : Gia toc them cho mot chot day : Gia toc them cho mot chot day :
Trong he thong day co dung them co cau thanh rang banh rang de gia toc them cho
chot day. He thong day co gia toc se giup san pham roi khuon nhanh hon.
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: chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 3.115 - He thong day co gia toc them cho mot chot day.

Hình 3.116 - Bo gia toc cho chot day.
3.11.2.2. 3.11.2.2. 3.11.2.2. 3.11.2.2. Gia toc t Gia toc t Gia toc t Gia toc them cho tam day tren (day kep co gia toc) : hem cho tam day tren (day kep co gia toc) : hem cho tam day tren (day kep co gia toc) : hem cho tam day tren (day kep co gia toc) :
Tuong tu nhu he thong day co gia toc cho mot chot day, chí khac la he thong thanh
rang banh rang se dieu khien mot tam day o phía tren.







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: chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 3.117 - He thong day co gia toc them cho tam day tren.
















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Hình 3.118 - Bo gia toc them cho tam day tren.
3.11.2.3. 3.11.2.3. 3.11.2.3. 3.11.2.3. Tam day co don bay : Tam day co don bay : Tam day co don bay : Tam day co don bay :
Tam day duoc lap them don bay de tang chieu cao day o mot phía giup san pham roi
ra khoi khuon mot cach de dang.







: chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 3.119 - Tam day co don bay.

Hình 3.120 - Bo don bay.
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3.11.2.4. 3.11.2.4. 3.11.2.4. 3.11.2.4. Ðay kep : Ðay kep : Ðay kep : Ðay kep :
Ðoi voi nhung san pham co hình dang phuc tap, can phai day tuan tu thì ta dung he
thong day kep. Hình - the hien mot he thong day kep dung lo xo rat don gian.



















Hình 3.121 - Cac gai doan day trong he thong day hai tang dung lo xo.
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3.11 3.11 3.11 3.11. .. .3. Cac he thong 3. Cac he thong 3. Cac he thong 3. Cac he thong day dac biet : day dac biet : day dac biet : day dac biet :
3.11.3.1. 3.11.3.1. 3.11.3.1. 3.11.3.1. Ðay hai tang : Ðay hai tang : Ðay hai tang : Ðay hai tang :
Kieu 1 :





1)







Hình 3.122 - Chot day hai tang kieu 1.


2)






3)



Hình 3.123 - 1), 2), 3) : Qua trình day cua chot day hai tang kieu 1.
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Kieu 2 :

1) Hình 3.124 - Chot day hai tang kieu 2.
















2) 3)
Hình 3.125 - 1), 2), 3) : Qua trình day cua chot day hai tang kieu 2.

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3.11.3.2. 3.11.3.2. 3.11.3.2. 3.11.3.2. He thong day kenh dan trong khuon 3 t He thong day kenh dan trong khuon 3 t He thong day kenh dan trong khuon 3 t He thong day kenh dan trong khuon 3 tam : am : am : am :
Co cau hoat dong nho he thong dieu khien bang khí nen giup dua kenh dan roi ra
khoi khuon mot cach de dang.










Hình 3.126 - Co cau day kenh dan trong khuon 3 tam.












Hình 3.127 - 1), 2), 3), 4) :Nguyen ly hoat dong cua co cau.
3.11 3.11 3.11 3.11.4. .4. .4. .4. Mot so Mot so Mot so Mot so dieu luu y dieu luu y dieu luu y dieu luu y khi thiet ke he thong day : khi thiet ke he thong day : khi thiet ke he thong day : khi thiet ke he thong day :
- Tam day hau nhu luon duoc lap o nua khuon di dong. Tru mot so truong hop dac biet,
tam day duoc dat o nua khuon co dinh.
- Cac chot day hay luoi day nen bo trí o goc, canh, gan cua san pham.

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- Hanh trình day nen bang chieu sau lon nhat cua san pham theo huong mo khuon cong
them 5÷10mm.
- Cac dính chot day nen nam ngang muc so voi mat phan khuon de dam bao khong de
lai vet tren be mat san pham. Tuy nhien tren thuc te, mot so san pham co cac vet chot
day tren be mat nhung van chap nhan duoc vì chung nam o mat khuat cua san pham.
Khoang chenh lech giua dính chot va mat phan khuon co the chap nhan duoc la
0,05÷0,1mm.
- Ðo day tam day co the chon theo dien tích mat san pham. Tham khao bang sau :


3.1 3.1 3.1 3.12 22 2. . . . He thong hoi He thong hoi He thong hoi He thong hoi : : : :
He thong hoi co chuc nang dua tam day lui ve phía sau va giu co dinh tam day
truoc khi khuon dong hoan toan. Ðe hoi tam day ve ta co the dung chot hoi hoac chot
khuyu (Toggle-lock).
3.1 3.1 3.1 3.12 22 2.1. He thong hoi dung chot hoi : .1. He thong hoi dung chot hoi : .1. He thong hoi dung chot hoi : .1. He thong hoi dung chot hoi :
3.1 3.1 3.1 3.12.1.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.1. Chot hoi co lo xo : Chot hoi co lo xo : Chot hoi co lo xo : Chot hoi co lo xo : doi khi doi voi nhung khuon nho va don gian ta khong
dung den lo xo.








Hình 3.128 - Chot hoi tren khuon.
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3.12.1.2. 3.12.1.2. 3.12.1.2. 3.12.1.2. Chot hoi tieu chuan : Chot hoi tieu chuan : Chot hoi tieu chuan : Chot hoi tieu chuan : (xem kích thuoc thiet ke o phu luc)












Hình 3.129 - Hình dang ngoai cua chot hoi tien chuan.

Nguyen ly hoat dong :


















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Hình 3.130 - Chot hoi tieu chuan tren khuon.
3.1 3.1 3.1 3.12 22 2.2. He thong hoi dung chot khuyu : .2. He thong hoi dung chot khuyu : .2. He thong hoi dung chot khuyu : .2. He thong hoi dung chot khuyu : (xem kích thuoc cho thiet ke o phu luc)
3.12.2.1. 3.12.2.1. 3.12.2.1. 3.12.2.1. Kieu chu X : Kieu chu X : Kieu chu X : Kieu chu X :










Hình 3.131 - Cau tao chot khuyu kieu chu X.
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Nguyen ly hoat dong :











3.12.2.2. 3.12.2.2. 3.12.2.2. 3.12.2.2. Kieu chu Y : Kieu chu Y : Kieu chu Y : Kieu chu Y :







Hình 3.132 - Cau tao chot khuyu kieu chu Y.

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c) Kieu chu c) Kieu chu c) Kieu chu c) Kieu chu Z : Z : Z : Z :










Hình 3.133 - Cau tao chot khuyu kieu chu Z.
3. 3. 3. 3.13 13 13 13. .. . Ðanh bong khuon Ðanh bong khuon Ðanh bong khuon Ðanh bong khuon : :: : (hay lam nguoi khuon)
Ðanh bong khuon la cong doan sau cung truoc khi lap rap khuon. Viec danh bong
khuon het suc quan trong vì no quyet dinh su thoat khuon va tính tham my cua san
pham.
- Mot so dung cu dung trong qua trình lam nguoi :
3.13 3.13 3.13 3.13.1. May mai tay : .1. May mai tay : .1. May mai tay : .1. May mai tay : dung de mai tho cac mat cua long khuon.

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3.1 3.1 3.1 3.13 33 3.2. .2. .2. .2. Cac kieu dau da mai : Cac kieu dau da mai : Cac kieu dau da mai : Cac kieu dau da mai :






3.13.3 3.13.3 3.13.3 3.13.3. . . . Giua ban lon : Giua ban lon : Giua ban lon : Giua ban lon :


3.13.4 3.13.4 3.13.4 3.13.4. Giua nho dang thang : . Giua nho dang thang : . Giua nho dang thang : . Giua nho dang thang :










3.13 3.13 3.13 3.13. .. .5 55 5. Giua loai nho dang cong, moc : . Giua loai nho dang cong, moc : . Giua loai nho dang cong, moc : . Giua loai nho dang cong, moc :









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3.13.6. Banh danh bong : 3.13.6. Banh danh bong : 3.13.6. Banh danh bong : 3.13.6. Banh danh bong :






3.13 3.13 3.13 3.13.7. Ða mai tay : .7. Ða mai tay : .7. Ða mai tay : .7. Ða mai tay :






3. 3. 3. 3.13 13 13 13.8. Hop chat chua hat mai : .8. Hop chat chua hat mai : .8. Hop chat chua hat mai : .8. Hop chat chua hat mai :









3.13 3.13 3.13 3.13.9. Giay nham .9. Giay nham .9. Giay nham .9. Giay nham va choi quet : va choi quet : va choi quet : va choi quet :







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106
CHUONG 4 : KHUON EP PHUN CHO SAN PHAM CO REN
4.1. Nhung dieu can luu y khi thiet ke san pham co ren :
- Ban kính chan ren va dính ren nen lon nhat den muc co the de tranh su tap trung
ung suat.

Hình 4.1 - Mot so profile ren thuong dung de thiet ke cho san pham nhua.
- Ðoan het ren nen lam tron de tranh tuon ren va hu ren.












Hình 4.2 - Lam tron doan het ren.

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- Khi can thiet ke ren con nen thiet ke theo hình 4.3 de moi lap ren duoc kín hon.










Hình 4.3 - Ren con.
Ta co the dung ren thang va vong dem de ngan chat long khong bi ro rí ma khong
phai thiet ke ren con.





Hình 4.4 - Giai phap khong dung ren con.
- Tranh thiet ke doan ren co buoc ren nho hon 1mm (32ren/inch) de tranh tuon ren
va de che tao khuon.
- Khi thiet ke ren nhua lap rap voi ren kim loai (thuong thay trong he thong ong
nuoc), ta nen thiet ke dang ren ngoai cho chi tiet bang nhua va ren trong cho chi tiet
bang kim loai de tranh ren kim loai lam hong ren nhua.







Hình 4.5 - Thiet ke ren ngoai cho chi tiet nhua.
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- Ren thiet ke cho san pham nhua doi khi khong theo mot tieu chuan nao de co the
de che tao khuon hon.










Hình 4.6 - Ren phi tieu chuan.
4.2. Khuon cho san pham co ren trong :
- Ðoi voi loai khuon nay, ta co cac phuong phap thao ren sau :
a) Thao ren caang bac :
San pham duoc day roi khoi khuon nho luc day cua vanh day. Cach thao ren
cuong buc chí phu hop voi nhung loai nhua co do dan hoi cao, chính nho tính dan hoi
cua nhua ma san pham bi day ra se khong bi hong hay cong venh. Loai ren khuyen
dung cho cach thao ren nay la ren tron.











Hình 4.7 - Thao ren trong bang luc cuong buc.
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b) Thao ren bang chot gap (Co//aps/b/e core) :
- Chot gap dung de thao ren trong cho cac san pham nho.











Hình 4.8 - Cau tao chot gap va vi trí cua no tren khuon.
- Lap chot gap tren khuon va nguyen ly hoat dong cua toan he thong khuon :











Hình 4.9 - Lap chot gap tren khuon.




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: Mui ten chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 4.8 - Nguyen ly hoat dong cua chot gap tren khuon.
c) Thao ren bang thanh rang - banh rang :
- Thao ren bang thanh rang - banh rang cho phep thao ren cung luc nhieu san
pham tren khuon va dam bao ren co do chính xac cao hon hai phuong phap thao ren
tren. Ngoai ra, co cau thao ren bang thanh rang - banh rang con phu hop voi nhung
san pham co kích thuoc lon trong san xuat hang loat.

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Hình 4.9 - Thao ren trong bang thanh rang - banh rang duoc truyen luc bang co.










Hình 4.10 - Thao ren trong bang thanh rang - banh rang duoc truyen luc bang
thuy luc hoac khí nen.
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: Mui ten chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 4.11 - Nguyen ly hoat dong cua he thong thao ren trong dung thanh rang - banh
rang duoc truyen luc bang thuy luc hoac khí nen.
d) Thao ren bang tay :
Phuong phap thao ren bang tay phu hop voi nhung san pham nho nhung can ren co
do chính xac cao. Theo phuong phap nay, san pham se duoc thao ra khoi loi bang tay
va chí phu hop voi san xuat don chiec.





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Hình 4.12 - Thao ren trong bang tay.
4.3. Khuon cho san pham co ren ngoai :
Ðoi voi nhung san pham co ren ngoai ta co the
dung cac phuong phap sau de thao ren :


Hình 4.13 - Mot san pham co ren ngoai.
a) Che tao khaon ha/ naa nea daang ren tren san pham do/ xang qaa mat phan
khaon :










Hình 4.14 - Khuon hai nua cho san pham co duong ren doi xung qua mat phan khuon.
b) Thao ren caang bac :
Khi khuon mo loi se duoc giu o tam co dinh va san pham duoc day ra khoi khuon
nho luc day cua chot day.
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Hình 4.15 - Thao ren ngoai bang phuong phap cuong buc.
c) Thao ren bang chot nha (Expandab/e car/ty) :
Chot nha dung de thao ren cho cac san pham co kích thuoc nho.












a)



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b)
Hình 4.16 : a), b) - Thao ren ngoai bang chot nha.
d) Thao ren bang bo trayen banh rang :











Hình 4.17 - Thao ren ngoai bang bo truyen banh rang.






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CHUONG 5 : MAY EP PHUN VA CAC THONG SO GIA CONG
5.1. Cac kien thuc co ban ve may ep phun :
5.1.1. Cau tao chung :
May ep phun gom cac he thong co ban duoc minh hoa trong hình 5.1 :

Hình 5.1 - May ep phun.
5.1.1.1. He thong ho tro ep phun : (injection press support system)
La he thong giup van hanh may ep phun. He thong nay gom 4 he thong con :
Than may ( Frame ) He thong thuy luc ( Hydraulic system )
He thong dien ( Electrical
system )
He thong lam nguoi ( Cooling system )









Hình 5.2 - He thong ho tro ep phun.

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Cac he thong con trong he thong ho tro ep phun :
a) Than may : lien ket cac he thong tren may lai voi nhau.
b) He thong thay /ac : cung cap luc de dong va mo khuon, tao ra va duy trì luc
kep, lam cho truc vít quay va chuyen dong toi lui, tao luc cho chot day va su truot cua
loi mat ben. He thong nay bao gom bom, van, motor, he thong ong, thung chua
dau..v.v.

Hình 5.3 - He thong thuy luc.
c) He thong d/en : cap nguon cho moto dien (electric motor) va he thong dieu
khien nhiet cho khoang chua vat lieu nho cac bang nhiet (heater band) va dam bao su
an toan dien cho nguoi van hanh may bang cac cong tac. He thong nay gom tu dien
(electric power cabinet) va he thong day dan .










Hình 5.4 - He thong dien.
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d) He thong /am ngao/ : cung cap nuoc hay dung dich ethyleneglycol..v.v..de lam
nguoi khuon, dau thuy luc va ngan khong cho nhua tho o cuong pheu (feed throat) bi
nong chay. Vì khi nhua o cuong pheu bi nong chay thì phan nhua tho phía tren kho
chay vao khoang chua lieu. Nhiet trao doi cho dau thuy luc vao khoang 90 - 120
0
F.
Bo dieu khien nhiet nuoc (Water temperature controller) cung cap mot luong nhiet,
ap suat, dong chay thích hop de lam nguoi nhua nong trong khuon.










Hình 5.5 - He thong lam nguoi.
5.1.1.2. He thong phun :
He thong phun lam nhiem vu dua nhua vao khuon thong qua cac qua trình cap
nhua, nen, khu khí, lam chay deo nhua, phun nhua long va dinh hình san pham. He
thong nay gom co cac bo phan :
Pheu cap lieu (Hopper).
Khoang chua lieu (Barrel).
Cac bang gia nhiet (Heater
band).
Truc vít (Screw).
Bo hoi tu ho (Non-return
Assembly).
Voi phun (Nozzle).

Hình 5.6 - He thong phun.
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Cac bo phan trong he thong phun :
a) Phea cap //ea : chua vat lieu nhua dang vien de cap vao khoang tron.
b) Khoang chaa //ea : chua nhua va de vít tron di chuyen qua lai ben trong no.
Khoang tron duoc gia nhiet nho cac bang cap nhiet. Nhiet do xung quanh khoang
chua lieu cung cap tu 20 den 30% nhiet do can thiet de lam chay long vat lieu nhua.
c) Cac bang g/a nh/et : Giup duy trì nhiet do khoang chua lieu de nhua ben trong
khoang luon o trang thai chay deo. Thong thuong, tren mot may ep nhua co the co
nhieu bang gia nhiet ( ≥ bang) duoc cai dat voi cac nhiet do khac nhau de tao ra cac
vung nhiet do thích hop cho qua trình ep phun.








Hình 5.7 - Bang nhiet.
d) Trac r/t : co chuc nang nen, lam chay deo va tao ap luc de day nhua chay deo
vao long khuon.
Truc vít co cau tao gom 3 vung duoc minh hoa tronh hình 5.7 :

Hình 5.8 - Cau tao truc vít.
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+ Vung cap lieu (Feed section) : la vung gan pheu cap lieu nhat, chiem khoang
50% chieu dai hoat dong cua truc vít (co tai lieu cho la 60%) va co chuc nang lam
cho vat lieu dac lai thanh khoi va chuyen vat lieu qua vung nen. Chieu sau cua cac
canh vít o vung nay la lon nhat va hau nhu khong doi.
+ Vung nen hay vung chuyen tiep (Transition or compression section) : chiem
khoang 25% chieu dai hoat dong cua truc vít (co tai lieu cho la 20%). O vung nay,
duong kính ngoai cua truc vít khong doi nhung chieu sau cac canh vít thay doi nho
dan tu vung cap lieu den cuoi vung dinh luong. Chính nho cau tao dac biet nay ma
cac canh vít lam cho nhua bi nen chat vao thanh trong cua khoang chua lieu, dieu nay
tao ra nhiet ma sat. Nhiet ma sat nay cung cap khoang 70 den 80% luong nhiet can
thiet de lam chay doe vat lieu.
+ Vung dinh luong (Metering section) : chiem khoang 25% chieu dai hoat dong
cua truc vít (co tai lieu cho la 20%), co chuc nang cung cap nhiet do de vat lieu chay
deo mot cach dong nhat va lam ban vat lieu chay deo vao khuon qua cuong phun.
Chieu sau canh vít o vung nay la be nhat va hau nhu khong doi.
Ðe danh gia duoc kha nang lam chay deo vat lieu cua truc vít caohay thap nguoi
ta dua vao hai thong so chính do la : L /D va D
f
/ D
m
. Tí le L/D nho nhat la 20 :1, tí le
D
f
/ D
m
thuong la 3 :1 ; 2,5:1 va 2:1.
e) Bo ho/ ta ha hay ran ho/ ta ma (Non - retarn assemd/y or non-retarn ra/re) :
bo phan nay gom vong chan hình nem, dau truc vít va seat. Chuc nang cua no la tao
ra dong nhua ban vao khuon.

Hình 5.9 - Non-return assembly.
Khi truc vít lui ve thì vong chan hình nem di chuyen ve huong voi phun va cho
phep nhua chay ve phía truoc dau truc vít. Con khi truc vít di chuyen ve phía truoc thì
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vong chan hình nem se di chuyen ve huong pheu va dong kín voi seat khong cho
nhua chay nguoc ve phía sau.

Hình 5.10 - Cac loai bo hoi tuc ho.
f) Vo/ phan : co chuc nang noi khoang tron voi cuong phun va phai co hình dang
dam bao bit kín khoang tron va khuon. Nhiet do o voi phun nen duoc cai dat lon hon
hoac bang nhiet do chay cua vat lieu (day la loi khuyen cua cac nha cung cap vat
lieu). Trong qua trình phun nhua long vao khuon, voi phun phai thang hang voi bac
cuong phun va dau voi phun nen duoc lap kín voi phan lom cua bac cuong phun thong
qua vong dinh vi de dam bao nhua khong bi phun ra ngoai va tranh mat ap.








Hình 5.11 - Vi trí voi phun trong he thong phun.
Co nhieu loai voi phun khac nhau, tuy vao tung truong hop ung dung cu the ma ta
dung loai voi phun nao cho thích hop. Thong thuong nguoi ta quan tam den mot so
thong so nhu :
+ Ðuong kính lo cua dau voi phun phai nho hon duong kính lo cua bac cuong
phun mot chut (khoang 0.125 - 0.75mm) de cuong phun de thoat ra ngoai va tranh
can dong.
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+ Chieu dai cua voi phun nen dai hon chieu sau cua bac cuong phun (tao dong
on dinh truoc khi vao bac cuong phun).
+ Ðo con tuy thuoc vao vat lieu ep phun.





Hình 5.12 -Voi phun.
5.1.1.3. He thong khuon : (xem chuong 3).
5.1.1.4 He thong kep :
He thong kep co chuc nang dong, mo khuon, tao luc kep giu khuon trong qua
trình lam nguoi va day san pham thoat khoi khuon khi ket thuc mot chu ky ep phun.
He thong nay gom cac bo phan :
Cum day cua may (Machine ejectors).
Cum kìm (Clamp cylinders).
Tam di dong (Moveable platen).
Tam co dinh (Stationary platen).
Nhung thanh noi (Tie bars).







Hình 5.13 - He thong kep.
Cac bo phan trong he thong kep :
a) Cam day (Mach/ne eject/ons) : gom xylanh thuy luc, tam day va can day.
Chung co chuc nang tao ra luc day tac dong vao tam day tren khuon de day san
pham roi khoi khuon.
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Hình 5.14 - Cum day.
b) Cam kìm (C/amp cy//nders) : thuong co 2 loai chính, do la loai dung co cau
khuyu va loai dung cac xylanh thuy luc. He thong nay co chuc nang cung cap luc de
dong mo khuon va luc de giu khuon (kìm khuon) dong trong suot qua trình phun.

Hình 5.15 - Cum kìm dung co cau khuyu.
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Hình 5.16 - Cum kìm dung xylanh thuy luc.

Ua nhaac d/em caa cam kìm dang ca caa khaya ra xy/anh thay /ac :

Loai kìm Uu diem Nhuoc diem
Kìm dung thuy luc
- Lap dat khuon nhanh.
- Biet ro ap suat kìm.
- De bao duong.
- Ít lam vong tam khuon.
- Luc kìm tap trung vao giua
tam khuon.
- Can luong lon dau thuy luc.
- Ton nhieu nang luong.
- Chiu anh huong boi he so nen
cua dau.
Kìm dung co cau
khuyu
- Gia thanh thap.
- Di chuyen co cau kìm nhanh.
- Tu ham de giam va dap.
- Can bao duong thuong xuyen.
- Luc kìm khong tap trung vao
giua tam khuon.
- Kho dieu chính.

c) Tam d/ dong (Moreab/e p/aten) : la mot tam thep lon voi be mat co nhieu lo
thong voi tam di dong cua khuon. Chính nho cac lo thong nay ma can day co the tac
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dong luc vao tam day tren khuon. Ngoai ra, tren tam di dong con co cac lo ren do
kep tam di dong cua khuon. Tam nay di chuyen toi lui doc theo 4 thanh noi trong qua
trình ep phun.

Hình 5.17 - Tam di dong va vi trí cua no tren may ep phun.
d) Tam co djnh (Stat/onary p/aten) : cung la mot tam thep lon co nhieu lo thong
voi tam co dinh cua khuon. Ngoai 4 lo dan huong va cac lo co ren de kep tam co dinh
cua khuon tuong tu nhu tam di dong, tam co dinh con co them lo vong dinh vi de dinh
vi tam co dinh cua khuon va dam bao su thang hang giua can day va cum phun (voi
phun va bac cuong phun).
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Hình 5.18 - Tam co dinh va vi trí cua no tren may ep phun.
e) Cac thanh no/ (T/e bars) : co kha nang co gian de chong lai ap suat phun khi
kìm tao luc. Ngoai ra chung con co tac dung dan huong cho tam di dong.








Hình 5.19 - Vi trí cac thanh noi tren may.
5.1.1.5. He thong dieu khien :
He thong dieu khien giup nguoi van hanh may theo doi va dieu chính cac thong so
gia cong nhu : nhiet do, ap suat, toc do phun, van toc va vi trí cua truc vít, vi trí cua
cac bo phan trong he thong thuy luc. Qua trình dieu khien co anh huong truc tiep den
chat luong sau cung cua san pham va hieu qua kinh te cua qua trình. He thong dieu
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khien giao tiep voi nguoi van hanh may qua bang nut dieu khien (Control panel) va
man hình may tính (Computer screen).









Hình 5.20 - He thong dieu khien.
a) Man hình may t/nh : cho phep nhap cac thong so gia cong, trình bay cac du
lieu cua qua trình ep phun, cung nhu cac tín hieu bao dong va cac thong diep.











Hinh 5.21 - Mot trang hien thi cac thong so ep phun tren may.
b) Bang d/ea kh/en : gom cac cong tac va nut nhan dung de van hanh may. Mot
ban dieu khien dien hình gom co : nut nhan dieu khien bom thuy luc, nut nhan tat
nguon dien hay dung khan cap va cac cong tac dieu khien bang tay.


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Hình 5.22 - Bang dieu khien dien hình tren may ep phun.
Ben trong he thong dieu khien la bo vi xu ly cac role, cong tac hanh trình, cac bo
phan dieu khien nhiet do, ap suat, thoi gian,..v.v.











Hinh 5.23 - Cac bo phan ben trong he thong dieu khien tren khuon va tren may.




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Hình 5.24 - Cac cong tac hanh trình tren may ep phun.
5.1.2. Chu ky ep phun :
Chu ky ep phun gom bon giai doan :
1. Giai doan kep ( Clamping phase ) : khuon duoc dong lai.
2. Giai doan phun ( Injection phase ) : nhua dien day vao khuon.
3. Giai doan lam nguoi ( Cooling phase ) : nhua duoc lam dac lai trong khuon.
4. Giai doan day ( Ejector phase ): day san pham nhua ra khoi khuon.








Hình 5.25 - Chu ky ep phun.
5.1.2.1. Giai doan kep : luc dau cum kìm dong khuon lai rat nhanh nhung sau do
cham dan cho den khi khuon dong hoan toan (khong xay ra tieng dong lon). Mot khi
khuon da dong cung la luc ap luc kìm rat lon duoc tao ra de chong lai ap cao tu dong
nhua ban vao khuon. Ðieu nay rat quan trong vì neu luc kìm khong chong lai noi ap
luc phun thì khuon se bi hu hai va san pham neu co ep phun duoc di nua thì cung gap
nhieu khuyet tat (xem cac khuyet tat san pham o chuong 6).
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: chí huong chuyen dong.
Hình 5.26 - Dien bien giai doan kep.
5.1.2.2. Giai doan phun : trong suot giai doan nay xay ra 3 qua trình. Ðau tien, nhua
nong chay duoc phun vao khuon rat nhanh do truc vít tien ve phía truoc. Mot khi cac
long khuon gan nhu duoc dien day (dien day khoang 95% long khuon) thì qua trình
dinh hình san pham dien ra do long khuon co nhiet do thap hon. Nhua nong se nguoi
dan va xay ra hien tuong co rut. Do do, mot luong nhua nua (khoang 5%) se tiep tuc
duoc phun vao de bu tru vao su co rut cho den khi mieng phun bi dac cung lai. Ta goi
day la qua trình giu hay qua trình kìm. Qua trình nay giup ngan dong chay nguoc cua
nhua qua mieng phun.
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a) b)
Hình 5.27 - a) Qua trình phun nhanh.
b) Qua trình dinh hình va qua trình giu.
5.1.2.3. Giai doan lam nguoi : giai doan nay bat dau ngay sau khi qua trình giu ket
thuc. Khuon van duoc dong va nhua nong trong long khuon duoc lam nguoi cho den
khi du do cung de co the duoc day roi khoi khuon. Trong suot giai doan nay truc vít
van quay va lui dan lai de chuan cho lan phun ke tiep. Thoi gian tieu ton trong giai
doan nay phu thuoc vao loai vat lieu nhua ma ta ep.









Hình 5.28 - Giai doan lam nguoi khuon.
5.1.2.4. Giai doan day : day la giai doan cuoi cung cua mot chu ky ep phun. Trong
giai doan nay cum kìm lam chuc nang mo khuon ra mot cach nhanh chong va an toan.
Luc dau, cum kìm mo khuon mot cach cham chap va sau do la nhanh dan cho den gan
cuoi hanh trình thì no chuyen dong cham lai de tranh va dap manh. Khi khuon mo ra
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thì tam day cua khuon bi can day cua may day ve phía truoc de loi san pham ra khoi
khuon. Mot khi san pham roi khoi khuon thì can day se hoi ve de san sang cho mot
chu ky ep phun ke tiep.

: chí chieu chuyen dong.
Hình 5.29 - Giai doan day.
5.1.3. Thoi gian chu ky ep phun va cach rut ngan thoi gian chu ky :
5.1.3.1. Thoi gian chu ky phun ep :
Thoi gian chu ky ep phun la khoang thoi gian can thiet de nhua dien day long
khuon va be day san pham dong dac khoang 90%. Nhu vay thoi gian chu ky se la tong
cac khoang thoi gian cua tung giai doan ep phun. Cac khoang thoi gian nay la :
Thoi gian phun.
Thoi gian giu : gom thoi gian dinh hình va thoi gian lam lanh.
Thoi gian mo khuon.
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Thoi gian dong khuon : khong dang ke co the bo qua.



Hình 5.30 - Thoi gian chu ky.
5.1.3.2. Cach rut ngan thoi gian chu ky :
Thong thuong thoi gian chu ky tang la do :
+ Nhiet do cua khuon va nhiet chay deo cua nhua cao.
+ He thong lam nguoi thiet ke khong tot.
+ Ton nhieu thoi gian trong giai doan phun va giu.
Nhu vay, de giam thoi gian chu ky ta se giai quyet cac van de sau :
+ Giam thoi gian phun.
+ Giam thoi gian giu.
+ Giam thoi giam lam lanh den muc toi thieu.
Giam thoi gian phun : viec nay lien quan den van de mat ap, so long khuon va be
day san pham.
- Mat ap : xay ra tren he thong kenh dan va mieng phun. Mat ap ít thì cac long
khuon se dien day nhanh hon nen thoi gian dien day giam va nguoc lai. Kenh dan lon
se lam giam su mat ap nhung lam tang thoi gian lam lanh doi voi kenh dan nguoi va
anh huong den nhiet chay deo cua nhua trong kenh dan nong. Mieng phun lon cung
lam giam su mat ap nhung se de lai vet tren san pham.
Nhu vay de giam thoi gian phun ta can phai thiet ke he thong phun nhua co kích
thuoc hop ly (xem chuong 3).
- So long khuon : so long khuon nhieu thì thoi gian phun se tang nhung trong thiet
ke so long khuon phai dam theo yeu cau khach hang nen ta khong the giam so long
khuon. Tuy nhien ta co the cai thien thoi gian phun bang cach giam thieu chieu dai he
thong kenh dan.
- Be day san pham : nhua se chay de hon trong nhung vung co be day day hon vì the
ta can phai thiet ke be day san pham mot cach hop ly (xem chuong 3) hoac co the bo
trí them mieng phun khi be day cua san pham qua mong de giam thoi gian phun. Moi
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loai vat lieu co chieu dai dong chay cua rieng no nen ta can xem datasheet cua chung
de dieu chính ap suat phun hop ly, dac biet la khi tí le L/t ≥ 200 (L : chieu dai dong
chay ; t : be day).





Hình 5.31 - Nhua de chay qua vung co be day lon.
Giam thoi gian giu : duong kính mieng phun tang thì thoi gian giu se tang vì the ta
co the giam duong kính mieng phun de giam thoi gian giu nhung can phai dam bao
rang cac long khuon phai duoc dien day (xem kích thuoc mieng phun o chuong 3).
Neu khong the giam duong kính mieng phun thì ta co the toi thieu hoa thoi gian giu
tren may ep phun.
Giam thoi gian lam lanh : co hai yeu to anh huong den thoi gian lam lanh do la
nhiet do khuon va nhiet do chay deo cua nhua. Neu mot trong hai yeu to nay tang thì
thoi gian lam lanh se tang va thoi gian chu ky cung se tang. Vì vay muon giam thoi
gian lam lanh thì ta phai dieu chính nhiet do cua khuon va nhiet chay deo cua nhua
mot cach hop ly (xem datasheet cua cac loai nhua).











Hình 5.32 - Nhiet do khuon tang lam thoi gian chu ky tang.
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5.2. Cac thong so gia cong : (xem phu luc cai dat cac thong so gia cong cho mot so
loai nhua).
5.3. Do va dieu khien nhiet do trong qua trình ep phun :
Nhiet do cua khuon (gia nhiet cho khuon hoac lam nguoi khuon) rat quan trong
dong mot vai tro quan trong trong qua trình ep phun. Nhiet do khuon co anh huong
den :
+ Chu ky ep phun.
+ Hình dang va chat luong san pham.
+ Tính tham my cua san pham.
+ Ðo co rut, do ben va cac khuyet tat tren san pham.
Do do, nhiet do cua khuon can phai duoc phai duoc do dat va dieu chính hop ly.
Hien nay co nhieu loai sensor va cac cac dong ho do nhiet cao hien thi so duoc ban
tren thi truong. Cac loai dong ho nay chu yeu dung de do nhiet o mat ngoai cua
khoang chua lieu, voi phun va cac be mat cua khuon.

Hình 5.33 - Ðong ho va mot so loai cam bien do nhiet cao.
Mot so loai cam bien dung de do nhiet cua khuon :
+ Cam bien lo xo (spring sensor) dung de do nhiet be mat cua coi khuon va
chay khuon.
+ Cam bien do do am.
+ Cam bien tu duoc dung khi khong dung duoc cam bien lo xo.
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5.4. Khac phuc mot so loi thuong gap trong qua trình ep phun :
Ta co the tham khao bang sau :

Chu thích : - can tang
- can giam
- xem lai cac yeu to anh huong

Item Brittleness
Short
Shot
Poor
Surface
Stain Flash Void
Flow
Mark
Poor
Mold
Release
Warpage Burning
Cylinder
Temp

Mold
Temp

Nozzle
Temp

Injection
Speed

Injection
Pressure

Holding
Pressure

Back
Pressure

Cooling
Time

Screw
RPM

Nozzle
Diameter

Gas
Vent

Gate
Size

Gate
Position

Drying

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5.5. Mot so loai may ep phun :

















Nguon : www.ferromatik.com
Nguon : www.hautek.com
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CHUONG 6 : XU LY CAC KHUYET TAT TREN SAN PHAM
6.1. Lo khí :
Cac lo khí xay ra khi cac dong chay cua nhua cung bao quanh cac bot khí. Khuyet
tat lo khí khien cho nhua khong the dien day mot cach hoan toan va lam xau be mat
san pham. Ngoai ra, cac lo khí con tao ra ung suat nen len cac vung khac cua san
pham va bi gia nhiet gay ra cac vet chay tren be mat san pham.




Hình 6.1 - Cac lo khí tren be mat san pham.
6.1.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Anh huong cua su uu tien dong chay.
+ Su khong can bang dong vì san pham co be day khong dong deu.
+ Bo trí he thong thoat khí tren khuon chua tot.







Hình 6.2 - Nguyen nhan gay ra lo khí.
6.1.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.1.2.1. Tren khaon :
+ Thiet ke be day san pham hop ly de tranh hien tuong uu tien va mat can bang
dong chay (xem chuong 2)
+ Can can bang dong tren he thong kenh dan va bo trí he thong thoat khí hop
ly. Ta co the thay doi he thong kenh dan de phan nhua duoc dien day sau cung nam o
vi trí thoat khí thích hop. Neu khí van ton tai trong long khuon thì ta nen them vao mot
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so ti thoat khí de khí thoat ra ngoai de dang hon (xem bo trí he thong thoat khí o
chuong 3).
6.1.2.2. May ep phan :
+ Giam van toc phun vì van toc phun lon se lam cho nhua ban thanh tia va khí
se de dang lan vao. Khi nhua duoc phun voi van toc cham thì khí se co du thoi gian de
thoat ra ngoai.
6.2. San pham bi gion :
San pham sau ep phun de bi ran nut va de gay

Hình 6.3 - San pham bi gay.
6.2.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Vat lieu bi thoai hoa : co the la do van toc phun qua cao, thoi gian giu dai va
nhiet chay cao hoac viec thiet ke truc vít va he thong kenh dan chua hop ly.
+ Ðuong han lam yeu san pham.
+ Vat lieu ket tinh khong tot.
+ Ung suat du trong san pham lon.
+ Vat lieu chua duoc tron tot.
+ Qua nhieu vat lieu nghien lai.
+ Lam kho vat lieu chua tot.
6.2.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.2.2.1. Vat //ea :
+ Lam kho vat lieu truoc khi ep phun.
+ Giam vat lieu nghien lai : can lien he voi nha cung cap vat lieu de biet muc
do dung vat lieu nghien lai.
+ Ðoi vat lieu.
6.2.2.2. Tren khaon : Thiet ke lai cuong phun, kenh dan va mieng phun hop ly
(xem chuong 3).
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6.2.2.3. May ep phan :
+ Thay truc vít vì truc vít thiet ke khong dung khien vat lieu de bi qua nhiet.
+ Thay voi phun nho hon de giam thoi gian giu.
+ Ðieu chính lai nhiet do o khoang chua lieu, voi phun va nhiet chay cua vat
lieu de giam duong han va tranh gay qua nhiet cho vat lieu.
+ Giam ap suat lui, van toc quay cua truc vít hoac van toc phun vì nhiet ma sat
co the gay qua nhiet vat lieu.
6.3. Cac dom chay :
San pham sau ep phun co cac dom chay nho mau den o be mat hoac o phan
nhua duoc dien day sau cung.





Hình 6.4 - Cac dom chay tren san pham.
6.3.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Hien tuong ket khí (bay khí) : xay ra khi van toc va ap suat phun qua cao
khien cho cac bot khí trong he thong kenh dan va long khuon khong the thoat kip ra
ngoai qua he thong thoat khí trong khoang thoi gian dien day rat ngan. Hien tuong ket
khí cung xay ra khi co su uu tien dong chay vì bo trí he thong thoat khí khong hop ly.
Khi do, khí se bi nen boi ap suat va nhiet do cao lam cho nhua bi qua nhiet tao ra cac
dom chay.
+ Vat lieu bi thoai hoa (xem 6.2.1)






Hình 6.5 - Hien tuong ket khí.
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6.3.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.3.2.1. Tren khaon :
+ Loai bo cac bay khí : thiet ke lai he thong thoat khí hoac them cac ti thoat
khí vao khuon.
+ Tranh hien tuong qua nhiet (do nhiet ma sat) gay thoai hoa vat lieu bang
viec thiet ke lai cuong phun, kenh dan va mieng phun hop ly.
6.3.2.2. May ep phan :
+ Giam ap suat phun.
+ Giam van toc phun.
+ Giam van toc quay cua truc vít.
+ Giam nhiet do khoang chua lieu.
+ Kien tra lai cac bang gia nhiet tren khoang chua lien va tren voi phun.
6.4. Vet ran nut :

Hình 6.6 - Vet ran nut tren san pham.
6.4.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Ung suat du cao
+ Nhieu duong han lam yeu san pham.
+ Su co rut theo nhieu huong khac nhau cua nhua khi nguoi.
6.4.2. Cach khac phuc :
+ Tang be day san pham de giam ung suat du.
+ Giam su co rut vat lieu theo nhieu huong (xem chuong 3).
6.5. Choc be mat :
San pham sau ep phun co be mat bi choc len thanh tung lop.
6.5.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Vat lieu chua duoc tron tot.
+ Vat lieu chua nhieu hoi am.
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+ Nhiet nong chay cua nhua trong long khuon thap.
+ Dung nhieu chat thoat khuon trong qua trình ep phun.
+ Cac goc sac o mieng phun va kenh dan.

Hình 6.7 - Cac mang choc tren be mat san pham
6.5.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.5.2.1. Vat //ea :
+ Tranh dung vat lieu ban va chua nhieu vat lieu nghien lai.
+ Loai bo hoi am trong vat lieu (nen nhan loi khuyen tu nha cung cap vat
lieu de co loi khuyen tot nhat khi say kho vat lieu).
+ Nen tranh su dung nhieu chat thoat khuon bang cach dieu chính lai he
thong day.
6.5.2.2. Tren khaon :
+ Lam tron lang cac goc canh cua mieng phun va kenh dan vì neu cac goc
canh sac ben se lam dong nhua long bi tach ra.
6.5.2.3. May ep phan :
+ Tang nhiet do khoang cap lieu va nhiet do khuon de cac phan tu nhua ket
chat vao nhau.
6.6. San pham bi hut :
San pham bi ngan di mot doan ( nhua khong dien day hoan toan).




Hình 6.8 - San pham bi hut.
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6.6.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Khong can bang dong tren he thong kenh dan nen ap phun vao cac long
khuon khac nhau.
+ Vong chan dong (check ring) trong van tu ho bi hu khien nhua duoc phun
khong deu.
+ Thoi gian dinh hình chua du.
+ Vat lieu nghien lai chua duoc tron hoan toan voi vat lieu co ban (vat lieu chua
qua su dung).
+ Vat lieu co do am cao.
6.6.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.6.2.1 Vat //ea :
+ Loai hoi am ra khoi vat lieu bang cach say klho truoc khi gia cong.
+ Giam vat lieu nghien de co duoc qua trình tron tot va nhiet chay cung luc.
+ Ðoi lo vat lieu moi.
6.6.2.2. Tren khaon :
+ Thiet ke lai he thong kenh dan de dam bao can bang dong.
+ Kiem tra lai he thong lam lanh de chac rang nhiet do khuon dong deu.
6.6.2.3. May ep phan :
+ Kiem tra hong hoc cua vong chan dong va cac bang gia nhiet tren khoang cap
lieu.
+ Tang ap suat phun va ap suat dinh hình de cung cap du vat lieu dien day cac
long khuon.
+ Tang thoi gian phun va thoi gian dinh hình (thoi gian bao ap) de vat lieu co du
thoi gian dien day cac long khuon.
6.7. San pham bi doi mau :
6.7.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Thoi gian vat lieu o trong khoang cap lieu qua dai.
+ Nhiet do khoang cap lieu qua cao.
+ Mau cua vat lieu nghien lai khac voi mau cua vat lieu co ban.
+ Truc vít khong phu hop.
+ He thong kenh dan thiet ke chua tot.
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Hình 6.9 - San pham bi doi mau.
6.7.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.7.2.1. Vat //ea :
+ Chac rang vat lieu luon duoc giu sach se.
6.7.2.2. Tren khaon :
+ Thiet ke he thong dan nhua thích hop de giam nhiet ma sat gay qua nhiet
nhua.
+ He thong thoat khí phai phu hop vì khí bi ket se lam tang nhiet gay qua nhiet
nhua.
6.7.2.3. May ep phan :
+ Thay truc vít vì truc vít duoc thiet ke khong dung lam qua trình tron kem va
cung gay qua nhiet nhua.
+ Chon may ep phun khac. Ap luc bom can thiet cho khuon nen bang 20 den
80% cong suat bom cua may.
+ Giam nhiet do o khoang cap lieu va voi phun.
+ Ðam bao pheu cap lieu luon sach se.
6.8. Mat ca :
Mat ca tren be mat san pham la do vat lieu chua nong chay hoan toan bi dey vao
long khuon.

Hình 6.10 - Cac mat ca tren be mat san pham.
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6.8.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Nhiet nong chay thap : nhung vien nhua chua bi nong chay hoan toan hoa vao
dong phun va vao khuon gay cac mac ca.
+ Nhieu vat lieu nghien lai : hình dang va kích thuoc cua vat lieu nghien ong1
hình dang va kích thuoc cua vat lieu co ban nen khí de lan vao khien chung kho hoa
lan vao nhau.
+ Vat lieu chua nhieu chat ban.
+ Toc do quay cau truc vít cham : neu toc do quya cua truc vít va ap hoi duoc cai
dat qua thap thì co kha nang khong tao du nhiet ma sat de lam nong chay hoan toan
vat lieu trong khoang cap lieu.
6.8.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.8.2.1. Vat //ea :
+ Giam vat lieu nghien lai.
+ Cat giu cac vat lieu khac nhau trong cac tui khac nhau de tranh viec chung lan
vao nhau.
6.8.2.2. May ep phan :
+ Tang nhiet khoang cap lieu.
+ Tang ap hoi de hon hop nhua hoa lan vao nhau hoan toan.
+ Tang toc do quay cua truc vít de tang nhiet ma sat.
6.9. Ba via : (hien tuong san pham bi banh trang¨)
Hien tuong san pham bi banh trang¨ xay ra la do mot lop vat lieu mong bi tran
ra ngoai qua mat phan khuon hay o vi trí cac ti day san pham.






Hình 6.11 - San pham bi banh trang¨.
6.9.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Cac tam khuon khong khop voi nhau.
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+ Luc kìm khong du lon de chong lai ap suat trong cac long khuon.
+ nhung vung duoc dinh hình qua muc lam tang ap cuc bo.
+ Ðieu kien ep phun chua tot nhu nhiet do chay deo cua vat lieu va ap suatphun
duoc cai dat qua cao.
+ He thong thoat khí chua phu hop hoac duoc lam qua sau.
6.9.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.9.2.1. Tren khaon :
+ Ðam bao cac tam khuon khop voi nhau hoan toan. Ðat biet la tai mat phan
khuon phai khong co khe ho. Nen dat them cac goi do phu cho tam khuon neu chung
khong du be day de chiu luc.
+ Nen phay hoan toan mat phan khuon de dam bao su dong kín giua khuon duc
va cai.
+ Mat phan khu6on phai sach se truoc khi dua len may ep phun.
+ Kiem tra lai kích thuoc cua he thong thoat khí co phu hop chua ?
6.9.2.2. May ep phan :
+ Tang luc kìm neu may co du luc kìm neu khong phai doi may.
+ Giam nhiet do khoang cap lieu va voi phun de tranh ap phun qua cao lam bung
kìm nhung khong nen giam qua muc.
+ Giam ap phun va ap dinh hình (bao ap) de luc kìm ma ta cai dat du lon.
+ Tang thoi gian phun hoac ha tu tu van toc phun.
6.10. Vet dong chay :
La nhung vet co dang song hình tron tap trung quanh mieng phun.




Hình 6.12 - Cac vet song dong chay tren san pham.
6.10.1. Nguyen nhan :
Nguyen nhan chính la do nhua gan mieng phun bi lanh (dong dac som). Viec
nhua bi dong dac som la do :
+ Nhiet lam chay deo nhua thap.
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+ Nhiet do khuon thap.
+ Toc do phun thap.
+ Ap suat phun thap.
+ Kích thuoc kenh dan va mieng phun nho.








Hình 6.13 - a) Dong chay khong gay gon song.
b) Dong chay gay gon song.
6.10.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.10.2.1 Tren khaon :
+ Thay doi kích thuoc cua duoi nguoi cham tren kenh dan de giu vat lieu lanh trong
suot qua trình dien day. Chieu dai duoi nguoi cham thuong bang duong kính kenh
dan.
+ Tang kích thuoc mieng phun va kenh dan de tranh mieng phun bi dong dac som
trong suot giai doan dinh hình san pham.
+ Giam chieu dai cuong phun hoac thay kenh dan nguoi bang kenh dan nong.
6.10.2.2. May ep phan :
+ Tang ap phun va ap dinh hình.
+ Tang nhiet do khoang cap lieu va voi phun.
Tang nhiet do khuon
6.11. San pham khong duoc dien day hoan toan :




Hình 6.14 - San pham khong dien day hoan toan.
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6.11.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Dong nhua bi han che : do kenh dan bi dong dac hoac thiet ke kenh dan chua
hop ly.



Hình 6.15 - Dong nhua bi han che.
+ Long khuon phuc tap khien dong chay nhua bi nghen




Hình 6.16 - Dong nhua bi nghen.
+ Thoat khí khong tot.

Hình 6.17 - Ap nguoc do khí khong thoat duoc ra ngoai.
+ Nhiet gay chay deo nhua hoac nhiet khuon qua thap.
+ Cong suat may ep phun khong du hoac toc do ram khong phu hop.
+ Mot so bo phan cua may bi hong nhu : pheu, van hoi tu ho (non-return valve)
gay mat ap suat phun hoac ro rí the tích phun.
6.11.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.11.2.1. San pham :
+ Tang be day cua san pham mot chut de dong chay ít bi nghen.
6.11.2.2. Tren khaon :
+ Bo trí mieng phun hop ly de uu tien dong nhua chay qua vung co be day lon
nhat.
+ Tang kích thuoc hoac so mieng phun.
+ Tang kích thuoc kenh dan de giam khang dong.
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+ Ðat cac lo thoat khí o gan noi khong dien day hoac tang so lo thoat khí de giam
ap hoi.
6.11.2.3. May ep phan :
+ Tang ap suat phun nhung khong nen qua muc vì se lam hong he thong thuy luc
cua may. Nen gioi han ap suat phun trong khoang tu 70 den 85% ap suat phun lon
nhat cua may.
+ Tang van toc phun de nhua long con giu du nhiet de dien day hoan toan long
khuon.
+ Tang the tích phun.
+ Tang nhiet khoang cap lieu va/hoac thanh khuon de gia nhiet them cho nhua
long chay vao long khuon.
+ Kiem tra pheu cap lieu de chac rang no luon cap lieu.
+ Kiem tra van hoi tu ho va khoang chua lieu de chac rang chung khong bi mon
hoac bi hong.
6.12. Vet lom va lo trong (bong) :
Vet lom va lo trong xay ra khi co su co rut khong deu giua cac vung vat lieu.


Hình 6.18 - Vet lom va lo trong tren san pham.
6.12.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Nguyen nhan chính gay ra vet lom va lo trong la su co rut vat lieu trong qua
trình lam nguoi. Vì vat lieu co xu huong nguoi tu ngoai vao trong nen su co rut cua
phan vat lieu ben trong se keo phan vat lieu tren be mat san pham lom xuong gay ra
cac vet lom. Neu phan vat lieu o be mat du cung de chong lai luc keo thì hai phan vat
lieu se tach roi nhau gay ra cac lo trong ben trong.
+ San pham co be day khong deu hoac cac vau loi, gan tang cung thiet ke khong
dung thuong gay ra nhung vet lom o mat doi dien.
+ Bu lieu thieu.
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+ Ap suat phun va ap suat dinh hình thap.
+ Thoi gian giu va thoi gian lam nguoi ngan.
+ Nhiet lam chay deo vat lieu va/hoac nhiet khuon duoc cai dat qua cao.
6.12.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.12.2.1 San pham :
+ Giam be day san pham o nhung noi xay ra vet lom va thiet ke cac vau loi cung
nhu gan tang cung hop ly (xem chuong 2)
6.12.2.2. Tren khaon :
+ Tang kích thuoc kenh dan va mieng phun de mieng phun khong bi nguoi som.
+ Them hoac lam lon cac lo thoat khí.
+ Ðat mieng phun hop ly : dam bao huong dong chay tu vung day sang vung
mong.
6.12.2.3. May ep phan :
+ Tang khoang dem (cushion) o cuoi giai doan phun de bu lieu tot. Khoang cach
nay vao khoang 3mm (0.12inches)





Hình 6.19 - Khoang dem.
+ Tang ap phun va thoi gian giu.
+ Tang thoi gian tien cua truc vít va giam toc do phun.
+ Giam nhiet hoa deo va nhiet thanh khuon.
+ Tang thoi gian lam nguoi.
+ Kiem tra van hoi tu ho de dam bao vat lieu khong bi ro ve phía sau.
6.13. San pham bi cong venh :
San pham bi cong venh xay ra khi co su bien doi ung suat ben trong vat lieu do su
co rut gay ra.

http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chaang 6 : Xa /y cac khayet tat tren san pham

151

Hình - 6.20 - San pham bi cong venh.
6.13.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Cac vung tren san pham nguoi khong cung luc nen co do co rut khac nhau tao
ra ap suat trong gay cong venh san pham.





Hình 6.21 - Lop nhua tren va duoi nguoi khac nhau gay cong venh.
6.13.2. Cach khac phuc :
+ Xem xet lai van de lam nguoi san pham (xem chuong 3)
+ Thay doi hình dang hình hoc cua san pham nhu thiet ke lai be day, gan tang
cung va cac vau loi. Bo trí mieng phun dam bao dong chay theo cung mot huong.
6.14. Nhung vet ban va vet soc den :

Hình 6.22 - Cac vet ban va soc den tren be mat san pham.
6.14.1 Nguyen nhan :
+ Vat lieu bi thoai hoa do qua nhiet.
+ Vat lieu bi ban.
6.14.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.14.2.1. Vat //ea :
+ Khong tai su dung vat lieu cua san pham bi cac vet ban va soc den.
http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chaang 6 : Xa /y cac khayet tat tren san pham

152
+ Giu vat lieu luon sach se. Nen bao quan vat lieu trong cac tui rieng de tranh lan
cac tap chat.
6.14.2.2. Tren khaon :
+ Lam sach he thong truot va day tren khuon vì dau boi tron co the lan vao san
pham.
+ Lam nhan bong he thong kenh dan de tranh chat ban bam vao.
+ Ve sinh khuon truoc khi dem ep phun.
6.14.2.3. May ep phan :
+ Chon may ep co cong suat thích hop (cong suat can thiet bang 20-80% cong
suat may).
+ Ve sinh may truoc khi ep phun.
+ Giam nhiet do khoang cap lieu va voi phun de tranh gay qua nhiet vat lieu.
6.15. Su tao duoi :
Su tao duoi xay ra khi nhua long duoc phun voi toc do cao qua nhung vung bi gioi
han nhu : voi phun, kenh dan, mieng phun vao nhung vung rong hon (long khuon).







Hình 6.23 - Su tao duoi.
6.15.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Toc do ram lon.
+ Vi trí mieng phun khong tot.
+ Kenh dan nong khong thích hop.
6.15.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.15.2.1. Tren khaon :
+ Dung mieng phun kieu goi hoac ngam de dong chay nhua toa ra khap long
khuon.
http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chaang 6 : Xa /y cac khayet tat tren san pham

153

Hình 6.24 - Dung mieng phun kieu goi khac phuc su tao duoi.
+ Dung mieng phun kieu bang hoac kieu quat de co dong chay em re ra khap long
khuon. Cach nay giup giam ung suat truot.

Hình 6.25 - Mieng phun kieu bang va kieu quat giup nhua lan toa tot.
6.15.2.2. May ep phan :
+ Nen dieu chính toc do ram theo bieu do sau :

Hình 6.26 - Bieu do dieu chính toc do ram.
6.16. Duong han hay duong noi : (thuong duoc goi chung la duong han).
Trong long khuon, khi cac dong nhua chay theo cac huong khac nhau gap nhau thì
chính tai vi trí gap nhau ay thuong hình thanh nen duong han hay duong noi. Ca duong
han va duong noi deu lam cho san pham sau ep phun bi yeu, de gay.

http://www.ebook.edu.vn Chaang 6 : Xa /y cac khayet tat tren san pham

154

a) b)
Hình 6.27 - a) Ðuong noi ; b) Ðuong han.
6.16.1. Nguyen nhan :
+ Vi trí mieng phun chua tot.
+ Be day san pham khong hop ly.
6.16.2. Cach khac phuc :
6.16.2.1. Tren khaon ra san pham :
+ Ðoi vi trí mieng phun.
+ Thiet ke be day san pham hop ly.
6.16.2.2. May ep phan :
+ Tang do khuon va nhiet chay deo. Thong thuong duong han se tot neu nhiet
chay deo khong thap hon 20
0
C so voi nhiet do phun.
+ Tang toc do ram.
Tong ket :
Tat ca cac loi khuyen de khac phuc cac khuyet tat cua san pham chí dat hieu
qua khi nguoi dung may ep phun co kinh nghiem. Neu nguoi dung may ep phun
khong co du kinh nghiem thì khi khac phuc khuyet tat nay se de dan den cac khuyet
tat khac.


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