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Vt l 105

Chng 1. ng hc cht im

CHNG I. NG HC CHT IM
BI 1. CHUYN NG C HC
- Nh th no l chuyn ng c hc?
- Phng trnh chuyn ng l g?

I. CHUYN NG C HC
- Mt vt c gi l chuyn ng nu n thay i v tr theo thi gian so vi vt mc.
- Chuyn ng c hc c TNH TNG I: ng yn hay chuyn ng ph thuc vo vt c
chn lm mc.
VD:5.......................................................................................................................................................
5.............................................................................................................................................................
- Chuyn ng c hc c nhiu dng: tnh tin, quay, dao ng
- Qu o: hnh nh ng i ca vt.
- Cht im: vt c kch thc rt nh so vi phm vi qu o chuyn ng. Cht im khng c
kch thc, hnh dng; khi lng c vt c tp trung ti mt im.

II.H QUY CHIU


H to

H thi gian

Gc to

Gc thi gian

Chiu dng

Chiu dng

Khong cch

Khong thi gian

To x

Thi im t
H QUY CHIU

III.PHNG TRNH CHUYN NG


- Phng trnh chuyn ng l mt biu thc th hin s lin h gia to x v thi im t.
VD: x = 5t +105......................................................................................................................................
5.............................................................................................................................................................
x = t2 + 4t - 105......................................................................................................................................
5.............................................................................................................................................................

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Vt l 105

Chng 1. ng hc cht im

BI 2. CHUYN NG THNG U
- Chuyn ng thng u l g?
- Phng trnh chuyn ng thng u

I. CHUYN NG THNG U
- Chuyn ng thng u l chuyn ng c qu o thng v vn tc khng i theo thi gian.
- Vn tc: l i lng c trng cho chuyn ng nhanh hay chm ca vt.
* Cng thc:55

5
5

v = x/t

1 m/s = 3,6 km/h


* n v: m/s, km/h
* Vn tc l mt i lng vect c chiu l chiu chuyn ng ca vt.
Cng chiu dng --> 5 v > 0
Ngc chiu dng --> 5 v < 0

- Phn bit gia vn tc v tc :


- Vn tc c hng, tc v hng.
- Vn tc tnh theo di, tc tnh theo qung ng.

II.PHNG TRNH CHUYN NG THNG U


- Phng trnh to chuyn ng thng u

x = x0 + v(t - t0)
v: vn tc chuyn ng (m/s)
t0, x0: thi im v to lc bt u kho st

- Khong cch gia hai cht im ti mt thi im

d = |x2 - x1|

5
- th chuyn ng thng u l mt ng thng i qua gc to trong h trc (x,t)

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Vt l 105

Chng 1. ng hc cht im

BI 3. CHUYN NG THNG BIN I U


- Chuyn ng thng bin i u l g?
- Phng trnh chuyn ng thng bin i u.

I. VN TC TC THI - GIA TC
- Vn tc trung bnh l vn tc tnh trn c qung ng, khng quan tm s thay i vn tc
trong qu trnh chuyn ng.
- Vn tc tc thi l vn tc ti mt thi im no trong qu trnh chuyn ng, khi t rt nh.
VD:5.......................................................................................................................................................
5.............................................................................................................................................................
- GIA TC l i lng c trng cho s thay i nhanh chm ca vect vn tc. Chuyn ng
c thay i vn tc th s c gia tc. K hiu: a.

a = v/t = (v - v0)/(t - t0)


5
* n v: m/s2
* Gia tc l mt i lng vect ph thuc vo tnh cht chuyn ng
- Gia tc cng c gia tc trung bnh v gia tc tc thi.
- Trong chuyn ng thng u, vn tc tc thi khng i v gia tc bng 0.
- Cng thc tnh vn tc tc thi (phng trnh vn tc)

v = v0 + a(t - t0)

II.CHUYN NG THNG BIN I U


- Chuyn ng thng bin i u l chuyn ng c qu o l mt c thng v gia tc tc
thi khng i theo thi gian. (a = const)
- C 2 dng bin i u

Nhanh dn u --> tc tng --> a, v cng du


Chm dn u --> tc gim --> a, v tri du

5
- Qung ng chuyn ng c trong chuyn ng thng bin i u (mt chiu)
5
- Cng thc c lp vi thi gian
5

s = at2 + v0t
v2 - v02 = 2as

III.PHNG TRNH CHUYN NG THNG BIN I U


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x = at2 + v0t + x0

(xem t0 = 0)
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Vt l 105

Chng 1. ng hc cht im

BI 4. CHUYN NG RI T DO
- C phi ri no cng ging ri no?
- i lng no c trng cho s ri t do?

I. RI T DO L RI CH DO TRNG LC
- Ri t do l chuyn ng ri ch di tc dng ca trng lc (b qua lc cn ca khng kh).
Trong thc t, mt vt nng ri trong khng kh c th xem l ri t do.
- c im s ri t do:
- Phng thng ng, chiu t trn xung di.
- Khng vn tc u, l mt chuyn ng nhanh dn u

II.GIA TC RI T DO L C TRNG CA S RI T DO
- Chuyn ng ri t do l chuyn ng nhanh dn u nn c gia tc. Gia tc ca s ri t do
c gi tr hon ton xc nh c gi l g.
- Gia tc ri t do ph thuc vo cao, v v cu to a cht.
- Gia tc ri t do khng ph thuc vo khi lng ca vt.
- Mt vt c nm ln trn s chuyn ng thng chm dn u vi gia tc a = -g.

III.KHO ST CHUYN NG RI T DO
- V chuyn ng ri t do l mt chuyn ng nhanh dn u vi gia tc a = g, v0 = 0

s = gt2

v2 = 2gs

v = gt

- Cc yu t khi chm t (v0 = 0)

tc = (2h/g)

vc = (2gh)

- Phng trnh chuyn ng

y = gt2 + v0t + y0

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Vt l 105

Chng 1. ng hc cht im

BI 5. CHUYN NG TRN U
- Chuyn ng nh th no mi gi l trn u?
- Ti sao chuyn ng u m li c gia tc?

I. CHUYN NG TRN
- Chuyn ng trn l chuyn ng c qu o l mt ng trn.
- Mt cht im chuyn ng trong chuyn ng trn c th c xc nh theo hai cch
n v di

n v gc

S: di cung trn
(m)

: gc m bn knh
qut c (gc tm)
(rad)

v: tc di (m/s)

: tc gc (rad/s)
s = R.

v = R
- Vect vn tc trong chuyn ng trn ti mt im lun c phng tip tuyn vi ng trn ti
im .

II.CHUYN NG TRN U
- Chuyn ng trn u l chuyn ng trn m trong cht im i c nhng gc bng nhau
trong nhng khong thi gian bng nhau.
- Thi gian cht im i mi vng l nh nhau.
* Chu k: thi gian cht im i mt vng. K hiu: T (s)
* Tn s: s vng cht im i trong mt giy. K hiu f (Hz)

T = 1/f

T = 2 /

VD: 20 vng i trong 5 s --> T =?, f = ?


5.............................................................................................................................................................
- Gia tc hng tm: l i lng c trng cho s thay i v phng v chiu ca vect vn
tc. K hiu: aht (m/s2)
- C phng bn knh, chiu hng tm
- ln:5

aht = v2/R = R2
Mt vng trn c s o gc l 2 (rad)
360 = 2 rad
180 = rad
60 =
rad

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Vt l 105

Chng 2. ng lc hc cht im

CHNG II. NG LC HC CHT IM


BI 1. LC
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 2. ng lc hc cht im

BI 2. BA NH LUT NEWTON
- T in l thit b g?

I.

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Vt l 105

Chng 2. ng lc hc cht im

BI 3. LC HP DN
- Cc vt hp dn nhau nh th no?

I. NH LUT VN VT HP DN
nh lut vn vt hp dn: Lc hp dn gia hai vt l lc ht, c
ln t l vi tch khi lng hai vt v t l nghch vi bnh
phng khong cch gia hai vt.

G: hng s hp dn (6,67.10-11 Nm2/kg2)


r: khong cch gia hai vt (m)

- Lc hp dn lun tc dng cng lc ln hai vt, c ln bng nhau v l lc ht.


- Khong cch gia hai vt c xc nh t khi tm ca hai vt.

II.LC HP DN CA TRI T V CC HNH TINH


- Trong trng hp lc hp dn ca Tri t khi lng M v mt vt khi lng m.

R: bn knh Tri t (m)


h: cao ca vt (m)

- So snh vi cng thc P = mg, gia tc ri t do g c th xc nh bng cng thc

- Nhn xt: gia tc ri t do ph thuc vo cao. Tuy nhin nu chnh lch cao khng ln,
s thay i gia tc ri t do l khng ng k.
- Trng hp gia tc ri t do ti mt t

- Gia cc hnh tinh cng c lc hp dn. Qu o chuyn ng ca mt hnh tinh l do lc hp


dn tng hp ca cc hnh tinh xung quanh n v Mt tri tc ng ln.
- Lu : trong mi trng hp G khng thay i.

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Vt l 105

Chng 2. ng lc hc cht im

BI 4. LC MA ST
- Ma st cng c nhiu loi ma st. iu g nh hng n ma st?

I. MA ST NGH
- Khi ko mt vt bng mt lc F m vt vn khng chuyn ng --> xut hin mt lc khc cn
bng vi lc ko --> LC MA ST NGH.
- Lc ma st ngh xut hin khi vt c xu hng mun chuyn ng v c tc dng gi cho vt
ng yn.
- Lc ma st ngh c chiu ngc li vi ngoi lc tc dng v ln bng vi ngoi lc.
- Lc ma st ngh c th tng n mt gi tr cc i. Nu lc ko vt qua gi tr ny, vt s bt
u chuyn ng v lc ma st ngh bin mt.

II.MA ST TRT
- Lc ma st trt xut hin khi vt chuyn ng trt trn mt b mt v c tc dng cn tr
chuyn ng .

- Lc ma st trt khng ph thuc vo lc ko.


- Lc ma st trt c phng chuyn ng, chiu ngc li chuyn ng v ln c tnh

Fmst = t.N
t: h s ma st trt
N: p lc ln sn (c ln bng phn lc tc dng ln vt)

- H s ma st trt ph thuc vo tnh cht b mt tip xc (trn nhn, cht liu), khng ph
thuc vo din tch tip xc.
- Lc ma st ngh cng c th tnh bng cng thc nh ma st trt

Fmsn = n.N
III.MA ST LN
- Lc ma st ln xut hin khi vt chuyn ng ln trn mt b mt v c tc dng cn tr chuyn
ng .
- Lc ma st ln c tnh cht ging nh ma st trt, cng c tnh bng cng thc

Fmsl = l.N
- Vi cng mt b mt tip xc, ma st ln thng nh hn ma st trt.

IV.NG DNG MA ST
- Ma st va c li, va c hi.

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Vt l 105

Chng 2. ng lc hc cht im

BI 5. LC N HI
- Khi no c lc n hi? Nhng yu t no nh hng n s n hi?

I. BIN DNG N HI
- Mt s vt sau khi b bin dng c th quay tr li hnh dng ban u. Ta ni vt c tnh n hi
v bin dng l bin dng n hi. VD:5........................................................................................
- Mt s vt khc li khng c tnh cht ny. VD: 5...............................................................................
- Gii hn n hi l bin dng ti a ca vt m n cn c th quay tr li c hnh dng c.

II.LC N HI CA L XO
- Xt s bin dng ca l xo theo phng ngang
- bin dng ca l xo
- L xo gin l > 0; l xo nn l < 0.
- Lc n hi xut hin khi l xo b bin dng v c tc dng a l xo tr li hnh dng ban u.
- Lc n hi c im t trn khp l xo, c chiu a l xo tr li hnh dng c (chng li bin
dng) v ln c tnh theo nh lut Hooke.

nh lut Hooke: Trong bin dng n hi, ln lc n hi t l


vi bin dng ca l xo.

Fmsl = l.N
k: cng ca l xo (N/m)

- cng ca l xo ph thuc vo cc c im ca l xo, khng ph thuc yu t bn ngoi.

III.LC CNG DY
- Lc cng dy l mt trng hp c bit ca lc n hi trn si dy.
- Chiu ca lc cng dy chng li s cng dy (bin dng dy) v lm dy chng li.

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Vt l 105

Chng 2. ng lc hc cht im

BI 6. LC HNG TM
- Lc nh th no th gi l hng tm?

I. CHUYN NG LI TM
- Mt vt khi chuyn ng trn s c chuyn ng li tm. Nguyn nhn: vect vn tc ca mt vt
chuyn ng trn c phng tip tuyn vi qu o --> vt c xu hng chuyn ng thng ch
khng trn. Nu khng c lc no gi li, vt s chuyn ng thng. Xt trong h qui chiu gn
vi ci a, vt ging nh ang chuyn ng i ra xa khi tm.
- ng dng ca chuyn ng li tm: my gia tc li tm, my git...

II.LC HNG TM
- Lc hng tm l tn gi chung cc lc (hoc hp lc) c phng bn knh, chiu hng v
tm qu o. Cc lc ny c th l: lc ma st ngh, lc cng dy, lc hp dn, hp lc ca lc
cng dy v trng lc
- ln ca lc hng tm

Fht = m.aht = m.v2/R = mR2


- Lc hng tm c tc dng gi vt li, khng cho chuyn ng li tm, lm vt chuyn ng trn.
- Mt s trng hp ca lc hng tm
- Lc hp dn l lc hng tm: trong chuyn ng ca Mt trng, v tinh quanh tri t

- Lc hp dn l lc ma st ngh: trong chuyn ng ca xe khi vo khc cua, ca mt vt


c t nm ln mt a quay trn.

- Lc hp dn l hp lc ca lc cng dy v trng lc: cm con lc n quay trn

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Vt l 105

Chng 2. ng lc hc cht im

BI 7. LC QUN TNH
- Trng lng l g? Ti sao trng lng c th tng gim?
- H qui chiu qun tnh v phi qun tnh l g?

I. H QUI CHIU PHI QUN TNH


- H qui chiu c chn thng gn vi mt vt lm mc. Nu vt lm mc ng yn hoc
chuyn ng thng u, ta gi l h quy chiu qun tnh.
- Nu vt lm mc chuyn ng c gia tc, ta gi l h qui chiu c gia tc (hay h qui chiu phi
qun tnh).
VD:5.......................................................................................................................................................
5.............................................................................................................................................................
5.............................................................................................................................................................

II.LC QUN TNH


- Xt mt vt c t trong mt h qui chiu phi qun tnh (VD: ngi ngi trong xe tng tc)
- Khi xt vt trong h qui chiu qun tnh (gn vi mt t), ta thy vt chuyn ng c gia tc
chung vi vt cha (ngi v xe u chuyn ng c gia tc) --> c mt hp lc F tc dng ln
vt gy ra gia tc.
- Khi xt vt trong h qui chiu phi qun tnh (gn vi xe), ta thy vt nm yn --> phi c mt lc
cn bng li vi hp lc F trn --> LC QUN TNH Fqt.
- Lc qun tnh c chiu ngc li vi vect gia tc v c ln bng ln hp lc gy ra gia
tc.

Fqt = -ma
- Lc qun tnh ch xut hin trong h qui chiu phi qun tnh nhm gii thch nh lut 2 Newton.
Lc qun tnh khng c phn lc ca n.

III.TNG GIM TRNG LNG


- Trng lng l tc dng ca trng lc gy ra ln mt vt g . Thng thng, trng lng c
ln bng trng lc.
- Khi xt trong h qui chiu gn vi thang my chuyn ng c gia tc (h qui chiu phi qun tnh)

- Trng lng biu kin:

P = P ma
- Nh vy trng lng c th tng gim nu vt nm trong h qui chiu phi qun tnh.

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Vt l 105

Chng 2. ng lc hc cht im

BI 8. CHUYN NG NM NGANG - NM XIN


-

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Vt l 105

Chng 3. Tnh hc

CHNG III. TNH HC VT RN


BI 1. IU KIN CN BNG VT RN C 2 LC TC DNG
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 3. Tnh hc

BI 2. IU KIN CN BNG VT RN C 3 LC
KHNG SONG SONG TC DNG
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 3. Tnh hc

BI 3. IU KIN CN BNG VT RN C TRC QUAY C NH


- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 3. Tnh hc

BI 4. IU KIN CN BNG VT RN C 3 LC
SONG SONG TC DNG
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 4. Cc nh lut bo ton

CHNG IV. CC NH LUT BO TON


BI 1. NH LUT BO TON NG LNG
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 4. Cc nh lut bo ton

BI 2. CNG
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 4. Cc nh lut bo ton

BI 3. NG NNG
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 4. Cc nh lut bo ton

BI 4. TH NNG TRNG TRNG - N HI


- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 4. Cc nh lut bo ton

BI 5. NH LUT BO TON C NNG


- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 4. Cc nh lut bo ton

BI 6. VA CHM C HC
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 5. C hc cht lu

CHNG V. C HC CHT LU
BI 1. HIN TNG CM NG IN T
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 5. C hc cht lu

BI 2. T CM
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 6. Cht kh

CHNG VI. CHT KH


BI 1. THUYT NG HC PHN T CHT KH
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 6. Cht kh

BI 2. CC QU TRNH BIN I TRNG THI


- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 7. Cht rn

CHNG VII. CHT RN


BI 1. CHT RN
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 7. Cht rn

BI 2. S BIN DNG C
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 7. Cht rn

BI 3. S N V NHIT
- T in l thit b g?

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Vt l 105

Chng 7. Cht rn

BI 4. KNH LP - KNH HIN VI - KNH THIN VN


- T in l thit b g?

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