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ARCHAIC BOOKKEEPING Early Writing and Techniques of Economie Administration in the Ancient Near East Hans J. Nissen Peter Damerow Robert K. Englund Translated by Paul Larsen ‘The University of Chicago Press Chicago and London Hans J. Nissen and ROBERT K. ENGLUND are both at the University of Berlin, Nissen is professor of the archaeology of the ancient Near East, ‘and Englund teaches in the Seminar for the Ancient History of the Near East, PETER DaMEROW is a historian of mathematics at the Max Planck Institute, Berlin. PAUL LARSEN is a doctoral candidate at the Jniversity of Berlin. ‘The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 ‘The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London © 1993 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved, Published 1993 Printed in the United States of America 02:01 00.99 989796959493 12345 ISBN: 0-226-58659-6 (cloth) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nissen, Hans Jorg, [Ftwhe Schrift und Techniken der Wirtschaftsverwaltung im alten \Vorderen Orient. English} ‘Archaic bookkeeping : carly writing and techniques of economic dmiinistration in the ancient Near East} Hans J, Nissen, Peter Damerow. Robert K. Englund ; translated by Paul Larsen. Bm, Originally published as “Frihe Schrift und Techniken der Wirtschafts- verwaltung im alten Vorderen Orient: Informationsspeicherung und -verarbeitung vor S000 Jabwren”—CIP verso tp, Includes bibliographical references and index. 1, Sumerian language—Texts—Exhibitions. 2, Economic history—To 500—Exhibitions. 3. Mathematics, Babylonian—Exhibitions, I. Damerow, Peter. Il. Englund, Robert K. III. Title PIMOTS.NS713. 1993 499" , 95—4ie20 93-909 Originally published as Frithe Schrift und Techniken der Wirtschaftsverwaltung im alten Vorderen Orient: Informationsspeicherung und -verarbeitung vor 5000 Jahren, © 1990, verlag franzbecker. ‘The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American . National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.