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Chng 1.

Tnh in&

BI 3. IN TRNG - CNG IN TRNG


- in trng l g?
- ng sc in l g? Cc tnh cht ca ng sc in?
- ngha ca cng in trng?

I. IN TRNG
- in trng l mi trng vt cht c bit tn ti xung quanh in tch.
- in trng c trng cho in tch v phng din tc dng lc. Ni cch khc, bt k in tch no
khc nm trong in trng u chu tc dng lc.
- ng sc in: l nhng ng tng tng m t in trng
- Tnh cht ng sc in:
* L nhng ng thng hoc cong.
* Khng bao gi ct nhau.
* Lun hng ra khi in tch dng, hng vo in tch m (ra dng vo m)
* Cng dy cng mnh, cng tha cng yu.

II.CNG IN TRNG
- Cng in trng l i lng c trng cho in trng v phng din tc dng lc ti mt im.
- Khi ni n cng in trng, phi ni r: CT do IN TCH q0 gy ra ti IM M.
- Ti im M c cng EM, khi t in tch q vo th q s chu tc dng ca lc F.
K hiu: E. n v: V/m.
- Cng in trng l mt i lng vect.

EM

im t

Ti im ang xt

Phng

Ni in tch vi im ang xt

Chiu

ln

E=k

q0
r2

q0: in tch gy ra in trng

F= qE
q: in tch chu tc dng ca trng

III.IN TRNG U
- in trng u l in trng m cng ti mi im u nh nhau (hng v ln)
- ng sc ca in trng u l cc ng thng song song v cch u nhau, lun hng t bn
dng sang bn m.

Chng 1. Tnh in&

C1

CNG IN TRNG

TL2

1 Mt in tch im q = 9.10-10 C c t ti im A trong chn khng. Xc nh vect cng in


trng ti im B nm cch A 2 cm.
2 Mt in tch im q c t ti im A trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 103. Vect cng
in trng ti im B nm cch A 2 cm c chiu hng v pha A v ln 3000 V/m. Du v ln
in tch q l bao nhiu?
3 Mt in tch im q c ln 3 pC c t ti im A trong chn khng. Ti im B, ngi ta o
c cng in trng l 4000 V/m. Xc nh khong cch AB.
4 Mt in tch im q c t ti im A trong chn khng. Ti im B, ngi ta o c cng
in trng ti l 4000 V/m. Ti im C, ngi ta o c cng in trng ti l 2000 V/m.
Bit A, B, C thng hng.
a. Xc nh t s AB/AC.
b. Xc nh ln cng in trng ti im M l trung im ca BC.
5 Hai in tch im q1 = - 0,2 pC v q2 = 0,5 pC c t ti 2 im A, B cch nhau 3 cm trong khng
kh. Xc nh cng in trng tng hp ti im D nm trung im ca AB. T xc nh lc
in tc dng ln in tch im q0 = 0,6 pC t ti D.
6 Mt h 2 in tch im q1 v q2 c ln ln lt l - 2.10-10 C v - 9.10-10 C c t ti 2 im A, B
trong chn khng cch nhau 10 cm. Xc nh vect cng in trng tng hp ti im D nm
cch A 8 cm, cch B 6 cm.
7 Mt h 2 ion Na+ v Cl- c t ti 2 im A, B trong chn khng cch nhau 4 cm. Xc nh vect
cng in trng tng hp ti im D nm cch u AB 4 cm.
8 Mt h 2 in tch im q1 v q2 tri du v c ln bng nhau c t ti 2 im A, B trong chn
khng cch nhau 6 cm. Ti im D nm cch u A, B mt on 5 cm, ngi ta o c cng in
trng c ln 5000 V/m. Hy xc nh ln in tch q1 v q2.
9 Mt h 2 in tch im q1 v q2 c ln ln lt l - 2,5.10-10 C v - 1,6.10-10 C c t ti 2 im A,
B trong chn khng cch nhau 9 cm. Xc nh v tr im D m ti cng in trng bng 0.
10 Cho h hai in tch im q1 = +q v q2 = -4q cch nhau r = 10 cm t trong chn khng. Xc nh v tr
ca im m ti cng in trng gy ra bi h in tch bng khng.
11 Mt in tch im q0 = - 4.10-10 C c t ti im A trong chn khng.
a. Xc nh vect cng in trng ti mt im B nm cch A 4 cm.
b. T suy ra vect lc in tc dng ln mt in tch q = 2.10-10 C t ti B.
12 Mt in tch im q = 2.10-10 C c ti im A trong khng kh. Mt in tch im th q0 = -5.10-10 C
c t ti im B v chu tc dng ca mt lc in l 9.10-6 N. Hy xc nh cng in trng
ti im B do in tch im q gy ra v tm khong cch AB.
13 Cng in trng ti mt im A c ln 5500 V/m, nm ngang hng sang tri. t mt in
tch q = -4 nC vo , xc nh vect lc in tc dng ln q.
14 t mt in tch q = 2.10-8 C ti im A trong chn khng th thy lc in tc dng ln n l 4,5.10-4 N.
a. Xc nh cng in trng ti .
b. Nu cng in trng ny do mt in tch q nm cch 2 mm gy ra th q c ln bao
nhiu?
15 Trong mt in trng u, ngi ta thy mt in tch q = -2,3 C b ko i theo hng t tri sang
phi bng mt lc c ln 0,23 N. Xc nh chiu v ln ca vect cng in trng.
16 Hai bn kim loi c tch in tri du. t hai bn ny song song thng ng, bn dng bn phi.
a mt in tch q = 2.10-10 C vo gia hai bn.
a. V vect lc tc dng ln in tch ny.
b. Bit cng in trng gia hai bn l 4000 V/m. Xc nh ln lc in tc dng ln in tch.
17 Mt in trng u c to ra gia hai bn kim loi tch in tri du t nm ngang song song.
Ngi ta t vo trong in trng mt ht bi tch in 5 nC th thy qu cu nm cn bng.
a. Xc nh du ca mi bn kim loi.
b. Bit khi lng ca ht bi l 5 mg. Xc nh cng in trng gia hai bn ny.
18 Xc nh ln cng in trng ti mt im nm cch ion Na+ mt on 0,2 m trong chn
khng.

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19 Trong chn khng ti mt im B nm cch A 1,5 cm, ngi ta o c mt cng in trng


hng t B v A v c ln 6000 V/m. Hi ti A c in tch g, ln bao nhiu?
20 Mt in tch im q = 2,4.10-10 C c t ti im A trong chn khng. Ti im B, ngi ta o c
cng in trng l 45100 V/m. Sau , nhng ton b h ny vo mi trng c hng s in
mi l 2,2.
a. Cng in trng ti B by gi l bao nhiu?
b. cng in trng vn nh c, ta phi thay in tch q bng in tch q l bao nhiu?
21 Ti im A v B cch nhau 10 cm trong khng gian, ngi ta o c cng in trng ngc
chiu c ln ln lt l 20000 V/m v 40000 V/m. Xc nh cng in trng ti im C nm
trung im AB.
22 Ti im A v B cch nhau 5 cm trong khng gian, ngi ta o c cng in trng cng chiu
c ln ln lt l 5000 V/m v 3000 V/m. Xc nh cng in trng ti im C nm trung
im AB.
23 Hai in tch im q1 = -6 nC v q2 = 3 nC c t ti hai im A, B cch nhau 4 mm trong mi trng
c hng s in mi l 2. Xc nh cng in trng tng hp ti im D l trung im ca A, B.
24 2 in tch q1, q2 c t ti hai nh B, C ca mt tam gic ABC vung ti A (AB = 4 cm, BC = 5 cm).
Xc nh cng in trng ti im A. Cho q1 = 6,4 pC, q2 = -2,7 pC.
25 Ngi ta t 2 in tch im ging nhau q1 = q2 = -4.10-8 C ti hai im A, B cch nhau 5 cm. Xc nh
cng in trng tng hp ti im D cch A 10 cm, cch B 5 cm.
26 Ti 2 nh ca mt tam gic u cnh 2 mm, ngi ta t hai in tch q1, q2 c cng ln bng
4.10-10 C nhng tri du. Cng in trng o c ti nh cn li l bao nhiu?
27 Ti 2 nh ca mt tam gic u, ngi ta t hai in tch q1, q2 ging nhau v cng bng -2.10-10 C.
Cng in trng o c ti nh cn li l 20003 V/m. Xc nh cnh ca tam gic ny v din
tch ca n.
28 Hai in tch im q1 = -0,5 pC v q2 = 1,8 pC c t ti 2 im A, B nm cch nhau 2 mm. Ti im
D nm cch A 1,6 mm, cch B 3,6 mm, cng in trng c chiu v ln nh th no?
29 t hai in tch q1 = -10-10 C v q2 > 0 ti hai im A, B cch nhau 4 mm. Ti im D cch A 6 mm,
cch B 2 mm, ngi ta o c cng in trng c ln l 875000 V/m. Xc nh ln ca
q 2.
30 Xc nh cng in trng ti im M nm cch u hai u on thng AB 5 cm. Bit rng ti A,
B c hai in tch ging nhau l -2 nC v AB = 8 cm.
31 Cho ba im A, B, C nm thng hng theo th t trn. Ln lt t vo hai im A, B hai in tch q1 v
q2 = 1 pC th thy cng in trng ti C b trit tiu.
a. C th kt lun c g v du ca q1?
b. Nu bit B l trung im ca AC th gi tr ca q1 l bao nhiu?
32 a mt in tch im q vo mt in trng u c ln 2000 V/m hng t trn xung di th
thy q chu tc dng ca mt lc hng ln trn c ln 3.10-5 N. Xc nh gi tr q.
33 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm ngang vi bn dng trn ti thnh in trng u
c cng 50000 V/m. Mt ht bi c khi lng 0,1 mg nm l lng gia hai bn ny. Xc nh in
tch ca ht bi ny.
34 Ti im A trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 2,2, ngi ta t mt in tch im q = -2,31 nC.
a. Xc nh cng in trng ti im B nm cch A 1 mm.
b. Ti B, t thm mt in tch im q = 2 nC. Xc nh ln lc in tc dng ln q.
35 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t song song nm ngang. a mt electron vo gia hai bn
th thy electron b ko ln trn bng mt lc 2.10-10 N. Xc nh du ca mi bn kim loi v ln ca
cng in trng gia hai bn. Cho qe = -1,6.10-19 C.
36 Mt qu cu tch in dng c t trong mt in trng u c ln 4500 V/m. Lc in tc
dng ln qu cu c ln 2,7.10-5 N. Hi qu cu ny b thiu bao nhiu electron?
37 Ngi ta t vo gia hai bn kim loi tch in tri du mt qu cu tch in dng th thy qu cu
nm yn.
a. Cho bit hai bn ny c t nh th no?
b. Bit khi lng qu cu ny l 1 g, cng in trng gia hai bn l 3,2.108 V/m. Xc nh s
ht electron b mt trn qu cu ny.
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Chng 1. Tnh in&

38 Mt qu cu tch in dng c khi lng 100 mg c t trong mt in trng u c ln 2.108


V/m. Ngi ta thy qu cu ny nm cn bng.
a. in trng ny c chiu nh th no?
b. ln ca in tch trn qu cu l bao nhiu?
39 Hai bn kim loi c tch in tri du v t song song nm ngang. Mt qu cu tch in q = -8.10-8
C, nng 0,08 g c t nm l lng gia hai bn.
a. Hy xc nh chiu ca cng in trng v du ca mi bn.
b. ln cng in trng gia hai bn l bao nhiu?
40 Mt bn kim loi c tch in dng c t nm ngang. t pha trn mt bn kim loi khc
tch in m nm song song v cch bn kim mt khong.
a. V hnh chiu ca cng in trng gia hai bn ny.
b. t vo mt qu cu c khi lng 1,8.10-5 kg th thy qu cu ny nm cn bng. Bit cng
in trng c ln 45000 V/m. Xc nh in tch ca qu cu ny.
41 Ngi ta t hai in tch q1 = -6 nC v q2 = 6 nC ln lt ti hai im A, B cch nhau 8 cm. Ti im
M, ngi ta o c cng in trng E1M vung gc vi E2M v ln E1M = 3.E2M.
a. Xc nh khong cch AM, BM.
b. Tnh cng in trng tng hp ti M.
42 Ngi ta t hai in tch im q1 = 4.10-10 C v q2 ti hai im A, B cch nhau 10 cm. Ti im M nm
cch A 6 cm, cch B 8 cm, ngi ta thy vect cng in trng tng hp c phng vung gc
vi cnh AB. Xc nh gi tr q2.
43 Gia hai bn kim loi c tch in tri du t nm ngang song song, ngi ta t mt qu cu kim
loi tch in m th thy qu cu nm cn bng. Bit khi lng v in tch ca qu cu ln lt l
3,2.10-5 kg v 1 pC.
a. Xc nh vect cng in trng gia hai bn.
b. Chm nh tay (khng ni t) vo qu cu, hin tng g xy ra?
44 Mt qu cu khi lng 0,05 g c treo bng mt si dy nh, khng co gin v t trong mt in
trng u hng t trn xung di, c cng 128000 V/m. Cho qu cu nhim in tch 4 nC.
Xc nh lc cng dy.
45 Mt qu cu khi lng 400 mg c treo bng mt si dy nh, khng co gin v t trong mt in
trng u hng t di ln trn, c cng l 6000 V/m. Phi cho qu cu nhim in bao nhiu
lc cng dy bng 0?
46 Mt qu cu tch in q = 6 nC c treo trong mt in trng u c cng 50000 V/m bng mt
si dy nh, khng co gin. Bit qu cu c khi lng 20 mg. Hy xc nh ln lc cng dy trong
hai trng hp:
a. Vect cng in trng hng xung.
b. Vect cng in trng hng ln.
47 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm thng ng trong khng gian. Ngi ta treo mt in
tch q = -4.10-9 C, khi lng 0,3 g vo mt si dy ri t vo gia hai bn th thy dy treo b lch mt
gc 45 so vi phng thng ng. Hi lc cng dy v ln cng in trng l bao nhiu?
48 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm thng ng trong khng gian (bn dng bn phi) to
thnh in trng u c cng 3.107 V/m. Ngi ta treo mt in tch q = -1,6.10-10 C, khi lng
300 mg vo mt si dy nh, khng co gin ri t vo gia hai bn. Tm lc cng dy v gc lch ca
dy so vi phng thng ng.
49 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm thng ng trong khng gian. Ngi ta treo mt in
tch q = -1,6.10-10 C, khi lng 300 mg vo mt si dy ri t vo gia hai bn th thy dy treo b
lch mt gc 10 so vi phng thng ng. Hi lc cng dy v ln cng in trng l bao
nhiu?
50 Mt qu cu tch in dng c t trong in trng u hng t tri qua phi v c treo bng
mt si dy nh, khng co gin. Ban u, dy treo qu cu b lch mt gc 30. Chm nh tay (khng
ni t) vo qu cu.
a. Gc lch ca si dy so vi phng thng ng lc ny l bao nhiu?
b. Xc nh t s lc cng dy trc v sau khi chm tay.

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