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Được xuất bản bởiNguyễn Nam

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Published by: Nguyễn Nam on Nov 17, 2012
Bản quyền:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/17/2012

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TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC CÔNG NGHIỆP THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH

KHOA CÔNG NGHỆ HÓA HỌC
TIỂU LUẬN MÔN HỌC
TỔNG HỢP HỮU CƠ
ĐỀ TÀI: CÔNG NGHỆ O – ALKL H!A "#N $U%T &"T&
'()* H+, - ./00
.
NHẬN XÉT CỦA GIẢNG VIÊN
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
Phần Đnh G!:
2 3 4567 4587 5(9*:
2 N:( ;<*= 4587 5(9*:
2 H>*5 4567 4?>*5 @AB:
2 TC*= 5DE FG4 H<I:
2 Đ(JK @L*= MN: Đ(JK @L*= 75O:
Biên Hòa, ngày tháng năm 2011.
G(I*= P()* HQR*= ST*

U
"#I $% Đ&U
T?)* 45G =(R( 5(9* *,BV W(97 MI* X<Y4 7Z7 75Y4 5O< 7[ \] X<Y4 5(9* 4^ ?Y4 _`<V
*5Q*= \a< 4()* *b ;8, 4?)* M8 75G @(G* *=<B)* _(9< \:*= Wc4 5,B 4587 Wc4 *5Q W(97
4Z75 7Z7 75Y4 7b =(Z 4?d e\Qf*=V ;a< @ghi 5,B 7Z7 MI* E5jK E5`* =(I( 7k, 75l*= eXA
E5+*=V 7m* ni1 TC*= 5DE 5O< 7[ \J 45< \QD7 *5O*= 75Y4 E567 4oE 4^ *5O*= 75Y4
4Q[*= \N( \[* =(I* 5[* ?, \f( 4^ =(O, 45G Fp 456 0q 4?)* 7[ Mr 7Z7 MI* E5jK \m*=
5A*5 7b 756, 7Z7 5DE 75Y4 45[K 7k, M8 7N7 5b, 45,* \Z1
",< \bV WAh 45G Fp ./ ;a< Ks WA F5t \N4 45()* *5()* *=AB 7A*= \b*= W,( 4?+
H<,* 4?u*= _A *=<m* *=<B)* _(9< 5O< 7[ *5f W(97 F5,( 45Z7V Wc* 75<BJ* WA 75G
@(G* 75l*= ?v 5[* 45,* \Z1
Nb( 75<*=V 7w*= *=59 4C*= 5DE 7Z7 5DE 75Y4 5O< 7[ @,h =mK 4hA* @: 7Z7
E5I* 6*= 5b, 5u7 ;x*= \J 4C*= 5DE ?, 7Z7 5DE 75Y4 4?<*= =(,* 7y*= *5Q 7Z7 MI*
E5jK 7<N( 7x*= 7k, *=A*5 7w*= *=5(9E 4C*= 5DE 5O< 7[1 Nb =mK 7Z7 H<Z 4?>*5
5>*5 45A*5 *5bK 45G WA @(G* \C( *5bK 45G1 PR( 7Z7 H<Z 4?>*5 *AB 7b 45J \Q, WAh
7Z7 5DE 75Y4 5O< 7[ *5O*= *5bK 7567 e*(4?hV M<*zhV 5,_h={*hV ,XB_V ,*FB_V ,K(*hV
;(,|h*(V ,|hV {M4{V 5B;?hXBV hXh ni1
T?h*= E5oK W( @A( 4(J< _<c* 7k, 75l*= {KV 75l*= 4, 5]B 7x*= 4>K 5(J< W} 7Z7
H<Z 4?>*5 A_FB_ 5b,V \~7 @(94 _A H<Z 4?>*5 O – A_FB_ 5b,1 A_FB_ 5b, _A 7Z7 H<Z 4?>*5
\Q, 7Z7 *5bK A_FB_ WAh E5`* 4• 7Z7 75Y4 5O< 7[ 5h~7 Ww 7[1 CZ7 E5I* 6*= A_FB_
5b, 7b =(Z 4?d 4587 4G 7,h 4?h*= W(97 \Q, 7Z7 *5bK A_FB_ WAh 5DE 75Y4 45[KV
(MhE,?,z(*V K{?7,E4,*V M<_z(;V ,K(*V 7Z7 5DE 75Y4 756, _()* FG4 {4{ n *=hA( ?, H<Z
4?>*5 A_FB_ 5b, _A *5O*= =(,( \ho* 4?<*= =(,* 4?h*= MI* X<Y4 7Z7 Kh*hK{V 7Z7 75Y4
4jB ?•, n T?)* 45G =(R( K:4 MN MI* E5jK 7k, H<Z 4?>*5 A_FB_ 5b, \QD7 MI* X<Y4
WR( H<B Kw F5Z _R*1 Pt ;€ r M• 5L*= *‚K *=Qf( 4, MI* X<Y4 F5hI*= ƒ 4?(9< 4Y*
{4B_@{*|{*V 0V„ 4?(9< 4Y* (|hE?hEB_ @{*|{*V /Vƒ 4?(9< 4Y* ,_FB_ @{*|{* 5[* ƒ 4?(9<
ƒ
4Y* =_B7h_ WA 7Z7 MI* E5jK 75G @(G* ,_FB_{*hX(;V F5hI*= U/ 4?(9< 4Y* (|hE,?,z(*
,_FB_,4V F5hI*= 0 4?(9< 4Y* 4{? – @<4B_{M4{ n

$'C "'C
CH(ƠNG )* CƠ +% ", THU-.T ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////0
)/)/)/ Kh! n!12* //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////0
)/)/3/ Ph4n 567! 88 9h:n ;n< =5>?5 h@=* //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////0
)/)/A/C8 B8 nh4n =5>?5 h@=* //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////C
)/)/D/ XE8 B8 BF6n< 9h:n ;n< =n>?5 h@=*//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////G
)/)/H/ C8 ?IJ BK :nh hLMn< NIn OJ BFPnh =5>?5 h@=* ///////////////////////////////////////////////////)Q
)/)/R/ G!S! Bh!1J TU 9h:n ;n< O V=5>?5 h@=* ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)Q
=/ OW =5>?5 h@= XYn< 88 Z[n \J]B C56* ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)Q
X/ OW =5>?5 h@= XYn< 65^_!n* //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////))
)/3/ H@= h`8 Ta 5b BhJ?IB 8c= de ^dB^F h@=*//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)3
)/3/)/ Ph:n ;n< ^dB^F h@= 8c= =\!B hfJ 8gh =\!B Ti 8g TS! FLjJ*////////////////////////////////////)3
)/3/3/ Đ!UJ >!1n 9h:n ;n< Ta \E8 B8*///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)A
)/3/A/ Cg 8hI 9h:n ;n< OW=n>?5 h@= B76 ^dB^F*////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)H
ChLgn< 3* CÔNG NGHỆ k+Tk HÓA V +ẢN XUlT kT-" AXkTAT///////////////////////)0
3/)/ Cin< n<h1 ^dB^ h@=*/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)0
3/3/ mJ! Bn8 8hJn< B!In hanh 9h:n ;n< ^dB^*////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)0
3/A/ +:n \J]B ^B?5=8^B=B*/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)C
3/A/)/ PhLgn< BFPnh 9h:n ;n<*//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////)C
3/A/3/ Đo8 BFLn< 8c= 88 n<J?pn 5!1J Ta Bhanh 9hq2*////////////////////////////////////////////////////)G
K.T "UẬN/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////3)
TrI "IỆU THA$ KHẢO/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////33

CH(ƠNG )* CƠ +% ", THU-.T
)/)/ Cg dM 5s BhJ?IB TU OJ BFPnh =5>?5 h@=*
)/)/)/ Kh! n!12*
A_FB_ 5b, _A H<Z 4?>*5 \Q, 7Z7 *5bK ,_FB_ WAh E5`* 4• 7Z7 *5bK 5O< 7[ 5h~7
Ww 7[1
CZ7 E5I* 6*= ,_FB_ 5b, 7b =(Z 4?d 4587 4G 7,h 4?h*= W(97 \Q, 7Z7 *5bK ,_FB_
WAh 5DE 75Y4 45[K † *=hA( ?, H<Z 4?>*5 ,_FB_ 5b, _A *5O*= =(,( \ho* 4?<*= =(,*
4?h*= MI* X<Y4 7Z7 Kh*hK{ V 7Z7 75Y4 4jB ?•, n
)/)/3/ Ph4n 567! 88 9h:n ;n< =5>?5 h@=*
C-,_FB_ 5b, : _A 45G *=<B)* 4• 5(;?h *N( WR( 7,7@h* @L*= *5bK ,_FB_ 1"I*
E5jK _A 5DE 75Y4 7b MN *=<B)* 4• 7,7@h* 7k, Ko75 7,7@h* 4‚*= _)* 1 Đ~7 4?Q*= _A
E5I* 6*= ,_FB_ 5b, W+*= 45[K e E5I* 6*= ‡?(;{_ – C?,z4M i:
C
*
H
.*2.
2 C
K
H
.K
C
*2K
C
*2K
H
.e*2K20i
O-,_FB_ 5b, : _A 7Z7 E5I* 6*= ;T* \G* 4oh 45A*5 _()* FG4 =(O, *5bK ,_FB_ WA
*=<B)* 4• hXB 1 "I* E5jK 7k, E5I* 6*= _A 7Z7 {4{ V {M4{? 4xB 45<:7 WAh ,_FB_ 5b,
7m* 5,B ,X(4 :

.
R OH R OH R OR H O ′ ′ − + − → − +

.
R ONa R X R OR Na X
R COOH R OH R COOR H O
R COONa R X R COOR NaX
′ ′ − + → − + −
′ ′ − + → − +
′ ′ − + → − +
N-,_FB_ 5b, : _A M8 45G 7Z7 *=<B)* 4• 5(;?h 4?h*= ,Kh*(,7 5h~7 4?h*= ,K(*
@L*= 7Z7 *5bK ,_FB_ 1 "I* E5jK 7k, E5I* 6*= _A 7Z7 ,K(* :
ROH 2 NH
U

RNH
.
2 H
.
O
"-,_FB_ 5b, : _A 7Z7 E5I* 6*= ;T* \G* 4oh 45A*5 _()* FG4 =(O, *5bK ,_FB_ WA
*=<B)* 4• _Q< 5<ˆ*5 1 "I* E5jK 7k, E5I* 6*= _A 45(h{4{:
R-$ 2 N,"H

R"H 2 N,C_

)/)/A/C8 B8 nh4n =5>?5 h@=*
C8 B8 nh4n =5>?5 h@= 8@ Bht 8h!= 5a2 X= nh@2 *
CZ7 5DE 75Y4 F5w*= *h e h_{z(* WA ,X{4(_{* i V 4?h*= \b MŠ E5Z W‹ 7Z7 _()* FG4 Œ
7k, 7Z7 *=<B)* 4• 7,7@h* 1
ST* X<Y4 C_h WR( 7Z7 *=<B)* 4• C_h _(*5 \:*= 7b F5I *‚*= 45G ;QR( I*5
5Qr*= 7k, 7Z7 4Z7 *5`* F5Z7 *5,< 1
RQD< V {4{ V {M4{? V hXB4 h_{z(* _A 7Z7 4Z7 *5`* KA 4?h*= H<Z 4?>*5 ,_FB_ 5b,
_()* FG4 7,7@h* WZ hXB MŠ @d E5Z W‹ 1
M:4 MN _ho( 4Z7 *5`* ,_FB_ 5b, 7[ @I* :
C8 =n865 uvWOHw : 45Qf*= ;x*= *5Y4 _A {4,*h_ WA K{4,*h_ 1 K5( M• ;€*= 7m*
_AK 75Y4 ,_FB_ 5b, 45> _<w* _<w* E5I( M• ;€*= 75Y4 Xl7 4Z7 e 45Qf*= _A 7Z7 ,X(4 Ww
7[ i 1A*7h_ 45Qf*= ;x*= \J ,_FB_ 5b, 7Z7 ,K(* 5h~7 K:4 ,*7h_ F5Z7 1 "I* E5jK _A
7Z7 ,K(* 5h~7 {4{ 1
C8 =5>?5 h=56<^nJ= uvWXw : CZ7 ,_FB_ 5,_h={*<, 7b Ko75 7,7@h* *=•* eC Ž
0•Ui _A *5O*= 75Y4 _s*= 7b \: Mw( 45YE 1 CZ7 4Z7 *5`* ,_FB_ 5,_h={*<, 5,B \QD7 M•
;€*= \J ,_FB_ 5b, 7Z7 ,K(* 45A*5 ,K(* @c7 7,h 5[* 1
C8 =F=>?5 h=56<^nJ= uAFWuCH3wnWXw : 75Y4 5,B \QD7 M• ;€*= *5Y4 4?h*=
*5bK *AB _A @{*|B_ 7_h?<, 5h~7 @{*|B_ @?hK<, 1Nb 45Qf*= \QD7 ;x*= \J \Q, WAh
WA @Ih W9 *5bK OH 7k, \Qf*= 5h~7 X{*_<_h|, 1
C8 ^dB^F 8c= =\!B Ti 8g 8h;= 6\? : @,h =mK 7Z7 ,_FB_ M<*z,4 V ,_FB_ *(4?,4 V
,_FB_ E5h4E5,4 V ;(,_FB_ M<*z,4 V ;(,_FB_ 7,7@h*,4 1 CZ7 75Y4 5,B \QD7 M• ;€*= *5Y4
_A ;(K{4B_ M<*z,4 1 C5Y4 *AB 45Qf*= \QD7 ;x*= \J ,_FB_ 5b, 7Z7 OH 7k, E5{*h_
4?h*= Kw( 4?Qf*= F(}K V *QR7 V 45cK 75t 7I 4?h*= Kw( 4?Qf*= ,X(41
C8 ^dB^F 8c= =\!B dJn_6n!8 : T?h*= MN 7Z7 {M4{? 5O< 7[ 7k, ,X(4 M<*zh*(7 45>
7Z7 M<*zh*,4 45[K 7b • *=5‘, M• ;€*= 4?h*= 4587 4G \J _AK 4Z7 *5`* ,_FB_ 5b, 1Đ~7
@(94 _A K{4B_ WA @{*|B_ @{*|{*M<*zh*,4 5h~7 E-4h_<{* M<*zh*,4 1CZ7 4Z7 *5`* *AB

\QD7 M• ;€*= \J ,_FB_ 5b, OH E5{*h_ 4?h*= Kw( 4?Qf*= F(}K 5h~7 NH 7k, ,K(*
7b K~4 75Y4 F(}K 5YE 45€ ,X(4 1
N=hA( ?, K{4B_ {M4{? 7k, @{*|{*M<*zh*(7 5h~7 E-4h_<{* M<*zh*(7 7+* \QD7 M•
;€*= \J \(}< 75G 7Z7 K<N( 45<:7 *5bK 4{4?, ,_FB_ ,K(*h 7k, 75l*= e 7Z7 ,K(* @c7
ƒ i1
C8 hj9 8h]B 2JK! Xx8 D 8c= =2!n : ĐQD7 M• ;€*= *5(}< 5[* 7I _A E5{*B_ –
4?(K{4B_ – ,Kh*( 7_h?<, 1 Đ`B _A 4Z7 *5`* K{4B_ 5b, 75u* _u7 : 4?h*= Kw( 4?Qf*=
F(}K *b 75“ K{4B_ 5b, \QD7 OH E5{*h_ KA F5w*= E5I* 6*= WR( ,K(* @c7 U 5h~7
OH ,*7h_ V W> WcB *b( \QD7 M• ;€*= \~7 5(9< \J K{4B_ 5b, Kh?E5(* 45A*5 7h;{(* 1
C8 B8 nh4n =5>?5 h@= >h8 : 7€ 45J _A {EhXBV *b \QD7 M• ;€*= \J \(}< 75G
7Z7 Eh_B{4{ ,*7h_ ” 75Y4 7b 4Z7 ;€*= _AK =(IK M67 7‚*= @} K~4 1TZ7 *5`* 5,B \QD7
M• ;€*= _A {4B_{*hX(4 1
)/)/D/ XE8 B8 BF6n< 9h:n ;n< =n>?5 h@=*
$l7 4Z7 45Qf*= M• ;€*= 4?h*= E5I* 6*= ,*FB_ 5b, _A ,7(; Ww 7[V4()< @(J<
45Qf*= ;x*= H
.
"O
ƒ
1Đ~7 @(94 _A 4?h*= E5I* 6*= 7b ,*7h_ _AK 4Z7 *5`* ,*FB_ 5b,
1SQR( 4Z7 ;€*= 7k, ,7(; Xl7 4Z7 V,7(; MŠ 75h \( E?h4h* 1N5bK OH MŠ *5c* E?h4h*
WA 5>*5 45A*5 *)* (h* 7,7@hX(*( V4(GE 45{h (h* *AB F5• *QR7 4oh 7,4(h* ,XB_( VE5`*
4• ,*7h_ =•* WAh ,XB_ (h* 4oh 45A*5 {M4{? \QD7 E?h4h* 5b, VM,< \b E?h4h* \QD7 4Z(
4oh WA {M4{? 5>*5 45A*51
q
R-CH
.
- OH 2
CH
.
- CH
.
O
R - CH
.
- O -CH
.
- CH
.
- OH
CH
.
-CH
.
O
R-CH
.
- O - CH
.
- CH
.
-O - CH
.
-CH
.
- OH
)/)/H/ C8 ?IJ BK :nh hLMn< NIn OJ BFPnh =5>?5 h@=*
Bao gồm
- Nồng độ của cht tham gia !h"n #ng.
Nm*= \: 7Z7 75Y4 45,K =(, E5I* 6*= 7b 4Z7 ;€*= _R* \G* H<Z 4?>*5 ,_FB_ 5b, 1
"• ;€*= 45^, 4Z7 *5`* ,_FB_ 5b, 45Qf*= 7y*= _AK 4‚*= 5(9< M<Y4 7k, H<Z 4?>*5 *AB1
Đ, MN 7Z7 E5I* 6*= ,_FB_ 5b, _A E5I* 6*= 4s, *5(94 V WA *5(94 \: E5I* 6*=
7A*= 4‚*= _)* 45> 4N7 \: E5I* 6*= 7y*= 4‚*= 45{h 1 TZ7 *5`* ,_FB_ 5b, _A 7Z7 ,*7h_
45> E5I* 6*= \QD7 4587 5(9* r *5(94 \: 7,h 5[* Mh WR( ;x*= 4Z7 *5`* ,FB_ 5b, _A
,_FB_ M<*z,4 1
- Nhi$t độ.
N5(94 \: E5I* 6*= ;,h \:*= *5(94 4^ *5(94 \: E5+*= eU/
/
Ci _)* 4R( .//
/
C eWt
;€ K{4B_ 5b, ,*(_(* 45A*5 ;(K{4B_ ,*(_(* @L*= K{4,*h_ r F5hI*=
.//
/
C i1 T587 5(9* ,_FB_ 5b, r E5, F5t 45> 7b _l7 *5(94 \: _)* 4R( ƒ//
/
C 1
A_FB_ 5b, WR( 4Z7 *5`* _A ,*7h_ 5h~7 ,_FB_ 5,_h={*<, 45Qf*= \QD7 4587 5(9*
r ZE M<Y4 WA *5(94 \: 7,h 7b _l7 4R( U‰•ƒ/,4K WA *5(94 \: .//
/
C1
Pt ;€ ,_FB_ 5b, ,*(_(* @L*= K{4,*h_ \J \QD7 ;(K{4B_ ,*(_(* 4587 5(9* r ZE
M<Y4 U‰•ƒ/,4K WA *5(94 \: .//
/
C 1
- %! &'t.
)/)/R/ G!S! Bh!1J TU 9h:n ;n< O V=5>?5 h@=*
=/ OW =5>?5 h@= XYn< 88 Z[n \J]B C56*
CZ7 ;j* X<Y4 C_h 4Z7 ;€*= WR( ?QD< WR( Wc* 4N7 *5s WA \`B _A E5I* 6*= 45<c*
*=5d75 1;h \J 4‚*= Wc* 4N7 V *=Qf( 4, 4(G* 5A*5 E5I* 6*= WR( M8 7b K~4 ;<*= ;d75
F(}K \J \Q, ?QD< WA E5{*h_ W} ;o*= ,*7h_,4 WA E5{*h_,4 7b F5I *‚*= E5I* 6*=
7,h 5[* :

R-OH 2 N,OH
RON, 2 H
.
O
C`* @L*= 7k, E5I* 6*= *AB ;d75 75<BJ* 7A*= *5(}< W} @)* E5I( *G< *5bK
5(;?hXB_ 7b \: ,X(4 7A*= Ko*5 eE5{*h_ • =_B7h_ • ?QD< \[* 7567 i WA *G< *m*= \:
0/
*QR7 7A*= 45YE 1Sh M8 7b K~4 7k, 7Z7 (h* OH

45l7 \jB E5I* 6*= E5€ _A 45kB
E5`* 7Z7 ;T* X<Y4 C_h :

ROH 2 C_
-
2 OH
-
RC_
ROR 2C_
-
2RO
-
Sh \b \J 4‚*= 4t*5 _8, 75u* 7a* E5I( 7b _QD*= ;Q *5bK 5(;?hXB_ @,* \a< Mh
WR( F(}K WA E5I( 5o* 75G _QD*= *QR7 4?h*= 5–* 5DE 1T5cK 75t 4?h*= 4?Qf*= 5DE M•
;€*= E5{*h_ 7b 4t*5 ,X(4 7,h e =a* *5Q 4oh E5{*h_,4 WR( F(}K WR( 5(9< M<Y4 _t
45<BG4i M8 7b K~4 7k, 5–* 5DE E5{*h_ 48 ;h MŠ 4‚*= \Z*= FJ 5(9< M<Y4 MI* E5jK
75t*5 1 P} 7[ 75G V H<Z 4?>*5 *AB 4Q[*= 48 *5Q 45kB E5`* F(}K WA 7Z7 ;T* X<Y4 C_h
WA \QD7 XGE WAh _ho( 45G Z( *5`* XIB ?, 45{h @c7 5,( :

RC_ 2 RO
-
C_111R111OR
δ- δ-
ROR
2 C_
-
NG< 7Y< 4oh 7k, ;T* X<Y4 7_h E5x 5DE MŠ XIB ?, E5I* 6*= Mh*= Mh*= _A HC_1
TC*= 5DE 7Z7 {4{ 4^ ;T* X<Y4 C_h \QD7 M• ;€*= WR( *5(}< 75Y4 V WA Wc* 4N7 E5I*
6*= E5€ 45<:7 WAh 4t*5 Z( *5`* 7k, ,*7h_,4 e5h~7 E5{*h_,4i 7y*= *5Q WAh 5ho4 4t*5
7k, ;T* X<Y4 C_h1
X/ OW =5>?5 h@= XYn< 65^_!n*
P5I* 6*= 45{h _()* FG4 ,_FB_ –hXB WA 4C*= 5DE {M4{? 4?87 4(GE 4^ h_{z(* 1CZ7
E5I* 6*= *AB 45Qf*= XIB ?, WR( M8 4oh 45A*5 5DE 75Y4 4?<*= =(,* : (h* 7,7@h*( V ;h
WcB BG< 4N 4‚*= M8 @}* 5b, (h* *AB MŠ 45l7 \jB E5I* 6*= 1N=hA( ?, M8 I*5 5Qr*=
7Y< 4oh 7k, ?QD< WA 7k, 4Z7 *5`* ,X(4 7y*= 4Q[*= 48 *5Q 4?Qf*= 5DE {M4{? 5b, @>*5
45Qf*= 1 Sh WcB K:4 WA( {M4{? V \~7 @(94 _A {M4{? 7k, ,X(4 M<*z<?(7 WA ,?(_M<_zh*(7 _A
*5O*= 4Z7 *5`* ,_FB_ 5b, 45w*= ;€*= 1
T?h*= 4?Qf*= 5DE ,X(4 7,7@h*XB_ V 7Z7 4t*5 75Y4 4Q[*= 48 45J 5(9* ?—:

A?"O
.
OR A?"O
.
OH 2 ROR
2ROH
7+* 7Z7 {M4{? 45Qf*= _A MI* E5jK E5€ 7k, H<Z 4?>*5 *AB 1
00
&M4{? 7k, ?QD< @, 7567 KA 4?h*= H<Z 4?>*5 4C*= 5DE WA @(G* \C( 75l*= MŠ M(*5
?, 7Z7 (Mh h_{z(* *5Q _A MI* E5jK E5€ :
RCOO-CeCH
U
i
U
RCOO-CeCH
U
i
U
eCH
U
i
U
C eCH
U
i
.
C Ž CH
.
2H -RCOOH
-H
2 2
2 H 2
CZ7 E5I* 6*= *=QD7 7k, H<Z 4?>*5 *IB 75t*5 _A 7[ Mr 7k, M8 4C*= 5DE 4?87
4(GE {M4{? 4^ ,X(4 7,7@h*XB_ WA h_{z(* 1P5I* 6*= 4s, *5(94 WA 45<c* *=5d75 WA 7Z7
45w*= Mh *5(94 \:*= 5u7 7k, *b 7b 45J 4t*5 \QD7 45{h 4?>*5 48 7Z7 =(,( \ho* 7:*=
5DE *QR7 7k, h_{z(* WA {M4{? 5b, ?QD<
RCH Ž CH
.
RCHOH - CH
U
RCOO - CHR - CH
U
2H
.
O 2RCOOH
HL*= Mh 7`* @L*= 7k, H<Z 4?>*5 MŠ @L*= 4t75 Mh 5L*= Mh 7`* @L*= 7Z7 E5I*
6*= 5DE *QR7 WA {M4{? 5b, 1 ˜ 7Z7 \(}< F(9* =(N*= *5,< =(Z 4?d 5L*= Mh 7`* @L*=
\N( WR( (Mh h_{z(* WA ;h \b \N( WR( {M4{? @, 7567 _A *5s *5Y4 1M~4 F5Z7 V F5I *‚*=
E5I* 6*= 7k, h_{z(* E5€ 45<:7 WAh \: @}* 7k, 7Z7 (h* V (h* 7,7@h*( WA 45,B \C(
45{h ;]B M,< :
eCH
U
i
.
C Ž CH
.
• CH
U
– CH Ž CH
.
• CH
.
Ž CH
.
Sh {4B_{* 7b F5I *‚*= E5I* 6*= 45YE *)* \+( 5s( *5(94 \: ?Y4 7,h 1
)/3/ H@= h`8 Ta 5b BhJ?IB 8c= de ^dB^F h@=*
P5I* 6*= {M4{? 5b, _A 7Z7 E5I* 6*= 4oh ?, 7Z7 _()* FG4 {M4{?1 N5Q*= r ;`B
75l*= 4, 75“ *=5()* 76< E5I* 6*= {M4{? 5b, 7k, ,X(4V ,*5B;?(4{ WA 7_h,*5B;?(7 WR(
7Z7 ?QD< WA h_{z(*1
)/3/)/ Ph:n ;n< ^dB^F h@= 8c= =\!B hfJ 8gh =\!B Ti 8g TS! FLjJ*
Đ`B _A E5I* 6*= H<,* 4?u*= *5Y4:
RCOOH 2 R™COOH š RCOOR™ 2 H
.
O1
T?Qf*= 5DE 7Z7 ?QD< _Q‹*= 7567 WA ,X(4 _<‹*= 7567 5>*5 45A*5 *5(}< _ho(
{M4{? F5Z7 *5,< E5€ 45<:7 WAh 4“ _9 Kh_ @,* \a<
0.
HCOOC-R™-COOH › COOC-R™COOR › RCOOC-R™-COOR
CH
2
OH
CHOH
CH
2
OH
2RCOOH
CH
2
OCOR
CHOH
CH
2
OH
2RCOOH
CH
2
OCOR
CHOH
CH
2
OC
OR
CH
2
OCOR
CHOCOR
CH
2
OCOR
2RCOOH
K5( ?QD< WA ,X(4 \}< _A 5DE 5Y4 _Q‹*= 7567 45> MŠ 5>*5 45A*5 5DE 75Y4 7,h
E5`* 4•:
.
*
-*H O
*HOOC-R-COOH2*HO-R-OH œ-HOOC-R•-COO-R-O-ž


ĐN( WR( 7Z7 ,X(4 Ww 7[ *5Q
. U U ƒ
H CO VH PO
E5I* 6*= WR( ?QD< F5w*= ;T* \G*
FG4 Hk, Kh*= K<N* W> WcB \J 45< \Q[7 7Z7 {M4{? 7k, 7Z7 ,X(4 *ˆ 4, E5I( M• ;€*=
;o*= ,*5B;?(7:
. U U .
COC_ 2CH OH COeOCH i 2HC_ →
Cb 45J 45,B 45G 7Z7 ,*5B;?(7 45,B 45G 75h 7Z7 7_h,*5B;?(71 P5I* 6*= ;(Ÿ* ?,
45{h 5,( =(,( \ho* :
2ROH
U U U U .
eCH COiO2ROH CH -COOR2CH COOH .CH -COOR2H O →


P} 5ho4 4t*5 5b, 5u7 7k, 7Z7 4Z7 *5`* {M4{ 5b, *)< 4?)* 7b 45J M•E XGE 45{h
;]B M,h \`B
RCOC_ • eRCOi
.
O • RCOOH
Ga* \`B *=Qf( 4, M• ;€*= E5Q[*= E5ZE 7Z7 {M4{ 5b, 4?87 4(GE AX(4 C,@h*B_
@L*= 7Z7 h_{z(* F5w*= H<, =(,( \ho* 5DE *QR7 7k, 7Z7 h_{z(* \J 4oh 45A*5 ?QD<1
)/3/3/ Đ!UJ >!1n 9h:n ;n< Ta \E8 B8*
CZ7 E5I* 6*= {M4{ 5b, \(}< _A E5I* 6*= 45<c* *=5d751 "8 {M4{ 7Z7 ?QD< @L*=
AX(4 C,@h*B_ 7b 45J 4(G* 5A*5 F5w*= 7a* X<7 4Z7 *5Q*= XIB ?, 4Q[*= \N( 75cK \J
0U
\o4 \QD7 Wc* 4N7 4Q[*= \N( 45> 7a* *5(94 \: 7,h .//U//
/
C1T<B *5()* 7b K:4 MN
E5I* 6*= {M4{ F5w*= 7a* E5I( M• ;€*= Xl7 4Z7 @r( W> M8 7b K~4 Xl7 4Z7 _AK 75Y4
_QD*= MA* E5jK FgK
T?h*= E5, _s*= H<Z 4?>*5 {M4{ 5b, M• ;€*= Xl7 4Z7 ,X(4
eH
.
"O
ƒ
VHC_VA?B_M<_zh*(7V*58, 4?,h \C( (h*VViVK5( \b E5I* 6*= XIB ?, r *5(94 \:
‰/0…/
/
C1
T?h*= E5, F5t M• ;€*= Xl7 4Z7 ;d 45J *5Q A_
.
O
U
VA_<KhM(_(7,4 E5h4ME5,4n
P5I* 6*= {M4{ 5b, 7k, ,*7h_ WR( AX(47,7@h*B_ 4?h*= E5, _s*= XIB ?, ;a* *5Q
F5w*= 7b M8 5YE 45< 5,B 4b, *5(94 e 5(9< 6*= *5(94 Ž / i1G(N*= *5Q WcB 5L*= MN
7k, E5I* 6*= *AB F5w*= E5€ 45<:7 WAh *5(94 \:1C+* 7Z7 E5I* 6*= {M4{ 5b, ?QD<
@L*= ,*5B;?(7 WA 7_h,*5B;?(7 _A 7Z7 H<Z 4?>*5 4s, *5(941
T?o*= 45Z( 7`* @L*= 7k, E5I* 6*= AX(4 C,7@hXB_ WR( ?QD<
.
œ •žVœ ž
œ ž1œ • ž
c
RCOOR H O
(
RCOOH R OH
=
HL*= MN 7`K @L*= K7 E5€ 45<:7 WAh 7Y< 4oh ,X(4 WA 7Y< 4oh ?QD<1NG< 7Z7
Ko75 7,7@h* 4?h*= E5`* 4• ?QD< 4‚*= Mv _AK =(IK 5AK MN 7`* @L*=1HL*= MN 7`*
@L*= \QD7 XGE 45{h 456 48 4‚*= ;a*:
RQD< @c7 *5Y4 *h Ko75 45*=• ?QD< @c7 . *h WA ?QD< ,__(_ WA @{*|(_ • ?QD<
@c7 U WA E5{*h_1
CZ7 7Y< 4oh 7k, ,X(4 7,7@hXB_(7 t4 I*5 5<r*= \g* 7`* @L*= E5I* 6*= {M4{? 5b,
\[* WA M8 I*5 5Qr*= *AB *=QD7 75(}< WR( ?QD<1 K5( 4‚*= 75(}< ;A( WA MQ E5`*
*5Z*5 7k, Ko75 7,7@h* 4?h*= E5`* 4• ,X(4 45> 5L*= Mw 7`* @L*= 7b X< 5QR*= 4‚*=
_)*1
ĐN( WR( 7Z7 E5I* 6*= ;(Ÿ* ?, 4?h*= E5, F5tV 7b 5L*= MN 7`* @L*= _R* 5[* W>
*b E5€ 45<:7 WAh *5(94 \:1
¡Các !h)*ng !há! tăng độ ch'y+n h,a của các c' t- tham gia !h"n #ng.

- T?h*= E5, _s*=: 7b *5(}< E5Q[*= E5ZE *5Q*= 5O< 5(9< *5Y4 _A 75Q*= 7Y4
{M4{ ?, F5s( 5–* 5DE E5I* 6*=1
- T?h*= E5, F5t: \J 4‚*= 5(9< M<Y4 75<BJ* 5b, *=Qf( 4, _YB ;Q K:4 4?h*= 5,(
7a< 4• e45Qf*= 75u* 7Y< 4• ?v 4(}* 5[*i1
Cb 45J ;Ÿ ;A*= *5c* 45YB H<Z 4?>*5 *=QD7 _o( _A M8 45kB E5`* {M4{V \J 4‚*=
5(9< M<Y4 *)* _YB ;Q *QR71
)/3/A/ Cg 8hI 9h:n ;n< OW=n>?5 h@= B76 ^dB^F*
T?h*= MN 7Z7 E5Q[*= E5ZE \(}< 75G {M4{? 45> E5Q[*= E5ZE 4oh {M4{? \[* =(I*
*5Y4 WA 45w*= ;€*= *5Y4 _A E5I* 6*= _ho( *QR7 =(O, ,7(; WA ,*7h_1 Đ`B _A K:4 E5I*
6*= 45<c* *=5d75 eWA _A E5I* 6*= *=QD7 7k, E5I* 6*= 45<p E5`* {M4{?iV WA \J E5I*
6*= 75<BJ* ;d75 W} E5t, E5I( eW} 5QR*= 4oh ?, {M4{?i 45> 7a* E5I( 7b ,7(; E?h4h*
H2 _AK Xl7 4Z71
R C
O
OR•
R C
O
OH
2 R•OH
H
2
2 HOH
acid
R C
O
OR•
R C
O
OH
2 R•OH
H
2
2 HOH
acid
P5`* 4• *QR7 _ho( ?, 4?h*= E5I* 6*= 4?)* 7b 45J X<Y4 E5Z4 4^ OH 7k, ,7(; 5h~7
7k, ,*7h_1 N5Q*= \N( WR( E5I* 6*= \(}< 75G {M4{? 45{h 7h* \Qf*= O-,*FB_ 5hZ 45>
E5`* 4• *QR7 _ho( ?, 4^ -OH 7k, ,7(;1
˜ \`B @c7 7k, ,*7h_ MŠ H<BG4 \d*5 7[ 75G E5I* 6*=V *G< K<N* 4Z75 E5`* 4•
*QR7 7b 756, *5bK –OH 7k, ,*7h_ 45> 7a* E5I( {M4{? 5hZ ,*7h_ @c7 U e45{h 7[ 75G
"N0i1 N5Q*= *G< K<N* 4Z75 E5`* 4• *QR7 756, *5bK –OH 7k, ,7(; 45> ,*7h_ \{K
E5I* 6*= MŠ E5I( _A ,*7h_ @c7 0 5,B @c7 .V WA MŠ XIB ?, 45{h 7[ 75G 45G {_{74?hE5(*
_Q‹*= E5`* 4• "N.1
SQR( 4Z7 ;€*= 7k, Xl7 4Z7 ,7(;V E?h4h* =•* WAh 7,7@h*B_ 7k, *5bK 7,7@hXB_
\J 4oh ?, 5B;?, ,XB_( (h* V 7x*= _l7 \b \w( \(9* 4• 7k, *=<B)* 4• hX( 45<:7 *5bK –
OH 7k, ,*7h_ 4Y* 7w*= WAh (h* ;Q[*= ,XB_ \J 5>*5 45A*5 *)* (h* 7k, {M4{? \] \QD7
E?h4h* 5hZV 7<N( 7x*= (h* *AB _ho( *QR7 WA E?h4h* \J M(*5 ?, {M4{?:
0…
0„
ChLgn< 3* CÔNG NGHỆ k+Tk HÓA V +ẢN XUlT kT-" AXkTAT
3/)/ Cin< n<h1 ^dB^ h@=*
Các /'á t01nh 2&t2 c3ng ngh$ t4ng h5! 2&t2 c, thành hai nh,m ch6nh.
¢<Z 4?>*5 E5, _s*=: _A 7Z7 H<Z 4?>*5 F5w*= 7b Xl7 4Z7 5h~7 Xl7 4Z7 \m*= 45JV
4?h*= \b E5I* 6*= r K67 \: t4 5h~7 *5(}< 4?x*= _~E WR( M8 75Q*= 7Y41
CZ7 H<Z 4?>*5 WR( M8 Xl7 4Z7 ;d 45J 4?h*= E5, _s*= 5,B E5, F5t \QD7 4587 5(9*
4?h*= 7Z7 45(G4 @d ;o*= N*= 75xKV F5w*= 7b M8 4?x*= _~E WR( 7Z7 =(, \ho* 75Q*=
7Y41
3/3/ mJ! Bn8 8hJn< B!In hanh 9h:n ;n< ^dB^*
CZ7 *=<B)* _(9< e,X(4 7,7@hXB_(7V ,*7h_ WA Xl7 4Z7i \QD7 7`* \h*= 75h WAh
*m( E5I* 6*=V \<*= 5m( _Q< 4?h*= 45f( =(,* *5Y4 \d*5 \J 4(G* 5A*5 E5I* 6*=1 T?h*=
H<Z 4?>*5 E5I* 6*= 4xB \(JK Mw( WA 4t*5 75Y4 Wc4 _•V 5b, 5u7 7k, *=<B)* _(9< WA
45A*5 E5a* KA 7Y4 _ho( *QR7 ?, 5h~7 {M4{ ?, \J \jB *5,*5 E5I* 6*=1 ",< 45f( =(,*
E5I* 6*= FG4 45l7 4xB 45{h 4^*= E5I* 6*= 7€ 45J KA 4t*5 75G 75h E5x 5DE1
&M4{ 7b *5(94 \: Mw( 7,h 7k, 7Z7 ,X(4 WA ?QD< 75cK @,B 5[(1 T5<:7 W} 7Z7
*5bK *AB _A 7Z7 {M4{ 7k, 7Z7 \(,X(4 eE54,_(7V M{@hXB_(7V ,;(E(7iV {M4{ 7k, 7Z7
Kh*h,X(4 C
ƒ
– C

WA 7k, 7Z7 ?QD< \, 7567 =_B7h_V =_BX{?(* WZ 7Z7 ?QD< E5`* 4•
_QD*= _R*1 T?h*= 5–* 5DE 7Z7 75Y4 4?)* 45> *QR7 MŠ _A 7Y< 4• ;Ÿ @,B 5[( *5Y4V ;h
WcB *=Qf( 4, 75Q*= 4Z75 ?()*= @(94 *b1 ĐJ 4‚*= 7Qf*= 4Z75 *QR7 7b 45J M• ;€*= F5t
4?[ 5h~7 4(G* 5A*5 75Q*= 7Y4 75`* F5w*=1
&M4{ 7b *5(94 Mw( 7,h 7k, 7Z7 ,X(4 WA ?QD< 4Q[*= \N( 75cK @,B 5[(1 T?h*=
*5bK *AB 7b {M4{ 7k, ,X(4 WR( 7Z7 ?QD< C
0
– C

V 7y*= *5Q {M4{ 7k, ,X(4 zhK(7V
,7{4(7 WR( =_B7h_ 5,B =_BX{?(*1 K5( 75Q*= 4Z75 *QR7 45> 7b 45J 7Z7 7Y< 4• ;Ÿ @N7
5[( 4Z75 45{h1 RQD< @<4B_(7 WA 7Z7 ?QD< 7,h 5[* 4oh 45A*5 WR( *QR7 5–* 5DE \*=
E5tV M,< F5( *=Q*= 4€ MŠ 4Z75 45A*5 5,( _RE ?()*= @(941 Cb 45J \Q, _RE ?QD< r @)*
4?)* 4?r _o( E5I* 6*=V *5Q WcB MŠ \o4 \QD7 \: 75<BJ* 5b, 7,h1 C+* 4?h*= 4?Qf*=
5DE 7Y< 4• @,B 5[( 7x*= WR( *QR7 F5w*= E5`* _RE M,< F5( *=Q*= 4€V *=Qf( 4, 7b
0‰
H
3
+O
D
H
3
+O
D
45} 45)K WAh \b K:4 MN 75Y4 4oh WR( *QR7 5–* 5DE \*= E5t @{*|{*ni1 NQR7 MŠ
4Z75 ?, 7x*= WR( 75Y4 \*= E5t77b *5(94 \: Mw( 45YE M,< F5( 4Z75 _RE \*= E5t _o(
\Q, 4?r _o( E5I* 6*=1 ĐN( WR( 7Z7 5–* 5DE *AB *=Qf( 4, 45Qf*= 75h _QD*= ?QD<
E5I* 6*= ;QV M,< \b 75Q*= 4Z75 E5`* \ho* \J 4Z75 ?QD< ?, F5s( *QR71
&M4{ 7b *5(94 \: Mw( 4?<*= @>*5 WA 4oh WR( *QR7 e5h~7 WR( *QR7 WA ?QD<i 5–*
5DE \*= E5tV 4?h*= \b *QR7 75(GK Q< 45G eW} 4“ _9 Kh_i1 T5<:7 *5bK *AB _A @<4B_-
WA ,K(_,7{4,41 ¢<Z 4?>*5 E5`* 4Z75 \QD7 4587 5(9* 4Q[*= 481 ",< F5( *=Q*= 4€V 5–*
5DE \*= E5t MŠ 4Z75 45A*5 5,( E5,: E5, *QR7 WA E5, 5O< 7[1 P5, 5O< 7[ @,h =mK
{M4{ WA ?QD< MŠ \QD7 \Q, 4?r _o( E5I* 6*=1
&M4{ ;Ÿ @N7 5[( WA 4oh 45A*5 WR( ?QD< WA *QR7 5–* 5DE \*= E5t 4?h*= \b {M4{
75(GK Q< 45G Mh WR( *QR71 K5( 75Q*= 7Y4 5–* 5DE *AB 45> 5–* 5DE E5I* 6*= MŠ
756, *5(}< *QR71 N5Q WcB 4?h*= 4?Qf*= 5DE *AB {M4{ 45< *5c* ;QR( ;o*= *=Q*= 4€
7x*= WR( *QR7 WA ?QD<1
¢<Z 4?>*5 {M4{ 5b, \m*= 45f( 75Q*= 7Y4 5–* 5DE \*= E5t \QD7 4(G* 5A*5 45{h
E5Q[*= E5ZE _()* 4€7 5h~7 =(Z* \ho*1 T587 4G *=Qf( 4, M• ;€*= E5Q[*= E5ZE _()*
4€7 *5(}< 5[*1
ĐJ 5(J< ?— 5[* W} 7w*= *=59 MI* X<Y4 {M4{V 4, Xg4 M[ \m 7w*= *=59 MI* X<Y4
K:4 {M4{ ;Ÿ @N7 5[(V \QD7 6*= ;€*= *5(}< 4?h*= 7w*= *=5(9E _A {4B_,7{4,4
CH
U
COOC
.
H

1
3/A/ +:n \J]B ^B?5=8^B=B*
3/A/)/ PhLgn< BFPnh 9h:n ;n<*
CH
A
COOH y C
3
H
H
OH CH
A
COOC
3
H
H
y H
3
O
Đ`B _A K:4 E5I* 6*= {M4{ 5b, \QD7 4587 5(9* @L*= 7w*= *=59 _()* 4€71 PR(
W(97 7Y4 \*= E5t @, 7Y< 4• e4{?*{,?B ,|{h4?hEi 7b 45J 75<BJ* ;d75 7`* @L*= W} E5t,
MI* E5jK1
0’
3/A/3/ Đo8 BFLn< 8c= 88 n<J?pn 5!1J Ta Bhanh 9hq2*
AXt4 ,7{4(7 7b *5(94 \: Mw( _A 00’
/
CV {4,*h_ _A ‰’
/
CV {4B_,7{4,4 Mw( r ‰‰
/
C1
Đ(JK Mw( \*= E5t @, 7Y< 4• {M4{ – {4,*h_ – *QR7 _A ‰/
/
C e45A*5 E5a* _A ’UV.£
{M4{V q£ ,*7h_V *QR7ni1 Đ(JK Mw( \*= E5t 5,( 7Y< 4• 7k, *QR7 – {4,*h_ _A ‰’1.
/
CV
7k, {M4{ – {4,*h_ _A ‰01’
/
CV 7k, {M4{ – *QR7 _A ‰/1…
/
C1
&4B_,7{4,4 _A K:4 ;<*= Kw( H<,* 4?u*= \QD7 M• ;€*= _AK *=<B)* _(9< 75h
*5(}< H<Z 4?>*5 4C*= 5DE e*5Q 4?h*= MI* X<Y4 {4B_ ,7{4h,7{4,4iV _AK 5Q[*= _(9<1
- Thiết bị
T?h*= 7Z7 7w*= *=59 _()* 4€7 45Qf*= M• ;€*= 7Z7 45(G4 @d 45ZE \‘, _ho( Ky
75bE Mk( @u4V Wc4 _(9< _AK 45(G4 @d _A 45gE 75d< ,X(41
- Công nghệ sản xuất
S`B 75<B}* MI* X<Y4 \QD7 K(*5 5u, 45{h M[ \m M,<:
- Thuyết trình công nghệ
0q
2 1 3
4 4
5
6
7
9
8
10
1
2
13
15
16
14
Nước
NQR7 WA H
.
"O
ƒ
?, F5s( 59 45N*=
T^ 7Z7 45x*= 0V .V U \h*= 7Z7 *=<B)* _(9< WAh 45(G4 @d 4(}* E5I* 6*= ƒ e*m( 5,(
WsV7b KZB F5<YBi WR( 4p _9 Kh_ _A ,X(4 ,7{4(7 : {4,*h_ : H
.
"O
ƒ
Ž 0 : 01… : /V//…1 ",<
F5( 5–* 5DE E5I* 6*= \] \o4 4R( \(JK 7`* @L*= \QD7 @[K H<, @>*5 7,h Wd …V 5–*
5DE \QD7 75oB H<, 45(G4 @d _AK *b*= „ 4?QR7 F5( \( WAh 45ZE ‰1 N5(94 \: \“*5 45ZE
;<B 4?> r ’/
/
C1 H[( 7Y4 ?, M,< F5( \( H<, 45(G4 @d *=Q*= 4€ ’ \QD7 ;T* WAh 45(G4 @d
75Q*= 7Y4 qV 4o( \“*5 45ZE ;<B 4?> *5(94 \: MI* E5jK 7Y4 ?, _A ‰/
/
C – 4Q[*= 6*= WR(
*5(94 \: Mw( 5–* 5DE \*= E5tV MI* E5jK M,< F5( \( H<, 45(G4 @d *=Q*= 4€ 0/ \QD7
4?:* WR( *QR7 4?h*= 45(G4 @d 00V M,< \b \QD7 4Z75 E5, 4?h*= 45(G4 @d E5`* E5, 0.1
P5, 4?)* e_A E5, 5O< 7[i 7b 756, F5hI*= qU£ {M4{ WA .£ ,*7h_ \QD7 ;T* 4R( 45ZE
0U1 "I* E5jK 4Z75 _ho( \“*5 45ZE 7b *QR7 WA ,*7h_ e;h WcB KA *=Qf( 4, =u( 45ZE
*AB _A 45ZE _AK F5,* 5,B 45ZE MYB F5wi1
"I* E5jK \ZB \QD7 _AK _o*5 H<, 0… 45< \QD7 {4B_,7{4,4 *m*= \: q’ - ¤//£
\QD7 756, WAh 45x*= 756, 0„1
"LJ b*
- T?h*= E5I* 6*= _QD*= *QR7 M(*5 ?, *5(}< 5[*
_QD*= *QR7 ?f( F5s( 59 45N*= W> WcB r ;QR( 45ZE MN ‰ *QR7 WA ,X(4 \QD7 45Zh ?,
_()* 4€71
- ˜ \ZB 45ZE MN q MI* E5jK \QD7 ;T* *=QD7 4?r
_o( 45ZE MN ‰ \J 4‚*= 59< M<Y4 7k, H<Z 4?>*5 75Q*= 75,41
- H,( 45(G4 @d MN ƒ _A \J \IK @Ih 75h ;`B 75<B}*
5ho4 \:*= K:4 7Z75 _()* 4€7V 5,( 45(G4 @d *AB 45,B *5,< _AK W(971
- T(*5 75GV _AK F5,* {M4{ \QD7 4(G* 5A*5 @L*=
W(97 7Y4 \*= E5t1
./
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