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Chng 1.

Tnh in

CHNG I. IN TCH - IN TRNG


BI 1. IN TCH - THUYT ELECTRON
- in tch l g? Vt nh th no c gi l mang in?
- Tng tc in l g? Ti sao cc vt c th mang in?
- Lm cch no nhim in cho mt vt?

I. VT MANG IN - IN TCH
- Mt vt mang in (nhim in) l mt vt c kh nng ht c nhng vt nh nh khc v c
th tng tc vi cc vt mang in khc.
- C 2 loi in m vt c th mang: DNG V M
Cng du y nhau ; Tri du ht nhau
- Lng in mt vt cha trong n c gi l IN TCH.
- Mt vt mang in cng cn c gi l in tch.
K hiu: q,

coulomb:
C: :

Q. n v: coulomb C

mC = 10-3 C ::
nC = 10-9 C : :

C = 10-6 C
pC = 10-12 C

II.THUYT ELECTRON
- Mt vt bnh thng trung ho v in c ngha l s in tch dng bng s in tch m.
- in tch m ca vt (nguyn t) l electron (qe = -1,6.10-19 C)
- in tch dng ca vt (nguyn t) l proton (qp = 1,6.10-19 C)
- Trong hai loi in tch, ht no d b ht hoc tch ra hn?

- Th suy ngh: ion Ca2+, ion Cl-, ht nhn He mang in tch bao nhiu?
:.............................................................................................................................................................
- Th suy ngh: mt in tch 3,2.10-10 C d hoc thiu bao nhiu electron?
:.............................................................................................................................................................

III.CC CCH LM NHIM IN MT VT


Nguyn liu

C xt
Tip xc

Kt qu

Hai vt trung ho hoc


nhim in

2 vt tri du
ln bng nhau

t nht 1 vt nhim
in

2 vt nhim in
ging nhau

t nht 1 vt nhim

1 vt nhim in
trn tng phn

Hng ng in
3

Qu trnh

Vt l 11

BI 2. NH LUT BO TON IN TCH


NH LUT COULOMB
- in tch c c bo ton nh ng lng, nng lng? Trong iu kin no?
- Khi no xut hin lc Coulomb l g? Cc c im ca vect lc Coulomb?

I. NH LUT BO TON IN TCH


- Lp bng so snh in tch cc vt trong mi qu trnh nhim in.
C xt
Tip xc
Hng ng

q1
0
0
0

q2
0
2
-1

q1 + q2
0
2
-1

q1
-1
1
0

q2
1
1
-1

q1 + q2
0
2
-1

nh lut bo ton in tch: Trong mt h c lp v in, tng i s cc in tch


c bo ton.
q1 + q2 = q1 + q2
- Cn nh: Khi a hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau tch in q1, q2 chm nhau

q1' = q2' =

q1 + q2
2

II.NH LUT COULOMB


- Cc in tch tng tc vi nhau bng mt lc --> Lc tnh in (Lc Coulomb)
- Lc Coulomb xut hin khi hai in tch c t gn nhau.

nh lut Coulomb: lc tng tc gia hai in tch im c phng nm trn


mt ng thng ni hai in tch im, c chiu l chiu ca lc ht nu hai in
tch im khc du v y nu hai in tch im cng du, c ln t l thun
vi tch cc in tch v t l nghch vi bnh phng khong cch gia chng.
im t
Phng

Trn 2 in tch
Ni tm 2 in tch
Theo quy lut tng tc in cng y, tri ht

Chiu

FC
ln

q1q2
F=k 2
r
: hng s in mi (kk = ck = 1)
k = 9x109 (Nm2/C2)

Chng 1. Tnh in<

BI 3. IN TRNG - CNG IN TRNG


- in trng l g?
- ng sc in l g? Cc tnh cht ca ng sc in?
- ngha ca cng in trng?

I. IN TRNG
- in trng l mi trng vt cht c bit tn ti xung quanh in tch.
- in trng c trng cho in tch v phng din tc dng lc. Ni cch khc, bt k in tch no
khc nm trong in trng u chu tc dng lc.
- ng sc in: l nhng ng tng tng m t in trng
- Tnh cht ng sc in:
* L nhng ng thng hoc cong.
* Khng bao gi ct nhau.
* Lun hng ra khi in tch dng, hng vo in tch m (ra dng vo m)
* Cng dy cng mnh, cng tha cng yu.

II.CNG IN TRNG
- Cng in trng l i lng c trng cho in trng v phng din tc dng lc ti mt im.
- Khi ni n cng in trng, phi ni r: CT do IN TCH q0 gy ra ti IM M.
- Ti im M c cng EM, khi t in tch q vo th q s chu tc dng ca lc F.
K hiu: E. n v: V/m.
- Cng in trng l mt i lng vect.

EM

im t

Ti im ang xt

Phng

Ni in tch vi im ang xt

Chiu

ln

E=k

q0
r2

q0: in tch gy ra in trng

F= qE
q: in tch chu tc dng ca trng

III.IN TRNG U
- in trng u l in trng m cng ti mi im u nh nhau (hng v ln)
- ng sc ca in trng u l cc ng thng song song v cch u nhau, lun hng t bn
dng sang bn m.

Vt l 11

BI 4. CNG CA IN TRNG - HIU IN TH


- Cng ca in trng c xc nh nh th no?
- Hiu in th l g? ngha ca n l g?

I. CNG CA IN TRNG
- Mt in tch t trong in trng s chu tc dng ca lc in trng FE. Cng lc , nu
in tch di chuyn, ta ni lc in trng thc hin cng A.
- Cng thc tnh cng ca lc in trng

AMN = qEd MN

dMN: hnh chiu ca MN trn phng ca vect cng in trng

- Cng ca in trng khng ph thuc vo dng c ng i m ch ph thuc vo v tr im


u v im cui.
--> Lc in trng l mt lc th.

II.TH NNG - IN TH - HIU IN TH


- in trng l mt lc th --> mt in tch t trong in trng s c th nng. Th nng ca
in tch ti im M c gi tr bng cng in trng thc hin khi dch chuyn mt in tch t
im M ra v cng.

WtM = AM
- IN TH l i lng c trng cho kh nng thc hin cng ca in trng ti mt im. K
hiu: VM (V)

VM = WtM/q
- HIU IN TH l i lng th hin s chnh lch in th gia hai im trong in trng.

UMN = VM - VN

U MN = d MN E
dMN = MN: hnh chiu ca MN trn ng sc in E

- Cng thc tnh cng ca in trng theo hiu in th

AMN = qU MN
A > 0: cng pht ng
A < 0: cng cn

VD: in tch q > 0 chuyn ng t in th cao n in th thp --> cng pht ng

Chng 1. Tnh in<

BI 5. T IN
- T in l thit b g? i lng no c trng cho t in?
- T in dng lm g?

I. T IN L G?
- T in l thit b c s dng tr in tch.
- Cu to ca t in phng n gin gm:
* 2 bn kim loi t song song
* Mt mi trng in mi t gia hai bn
- Hot ng ca t in: di tc dng ca hiu in th U, bn ni vi cc in th cao (cc +)
tch in +Q, v bn cn li tch in -Q. Khi ta ni t tch in Q.
- Hiu in th cng cao, in tch trn t cng tng. Mt t in ch c th c cha (tch) in
n mt gii hn. Nu U > Ugh --> t b thng, Q = 0, t nh mt dy dn bnh thng.
- i lng c trng cho kh nng tch in ca vt l IN DUNG.
K hiu: C. n v: fara

(F).

Q = CU
- in dung ca t in ch ph thuc vo cu to ca t. i vi t in phng n gin, in
dung c tnh theo cng thc

C=

S
4 kd
S: din tch phn i din ca hai bn (m2)
d: khong cch gia hai bn (m)
: hng s in mi ca in mi gia hai bn

II.NNG LNG T IN
- T in c kh nng phng in, sinh ra cng --> t in c mang nng lng.
- V gia t in l mt in trng nn ta c th ni nng lng t in l nng lng ca in
trng

1
1 Q2 1
2
W = CU =
= QU
2
2 C 2
III.GHP T IN

Ghp t song song

Ghp t ni tip

U = U1 = U 2
Q = Q1 + Q2
C// = C1 + C2

U = U1 + U 2
Q = Q1 = Q2
1
1
1
CC
=
+
Cnt = 1 2
Cnt C1 C2
C1 + C2