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TUTORIAL 1 For Geertz: 1.

Culture is a template of categories and symbols stored within the human mind and imposed upon the external environment to generate meanings, which is learned through processes of socialisation. 2. Perception of the environment is indirect, involving the imposition of catego ries onto otherwise chaotic, disordered experience. So, in order to act in the w orld we need to order that which we sense, and culture provides us with ways of ordering it. 3. The environment is a neutral canvas onto which humans impose meaning. Nature an d culture are therefore distinct. 4. Language and symbolic thought are a precondition for making meaning of experi ence. For Ingold: 1. Organisms cannot be understood except as part of their environment which they help to comprise as one indivisible totality. 2. Perception is a direct engagement between organisms and their environments th rough which they acquire knowledge of potential action. 3. Meaningful action is not based on language or symbolic thought, even if this secondary cognitive-linguistic action is important in human life. 4. Culture is the ongoing process through which humans discover meaning in their environments from the possibilities for action that their environments and spec ific things in it - afford. Through culture we learn from one another ways of en gaging with these possibilities.