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Gia va e'iJaH II I ,oe gii

Quan tri Mark trong cac Doanh nghi,p Vua va N

Quan tr] Marketing trong cac Doanh nghi,p VlJa va Nho

ChU'cMg trinh philt ~ d.,- in Me king

Gia Va Chien h/Qc gia

r ? l.. I'

TAl BAN LAN THU I

Quan tr] Marketing trong cac Doanh nghi,p ViJa va Nho

Gia Va Chien h/Qc gia

TAl BAN LANTHlfl

ChUOl1g trlnh Phat trien DlJ an Me Kong tai tro

Chu' ..... trinh phat trii!n dU' an Me king

OPEN LEARNING AGENCY

Canada's lifelong Learning Prowier

Vien Dai hoc Mo OLA (Canada) bien so~n

Cuon sach nay do Chuong trmh Phat tri~n Dt! an Me Kong gift' ban quyen © 2001

Khong diroc sao chep hoac sua deli neu khong diroc phep bang van ban cua ChUOl1g trinh Phat trien DlJ an Me Kong.

unr v

Cuon sikh nay diroc xay dung tren co so tai lieu giang day tren 16'p do Vi~n Quan tr] Kinh doanh - D~i hoc Kinh te Quoc dan, Hit Nc)i phat trien voi slJ tai tro cua Clurong trmh Ph at tri~n DJ! an Me Kong. Nhom bien soan tai lieu do Thac sl Nguyen Quynh Chi chiu trach nhiem chinh. Cuon sach nay khong diroc sao chep hoac sua d6i khi chua

duoc phep bang van ban cua Chuang trinh Phat trien DJ! an Me Kong,

..

Chtrong trtnh PMt trien DV an Me Kong (MPDF) diroc thanh lap nam 1997 nham hO tro sir hlnh thanh va phat trien cua cac doanh nghiep nr nhan vira va nho 0 Viet Nam, Lao va Campuchia. MPDF h6 tro ky thuat eho cac doanh nghiep trong qua trinh chuan bi cac dir an dfiu tu voi qui rno tir 250.000 den 10 trieu dola My. MPDF cling tai tro viec dao tao cac nha quan ly doanh nghiep vira va nho, cac ngan hang cap tin dung eho cac doanh nghiep vira va nho, cling nhir cac t6 chtrc cung cap dich vu hO tro cho doanh nghiep, MPDF duoc dieu hanh boi Cong ty Tai chfnh Quoc te (IFC) va diroc tai tro btri Ngan hang PhM trien Chau A (ADB), Oxtraylia, Canada, Phan Lan, Cong ty Tai chinh Quoc te (IFC), Nhat Ban, Na Uy, Thuy Di~n, Thuy Si va Vuong qu6c Anh. Neu can biet them thong tin, xin lien he vm bat ky van phong nao cua MPDF tai Ha Noi, Thanh ph6 H6 Chi Minh, Phnom Penh, hoac Vieng Chan theo dia chi sau:

Ha Nl)i, Vi~t Nam (Trl,l sa chinh) 63 Pho Ly Thai T6, Tfing 7

Dien thoai: (84-4) 824 7892

Fax: (84-4) 8247898

Thanh ph6 H6 Chi Minh, Vi~t Nam Somerset Chancellor Court

Phong 3B, Lau 3

21-23 Nguyen Thi Minh Khai, Quan 1 Dien thoai: (84-8) 823 5266

Fax: (84-8) 823 5271

Phnom Penh, Campuchia 175 Norodom Boulevard Sangkat Boeung Keng Kang 1 Dien tho~i:(855-23) 21 9365 Fax: (855-23) 21 9361

Vleng Chan, Lao

Nehru Road, Pathou Xay PO Box 9690

Dien thoai: (856-21) 450017 Fax: (856-21) 450020

VI,I Doanh nghiep Vira va NhO, Ngan hang The giOi 2121 Pennylvania Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20433, USA

Dien thoai: 202-473-6683

Fax: 202-522-3742

Gidi thleu

Chlfdng trinh Dao tao Quan Iy

danh cho cac Doanh nghi~p ve« va Nho

Tang quan

Chuang trinh. Dew tao Qudn Ij danh cho cdc Doanh nghi¢p Vua va Nhd dUQ'c bien soan cho cac nha quan Iy va chu doanh nghiep vira va nho. La ngum chu hoac ngiroi quan Iy doanh nghiep nho, ban quan tam den nhieu khia canh cua viec dieu hanh mot doanh nghiep. Chuang trlnh nay se cung dip cho ban mot b(l tai lieu hirong dln ve marketing trong quan ly doanh nghiep. B<? tai lieu nay de cap d~n cac chu de sau:

• Xac dinh cac khai niem marketing

• Thu thap thong tin ve khach hang.

• Phat trien cac thong tin ve qua trlnh va xu huong mua hang cua khach hang

• Xac dinh va hra chon th] tnrong rnuc tieu phil hop.

• K~ hoach hoa va phat tri~n san pham.

• Phat trien marketing chu trong m6i quan he va dich vu khach hang.

• Phat tri~n chien Iu<,>'C quang cao cho doanh nghiep

• Dinh gia va chien IUQ'c ve gia.

Be? tai lieu ve marketing cua Chuang trinh Dao tao Qudn Ij dann cho cac Doanh nghiep Vua va Nhd diroc bien soan nham giup cac chu doanh nghiep va nha quan Iy doanh nghiep narn viing ttlt cii cac bu6'c trong qua trtnh marketing. M6i cu6n sach nghien CUll mot khia Cl;U1h cu the cua hoat dong marketing. Qua tirng cu6n sach v6 marketing, ban se hoc duoc each I~p ke' hoach marketing va U'ng dung k~ hoach do vao thtrc t€ doanh nghiep mlnh, Cac cu6n sach v6 marketing bao gom nhtmg noi dung chinh nhir sau:

• Giai thich st,r khac nhau gifra nhu cau tt,r nhien, nhu cau C1,l th~ va nhu cau c6 kha nang thanh toan cua khach hang.

• Phan biet dUQ"c su khac nhau giita d:;tc di~m va loi ich cua san pham rna ngtroi ban hang ban cho khach hang.

• Xay dung ke' hoach marketing Sao cho phil hop voi ke hoach kinh doanh t6ng th~ cua doanh nghiep,

• M6 ta cac bUGC lap ke hoach marketing.

• Xac dinh thong tin va thu thap cac thong tin can thiet cho viec ra cac quyet dinh v~ chien luoc marketing.

• Xac dinh va thu thap thong tin v~ khach hang va tir khach hang.

• PMn tich va phan doan thi tnrong trong kinh doanh.

• L1,1"a chon cac thi tnrong muc tieu phil hop cho doanh nghiep.

• Xac dinh d~c tinh cua thi tnrong muc tieu hien tai va tirong lai.

• Phan tich cac chien liroc gia khac nhau tren g6c d¢ dinh vi san pham va dich V1,l.

• Xac dinh chien hroc gia cho timg thi tnrong muc tieu hien tai va nrong lai.

• Phat tri~n cac chien IUQ"c khuech tnrong va quang cao san pham,

Phlldng phap nghien cuu cuon sach

Cu6n sach nay diroc bien soan voi muc lieu d~ ban c6 th6 t1,1" nghien ciru. Mac du cac cu6n sach dtroc bien soan hoan chinh, nhirng neu ban duoc huang dan, nr van va trao d6i thong tin phan h6i thi hieu qua hoc se cao hon. M6i cu6n sach gom c6:

• Kien tlurc co ban: gom nhimg thong tin chi tiet, nhtrng 1m giai thich va cac VI du minh hoa cho cac khai niem quan trong,

• Bal tap t., kh~m tra: gitip ban khang dinh kha nang tiep thu nhirng kien thirc co ban dii duoc hoc,

• Bai tap thuc hanh: d6 ban khang dinh kha nang ap dung nhirng kien thirc dii hoc vao thuc ti~n.

ii

• Bid t(tp tlnh hu6ng: cho phep ban ket hop mot s6 khai niem va ling dung chung vao cac tinh hu6ng thirc til~n tai cac doanh nghiep vita va nho.

• K€ hoach U'ng dung: cho phep ban timg biroc ap dung kien thtrc da hoc vao thuc tien cong viec tai doanh nghiep,

HQc d dau

Ban co thl doc sach d bA't cu noi dau. Song de dat hieu suat cao nhat, ban nen tranh nhimg noi 6n ao va co vo ruyen.

HQc luc nao

Dieu nay hoan toan phu thuoc vao ban, Co the ban chi mat 8 tieng dong h6 la da hoc xong mot cu6n sach, nhung neu ban can nhieu thoi gian hon thi cling khong nen 10 I11ng vi voi m6i men hoc khac nhau, moi ngum deu hoc vci t6c d(J khac nhau. T6t nhat la nen d~t ke hoach tnroc va danh mot khoang thOi gian nao do trong nhfrng ngay nhat dinh de hoan thanh mot cuon sach thl se hieu qua hon,

HQC nhl1the nao

Khong nen qua non nong, hay b6 trf mot thOi gian bieu d~u dan, vi du nhu m6i Ian chi hoc mot tieng. HQc deu dan se co ket qua t6t hon nhieu la thinh thoang hoc don trong mot thoi gian dai.

Hay chuyen tarn vao nhOng dieu ban dang hoc, doc, ghi chep, hoan thien phan bai tap tu kiem tra, bai tap thuc hanh, va bai tl)p tinh huong. Ban co tht thao luan ve cac y nrong va kinh nghiem thuc te voi nhOng ngtroi khac, vi nhir vay se giup ban nang cao sl! hitu biet va khac sau nhirng gl mlnh da hQC.

Sau khi dii hoan thanh cac phan bai t~p trong cu6n sach, ban se bat tay vao phan (rug dung chung trong viec xay dung ke' hoach ung dung, Hay trao d6i voi cac dong nghiep trong doanh nghiep cua ban dt KAy dung ke hoach irng dung. Hay cu thli hoa k€ hoach hanh dong thanh tirng biroc va hrong dinh thoi gian de hoan thanh timg biroc do. Nen nho k€ hoach (rug dung nay la mot cong cu huong dan het suc linh hoat, khong phai la mot khuon khb crmg nhac, Vai thang mot Ian, ban phai kiem tra lai k€ hoach tmg dung cua ban va dieu chinh, neu thay can thiet.

iii .

Co thi tim sl! giup da d diu

• Chinh ban than mmh, Hay e6 gang hoc lai, Ditng be) cuoc. Neu ban van chua hieu, d~u bu6i hoc tiep thea hay doc lai rn¢t l~ ntta,

• Gia 41nh ban, ban be, hoac d6ng -iighi~p. Ngay ea khi ho khong hieu chu de rna ban dang trao d6i tht trong qua trinh thao luan biet dau cau tra Uri lai 106 len ngay trong d~u ban.

• Giao vien hu6ng din cua ban. B~ co th~ tiep xiic, yeu cau s\! giup dO' tit phia cac giang vien va chuyen vien tIT van.

• Tac gia. Cho de'n thang 9 nam 200 1, Chirong trinh Phat trien DI! an Me Kong (MPDF) se chuyen cac cau hoi cua ban co lien quan d€n nei dung eu6n sach 1m tac gia, De nghi girl fax, thir hoac thir dien til tm MPDF (xern dia chi cua MPDF-trong phan Phieu Danh gia l:J cu6i cu6n sach),

iv

Muc luc

• •

Gi61 thieu Chuang trmh f)ao tao Quan Iy danh cho cac

Doanh nghiep Vua va NhO .i

T6ng quan i

Pturon ha hie UU' 6' ich ..

Vllg P ap ng len e eu n sac 11

H 'd ...

9C (j. au 111

H 1, , ...

QC uc nao 111

H h h' " ...

QC nut e nao Ill

Co the tim sir giiip do d dau .iv

Tong quan ve Cuon sach 1

Muc tieu 1

Nhfrng yeu to anh hmmg t61 viec d!nh gia 3

Nhtrng yeu t6 ben trong doanh nghiep anh lurong toi viec dinh gia 4

Muc tieu marketing 4

Chien luoc marketing h6n hop 5

Chi phi 5

Nhiing yeu t6 ben ngoai doanh nghiep rum hirong den vice dinh gia 7

Thi tnrong va nhu cau 7

D6i thu canh tranh 7

Nhirng yeu t6 ben ngoai khac 7

Nhiing yeu t6 ruth huong gia cao va gia thap 9

Cac phucng phap dinh gla eo him 11

Dinh gia theo gia thanh 11

Dinh gia theo canh tranh 13

Dinh gia thea gia tri 15

Chie I . ,? h;? '" 17

len iroc gia san p am moo .

Dinh gia hot vang sua 17

Dinh gia tharn nhap thi twang 18

T6ng ket Cuon sach 25

Ke hoach tmg dung 27

Ke' hoach irng dung la gi? 27

Lam the' nao d~ hoan thanh mot Ke' hoach irng dung? 27

L' ". K A" h h ti d ? 27

am gi VOl e O<;lC l1I1g \lng... .

Biroc tiep theo 28

Phu lue A - Dap an 33

Phu Iuc B - Chu giai Thuat ngu u •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 45

Phu luc C - Thong tin bo sung 69

Tang quan ve Cuon sach

Gia ca chi la mot phan trong k~ hoach marketing (con goi la h6n hop marketing) dt tao ra doanh thu, Tat ca cac hoar dong marketing khac deu din co chi phi. Gia ca cting la phan linh hoat nhat cua hon hop marketing, bci no co tht dtroc dieu chinh nhanh chong, nhanh han nhieu so voi viec thay dOl thiet ke' san pham hay thay dOi kenh phan phoi.

Dinh gia la viec kho khan 160 nhat doi voi nhieu chu doanh nghiep va nha quan ly cac doanh nghiep vita va nho. Hau h~t cac doanh nghiep deu khong lam t6t cong tac dinh gia. Thirong ho qua clui trong van dinh gia thea gia thanh. Mot sai Him tlnrong thay trong dinh gia la khong dieu chinh gia thea nhirng thay dOi cua thi tnrong, dinh gi<i khong tinh den tat cit cac thanh phan khac cua k~ hoach marketing va chua phan biet gia doi voi cac san pham khac nhau, cac nhom khach hang (thi tnrong muc tieu) va cac nhu cau mua khac nhau.

Cuon sach nay nghien coo van d6 dinh gia, Cu6n sach xem xet nhfrng yeu to' can can nhac khi dinh gia va trinh bay cac plurong phap dinh gia khac nhau.

Muc dich chinh ella cuon sach nay nham chi ra rang co nhtrng yeu t6 ca trong doanh nghiep va d a moi tnrong xung quanh anh huang tci quyet dinh v6 gia d. Cu6n sach cting eho thay cac plurong phap dinh gia khac nhau rna ta co tM ap dung, va neu hal chien hroc dinh gia co han cho san pharn moi,

Cu6n sach nay gia dinh rang ban dii biet san pham cua minh la gl (Cuon sach 5) va khach hang muc tieu cua ban Ia ai (Cu6n sach 4).

Muc tleu

.

. Khi hoan thanh nghien CUu cu6n sach nay, ban se co kha nang t6t hon trong viec:

1. Neu duoc nhtrng yeu t6 ben trong va ben ngeai doanh nghiep anh huang 1m viec dinh gia,

2. Neu duoc ba phirong phap dinh gia co ban.

3. Trinh bay duoc hai chien hroc dinh gia. cho san pham moi.

Gia va Chien lU(1C gia

I

NhUng yeu toanh huang tdi vi~c dlnh gia

D6i v6i mot s6 ngiroi, gia don gian chi la s6 tien dci mua mot san pham hay dich vu. Nhirng nguoi khac lai coi gia nhtr th~ hien tong Ich Ioi rna khach hang nhan duoc tir san pham.

Gia thuong la yeu t6 chu yeu trong quyet dinh mua hang cua khach hang. Dieu nay d*c biet dung v6i cac nhu yeu pham va hrong thirc hang ngay, nhung khi khach hang da co nhieu loai san pham d~ lua chon thi nhimg yeu t6 ngoai gia ca lai co anh hireng 1&1 hem t6i quyet dinh mua hang.

Viec dinh gia ph", thuoc vao chi phi va muc tieu marketing cua doanh nghiep, cling nhir ban chat cua thi tnrong, sue canh tranh, nhu cau cua khach hang va nhfrng yeu t6 ben ngoai khac, Xin xem tom tat a Hinh 1 va chi tiet a phan tiep theo.

Yeu to' ben trong

Yeu to' ben ngoili

• Chien ILlQC marketing han hqp

Quyet dlnh vegia

• Ban chat clla thi trLlang va nhu cau

• Ml,lc tieu marketing

• Canh tranh

• Chi phi

• Cac yeu t6 khac (n~n kinh te, chinh phu, V.v ...

Hinh 1: Nhfrng yeu t6 can can nhac khi quyet dinh ve gia,

Gid va Chien lut/c gia

3

BAI T!P TV KI~M TRA 1

Nhfrng yeu t6 nao anh hiroug tci quyet dinh v~ gia?

o Chi phi va muc tieu marketing ella doanh nghiep,

o D~c tfnh thi tnrong cua doanh nghiep,

o C~nh tranh.

o Nhu cau cua khach hang.

o Nhirng yeu t6 ben ngoai khac,

o T~t ca cac yeu t6 tren deu anh hueng den quyet dinh vt, gia,

NhCing yeu to ben trong doanh nghi~p anh hLtCfng tai vi~c dlnh gia

Nhtmg yeu t6 ben trong doanh nghiep anh lurong den quyet dinh v6 gia g6m muc tieu marketing, ke hoach marketing, chi phi marketing va each tlurc dinh gia cua doanh nghiep,

Ml}C tieu marketing

Cac doanh nghiep phai xac dinh chien hroc marketing cua minh tnrcc khi dinh gia san pham, Neu doanh nghiep dii Iva chon thi tnrong muc tieu va dinh vi t6t thl chien hroc marketing hon hop, trong do co gia, se r~t don gian, Doanh nghiep cang xac dinh ro muc tieu thl cang d~ dinh gia,

• Doanh nghiep nao phai dau nr 160 vao may moe, thiet bi neu gap phai tlnh hu6ng dtr thira cong suat qua nhieu, hay g~p phai sire canh tranh qua kh6c liet tht co tM d~t muc tieu don gian Iii. phai t6n tai diroc. Doanh nghiep co the dinh gia thap dti duy tri san xuat.

4

Gia va Chien luoc gia

• Doanh nghiep nao muon dan dftu ve thi phan can phai dinh mire gia thap nhat co tM de tang thi phan.

• Doanh nghiep nao muon dan dau ve chat hrong se phai dfiu nr nhieu vao nghien ciru va trien khai, van hoat dong marketing va dinh gia cao hon, khong chi do chi phi cao rna can do nhttng fch Ioi uu viet hay doc dao cua san pham rna doanh nghiep eung cap cho khach.hang.

Chien ILl'qc marketing h6n hqp

Gia chi Ia mot trang nhttng cong cu trong h6n hop marketing rna doanh nghiep sir dung M dat diroc rnuc tieu marketing cua minh. Neu doanh nghiep muon co met chirong trmh marketing nhat quan va hieu qua thi viec dinh gia phai duoc phoi hop voi viec thiet ke san pharn, each thirc phan phoi toi khach hang cuoi cung, each tlnrc khuech tnrong va quang cao. Quyet dinh lien quan den nhirng yeu to nay cua hon hop marketing se anh hircng tai quyet dinh ve gia. Chang han Nha Xinh la cong ty noi that huong van nhfmg mau rna moi va hien dai diroc tnrng bay mot each dong bo. Cira hang tnrng bay ciia cong ty a nhimg khu V\!C sang trong va kieu tnrng bay nQi that rat hap din trang khong gian thirc cua phong a. Cong ty quang cao tren Tap chi N(Ji thdt. Nha Xinh dinh gia cao hon nhieu so voi cac doi thu canh tranh ban tnrc tiep tir xuong rna khong qua trimg bay.

Thong thirong dau tien ngiroi ta quyet dinh ve gia va sau do nhirng quyet dinh ve cac d.;tc diem cua san pham, phan phoi san pham va quang colo deu dira tren mire gia nay. Gia se quyet dinh thi tnrong, su canh tranh va mau rna cua san pharn, Quyet dinh ve gia se quyet dinh dac diem cua san pham va chi phf san xuat cua doanh nghiep,

Chi phi

Chi phi la can cu de doanh nghiep dinh gia san pham, Gia phai trang trai het cac chi phi san xuat, phan phoi va ban sao pham dong thoi tao ra dtroc loi nhuan hop ly eho nhimg n6 lire va rui ro rna doanh nghiep ganh chiu, MQt so doanh nghiep canh tranh bing each giii chi phi san xuat thap va dinh gia thap hon doi thu canh tranh. MQt so doanh nghiep khac lai canh tranh bing each tao ra mot san pham hoan roan dQC dao va cam ket duy tri chat hrong cao cho san pham va dich V1) khach hang. Mac chi phf cao hon doi hoi phai ap dung chien hroc gia cao hon.

Cia va Chien luoc gia

5

,~ ~

BAI T ~p TV KIEM TRA 2

1. Nhirng yeu t6 ben trong nao anh hirong t61 viec dinh gia?

o Muc tieu marketing cua doanh nghiep,

O. K€ hoach marketing cua doanh nghiep.

o Chi phi san pham.

o each tlurc quyet dinh ve gia a doanh nghiep,

o T~t ca cac yeu t6 tren deu anh huong d€n quyet dinh ve, gia,

2. Quyet dinh v~ gia phai duoc ph6i hop voi:

o Mau ma cua san pham,

o Cach tlnrc phan ph6i san pham t61 khach hang cu6i cling.

o each thirc khuech tnrong va quang cao san pham,

o Quyet dinh v~ gia phai dircc ph6i hop vci t~t ca cac yeu t6 tren.

Muc tieu marketing ro rang se ph6i hop tat ea cac thanh t6 eua marketing h6n hep d~ dlnh ra rmrc gili c6 th~ trang trai tat ca cac chi pht cua doanh nghiep va tao Ic;ri nhuan hQ"PlY·

6

Giti va Chien luac gia

Nhung yeu to ben ngoai doanh nghi~p anh hlfdng den vi,c dinh gia

Nhtmg yeu to' ben ngoai anh huong den quyet dinh ve gia cua doanh nghiep gom co; ban chat cua thi tnrong, SIlC canh tranh, nhu cau cua khach hang va nhtmg yeu to' ben ngoai khac,

Th] trLtOng va nhu cau

Chi phi quy dinh rrnrc gia t6i thieu, con mire gia rna khach hang san sang tra se quy dinh rmrc gia t6i da. Ngiroi chu va ngiroi quan 19 doanh nghiep phai hi€u m6i quan he giira gia va nhu cau ve mot san phdm tnroc khi tien hanh dinh gia,

Xet cho cung thl ehinh khach hang la ngiroi quyet dinh xem gia ella san phdm co phil hop hay khong, Doanh nghiep thay kho co tM biet diroc gia tri ella san pham thea con mat ella khach hang. Chang han khach hang a thanh thi danh gia cao eho son moi hon Ia khach hang a nong thon, Nhung khach hang luon sir dung nhirng gia tri ella rieng minh d€ can nhac ve rmrc gia cua san pham, HQ se khong mua san phdm neu gia cao han gia tri rna ho thu diroc. HQ chi mua san pham neu no cho ho gia tri it nhat ding phai bang rmrc gia mua. Va khong phai khach hang nao ciing do hrong gia tri thea cling mot each. Vi du, mot phu nff a thanh pho se san sang bo 200.000 dong d€ mua mot cay son moi, nhung (j nong thon thi chang ai tra den mire gia do, du cho ho co du tien di chang nira. Ngtroi dan nong thon khong coi city son moi dang gia nhir vay.

noi thu canh tranh

Viec tim hieu chi phf va gia ella d6i thu canh tranh la rat quan trong. Ciing nit can biet xem cac d6i thu canh tranh se phan img nhu the nao d6i voi nhtrng thay d6i ve gia san pham cua ban. MQt khach hang mua do g6 se can nhac ve gia cua san pham va so sanh vci gia va gia tri cua cac san pham nrong til cua cac doanh nghiep khac.

Nhftng yeu to' ben ngoai khac

MQt doanh nghiep ciing phai nghien cuu nhirng yeu to' khac trong moi twang ben ngoai co tM anh hirong den thi twang, nhu cau, canh tranh, hay each tlnrc kinh doanh. Nhiing dieu ki¢n kinh te' nhir thinh virong hay suy thoai, liii suat va ty I~

Gid va C hien luac gia

7

d~u tu trong mroc se anh huang t6'i ca chi phi san xuat va quan niem cua khach hang v~ gia tri cua san pham. Chinh pllu cling co the gay anh huang den quyet dinh v6 gia khi danh thue vao cac giao dich kinh doanh phuc vu san xuat, phan ph6i va ban san pham. Luat thue gia tr] gia tang chang han da anh huang toi chi phi san ph am va phai dtroc th~ hien trong gia ban. Cong nghiJ mai cling anh huang t6'i viec dinh gia thong qua viec giam chi phi san xuat va tao san pham moi co gia cao , v6'i nhtrng di:\e tfnh va cong dung di:\c biet. Mljt ti-vi man hinh phang se cho hinh anh chat hrong cao va gia cao hon so v6'i ti-vi thong thtrong la 30%. Nhiing yeu to' hen ngoai khdc cling anh huang den viec dinh gia, Vi du: thien tai nhu ][j lut se anh huang den gia v~t lieu xay dung.

BAI T ~P TlJ KlEM TRA 3

Di~n vao chb tr6ng trong nhUng cau sau day,

1.

Chi phi quy dinh mire gia t6i thieu, con se quy

dinh mire gia t6i da.

2. Khach hang se khong mua san pham neu gia ban _

hon gia tr] ella san pham.

3. Can phai biet se ph an img nhu the nolo doi v6'i nhfrng thay d6i v6 gia san pham cua ban.

4. Cac dieu kien kinh t~ (thinh virong hay suy thoai, Iai suat va ty l~ d~u nr

trong mroc) se anh huang toi ca va

Nhnng yeu to ben ngoal doanh nghlep co anh huang 100 doi vot quyet dinh ve gia.

8

Cia va Chien luac gia

Nhftng yeu to anh hU'dng gia cao va gia thap

. M9t so san pham ban gia cao va mot so khac ban gia thap, San pham gia cao va san pham gia thap deu co mot so dac diem rieng (x em Hlnh 2).

San pharn gia cao thuong la san pham -cong nghe cao doi hoi phai co nhan cong lanh nghe bac cao trong san xuat. Nhitng san pham nay cling thirong doi hoi dau tu 100 cho cong tac nghien ctru va trien khai cling nhu de cao tam quan trong cua viec cung cap dich vu khach hang tot, tham chi phai hoan hao, va tao dung mot hinh anh rieng biet ve nhan hieu san pharn. Dien thoai di dong va phan mem may tfnh la cac VI du tieu bi~u cho loai san pham gia nay.

San pham gia thap thirong san xuat dai tra va co gia thanh thap boi viec ap dung phirong phap san xuat va may moe thiet bi chuyen mon, lam tang hieu qua va cat giam chi phf. Cac doanh nghiep san xuat va ban san pham gia thap, co san pharn san xuat hang loar thuong kiem soat chat vt ngan sach, phan phoi thong qua cac kenh phan phoi dai tra va ap dung bien phap quang cao dai chung toi nhieu ngiroi, Bot giat va rnl an lien la cac VI du tieu bieu cho loai san pham gia thap,

Gia cao

• Cong ngh~ cao

• Lao d9n9 lanh nghe

• 8iiu tl1lan vao nghien ceu va tri4n khai

• Dich vl,l khach hang hoan hao

• Hlnh anh san ph~m an tlIqng

• Khuech trl1C1ng tr9ng diem

Gia thap

• San xuat hang IO~1

• ChuyM man hoa c6ng vj~c

• Ki4m scat ch~t va t<ii chinh

• Kenh pMn ph6i Ian

• Khuech tnronq d~i chUng

Sanl~ng

Hinh 2: Gia cao va gia thap.

San pham gla cao va san pham gia thap co nhtrng d~c di~m rieng.

Cia vu Chien luoc gia

9

BAI T!P THVC HANH 1

Dien vao bang sau hai san pham gia cao vahai sim pham gia thap rna ban da mua va neu cac dl)c di~m ve gia cua chung,

Dl)c di~m ella san pham - Cong nghe cao

- Tay nghe cao

- Dliu tu 1&1 vao nghien cuu va trien

khai

- Dich VlJ khach bang hoan hao

- Hmh anh san phdm rat an nrong

- Khuech tnrong co trong diem

- C6ng nghe cao

- Tay nghe cao

- Dau nr 1&1 vao nghien ciru va tri~n

khai

- Dich VlJ khach hang hom hao

- Htnh anh san pham rat a:n nrong

- Khuech tnrong co trong diem

Dl)e di~m ella san phdm - Sin xuat hang loat

- san xuat chuyen mon hoa

- Ki~m soat chat ve tai chinh

- H¢ thong phan ph6i Ion

- Khuech wong dai cluing

- Sin xuar hang loat

- Sin xu at chuyen mon boa

- Kiemsoat.chi)tve tai chfnh

- H¢ th6ng phan ph6i IOn

- Khuech tnrong d~i chung

A.

San phdm gia cao ban da mua

1., ___

2., _

B.

San phim gia thap ban da mua

1., _

2., -- ___

10

Gia va Chien luoc gia

Cae phLfdng phap dinh gia co ban

Mot doanh nghiep dinh gia han khong trang trai bet diroc cac chi phi cua minh se khong th~ ton tai lau trong thtrong tnrong, Mot doanh nghiep dinh mire gia rna khong khach hang nao chap nhan diroc thl som muon cling se bi Ioai fa khoi thi tnrong. Chi phi (gia thanh) san pham quy dinh nurc gia ban toi thieu, con quan niem cua khach hang v~ gia tri cua san pham se quy dinh mire gia han toi da. Cac doanh nghiep cling can phai biet diroc cac doi thu canh tranh cua mlnh dang dinh gia nhtr the nao doi voi cac sin pham nrong nr, bOi khach hang bao giO' cling so sanh gia, Ba phirong phap dinh gia co bin diroc trinh bay trong phan nay la:

• Dinh gia thea gia thanh.

• Dinh gia theo canh tranh.

• Dinh gia theo gia tri,

Dinh gia theo gia thanh

. .

Phuong phap dinh gia don gian nhat la dinh gia "chi phi cong" - cong them mot rmrc chenh.lech chuan van gia thanh san pharn. Phuong phap nay diroc cac doanh nghiep thtrong mai sir dung rong rai. Mire chenh lech 20% voi mot doi giay gia thanh 100.000 d6ng se la 20.000 d6ng va san pham se duoc ban voi gia 120.000 dong.

Mire chenh leoh eo tM diroc tinh tren co s6 gia thanh (nhu vi du tren), hay tren co so gia ban. M(H san pham co gia 150.000 dong va gia thanh 100.000 dong c6 ty l~ chenh lech 33% tfnh thea gia ban GiO.000/150.000 = 33%). Cac doanh nghiep ban Ie rat cfu phai hieu s\J khac biet gitia ty l¢ chech lech thea gia thanh va ty l~ chenh lech thea gia han. Cac doanh nghiep cling can phai Slr dung nhat quan can eli' tinh mire chenh lech gia,

Gia va Chien luac gia

J1

Dinh gia t'chi phi cong" khong tinh den ca nhu cau ve san pham IAn gia cua d6i thu canh tranh, do do kho dan den mac gia t6i iru cho doanh nghiep. Nhung day van la plurong phap phd bien VI mot so nguyen nhan, Thtr nhat, ngiroi ban co nhieu thong tin ve chi phi han la ve nhu cau, Quyet dinh ve gia cung don gian han. Khi moi doanh nghiep trong nganh deu si'r dung mot plurong phap dinh gia, gia se co xu huang giong nhau va se khong co nhieu canh tranh ve gia. Cu6i cung, nhieu nguOi cho rang dinh gia "chi phi cong" cong bang voi ca ngiroi mua va ngiroi ban bci no cho phep doanh nghiep co mac loi nhuan hop 19 rna khong lQi dung khach hang qua dang.

Nha san xuat khong don thuan ban lai san ph Am cua ngiroi khac nen khong the su dung phuong phap "chi phi cong" don gian, HQ che tao ra san phsrn va do do can tinh den cac chi phi cau thanh. HQ thuong tinh den nam loai chi phi sau:

L Chi phi co dinh nlur tien thue nha xtrong, thiet bi, tra Uii vay va luang cho d¢i ngti quan 1:5' va gian tiep.

2. Chi phi nguyen vat lieu tnrc tiep la chi phi nguyen var lieu va cac chi phi dilu vao khac thuc su si'r dung de lam ra san pham,

3. Chi phi lao dong tnrc tiep Ia tien hrong tra cho nhtrng nguoi tnrc tiep san xuat.

4. Chi phi quan 19 nha xuong trong do co chi phi bao duong, sua chua nha xrrong, may moe thiet bi, he thong bao ve va cac chi phi van hanh nha xuong.

5. Cac chi phi marketing, ban hang va hanh chinh.

MQt doanh nghiep xac dinh diroc t<1t ca cac chi phi kha bien (nhtrng chi phi thay d6i khi tang hay giam san hrong) co tM sir dung nhfrng thong tin nay de tfnh toan di€m hoa von tire la su k~t hop giiia nurc gia va hrong ban ctin dat diroc de trang trai duoc moi chi phi da: tfnh toano Ngirci chu doanh nghiep va ngtroi quan 1:5' doanh nghiep co tM sir dung phirong phap phan tich diem hoa v6n nay de quyet dinh mire gia t6i l1U de hoa von va tao diroc mire loi nhuan mong muon.

12

Gia va Chien luoc gia

1. Tfnh tY t¢ chenn lech. thea gia thanh cua mot san pMm ban v6i gia 3.000

d6n~ va gia thanh 2.000 dong. _

2. Tinh tY l¢ chenn lech thea gia ban cua mot SilO pham ban v6i gia 3.000

d6ng va gia thanh 2.000 d6ng. ----

3. Mot san pham v6i gia thanh 4.500 dong ban & mire gia 6.000 d6ng. Tinh tY

/¢ chenn /¢ch thea gid thanh. _

4. Mot san pham v6i gia thanh 4.500 dong ban & rmrc gia 6.000 dong. Tfnh tY

I¢ chenh l¢ch thea gia ban. _

~~

1_'

Cac doanh nghi¢p phai hi~u sl! khac bi¢t ghra tf I¢ chenh lech theo gla thanh va tf I~ chenh lech theo gia han. Moi doanh nghiep deu phai nhat quan trong phuong phap dung d~ tinh tf I~ chenh lech.

£)inh gia theo canh tranh

Mot doanh nghiep dung phtrong phap dinh gia thea canh tranh khi mae gia dtra ra chu yeu can eu vao mire gia cua d6i thu canh tranh, it quan tam den ehi phf cua mlnh hay den nhu cau.

Cac doanh nghiep biet rang ngiroi mua thtrong can nhac rrurc gia cua minh bang each so sanh vai gia cac san pham canh tranh nrong 11.,. Ole doanh nghiep cung eo the so sanh nrong 11! va dinh gia thea ket qua so sanh, Ho se dinh gia cao hon d6i thu canh tranh neu san phtim cua ho co dac tinh hay hon hoac mang Iai nhieu Ioi Ich hon cho khach hang. Ho se dinh gia thap han neu san pham cua ho khong c6 diroc nhtrng dac tinh hay ieh loi nlnr cua d6i thu canh tranh, hoac khi ho dang c6 gang mb rong thi phan. Chang han, bot giat OMO dinh gia cao hon bot gi~t VISO bbi e6 chat lam trang soi vai khien quan ao trong nhu moi.

Gia va Chien IU(fC Kia

13

Cac doanh nghiep ban cac m~t hang nhu yeu phsm (nhu giay, muoi, gao hay dau hoa) biet rang san pham ciia ho ban ra khong co nhieu khac biet, nen noi chung ho deu dinh cung mot mire gia. Cac doanh nghiep nho thirong dieu chinh theo gia cua cac d6i tM canh tranh dang kiem soat phan 1611 thi tnrong.

Dinh gia theo mat bang chung, nrc Ia tAt ca cac doanh nghiep deu ap dung chung mot gia cho san phAm cua minh, Ui mot phuong phap dinh gia theo canh tranh. Phtrong phap nay tlurong ap dung khi kho do luong duge nhtmg thay d6i ve nhu diu theo nhfmg thay d6i ve gia, Gia theo mat bang chung, do vay diroc coi la trf tue tap th~ cua ca nganh bei day Iii gia cho phep co rrnrc 19i nhuan hop ly.

BAI T ~P TV KltM TRA 4

Danh dau vao () xem cac cau sau day Iii dung hay sai.

1. Dinh gia "chi phf cong'' nrc la dinh gia bang each cong them vao gia thanh san phAm mot mire chenh lech nhu 1.000 dong hay 25.000 dong.

DDung

o Sai

2. Doanh nghiep dinh gia theo diem hoa v6n dinh gia VOl muc dich hoa v6n hay dat diroc mot chi tieu 19i nhuan,

DDung

Q Sai

3. Dinh gia theo m~t bang chung Iii mot phirong phap dinh gia san pham theo gia thanh,

DDung

Q Sai

4. Dinh gia theo canh tranh Hi dinh gia chu yeu theo gia cua d6i thu canh tranh, it quan tam den chi phi cua minh hay den nhu cau.

DDung

o Sai

14

Gid va Chien luc;tc gia

flinh gia thee gia tr]

Dinh gia theo gia trilay quan niem cua ngtroi mua ve gia tri san pham - chu khong phai la chi phi cua nguoi ban - HUn co sa dinh gia, Gia diroc dinh cho phu hop vci quan niem ve gia tri. Dieu do co nghia la cac doanh nghiep khong th~ thiet k€ san ph am va xay dung k€ hoach marketing tnroc khi dinh gia. Gia dtroc can nhac dong thoi voi nhiing thanh t6 marketing khac (thiet k€ va d~e tinh san pham, plurong phap phan ph6i va khuech tnrong) khi xay dung ke hoach marketing.

Hlnh 3 so sanh dinh gia then gia thanh v6'i dinh gia then gia tri, Dinh gia then gia thanh l~y san pham lam trung tarn. Doanh nghiep thiet ke cai goi la mot san pham t6t, hach toan t6ng chi phi lam ra san pham do va dinh gia d~ trang trai diroc cac chi phi va thu dtroc mot mire I¢ nhuan nao do. HO<.J.t dong marketing ella doanh nghiep phai thuyet phuc dircc khach hang rang san ph Am eo mot gia tri it nMt cling bang rmic gia ban. N6u gia qua cao, doanh nghiep phai chap nhan giam chenh lech loi nhuan hay giam hrong ban, cii hai each deu lam giam loi nhuan,

Dinh gia theo gia tri W di nguoc lai qua trmh nay. Doanh nghiep dinh gia then quan niem ella khach hang ve nhii'ng ich lei va gia tri ella san pham, va dieu nay quyet dinh viec thiet ke san pham va muc chi phi san xuat cho phep .. Can cu d6 dinh gia chfnh la gia tri then quan niern cua khach hang.

Dinh gia theo gia thanh

San ph&m

Gia thanh

Gia ban

Gia tli

Khach hang

Djnh gia theo gia trj

Khach hang

Giii tr!

Hinh 3: Dinh gili theo gia thanh va dinh gili theo gili trio

Gia va Chien IU{1C gia

15

,~ K

BAI TAP 'rtr KIEM TRA 5

. .

Di~n van ch6 tr6ng trong nhtrng diu sau day.

1.

Dinh ghi thea gia tri lay cua nguci mua lam co sa de

dinh gia san pham,

2.

Dinh gia theo gia thanh lay lam trung tam.

-------

3.

Dinh gia thea gia tr] lay lam trung tarn.

16

Cia va Chien luoc gia

Gia cua mot san pharn bien dong theo vong doi cua no. Tung ra mot san pham rnoi co nhirng thach thirc rieng, Co hai chien Itroc rat khac nhau de hra chon. Phan nay de cap cac chien hroc dinh gia: hot vang sua va tham nhap thi tnrong.

£>inh gia hdt yang sua

Doanh nghiep khi co san phsm moi co th~ quyet dinh d~t mac gia ban dau rat cao rna chi nhftng khach hang ira d6i moi nhat moi san sang chap nhan, Viec ap dung mire gia cao hon bmh thirong la de thu hoi nhanh mot s6 chi phi phat trien va chi phi khuech tnrong ban dau cua san pham. Viec dinh gia eao hon him gia thanh dan vi vii. khuech tnrong manh san pham de thu hut mang thi tnrong khong nhay cam voi gia. Chien hroc dinh gia nay thuong cung co hinh anh doc nhat vo nhi va day uy tin cua doanh nghiep vii. tao dung hmh anh chat hrong cao cho san pham. Cac doanh nghiep ap dung chien luge nay d~ thu Ig1 nhuan t6i da til mot san pham maio

Doanh nghiep sau do se ha gia d~ nhorn khach hang tiep theo chap nhan mua, roi lai tiep tuc ha gia M san pham diroc su dung rong rai han vii. thu hut sl)' quan tam cua nhftng khach hang mal. Viec ha gia la d~ moi ngiroi thay co tM mua diroc san pham. Chien luge gia nay la M thu loi t6i da til moi nh6m khach hang trong thi tnrong, Sua rira mat Hazeline Iii. vi du chien hroc gia hat vang sua. Hang duoc nhap iU Anh va mot 19 50 ml hie dau ban voi gia 40.000 dong. Gio day gia ban phd bien la 18.000 dong.

Gia hat yang SUa khong phai hie nao ciing ap dung duoc. Chien hroc nay chi co y nghia khi thoa man mot s6 dieu kien nhat dinh, Nhimg dieu kien nay la:

Gia va Chien luoc Ria

17

• Chat hrong va hinh anh cua san pham phai nrong img voi mire gia cao.

• Phai co du s6 luong nguoi mua irng voi m6i rmrc gia,

• Gia thanh cho moi dan vi san pharn de san xuat so luong it khong cao han qua nhieu so voi gia thanh san xuat so hrong 16'0. (Trong tnrong hop nay, so hrong 16'0 han se co tM mang lai nhieu loi nhuan han, mac du nurc gia thap han).

• San pham phai doc dao de d6i thu canh tranh khong tM d~ dang xam nhap vao thi tnrong voi rrurc gia thap han.

BAI T~P THlfC HANH 3

Neu ba san pham ap dung chien hroc gia hot vang sua.

a) __

b) _

c) __

. Gia hot vang sua chi co tac dung khi san pham moo co nhtmg di;lc tinh va Ich IQi dc)c dao va khi d6i thu canh tranh khong th~ bat clnroc,

Djnh gia tharn nh~p th] trlldng

D6i lap vci chien hroc gia hat vang sua la chien hroc gia tham nhap thi tnrong. Muc dfch cua chien hroc nay Ia tharn nhap thi tnrong nhanh chong va chiem Iinh thi phan 160. Doanh nghiep tung san pham fa voi gia thap de khach hang chap nhan ngay va co tM phan phoi rong rai tren thi tnrong dai cluing.

Gia tharn nhap chi cao han gia thanh san pham chut It de doanh nghiep co the nhanh chong co cho dung tren thi tnrong va co the ban dtroc s6 hrong 16'0. San

18

Cia va Chien luac gia

pham moi tung ra thtrong di kern voi nhiing hoat dong quang cao va khuech tnrong 0 at, nhiing dot ban hang va giam gia d~c biet. Chang han, nhieu nha may nhan may dOng phuc h9C sinh voi rmrc chenh Iech loi nhuan rat thap. H9 lam the voi hy vong gia thap se giiip ho gianh duoc nhieu hop dong t11 cac tnrong phd thong,

MQt sO' doanh nghiep theo dudi chien hroc gia tharn nhap boi sO' hrong ban Ian cho phep ho cat giam hem. nira chi phi tren don V! san pham. Cac d6i thu canh tranh khong ban diroc sohrong Ian nhu vay se kh6ng the giam diroc chi phi va som bi loai ra khoi thi tnrong. Muc dich cua dinh gia tham nhap thi tnrong la dli kiem so at thi tnrong thong qua canh tranh v6 gia/chi phi va duy trl thi phan Ian nhat.

Chien luoc gia tham nhap khong phai hie nao cling ap dung duoc va khong phai hie nao cling la hay. Chien hroc nay chi co y nghia khi thoa man mot sO' dieu kien nhat dinh:

• Chien hroc gia tham nhap chi co tac dung neu khach hang rar nhay cam v6 gia ca. Neu ho khong nhay earn lam voi gia ca, gia thap co th~ khong thu hut dil khach hang.

• Chien hroc gia tham nhap chi thanh cong neu gia thanh sin xuat va phan phoi cho m6i don vi sin pham giarn nhieu khi tang hrong ban. Neu gia thanh cho m6i don vi san pham khong giam thl d6i thil canh tranh co the de dang bit kip va ap dung cung mot rmrc gia thap,

• Gia thap phai han che' canh tranh mot each hieu qua.

Cac doanh nghiep vira va nho phai nhan tlurc rang dinh gia tham nhap thi tnrong la mot chien hroc dai hoi va rmrc lei nhuan se khong Ian cho tm khi khach hang chap nhan san ph lim .

Chien Iunc gia tham nhap buec phai khong ngirog giam chi phi d~ han che canh tranh.

Gia va Chien luac gia

19

HAl T ~P TV KIEM TRA 6

Dien vao cho tr6ng trong nhiIng cau sau day.

1.

Muc dfch cua chien 111Q'c gia tham nhap la 1&1.

2.

Muc dich cua chien 111Q'c gia hot yang sua la 1&1.

3. Chien hroc gia tham nhap chi co tac dung khi gia thap _

va mot each hieu qua.

4. Gia hot yang sira chi co tac dung khi san pham moi co _

doc dao rna khong tM bat clnroc.

HAl T ~P THVC HANH 4

Neu ba san pham ap dung chien II1Q'c gia tham nhap.

a) __

b) ~ _

c) __

20

Gid va Chien IUI/c gia

---

./, A"" K

BAI T~P TINH HUONG 1

C()NG TY THANH D~T (F)

Luu y: Bai ~p ttnh huong v~ cong ty Thanh Dat dU<;1e si't dung trong mot so cuon sach thuoc bo sach marketing nay. van Iii cong ty do, nhung mlii hie thong tin lai khac nhau b6i chang ta phan tfch cac mang hoat dong khac nhau cua cong ty eho hop vci chu d~ ella ttrng cuon sach, Do d6 can phai doc ky tirng Bai tap tinh huang.

GiOi thleu Cong ty

Nguyen Thi NgQC Nga HI nguoi sang l~p va ciing chinh Iii giam doc dh~u hanh ella cong ty Thanh Dat, mot cong ty dii phat trien thanh CC1 sa san xuat bao bl thea yeu cau cua khach bang c6 quy mo Ian nhat mien Bac, Ba Ngoc Nga da nr minh gay dung cong ty tir dau trong mot moi tnrong day kh6 khan cua thai ky chuyen d6i kinh t~ (] Viet Nam.

Viec kh6i nghiep ella c6ng ty Thanh Dat tieu biiu cho con dirong hinh thanh khu V\,l'C nr nhan a Viet Nam. Sa Ngoc Nga va chong la ong Dinh Hili Dat dff gan voi doanh nghiep nha mroc hau he"t cuoc dai cua minh. Ca hai deu lam viec cho mot doanh nghiep nha mroc san xuat tiii va bao bi nhira thea yeu cau cua khach hang b mien Bac, Cong viec nay khong chi cho ho kien thtrc tuyet vai ve cong nghe va thi tnrong bao bi vii in an, rna con giup ho c6 nhieu m6i quan he quy bau trong nganh,

Cong cuoc d6i moi duqc chfnh thtrc bat doiu tit nam 1986 va nhitng Iinh vue d6i moi chinh dtroc trien khai vao cuoi nhitng nam 80. Trong boi eiinh d6i moi nay, Ba Ngoc Nga va ong Dat thaythuc t~ a cong ty cua ho, kha nang cung Ung khong dap tmg duoo nhu cau. HQ biitdAu suy tfnh xem lieu m¢t doanh nghiep ur nhan c6 the clap ung duoc mot phan nhitng thieu hut nay khong.

sa Ngoc Nga lap cong ty rieng vao nam 1991, trong khi van tiep tuc lam viec cho doanh nghiep nha rnroc. Chinh doanh nghiep nha ntroc nay dff Ia nguon khach hang diiu tien cua ba, Thirc te" cong ty Thanh Dat ban diu hoan toan lam gia cong cho doanh righiep nay, Cong ty moi thanh l~ptrong thai ky dAu chi vita van trang trai het chi phi bOi chu cong ty quyet dinh ky cac hop dong "beo bot" do y thirc duqc rang cong nhan ella mlnh Woe h€t can phai tfch Iuy kinh nghiem va dao tao my nghi, .m )lgpc )lgJ) ss» Db x;gm llEm t111~ cJc ll<fJ Mng kllJc Illli! lJi~ll qhi(1 cho ngiroi moi gioi huang phan tram hoa h6ng.

Gid va Chien /U{!C giii

21

Tci nam 1995, ba Ngoc Nga thoi viec a cong ty nha mroc va thanh lap cong ty Thanh Dl;lt la mot cong ty 1U nhan co giay phep chinh thee rna ba Iii chu sa hO'u va hoat dong thee Luat Cong ty ban hanh nam 1993.

Cong ty Thanh Dat dli phat tri~n thanh co sa san xuat bao hi theo yeu c§u cua khach hang co quy mo Ian nhfit'mie.n BAc. Cong ty chiem khoang 50%th! phan . mien RAe. Sau mot viti nam phat tri~n tm t6e d¢ 18-20%, doanh thu duoc bao cao nam 1997 cuacong ty len tm khoang 2 ty d6ng (150.000 dO la My). Nam 1997 1¢ nhuan sau thue' bang 4% doanh thu nrc la khoang han 80 trieu dong (6.000 dO la My). Vao cu6i nam 1997 cong ty co them mot s6 khach hang moi va du kien cac chi tieu cua nam 1998 se tang tm 300%. Cong ty Thanh Dat hoat dong het cong suat va cong nhan lam m6i tuan lam 1,5 ca.

San phdm va Khach hang

Cac san pham ella cong ty Thanh Dat Hi bao bl mot, hai va ba lop, Bao hi ciing diroc phan thea nguyen lieu khac nhau 11l bao hi mang (PE) diroc san xuift tU nlnra 16ng hop va bao bl duqc san xuat til' mang phrrc hop (BOPP). Cong ty Thanh Dat trong OOUng nam d§u chi lam hang PE, nhung ba Ngoc Nga noi ba luon co y dinh rna rong sang lam hang chat hrong cao bang BOPP. san xuar bao hi til' ch«"t lieu BOPP bat dAu nam 1993 va gio day, bao bi til' chift lieu mang phirc hop dli chiem 25% tdng san hrong cua cong ty.

Chien liroc cua cong ty Thanh Dat vm khach hang Viet Nam la tim kiem cac doanh nghiep vira va nho a khu vue Ha NQi, con a nhUng vung khac thl chi giro han a cac khach hang la doanh nghiep nha mroc. Cong ty Thanh Dat dli Cap ling duqc nhu CAll bi quen lang cua khu VlJe doanh nghiep vira va nh6 boo cac doanh nghiep bao bl khac hiem khi quan tam d€n nhtmg dan hang nho ella cac cong ty tu nhan nay. Cong ty Thanh Dat eon c6 th~ d~t ra nhfmg dieu kien h6 sung d6i voi cac khach hang nr nhan do vi the d('le quyen cua minh tren thi wang bao bl cao cap cua cac cong ty tu nhan. Do kh6 khan trong viec doi tie.n cac cong ty tu nhan nen cong ty Thanh D~t yeu cau phaico ~t coc (thirong Ia 30% t6ng gia tri don hang) va tra toan b¢ khi giaohang, Nlnmg ngoai vimg Ha Noi ra thi nhihlg don bang nho nhu vay tham chi voi cong ty Thanh Dat .cilng khong kM thi lAm, do d6 cong ty buoc phai tim kiem cac hop d60g 16'n han v6'i cac doanh nghiep nha mroc,

Hop d6ng Ian nhar cua cong ty Thanh Dat la voi doanh nghiep che Kim Nga cua nha mroc. DlJ kien doanh thu tir hop d6ng nay len toi khoang 2 ty d6ng mot nam, hAu nhu gifp doi so v6'i rmrc doanh thu. nam 1997 la 2 ty d6ng va chiem mot ot:ca phan gia tang trong doanh thu cua.nam 1998. Viec san xuat bao hi cho thirong hieu Kim Nga n6i tieng dft giiip cong tyco them mot vai khach hang moi. Chang han, cong ty che Moe Chau da Iien h¢ vro cong ty Thanh D~t nho- thify Cia chi cua cong ty tren bao bl che Kim Nga.

22

Gia va Chien luoc gici

Canh tranh

Tm nay cong ty Thanh Dat chua quan tam tam tm cac d6i thu canh tranh rna ap dung chien hroc tranh dill ddu va tim kiem nhii'ng mang thi tnrong bao bl con d~ ngo, Liic dau lam gia cong, sau do cong ty rna rQng hoat dong sang Him nh'ii'ng viec rna cac doanhnghiep oha mroc a ttia phuong khong quan tam vi quy mO qua nho, Sau d6, van nam 1993 cong ty Thanh Dat dAu nr vao thiet bi va la doanh nghiep duy nh~t ami~n·Bac co kh<l nang che taobao bl nhieu lOp. Nhn nang luc kg thuat duoc tang len, cong ty Thanh Dat trong mot vai nam qua dil co th~ t~ d u ng lqi the ve dia diem,gianh diroc han nhtr toan bQkhaeh hang bao bi nhieu lop a mien :sac. Nhieu ngiroi trong s6 nhii'ng khach hang moi nay tru6'c day van sir d .... ng dich VlJ. ella cac d6i thu canh tranh cua cong ty Thanh D\lt b mien Nam.

Hien nay b mien BAc co khoang hai rmroi doanh nghiep nr nhan nho va mot doanh nghiepnha nucclon a mien Bac lam hang bao bi. D6i tM canh tranh 100 nhat cua cong ty Thanh Dat la cac nha san xuar b mien Nam. Cac d6i tM b mien Nam co kinh nghiem han hAn va noi chung dii dAn dau s ..... phat trien ella nganh cong nghiep nayke tit khi bat dau d6i moi, Cong doan bao bi ella mot s6 san pham che tao trong mrcc van diroc lam b nUCIe ngoai,

D!nhghi

Gia bao bi l1i m6i quan tam chfnh ella nhieu khach hang tiem nang ella cong ty Thanh Dat, Gia cua cong ty Thanh Dat luon luon thap, ngay tir thuo sa khai, khi con lamgia cong cho doanh nghiep nha nu6'e. Ba Ngoc Nga da c6 gang nghien ciru gia thi truOngcuacac san phfun bao bi, nhirng thay khong the diroc do d6i thu canh tranh khOng cung CAp thong tin va ngmri mua luon doi gia qua thsp. Chien hroc gia cua cong ty Thanh Dat do do luon d ..... a van gia thanh cong vm chenh lech 10%.

Cac don hang 100 tlnrong co gia iru dill. MQt don hang gia 2 trieu d6ng chang han co the duoc giam 2% gia, Tirong 11!, khach hang e6 nhieu don hang khac nhau cung co tM dtroc uu dili (vi d u mot khach hangdat nam loai bao bl khac nhau co the chi phiH tn! tien thiei k€ eho b6n loai), Doanh nghiep che Kim Nga dli dam phan duqc rmrc gia ha han va cac uu dili khac do khoi hrong d~t hang 160.

V m mot s6 loai bao bi tien tien, khach hang chi c6 th~ mua tit cong ty Thanh Dat va mot s6 doanh nghiep a mien Nam. Cac doanh nghiep a mien Nam thuong yeu cau d~t bang t6i thieu 500.000 dan vi neu phai chuyen hang ra mien BAc. Cong ty Thanh D~t chap nhandon hang vCti so hrcng 100.000 dan vi trb len va gfuI nhu dii chiem vi trf doc quyen, Dieu nay cho phep doanh nghiep dinh mrrc gia cao.hon rna con c6 th~ doi phai tra tien tnroc, Ba Ngoc Ngaciing t6 chuc giao hang t~ noi nhu mothinh thirc khuyen mai, trong khi cac doanh nghiep nha nUCIc khong thay clinpMi ban tam cung cap dich Yl.1 nay lam gi.

Gia va Chien IUr;!C gia

23

'r\ J..

~7

I PHANTlcR BAI T~P TINH HU6NG 1

Tra.Jai.nhGng cau hoi sau-dga van nhfrng theng tin ella bai taptmh hu6ng:

1. Phuong phapdinh ghi ella cong ty lit rheo gia thanh, thea canh tranh hay theo gia tri?

2. Neu chien htgc gia eua cong ty d6i vm cac khach hang (thi tnrong muc tieu) khac nhau,

3. Xac dinhxem cong ty dn apdung chfnh sach va chien luge dinh gia nao,

CI Giam gia cho s6 hrong mua 1&1.
CI Giam giachodai 19.
1:1 Phii d~t CQC khi dl1-t hang.
CI Thanh toan ngaykhi giao hang.
CI U u dai d~e biet,
CI Dung the tin dung.
CI sec.
D Cac chinh sach khac, Neu c\l tht. 24 Gia va Chien IU{1c gia

Tang kat Cuon sach

Hay diem Iai xem ban da lam gl d~ dat duoc cac muc tieu neu trong phan dau cua cu6n sach nay.

Toi gio ban se phai co kha nang t6t han trong viec sau:

1. Neu nhfrng yeu t6 ben trong va ben ngoai doanh nghiep anh htrong toi viec dinh gia,

2. Neu ba plurong phap dinh gia co bin.

3. Trinh bay hai chien liroc dinh gia cho san pham moi.

Cu6n sach nay giup cluing ta hieu han each thtrc dua gia vao ke' hoach marketing. Gia la thanh t6 duy nhat dem lai doanh thu trong ke' hoach marketing (hon hQ'P marketing). The nhung day cung la van de dau dau nhat cho hau Mt cac chit sa hiru va nha quan ly doanh nghiep, Nhieu doanh nghiep da khong lam t6t viec dinh gia.

Cu6n sach nay xem xet cac khia canh quan trong cua viec dinh gia, nghien crru nhimg yeu t6 ben trong doanh nghiep va nhtmg yeu t6 a moi tnrong ben ngoai anh huang den quyet dinh ve gia, Cu6n sach nay neu ba plurong phap dinh gia co ban - dinh gia thea gia thanh, thea canh tranh va thea gia trio Cu6i cung, eu6n sach neu tinh hu6ng di,ic biet trong viec dinh gia sin phtim moi va hai chien hroc dinh gia sin ph am moi phd bien - hot vang sua va tham nhap,

Gia la mot trong nhtrng thanh t6 marketing quan trong nhat. Gia quyet dinh s6 hrong ban va doanh thu. Quyet dinh ve gia se quy dinh han mire chi tieu cho cac thanh t6 marketing khac - mau rna va d~c tfnh san pham, quang cao va khuech twang cung nhir yeu diu ve phan phoi. R6 rang la t~t cii hon hQ'P marketing (san pham, dia diem va khuech tnrong) deu bi anh lnrong I6'n boi quyet dinh ve gia,

Gid va Chien luoc gui

25

Ke hoach ung dl:lng la gi?

Ke' hoach img dung la mot cong c,:! giup ban ap dung nhirng dieu da hoc hoi van thirc te cong viec. Hay sir dung ke hoach nay nhtr mot ban hu6ng dAn de giiip ban:

I. Xac dinh diroc cac yeu t6 lmh lurong Mn viec dinh gia cua doanh nghiep ban, 2. Neu diroc phirong phap dinh gia cua doanh nghiep ban,

3. Phan tich chien hroc dinh gia cua doanh nghiep ban,

Lam the nao di hoan thanh mot

.

Ke hoach ung dl:lng?

B~ nen xem lai cac thong tin co ban, cac bai tap tu kiem tra, bai t~p thuc hanh va bai tap tlnh hu6ng rna ban da hoan thanh trong cu6n sach nay, va day chinh III nhirng co sa phuc vu cho viec xay dung ke hoach rmg dung cua ban,

Hay tlnrc hien tirng buoc cua ban ke hoach trng dung, Hay suy nghi va chuan bi cau tn! 1m cho moi biroc trong ke hoach ling dung. Neu can thiet ban co the tham khao y kien hoac loi khuyen cua cac d6ng nghiep.

Lam gi vdi Ke hoach (rng dl:lng?

Ke hoach Uflg dung 180 danh cho ban. Ke hoach do khong duoc danh gia cham diem va khong ai phai xem lai trir khi ban yeu cau mot nguoi nao do xem xet lai, Nhu da neu tren, ke tap trng dung Ul mot cong cu va mot ban huong diin danh cho ban.

Gid va. Chien IU(1c gia

27

Sau mot thtri gian, ban nen xem xet lai ke' hoach irng dung ella minh mot each dinh ky. Hay sua d6i ke' hoach khi can thiet. Hay xem lai:

• Nhimg gi dang phat huy tac dung?

• Nhfrng gl co tht phai cai tien?

• Lam the' nao de co the thuc hien cac cai tien?

Hay thuc hien bat eli' thay d6i can thiet nao cho ban ke hoach irng dung ella ban, Hay cap nhat ban ke' hoach irng dung thirong xuyen, vi du nhu ba thang mot Ian, Dirng quen thira nhan sl,l tien b9 ella ban va hay an mirng nhfrng thanh cong cua minh. Neu ban phat hien ra nhirng khia canh moi rna ban quan tam, hay b6 sung cluing vao ke hoach img dung.

B lIac tiep theo

Bay gio la hie ban bAt dau hoan thanh Ke hoach lmg dung b trang sau.

28

Gia va Chien lU(1c"gia

11\

Kif HO~CH UNG DVNG BUOC 1: NHUNG y~U T6 ANH HUONG D~N VItC

"DINH GIA '

L Nhung yeu t6 sau anh hmmg tci quyet dinh ve gia cua doanh nghiep ban nhu the nao.

a) Muc tieu marketing -_

b) Chien hrcc marketing hon hop _---------

e) Chiphi _

d) Ban chat cua thi Wang va nhu cAu _

e) Canh tranh _

f) Nhimg yeu t6 khac _

Cia va Chien luac gia

29

BU(lC 2: PHUONG PHAp DlNH GIA

1. Xem xet lai phuong phap dinh gia rna hien nay doanh nghiep ban dang ap dung v& mot loai san phdm hay dich VlJ.. B~ dang sit dung phuong phap dinh gia nao cho san phJm hay dich VlJ. nay: then gia thanh, theocanh tranhhay then gia tIi hoac ph(iihqp cac phirong phap tren. (e6 the ap dung bai t1;l.p naycho tirng san pham hay dich V1J. cua doanh nghiep.)

San phAmhay d~ch V\l: ....,.- _

Phuong phap dlnh gia: _

30

, Gia va Chien luac gia

suoc 3: CHIEN LUQC GIA

1. Can CU' vao san phdm hay dich vu rna ban chon trong Biroc 2, danh dau nhUng chinh sikh va chien luoc gia rna ban dang ap dung de ban san phdm hay dich vu d6.· Chon Hit ca nhilng"chinh sach phu hop.

a Giam gia cho s6 hreng rnua IOn.
0 Giam gia cho dai 19.
0 Phai ~t CQC khi d~t hang.
0 Thanh toan ngay khi giao hang.
0 U" u dai d?c biet,
0 Dung the tin dung.
0 sec.
0 Ole chfnh sach khac. Neu cu tM. . 2. Ban muon thay ddi chfnh sikh va chien hroc dinh gia nhu the nao, Phai lam gi de thay dOi?

ChAng han, ban rnu6n ap dung phuong tluic thanh toan bang the tin dung, De lam dttqc viec nay, ban phai n()p h6 SO dang ky va bolo cao tai chfnh cho congty.dich vy the tin dung.

Gia va Chien luac gia

31

Bulle 4: CHI~N LUQC D1NH GIA

Xac dinh hai nhom khach hang cua ban (thi wang muc tieu A va B). Neu ehinh sach dinh gia cua ban d6i vci timg nhom. Trong urong lai ban se ap dung chien luge dinh gia nao. Doanh nghiep banphai titn hanh nhtmg thay d6i nao di thtrc hien chinh sach dinh gia sau nay.

Thi truO'ng muc tieu A: _

Chinh sikh dinh gia hien nay _

Chinh sikh dinh gia sau nay _

Nhtmg thay d6i can thiet _

Th] truang muc tieu B: _

Chinh sach dinh gia hiennay _

Chinh sach dinh gia sau nay _

Nhtrng thay d6i can thiet _

32

Gid va Chien Iuac gia

Phu Iuc A - £)ap an

,~ ~

BAI T ~p TV KIEM TRA 1

Nhimg yeu t6 nao anh huang t61 quyet dinh v6 gia?

o Chi phi va rnuc tieu marketing cua doanh nghiep,

o D~e tinh thi tnrong cua doanh nghiep,

o Canh tranh.

o Nhu cau cua khach hang.

o Nhimg yeu to ben ngoai khac,

0' Tat ca cac yeu t6 tren deu anh hUOng den quyet dinh ve gia.

Cia va Chien luac gia

33

HAl T!P TV Kl~M TRA 2

1. Nhii'ng yeu t6 ben trong nao anh lnrong tci viec dinh gia?

o Muc tieu marketing cua doanh nghiep,

o K~ hoach marketing cua doanh nghiep,

o Chi phi san pham.

o each thtrc quyet dinh v~ gia d doanh nghiep,

It] Tat c3 cac yeu t6 tren deu anh hucmg den quyet dinh ve gia.

2. Quyet dinh v~ gia phai dugc ph6i hop v6i:

o Mfiu rna cua san pham.

o each tlnrc phan ph6i san phAm tci khach hang cuoi cimg.

o It]

each thirc khuech tnrong va quang cao san pham,

Quyet dlnh ve gia phai duqc ph6i hop vOi tat ca cac yeu t6 trim.

34

Gia va Chien luac gia

BAI T ~P TV KIEM TRA 3

Dien vao cM tr6ng trong nhirng cau sau day.

1. Chi phi quy dinh mac gia t6i thieu, con rmrc ghi rna khach hang san sang tra se quy dinh mire gia t6i da.

2. Khach hang se khong mua san pham neu gia ban eao han gia tri cua san pham,

3. Can phai bier doi thii canh tranh se phan tmg nhu th~ nao d6i v6i nhtrng thay d6i v€ gia san pham cua ban,

4. Cac dieu kien kinh t8' (thinh virong hay suy thoai, lai su~t va ty I¢ dau tu trong mroc) se anh huang tai ea chi phi san xuat va quan nlem cua khach hang ve gia tr, cua san pham,

Gia va Chien luac gia

35

BAI T ~P TV KlEM TRA 4

Danh dau vao () xem cac cau sau day Ia dung hay sai.

1. Dinh gia "chi phi cong" nrc la dinh gia bang each cong them vao gia thanh san pham mot mire chenh lech chuan nhu 1.000 dcng hay 25.000 dong. Dung

2. Doanh nghiep dinh gia theo diem hoa v6n dinh gia voi muc dich hoa v6n hay dat diroc mot chi tieu loi nhuan nao do. Dung

3. Dinh gia thea mat bang chung la mot phirong phap dinh gia san pharn thea gia thanh, Sai

4. Dinh gia theo canh tranh 13 dinh gia chu yeu thea gia ella d6i thu canh tranh, it quan tam den chi phi cua mmh hay den nhu cau. Dung

BAI T ~P TV KIEM TRA 5

Dien vao cM tr6ng trong nhirng cau sau day.

1. Dinh gia theo gia tri lay quan niem ve ghi tri cua ngiroi mua lam co sCi d~ dinh gia san pham,

·2. Dinh gia thea gia thanh lay san pham lam trung tam.

3. Dinh gia thea gia tri lay khach hang lam trung tam.

36 Gici va Chien luac gici

BAI T ~P TV KIEM TRA 6

Di~n vao cho tr6ng trong nhirng diu sau day.

1. Muc dich cua chien hroc gia tham nhap la tao dung thl philo Ian.

2. Ml;IC dfch cua chien ltroc gia hat yang sua Ill. thu diroc Jqi nhuan IOn.

3. Chien hroc ghi tham nhap chi co tac dung khi gia thap thu hut du khach hang va loai trir dUc;1c doi thu canh tranh mot each hieu qua.

4. Gia hat Yang sua chi co tac dung khi san pharn moi co dl)c dit~rn va Ich lqi doc dao rna doi thu canh tranh khong the bat chiroc.

Chi va Chien luac gia

37

""

BAI T~P THVC HANH 1

Dien vao bang sau hal san pham gia cao va hal san phim gia thap rna ban da

mua va neucac d;)c di~m ve gia clla cluing, .

San pham gill cao ban da mua

1. _

D;)c diim cua San phim + Cong nghe cao

- Tay nghe cao

- Dliu tu Ian vao nghien ciru va trien

khai

- Dich V1} khach hang hoan hao

- Hinh anh san pham rilt [(n urong

- Khuech tnrong c6 trong di~m

A.

- Cong nghe cao

- Tay nghe cao

- Dliu nr Ian vao nghien ctru va trien

khai

- Dich V1} khach hang hoan hao

- Htnh anh san pham rat [(n nrong

- Khuech tnrong c6 trong di~m

Vi du ve san pham gia cao co hAu het hoac toan bt) cac d;)c di~m nay la: xe hoi dAt tien (Mercedes Benz), may anh ky thuat sO', quan 30 thOi trang (Gucci), may moe chuyen dung, thuoedl)C trio

2. _

San phftm gia thap ban da mua

1. _

I)i;lc dil;m cua san pham - San xuat hang loat

- San xuat chuyen mon hoa

- Kiem soat chat ve: tai chinh

- H¢ thong phan ph6i 1&11

- Khuech tnrong dai cluing

B.

38

Gia va Chien luac gid

2. _

- san xuat hang loat

- san xuat chuyen mon hoa

- Kiem soat ch~t ve tai chfnh

- H~ thong phan ph6i Ion

- Khuech tnrong dai chting

Vi du vi! san phAm gift thap co hall het hoac toan b(J cac d~c di~m nay Ia: did ban din, bang cassette, d6ng h6 va may tinh bi) tui.

Bausch va Lomb ap dl;lng chien IUflc d,nh gia tham nbl)p thi truO'ng dl dl;lt duQ'C tb, phan chi ph6i la 6S % trong thi trufmg kfnh ap trong mem, Doanh nghi~p tip dung thiet kebAng may tinh va lien tuc rna rQng quy rno san xuat nham giam chi phi va do do co thl giarn gla d~ tang thi phan,

Gia va Chien IU(1c gid

39

BAI T!P THVC HANH 2

/

1. Tfnh tY I¢ chenh. l¢ch theo gia thanh cua mot san pham ban voi gia 3.000 d6ng va gia thanh 2.000 d6ng.

Muc chenh I~ch la 3.000 dong - 2.000 dong = 1.000 dong. Gia thanh la 2.000 dong. Ty I~ chenhlech theo ghi thanh la 1.000/2.000 = 50%.

2. Tfnh tY I¢ chenh l¢ch theo gid ban cua mot san pham ban ven gia 3.000 doug va gia thanh 2.000 dong.

Muc chenh I~ch 18 3.000 dong. 2.000 dong = 1.000 dong. Gia ban la 3.000 dong. Ty I~ chenh Iech theo gia ban la 1.000/3.000 = 33%.

3. Mot san pham voi gia thanh 4.500 dong ban & rmrc gia 6.000 dong. Tfnh tY l¢ chenh l¢ch theo gia thanh.

Muc chenh l~ch la 6.000 dong - 4.500 dong = 1.500 dong. Ghi thanh la 4.500 dong. Ty I~ chenh lech theo gia thanh la 1.500/4.500 = 33%.

4. M¢t san phfun ven gia thanh 4.500 dong ban & nurc gia 6.000 dong, Tinh tY /¢ chenn lech theo gia ban.

Muc chenh lech la 6.000 dong - 4.500 d6ng = 1.500 dong. Gia ban la 6.000 dong. Ty I~ chenh lech theo gia ban la 1.500/6.000 = 25 %.

40

Gia va Chien luac gia

.,/ ....,.., .....

BAI T~P THt!C HANH 3

Neu ba san pham ap dung chien hroc gia hat Yang sua.

1. Intel, khi mot bilt dati tung ra b~vi XU ly may tinh mot, d!nh mue gia cao nhitt d~ d6i I~i ich lqi rna b~· vi XU Iy mm dem I~i so vOl: b4) vi xU ly the h~ cu. Ceng ty giani giakhi d(1t ban dau tien chUng I~i va khi co nguy co m~t doi tho canh tranh nhay vao cung cap b(J vi xu Iy tuang

tv·

2. Dupont la m(Jt vi dl,l khae v~ doanh nghi~p ail dung gia hot: vang sua.

Cong ty da phat tri~n nhi~u san pham d(ic dao l11a cac hang khac khong th~ bat chuac ngay duqc, chang han nhu teflon, cellophane, nllong. M6i san phAm mm d~n bat dau vcn gia cao nhat ma m(Jt s6 mang th~ truOng co th~ chap nhan d~ap dyng cong nghe mot. Nhung khi kh6ng con ban ch~y nlra thi cong ty h~ gia d~ thu hut them tbi phan.

3. .Polaroid cung ap dung chlnh sach gia hot: vang sua~ Dau tien cong ty

tung ra m(it loai may anh dat ti~n, sau do co cac ki~u dang dan gian han, gia ha han d~ thu hut nhUng nhom khach hang mai.

Gia I'll Chien luac gia

41

/'

BAI T~P THlle HANH 4

Neu ba san pham ap dung chien luoc gia tham nhap.

1. C6ng ty may tinh Dell ap dung chien luC1c dinh ghi tham nhl)p thi truOng d~ ban cac may tinh co cha"t htqng cao, thong qua h~ thong phan phoi co chi phi tMp ki~u d~t hang quathu tin.

2. Nhftng ngum ban Ie giam gia ap dung chien Iuqc dinh gia tham nhap thi truong, H9 chao gia thap d~ tang hnmg ban. Lucng ban IOn lam giam chi phi cho rubi dan V! san pham va dieu do giup h9 gift duqc mue gia thap,

3. Texas Instruments ap dung chien luqc djnh gia tham nhap th] truOng.

Cong ty xay dung nha may 16'n di san pb:1m mOl eo thi ddqc san xuat vOl kh6i lUQ1lg 1m. va giam chi phi cbo rubi san pham, Cong ty se dinh gia a mue thap nhat, glanh duqe th] phan lOn, giamdiroc chi phi va giam tiep gia ban do giam duQ'c chi phi.

42 Gid va Chien luac gili

r

r i

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~7

I..,.

/ HAl T!p· TINH HU6NG 1 CcjNG TY THANH D~ T (F)

Tra 1m nhUng cau hoi sau dua vao nhtrng th6ng tin cua bai t~p tmh hu6ng:

1. Phuong phap dinh gia cua cong ty la thea gia thanh, thea canh tranh hay theo ghi tri?

Hau he't viec djnh gia la theo gia thanh, tuy co dieu chinh theo luqng d~t hang.

Chap nhan don hang nho bon doi thu canh tranh a mien Nam tao the' canh tranh cho phep doanh nghiep d!nh gia cao hon.

2. Neu chien hroc gia cua cong ty d6i v6i cac khach hang (thi tnrong muc tieu) khac nhau,

Gia baIng gill thanh cQng 10% ap dung vOi nbUng cong viec gia cong cho doanh nghiep nha mroc,

Don hang 100 tbucJng duqc iru dAi ve gbl thong qua hmh thuc giam gla, MQt dO'n hang tr~ gia 2 trieu dong co th~ dUQ'c glam 2 % gia. Khach bang d*t nam Ioai bao bl khac nhan co th~ chi phai tra tien thiet ke' cho bon Ioai,

Cong ty tinh gia cao va yen cau tra tic:~n trll6'c doi vOi cac dan himg nbo d~t mua cac lo;:ti bao bl tien tie'n.

3.Xac dinh xern cong ty dil ap dung chinh sach va chien hroc dinh gia nao,

Giam gia cho 86 hrong mua Ian. Co

Giam gia cho dai ly, Khong

Phai di;it coc khi di;it hang. Co, vOi m(lt so don hang

Thanh toan ngay khi giao hang, Co, vOi mQt s6 don hang

Gia va Chien IU(lC gid

43

U u dai d~e biet, Co, vOi mc)t s6 don hang

Dung the tin dung. Khong sec. Khong

Cac chinh sach khac, Neu cu the. Giao hang mi~n phi vOi mc)t s6 'don hang

44

Gia va Chien luac gia

Phu luc B - Chu gild Thu~t ngCi'

B

Ban buon (Wholesaling) Hoat dong b~ hang cho nguoi ban le, nguai ban buon, cac doanh nghiep san xuat - nhtrng nguoi khong ban hang t61 nguoi tieu dung cu6i cung,

Ban buon khong tra cham va khong van chuyen hang (Cash-and-carry wholesaler) Ngiroi ban buon khong chap nhan viec tra tien sau va khong cung irng dich V1,l v~n chuyen hang hoa,

Ban buon trung gian (Wholesaling middleman) Thuat ngii co nghia rong, bao g6m: nguoi ban buon (ngirci co toan quyen quyet dinh v61 san ph am co trong tay), dai 19' va ngiroi moi gioi - nhifng ngirei hoat dong ban buon, song khong co quyen d6i v61 hang hoa.

Ban hang co rang buec (Tied selling) MQt thoa thuan trong do neu ro mot nha ban buon trung gian chi co the tro thanh dai 19' doc quyen phan phoi eho san pham cua mot hang khi dong thoi ding ban cac san phdm khac cua cung hang nay.

Ban hang gqi y thuyet phuc (Suggestion selling) Khach hang mua nhieu han nho ngiroi ban hang da gioi thieu cho ho nhiing san pham phu tro, cac chtrong trinh khuyen mai dac biet, cac dot ban hang co tinh thoi vu,

Ban hang sang tao (Creative selling) Viec ban hang tren co sa dii phan tfch ky luang nhiing d~c diem cua qua trinh ra quyet dinh mua hang cua khach hang.

Ban hang qua catalogue (Catalog retailer) Nguoi ban hang e6 phong tnrng bay san pham mau, Khach se d~t hang qua cac catalog tai eua hang. Sau d6 don hang se diroc thirc hien tai kho hang hoac tai cira hang.

Ban hang true tlep (Personal selling) Nhan vien ban hang tnrc tiep thuyet phuc khach mua hang cua mlnh.

Ban Ie (Retailing) Hoat dong cua dQi ngu ban hang va cua doanh nghiep de ban hang toi nguoi tieu dung cu6i cung,

Ban Ie kieD khac blet (Specialty retailer) Nguoi ban Ie ph6i h<;1P mot each doc dao cac yeu 16 san pham, dich V1,l va;ho~c uy tfn d~ thu hut khach.

Ban Ie too t*n gia dinh (House-to-house retailing) Dua hang toi ban tan nha khach hang.

Ban pha gia (Dumping) Hang hoa xuat khau v61 mac gia re hem rat nhieu so vm gia ban noi dia.

Gia va Chien luoc gia

45

Bao hanh (Warranty) Cam ket cua ngirci ban doi voi ngirci mua ve viec ho se chi" trach nhiem thay the nhimg san pham hong hoac hoan tra tien trong mot khoang thai gian nhat dinh.

Be> thau (Bid) Trong thi tnrong cac t6 chaco khi mot nha cung irng viet thir chao hang cho cong ty co nhu C:lU mua mot loai hang hoc! hoac dich vu,

Bien dong cua eau (Demand variability) Trong thi tnrong cac t6 chaco Ill. anh hirong cua cau (phai sinh) den nhu cau ve cac san pham lien quan trong viec san xuar hang tieu dung.

Bi~u do quan Iy (Control charts) Bieu d6 bieu dien ket qua hoat dong thirc te cua doanh nghiep so voi tieu chuan/quy dinh d~t ra.

Bi€u dlen thuc hanh (Demonstration) Mot khau trong qua trtnh ban hang trong do nhan vien ban hang thir nghiem viec sil dung/thirc hanh ngay tren san pham trong qua trlnh gici thieu,

c

Cac-ten (Cartel) Mot hlnh thirc cau ket cac cong ty d~ tao the doc quyen,

Can can thuong mal (Balance 0/ trade) Sir chenh lech giita kim ngach xuat khau va nhap khau cua mot qu6c gia.

Can can thanh toan (Balance of payments) Dong tien ra vao cua mot qu6c gia.

Cong ty Quang cao (Advertising agency) Cong ty doc lap lam cong viec dich Vl,l he; tro ngmri muon quang cao trong viec lap ke' hoach va tlurc hien cac chuang trinh quang cao.

Cam nhan (Perception) Cai ta cam thily nho cac giac quan.

Cam nhan co tinh chon loc (Selective perception) Su nhan bier cua khach hang doi voi cac tac nhan kfch thich chi co diroc khi ho muon cam nhan cluing.

Cam nhan iin y (Subliminal perception) Su cam nhan sau hon mac nhan thirc be ngoai,

Cam nhan ve san pham (Product positioning) N6i ve cam nhan cua nguai tieu dung v6 cac d~e diem, cong dung, chat lirong, tru va nhtroc diem cua mot san phlim.

Cau (Demand) La yeu d.u ve hang hoa cua nguoi tieu dung tren thi tnrong

Cau phai sinh (Derived demand) Trong thi tnrong cong nghiep, la nhu cau ve san pham cong nghiep, co lien quan den nhu cau ve san pham tieu dung.

46

Cia va Chien luoc gia

Cam v~n (Embargo) Lenh earn hoan loan v~ viec mua ban mot loai hang hoc, nao do hoac quan he buon ban voi mot qu6c gia.

Chao hang dan Ie (Individual offerings) MQl trong nhfrng thanh phan C(J ban cua chien luoc san pham hiSn hop, chi chao hang mot san pham rna thoi,

Chao hang ngau nhien (Cold canvassing) Goi dien chao hang qua di~n thoai toi mot nhom khach hang ngau nhien; it mang lai hieu qua va trien vong,

Chi nhanh ban hang (Sales branch) Chi nhanh cua mot doanh nghiep san xuat lam chirc nang kho trung chuyen dieu hang cho timg khu vue thi tnrong, chirc nang cong viec nrong tu vai tro cua mot nha ban buon doc lap,

Chi phi ban hang tren mc)t dan vi san pham (Selling expense ratio) M6i quan he giii'a chi phi ban hang va t6ng san pharn thuc ban.

Chi phi co dlnh (Fixed costs) Chi phi khong phu thuoc vao khoi lUQ'I1g san pham san xuat, vi du nhir chi phi khau hao nha xireng, chi phf bao hiem,

Chi phi co d,nh trung blnh (A verage fixed cost) Bang t6ng chi phi c6 dinh chia cho s6 hrong san pham san xuat,

Chi phi kha bien (Variable costs) Chi phi co the thay d6i khi san lirong thay d6i, vi du nhu chi phi nguyen v~t lieu, tra hrong cho ngirei san xuat tnrc tiep.

Chi phi kha bien trung blnh (A verage variable cost) Bang t6ng chi phi kha bien chia cho s6 IUQ'ng san phdm san xuat,

Chi phi toi uu (Cost trade-offs) Phuong phap "he thong t6ng the" ap dung cho he thong phan phoi, Chi phi tai met so bo phan chirc nang trong cong ty se tang len trong khi a mot so bQ phan khac se giam xu6ng, song toan bo chi phi cho h¢ thong phan phoi se dat rmrc toi uu,

Chi phi trung blnh (Average cost) Bang t6ng chi phi chia cho so lUQ'I1g san pharn.

Chien IU\Jc d~y (Pushing strategy) Cac hoat dong khuech tnrong san phfim lac dong true tiep lai cac kenh phan ph6i, vi du nhir hiS tro quang cao, chiet khau, giam gia, ban hang tnrc tiep va cac hoat dong tro guip ban hang khac cho cac dai Iy.

Chien Iuoc gla (Pricing strategy) MQt nhan to trong cac quyet dinh marketing, n6 lien quan tnrc tiep tai viec lam sao dinh ra duoc mot gia ban phai chang rna van mang lai 19i nhuan cho doanh nghiep.

Chien hroc keo (Pulling strategy) Thong qua cac hoat dong khuech tnrong san pham d~ thu hut them khach hang, lam tang duo Chien hroc nay thuong gay sire ep cho m~ng luoi phan phoi, Khi nhan thay cau tang len cac thanh vien cua m1.lng hroi phan pho] se hoat dong tich cue han de dap ling IUQ'I1g cau moi lang nay.

Cia va Chien lit,!c gia

47

Chien IUlJc khuech tnrong san pham (Promotional strategy) MQt phan trong chien hroc marketing, lien quan den hoat dong ban hang tnrc tiep, quang cao va cac cong cu khuyen mai.

Chien IUlJc marketing khong phan biet (Undifferentiated marketing) Doanh nghiep chi san xuat mot loai san pham va chi ap dung mot hon hop marketing duy nhat de tiep can ngiroi tieu dung.

Chien hrc;Yc marketing phan biet (Differentiated marketing) Lap ke' hoach marketing khac nhau cho tirng phan doan thi tnrong trong thi tnrong tong the.

Chien IUlJc marketing trong di~m (Concentrated marketing) Kieu nhir chien Itroc marketing phan biet, doanh nghiep chon mot phan doan trong thi tnrong t6ng the va danh toan bo nguon hrc marketing d~ phuc vu phan doan thi tnrong do.

Chien IUlJc phan ph6i (Distribution strategy) MQt khau trong qua trlnh di den quyet dinh marketing, lien quan den viec quan ly hang hoa va chon kenh phan phoi.

Chien luoc san pham (Product strategy) La mot khau cua quyet dinh marketing, gom: thiet ke bao bi, ten, thirong hieu, chinh sach bao hanh bao tri, chu ky sO:ng cua san pham va phat trien san pham moi,

Chiet khau mua hang (Trade discount) Khoan giam gia cho thanh vien m~ng phan phoi hoac nguci mua do dap img diroc mot so chirc nang marketing do cong ty d~ ra. Con duoc goi Ia chiet khau theo chtrc nang.

Chiet khau mua hang vOi s6 IUlJDg 100 (Quantity discount) Giam gia ban khi khach hang mua voi so IU!Jl1g nhieu, Chiet khau mua hang co the ap dung hoac tren co sa cong don (cong don luong mua cua khach hang do trong mot khoang thai gian nhat dinh), hoac tren co sa giam gia ngay cho tirng IAn mua (mua hin nao giam gia hin do).

Chu nghia ngum tleu dung (Consumerism) Ngiroi lam marketing quan tam d*e biet toi nhu c1iu va uoc muon cua nguoi tieu dung khi ho dua ra nhtrng quyet dinh marketing.

Chu ky song cua san phlim (Product life cycle) Bat dAu tir khi san ph am ra dui cho toi khi mat di. MQt chu ky song g6m cac giai doan: tham nhap, tang tnrong, bao hoa va suy thoai,

Chuoi cira hang (Chain stores) Tap hop cac cira hang ban Ie cung mot he thong quan ly va ban cung mot loai san pham.

Chuan bj hang (Sorting) Cac kenh phan phoi dam bao duy tri luong hang ton kho du de dap img nhu diu cua khach hang, bao gem cac khau: gom hang, phan loai hang, chon 19c hang.

48

GiJ va Chien lua« giJ

Chfnh sach gla (Pricing policy) Chinh sach chung xay dung tren cCJ so cac muc tieu gia da d~ ra. Chfnh sach nay diroc sir dung d~ dua ra nhirng quyet dinh CIJ th~ ve gia,

Chinh sach gia hct vang sua (Skimming price) Chinh sach d~t gia cao cho san pham mrri ngay tir khi tham nhap thi tnreng.

Chinh sach gia linh hoat (Flexible pricing) Chfnh sach duy trt gia cua mot san pham luon co kha nang dao dong.

Chinh sach gia tham nhap (Penetration pricing) U. chinh sach gia ap dung cho san pham moi .. Mtrc gia d~t ra hie dAu thap han so voi rmrc gia hoach dinh viS lau dai cho san pham. Su dung chinh sach nay d~ san pham & diroc th] tnrong chap nhan va chiern Iinh diroc thi phan,

Chinh sach gia theo vung (Zone pricing) M6i vung se sir dung mot chfnh sach gia thong nhat rieng cho vung do.

Chinh sach san xuat hang mau hong (Planned obsolescence) Chinh sach san xuat nhirng san pham tu6i tho ngan, Nha san xuat su dung nguyen lieu dau vao re song ho vAn khong giam gia ban hoac tang cuong tfnh nang cua san pham.

Chinh sach ta] chfnh (Fiscal policy) Sii dung cac cong CIJ thue khoa va chi tieu cua chfnh phu d6 kiem soar nen kinh teo

Chinh sach tien t~ (Monetary policy) Nhtmgky thuat chuyen mon khac nhau rna Ngan hang dung d~ quan ly hrong tien va hli sufft d6 tac dong van nen kinh te noi chung.

Co glan v~ gia eua cau (Price elasticity of demand) Thuoc do phan irng cua ngtroi tieu dung v6'i m6i sir thay d6i ve gia, Diroc tfnh hang ti s6 giUa phan tram thay d6i ltrong cau vt- mot san pharn hay dich vu vm phan tram thay d6i ve gia.

Co glan v~ gia cua cung (Price elasticity of supply) Thiroc do phan irng cua ngum san xuA't voi m6i su thay d6i ve gia. Diroc tinh bang tl s6 gitra phan tram thay d6i hrong cung cua mot san phAm hay dich VIJ voi phan tram thay d6i ve gia.

Cira hang chuyen doanh (Specialty store) Cira hang Ie chi ban mot loai san pham, vi du nhu cira hang ban thit, cira hang ban giay nam, cira hang ban d6 phu nii'.

Cira hang thuan tien (Convenience retailer) Cira hang ban nhtmg loai hang hoa danh cho nguoi tieu dung cu6i cung, chit yeu duoc dat a nhirng noi trung tam, gio rnb' cira dai, thu tuc thanh toan nhanh, noi d6 xe thuan tien,

Ghl va Chien luoc gia

49

D

Dil lieu tir ben ngoai (External data) Trong nghien ciru marketing, day la dir lieu thii cap, lay tir cac ngu6n thong tin ben ngoai doanh nghiep.

Doanh nghiep hu6ng VI! ban hang (Selling-oriented businesses) Doanh nghiep chii trong van khau ban hang va chfnh sach khuech truang san pham de: tang doanh s6.

Doanh nghiep huong VI! khach hang (Customer-oriented businesses) Doanh nghiep chu trong toi nhu cau cua khach hang va phoi hop cac hoat dong marketing d6 mang lai su hai long cho khach hang.

Doanh nghiep huang VI! san pham (Product-oriented businesses). Cac doanh nghiep quan tarn den san xuat han la nhu cau cua khach hang.

Doanh nghlep trung gian (Intermediary) Doanh nghiep hoat dong trung gian giiranha san xuat va ngiroi tieu dung ca nhan hoac ngiroi tieu dung la cac t6 clnrc. Cac nha ban Ie va ban buon co tht duoc xep van nhom nay.

Doanh nghiep van chuyen rleng (Private carrier) Doanh nghiep lam cong tac van chuyen hang hoa eho mot doanh nghiep duy nhat khac,

Doanh thu (Turnover) T6ng doanh thu trong d nam. Chi s6 doanh thu thuong diroc dung dt danh gia hieu qua ban hang.

Doanh thu trung binh (Average revenue) Bang t6ng doanh thu chi a cho so hrong san pham san xuat, Khi bieu dien tren d6 thi, dirong doanh thu trung blnh chinh la dirong cau cua moi -doanh nghiep.

DI1 bao doanh so (Sales forecast) DV tfnh doanh s6 hang tien hoac dan vi san pham se ban diroc trong khoang thai gian xac dinh trong wong lai. Con s6 nay thuong duoc dira ra trong ke hoach/chirong trinh marketing trong cac dieu kien gia thiet ve yeu t6 kinh te' va cac yeu t6 khac trong moi truong hoat dong. DL! bao co thtla d6i voi mot mat hang hoac mot nhom mat hang.

DI! toan theo dau san pham (Fixed sum per unit) Phuong phap phan b6 ngan quy, trong do chi phi khuech tnrong san pham diroc dinh tnroc tren co sa con s6 nhfrng ky tnroc hoac con s6 u6c tfnh,

DI! tril an toan (Safety stock) Duy tri t6n kho cr mire nhat dinh de: dam bao doanh nghiep khong bi tac dong manh khi cau thay d6i va khong bi roi van tmh trang het hang.

50

Gia va Chien luac gia

Danh gia (Qualifying) Ul mot khau trong qua trinh ban hang de xac dinh lieu mot nguoi mua tiern nang co th6 tn1 thanh khach hang khong.

Danh ghi tiem nang (Prospecting) MQt khau trong qua trinh ban hang de tim ra cac khach hang tiem nang.

Dl,li dien ban hang (Selling agent) Don vi ban buon trung gian chuyen gioi thieu san pham. Dai dien ban hang co loan quyen quyet dinh v~ chfnh sach gia, noi dung cac chtrong trinh khuech tnrong san pham va thuong cung cap tai chfnh cho nha san xuat, .

Dl,li If dc)c quyen (Exclusive dealing) Thoa thuan cam dai ly cua minh ban hang cua d6i thil canh tranh.

Dai If giao nhan (Freight forwarder) Ngiroi ban buon trung gian chuyen lam cong tac gom hang cua cac chu hang de giarn bot chi phi b6c xep hang cho doanh nghiep.

Dai If giao nhan a mroc ngoal (Foreign freight forwarders) Ngiroi van chuyen trung gian tai mroc ngoai chuyen lam cong tac phuc VI,l viec phan phoi hang cua doanh nghiep,

D~i If van chuyen (Common carrier) Dai ly cung cap dich V1;l van chuyen cho tat cii cac chu giri hang,

Dl)c di~m (Features) Cac d~c tfnh cua san pharn,

Dc) co gil In (Elasticity) Thune do su phan irng cua nguoi mua va nguoi ban vci moi bien dong v6 gia,

Dc) thea dung (Utility) Kha nang mang lai su thoa man mot nhu cau cu th~ cua mot hang hoa hoac dich V1;I.

DQc quyen (Monopoly) Thi tnrong chi co mot ngiroi ban d6i voi mot loai san phdm nao do, khong co hang thay the. Luat chong cau ket cam moi hinh thirc doc quyen, trir doc quyen tam thin' nhu doc quyen nho nhan hieu diroc bao M. hay doc quyen co die'u tief nhu cac cong ty cung cap cac dich V1;I c6ng Ich,

Dc)c quyen nhom (Oligopoly) Thi tnrong co nrong d6i it ngtroi ban, vi du nhu thi tnrong cua cac nganh 6 to, sat thep, thu6c la, dau mo. Co nhirng dieu kien han che' dang k8 cho nhirng d6i thu canh tranh VI chi phi ban dau d8 tham nhap thi tnrong la rat cao,

Dc)ng co (Drive) anh huong manh, dan toi hanh dong.

Cia va Chien IUf!(' gia

51

D(mg CO tieu dung (Motive) Trang thai tarn 19 khien ngiroi ta di 10i quyet dinh phai thoa man nhu du rna ho cam nhan,

Dircng cau (Demand curve) D6 thi phan ann moi quan he gitta hrong cau tai moi rmrc gia. Day chlnh 111. duong doanh thu trung blnh.

Duong cung (Supply curve) D6 thi phan anh moi quan h¢ giUa so hrong mot san pham co ban tai moi mire gia. No 111. duong chi phi can bien, doan nam tren giao diem voi dirong chi phi kha bien trung blnh.

DuOng kinh nghlem (Experience curve) Th~ hien khi doanh nghiep co thi phan 100 se giam diroc chi phi VI doanh nghiep da co loi the' ve· hoc hoi, co tfnh chuyen mon cao, dAu nr nhieu hem, co lei the kinh te do quy mo.

Dau thau canh tranh (Competitive bidding) Ngiroi mua yeu cau cac nha cung rrng tiem nang bao gia hang ban hoac gia tri thuc hien toan b(> hop dong,

Diim chien IU<;1C (Strategic window) MQt khoang thoi gian nh~t dinh khi nang luc cu th~ cua cong ty dap tIng toi Uti nhimg yeu cau can ban cua thi tnrong.

Dinh gia theo don v~ do hrong (Unit pricing) Gia san pham diroc quy tren tung don vi do Iuong nhu kilogam, lit, hoac nhiing don vi quy chuan khac,

Dinh gia theo chi phi (Cost-plus pricing) MQt phuong phap dinh gia l~y chi phi lam co sa va cong them mot ty 1¢ loi nhuan nhat dinh. Co hai hinh thirc dinh gia thea chi phi: dinh gia tren chi phi t6ng th~ (su dung tat cii cac chi phi kha bien co

. lien quan de dinh gia ban mot san phlim) va dinh gia thea chi phi true tiep lien quan (chi tfnh den nhirng chi phi gfut true tiep vao san xuat mot san pham nao do).

Dinh gill theo chi phi true tiep lien quan (Incremental-cost pricing) Chinh sach dinh gia chi tinh chi phi true tiep san xu~t ra mot san lirong cu thl

Dlnh gla tren chi phi t6ng th~ (Full-cost pricing) Dinh gia tren co sa to an bo chi phi d~ dam bao cong ty bu dap diroc tat ca cac chi phi va thu diroc loi nhuan,

Dlnh mac ban hang (Sales quota) La tieu chi doanh so, sil dung trong phan tfch ban hang. La doanh so doanh nghiep du dinh dat diroc, doanh so thuc dat se diroc so sanh vci con so nay.

Dinh vi san pham (Positioning) Chien liroc marketing tap trung vao nhiing phan doan cu th~ chir khong phai Ia toan bo thi tnrong. Chien hroc nay nham gioi thieu san pham voi khach hang bang each lien h¢ chung voi san pham canh tranh, VI du chien hroc marketing san pham 7-Ups "Uncola" quang cao hlnh anh 7-Ups Ui mot thir mroc ngot thay the cho cola.

52

Gid va Chien luac gh

F

F.O.B t~i nha may (F.O.B. plant) Gia hang khong bao g6m bat ky phi van chuyen nao. Tlr viet tM la chit Giao tai man tau. Nguoi mua phai chiu toan b(> phi van chuyen, con diroc goi la EO.B. g6e.

F.O.B tal nha may co tinh phi van chuyen (F.O.B. plant with freight allowed) Gia giao tai man tau co tfnh them phi van chuyen.

G

Gia/gia ca (Price) Gia tri trao d6i cua mot hang hoa hoac dich vu.

Gia cao (Price premium) Neu nguoi tieu dung nhan thirc rang mot san phftm nao do eo gia tri IOn hon so vci cac san phsm tuong tu tren thi tnrong thi ho se tra gia cao hon eho san pham do. Cac san pham hang hieu tlnrong diroc tra gia cao hon so voi cac san pham dai tra khac.

Gia chuyen nhuong (Transfer pricing) Gia san ph Am khi no diroc hach toan chuyen nhirong til mot trung tam lei nhuan sang mot trung tam loi nhuan khac trong noi bo doanh nghiep.

Gia khuech trurmg (Promotional price) Muc gia nam trong chien hroc ban hang chung cua doanh nghiep,

Gia lam thir (Price lining) Thuc hanh marketing voi mot s6 mire gia nhat djnh,

Gia tien I~ (Customary pricing) Gia do tap quan hoac truyen thong da eo tir tnroc tren thi tnrong,

Gia tri gia tang trong qua trlnh san xuat (Value added by manufacturing) St! chenh lech giiia gia san pham khi xuat xirong va gia mua nguyen vat lieu va cac chi phi ditu vao khac,

Gia v~n chuyen iru dai (Commodity rate) D6i khi diroc goi la gia d~c biet VI do Ht gia uu dai rna dai 1:9 van chuyen danh cho chi'! hang khi ho Slr dung thirong xuyen dich VI,I cua minh hoac khi van chuyen nhtmg 16 hang IOn.

Gia thuyet (Hypothesis) Giai thfch mang tinh phong doan v6 mot st;C viec cl,l the. La tuyen b6 ve m6i lien h¢ gitra cac yeu t6 thay d6i va de xuat viec kiem chirng nhtrng moi lien M nay.

Glam gia tien mat (Cash discount) Giarn gia neu thanh toan ngay bang tien mat,

GiOi han ve gia (Price limits) DUng tren quan diem cua ngiroi tieu dung la san phdm luon eo giei han gia, trong do nhan thuc ve chat hrong di lien vrn m6i rmrc

Gia va Chien IU{J'(' gia

53

gia. Neu gia hang thap han mire gia gioi han diroi, ho se cho HI. san pham nay "qua re" va neu cao han mire gia gioihan tren thl lai bi xem Ia "qua dat".

H

Het hang (Stock out) M9t mat hang khong con d€ ban.

Hlnh anh cira hang ban Ie (Retail image) Quan niem ella ngiroi tieu dung ve mot cira hang va kinh nghiem mua hang b cira hang do.

Hang doi hang (Bartering) Su trao d6i hang la'y hang, khong co vai tro tien te. Hang hoa cao dip (Specialty goods) San phdm co nhfrng dac tinh d9C dao rna khong phai khach hang nao ciing co th€ rnua diroc VI gia dat, no diroc eoi nhir hang d6 hieu,

Hang hoa hap dan (Impulse goods) San ph Am rna khach hang tlurong d~ bi "quyen rfi" rnua rna khong kip can nhac kyo Thuong ngiroi ta hay bay nhimg hang hoa nay glin quay thu tien d€ tien hap dan ngiroi tieu dung.

Hang hoa tlen dung (Convenience goods) Nhirng hang hoa ngiroi tieu dung muon rnua thuong xuyen, d~ dang, nhanh chong nhu sua, banh my, xang dau, Hang hoa nay thuong la loai co nhan hieu va gia thap,

Hang khuyen mal (Premium) San pham mien phi, thirong kern khi mua mot san ph am nao do.

Hang mau phat khong (Sampling) Phat khong san pham eho nguoi tieu dung d€ ho dung thir, chap nhan va sau do se mua.

Hang tieu dung (Consumer goods) Ngiroi mua se la ngiroi tieu dung, si'.r dung hang hoa do. Hang hoa tieu dung khong phai la san pham trung gian d€ phuc Vt.J eho viec san xuat mot hang hoa khac,

Hanh vi ngum. tieu dung (Consumer behavior) Phan irng va nhirng quyet dinh cua ngirci tieu dung ve viec mua va sir dung hang hoa, dich Vt.J.

Han mile (Quota) Muc lieu doanh so ban hang hoac can so loi nhuan cu th6 rna mot nhan vien ban hang du dinh se phai dat diroc.

Han ngach nhap khau (Import quota) Han che' ve so IUCJI1g mot chung loai hang hoa CI,I th6 nao do co th€ nhap ve.

Ho trg khuech truong ban hang (Promotional allowance) Viec nha san xuat tai tro hoat dong quang cao va khuech tnrong ban hang cho cac thanh vien trong kenh phan phoi nham phoi hop hieu qua chien liroc khuech tnrong san pham trong toan bo kenh ban hang.

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Giti va Chien luac giti

Hon hqp san ph~m (Product mix) san pham hoac mot nhom san pharn diroc nha marketing dua ra thi tnrong

H(>i chq thuong mai (Trade fair/trade exhibition) Nhifug dQ1 hoi cho dtroc t6 chuc dinh ky, noi cac cong ty thuoc cac nhom nganh nghe khac nhau mang hang cua mlnh den tnrng bay gioi thieu cho ngirei tham quan mua Ie va khach hang mua buon.

Hep dong ban quyen quoc te (Foreign licensing) Trong marketing quoc te, la hop dong giira doanh nghiep vai mot cong ty mroc ngoai trong do doanh nghiep cho phep cong ty nuoc ngoai san xuat va tieu thu hang cua mlnh tai thi tnrong ruroc ngoai,

Hop hie ban Ie (Retail cooperative) Thea thuan bang hop dong gitra mot nhom cac nha ban le v~ viec cung mua hang du tret tit cac co sb ban buon do cac nha ban Ie sb hfru, m6i ngtroi mua met lirong toi thieu nao d6, nham canh tranh voi vm cac chuoi ci'ra hang IOn.

H~ thong (System) La nhom cac b¢ phan/khau co t6 chirc, lien ket narn trong cimg mot ke' hoach vach ra d~ dat diroc cac muc tieu C,! the.

H~ thong marketing true tuyen (Vertical Marketing Systems - VMS) La cac kenh marketing hoat dong trong cung h~ thong sb hiru cua mot cong ty. Mang luoo nay duoc quan ]9 mot each khoa hoc, diroc hoach dinh tnroc tit trung tam d6 co th6 thl!C hi~n hieu qua hoar d¢ng marketing va mang Iai anh huimg toi da trong mang hIm.

H~ thong marketing trtrc tuyen cua doanh nghi~p (Corporate Vertical Marketing System) Met h~ thong marketing true tuyen duqc hlnh thanh dira vao sb hctu duy nhat doi voi m6i cong doan cua kenh marketing.

Hoat dc)ng marketing ciia cac t6 chirc (Organization marketing) Host d¢ng marketing do csio uf chuc mang /{li /¢ feh eho cong d6ng (nhu cong dosn, t6 cluic

ehinh tri), cdc t6 chrk diet: VI,I (nhu rnrong ph6 thong, tnrong dai hoc benh vien bao t~ng), cac t6. chirc ~hinh phil (nhir quan doi, canh sat, phOng ch~; chua ch~y: buu dl~n) thuc h:~n, ?ham ,tac ?¢ng den moi ngtrei de ho chap nhan rnuc dich, sir dung dich Vl,I, hoac dong gop bang each nay hay each khac cho cac t6 chirc do.

Hoat d(>ng phan phoi san pham (Physical distribution) MQi hoar d6ng d~ dam bao h~ng hoa sau k~i xuat xuong se den tay ngiroi tieu dung mot cach hieu qua. B~o ~6m van chuyen,.]Ull kho bai, dong goi bao quan, quan Iy du tnr, xfr 19 dan d~t hang, hra chon noi d~t kho hang, du bao thi tnrong va dich vu ban hang: con

goi Hi hoat d¢ng h~u can. .. .. ,

GiG va Chien luoc gia

55

K

Kenh phan ph6i (Distribution channel) Cac don vi marketing chiu trach nhiem dieu chuyen quyen sa hitu ella hang hoa/dich vu tir ngiroi san xuat den ngtroi tieu dung hoac ngum mua trung gian.

Ket qua hoat d(mg (Bottom line) Mot bier ngtt (tieng Anh) trong kinh doanh noi ve tlnroc do loi nhuan chung cua hoar dong kinh doanh.

Khai ni~m marketing (Marketing concept) Mang lai sl! thea man eho ngiroi tieu dung bang viec san xuat cai rna ho mu6n 0 mire mang lai I¢ nhuan,

Khan hao (Depreciation) Khai niem ke toan, tfnh ti l¢ trich tir doanh thu hang nam bu VaG chi phi mua tai san e6 dinh d~ xac dinh doanh thu rong cua cong ty.

Kho hang du tru (Storage warehouse) Kho bang, noi san ph am diroc tap ket tnroc khi giao. Thirong duoc dung lam cong Cl,l d~ can d6i cung cdu san pham cua doanh nghiep,

Kho phan ph6i (Distribution warehouse) Noi sAp xep va tai phan ph6i san pham, Muc dfch cua kho phan ph6i Ia nham tao dieu kien liru chuyen hang hoa den tay ngirei mua nhanh hon chu khong chi lam chirc nang kho chua.

Khu vue ban hang han che (Closed sales territories) Vung ban hang bi gioi han v~ dia ly theo quy dinh cua nha san xuat di;it ra eho nha phan phoi,

Khuech truong ban hang (Sales promotion) La hoat dong ban hang khong tnrc tiep, da dang mot Ian va kha di;ie biet (khong phai quang cao),

Khuech truong hon hQ1> (Promotional mix) Ngiroi lam marketing str dung t6ng th~ cac hoat dong ban hang tnrc tiep va khong tnrc tiep (g6m quang cao, khuyen mai, quan he cong cluing) nham dat diroc muc tieu khuech tnrong cho san pham .

Khuech trirong san pham (Promotion) Hanh dong thong bao, thuyet phuc gay tac d<)ng toi qua trinh ra quyet dinh mua hang ella nguoi tieu dung.

Ke hoach kinh doanh (Business plan) Van ban trong do vach ra cac bircc doanh nghiep din lam de dat diroc muc tieu kinh doanh cua minh.

Ke hoach marketing (Marketing plan) VAn ban vach ro each thirc lam the nao de doanh nghiep dat dugc cac rnuc tieu marketing.

Ke hoach tac chien (Tactical planning) Ke hoach thirc hien cac hanh dong dn thiet de dat dUc;1C muc tieu cua doanh nghiep,

Ket thuc ban hang (Closing) Mot khau trong qua trinh ban hang khi ngiroi ban hoi lieu khach hang co the mua hang that sl! hay khong.

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Cia va Chien luac gia

Kiem dlnh ket qua ban true tiep (Direct-sale results test) Mot cong cu do hrong hieu qua cua cac chi tieu khuech tnrong san pham, bang each kiem dinh rmre doanh thu gia tang tren mot don V! chi tieu.

Ky thuat ban hang gia cao (Selling up) Ky thuat thuyet phuc khach hang mua mot mat hang gia eao hon so voi mat hang ban dau dinh mua.

L

Luong (Salary) Khoan tien thanh toan e6 dinh dinh ky cho can b¢ cong nhan vien ke ca nhan vien ban hang.

Lam phat (Inflation) SlJ tang rrurc gia chung dan den giam sue mua cua ngtroi tieu dung.

Lap ke hoach (Planning) DI,r tinh cac hoat dong trong nrong lai de dat dU<;1C nhlrng muc tieu doanh nghiep de ra.

Lap ke hoach chien hroc (Strategic planning) Qua trmh xac dinh cac muc tieu co ban cua doanh nghiep, phan b6 nguon IlJC va thirc hien theo nhttng buoc vach san de dat diroc nhiing muc lieu do.

Linh hoat ve gia (Price flexibility) Chinh sach duy tri mire gia co dong cho mot san phAm tren thi tnrong.

Lqi nhuan ban hang (Profit margin on sales) Con s6 phan tram thu ve cua mM dong doanh thu sau khi dii trir chi phi va thue.

Lqi nhuan rong mong muon (Expected net profit) La khai niem sir dung trong chien liroc dau thau, diroc tinh bang xac suat thang thau nhdn voi gia rna thau Ira di cac chi phi lien quan,

LQ1 nhuan truce thue (Profit be/ore tax) L¢ nhuan tnroc thue diroc tinh bang each trir tong gia ban di tong chi phi san xuat. Day 1a loi nhuan tnroc khi tra hoac diroc khau trir thue ella nha mroc.

LQ1 thenrong doi (Comparative advantage) Trong marketing qu6c te, l¢ the urong d6i cua mot qu6c gia trong viec sir dung cung mot nguon lire san xuat met san pham nao do hieu qua hon so vci san xuat mot san pham khac,

LQ1 Ich (Benefits) Gia tri ve cong dung va tinh cam rna mot san pham dem lai eho ngtroi mua,

Loai bi. san pham (Product deletion) Loai bO viec san xuat nhtrng san pham phu ra khoi day chuyen san xuat.

Gia va Chien luoc 'gia

57

M

Moi truong canh tranh (Competitive environment) Qua trinh co sat xay ra tren thi tnrong,

Moi truong chinh tr] va phap Iy (Political and legal environment) La mot bo phan cua rnoi twang marketing. gom cac luat va cac thong nr huang dAn bien hanh tai quoc gia rna doanh nghiep dang co hoat dong kinh doanh.

Mau thuan ve nhan thirc (Cognitive dissonance) SI! 10 lang tnroc khi di d€n quyet dinh mua hang, xay ra khi trong ban than quan niem cua ngiroi mua (kien thtrc, tin nguong, thai dl» co mau thuan.

Mil vach quoc te cua san pham (Universal product code) Mii vach d~e biet tren hang hoa, chi co th~ dung may quet quang h9C cl~ doc, May quet qua he thong may tfnh co th~ in ten san pham va gia ra hoa don ban hang dong thoi t1;l' dong ngay lap nrc vao danh muc hang ban trong bao cao ban hoac xuat hang.

Marketing ca nhan (Person marketing) Nhfrng hoat dong marketing d~ thu hut s,! quan tarn chu 9 va tranh thu cam tinh cua cong chung voi met ca nhan nao do. Cac irng cil' vien chinh tri va cac nhan v~t n6i tieng thueng sil dung chinh sach nay.

Marketing lui (Demarketing) Cac hoat dong nham cat giam nhu diu tieu dung san pham tren thi tnrong xuong toi mire hop 19 d~ doanh nghiep co th~ san xuat va dap irng kip,

Marketing thir nghlem (Test marketing) Chon mot khu vue cu th~ hoac mot doan thi twang nrong doi diin hlnh eho toan thi twang dt gioi thieu san pham moi va van dung chien dich khuech tnrong san pham. Can cir danh gia ket qua thu diroc se quyet dinh lieu co nen tung san pham do ra tren quy mo rong hay khong.

Marketing y tuang (Idea marketing) Xac dinh muc tieu va marketing mot 9 tirong trong nhom khach hang da hra chon,

Mot (Fashions) San pham dang phd bien, co kha nang l~p lai vong dai san pham,

Mot nbat thol (Fads) Mot ton tai thoi gian ngan vi du nhu dong nhac disco, Ian song moi.

Miu (Sample) Nhom dai dien.

Miu chuan (Quota sample) MQt mliu khong ngjiu nhien diroc phan chia sao cho cac phan hoac nhom dai dien cho toan mliu.

Miu chum (Cluster sample) Phuong phap lcfy mAu theo chum, sau do chon ra mot hoac teft cii cac phan til trong chum do tam doi nrcng nghien ciiu.

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GiJ: va Chien luoc gia

Mau ngau nhlen M thong (Systematic sample) Mdu xac suat Ia:'y ta:'t ca. cac vat co s6 tlur nr N trong mot danh sach

Mau phan to (Stratified sample) MAu xac suat diroc chon lira sao eho m6i khi chon mau ngAu nhien i!:J mot nhom san pharo nao do no se dai dien duoc cho t6ng mAu

Mau tlen dung (Convenience sample): MAu chon khong ngau nhien tir nhtrng nguci san sang tnt loi,

Ml}c tleu cua chlnh sach gia (Pricing objectives) Ml;IC tieu rna cong ty mu6n dat duoc thong qua viec ap dung cac ehfnh sikh gia,

Ml}C tieu duy trl (Status quo objectives) Mot phan trong chien hroc gia, muc tieu ella no Hi duy tri mot mire gia ban 6n dinh,

N

Nganh dlch vu (Tertiary industries) Nganh kinh doanh dich vu,

Nganh thuong mal (Trade industries) Cac t6 chirc, vi du nhu cac nha ban buon va ban le, mua hang de ve ban lai cho nguoi khac .

..

Ngay het han sir dung (Open dating) Cho biet ngay eu6i cung rna san pham thuc pham con co th~ diroc bay ban.

NgltOi ban buon (Wholesaler) Ban buon trung gian co toan quyen quyet dinh d6i vm hang hoa co trong tay. Thuat ngir ngtroi dliu C(J hoac nha phan phoi ding am chi d6i nrong nay.

NguOi. ban buon dich Vl} tron gol (Rack jobber) Nhan vien ban buon marketing mo; s6 san pham nhat dinh d~n tan cac ctra hang ban le, cung irng dich vu van chuyen, sap xep, bao hanh va lap kho du trii tai quay ban.

NgltOi. ban Ie (Retailer) Ngirci trung gian ban san pham den tay nguai tieu dung cu6i cung,

NguOi. co tieng nol quan trong (Opinion leader) Ngiroi co tieng noi quan trong trong mot nhom. y kien ella nhimg ngtroi nay thuong ra:'t diroc ton trong, ngtroi khac luon tim d6n ho de xin Uri khuyen, Uri khuyen cua ho tlurong la mot trong nhfrng ngu6n thong tin ve cac san phAm moo.

NguOi mol gim (Broker) La dai 1:9" ban buon h6 tro hoat dong marketing bang each t6 chirc cho nguoi mua va ngiroi ban tai nhfrng vung dia 1:9" phan tan g~p diroc nhau.

NguOi. nhan (Receiver) Nguoi nhan cac thong diep tnrc tiep tir he thong truyen thong.

Cia va Chien iUI(lC gia

59

NguOi phu trach san pham (Product manager) Ngiroi dtrng ra quan ly mot hoac mot nhom san pham. Ngiro do hoan toan chiu trach nhiem ve viec xac dinh muc tieu va lap chien hroc marketing.

NguOi tieu dung tien phong (Consumer innovator) Nguoi tieu dung dau tien ciia mot san pham hoac dich Y1;l moi.

Nghien CUll mang tinh khai pha (Exploratory research) Cac nghien ciru nham giiip nguoi ta hieu ky, sau hon ntta cac van de xay ra, tim hieu nguyen nhan va nhtrng anh hmmg.

Nghlen CUll ve kha nang cung cap (Supply study) Phong vf(n nguoi tieu dung de co diroc nhirng thong tin vf- thai do, nhan xet, dong co mua hang cua ho. Tlnrong diroc tlurc hien diroi ba hinh thirc: phong van qua dien thoai, qua thir va phong van tnrc tiep.

Nguyen v~t lieu tho (Raw materials) V~t lieu dfiu vao nhu san pham n6ng nghiep (lua, bong, sua) hoac san pham tu nhien (d6ng, quang kim loai, than) de san xuat ra san ph:im cu6i cung. Khi phan pharn cap nguyen vat lieu, ngiroi mua se diroc dam bao rang san pham quy chuan va co cung mat bang chat hrong,

Nguyen v~t lieu trung gian (Component parts and materials) Trong thi mrong cac t6 chirc, nhtlng san pham cong nghiep dii hOM thien tro thanh chi tiet cua san pham cu6i cung,

Nhan khdu hoc (Demographics) Nghien ctru cac d~e diem cua ngtroi mua tiem nang, nhu : tuoi, gioi tinh, mire thu nhap.

Nha SaD xuat (Producers) Ngtroi mua san pharn hoac dich Y1;l v6 de tiep tuc san xuat ra san pham hoac dich V1;l khac.

Nhan bieu (Brand) Ten goi, ky hieu, bieu nrong, thiet ke, hoac ket hop cua cac yeu t6 tren, dung de phan biet san pham cua doanh nghiep vei san pham ciia cac doanh nghiep canh tranh.

Nhan hieu duqc ua chuong hon (Brand preference) La giai doan thu hai trong qua trinh chap nhan nhan hieu cua mot san pham. Khach hang sau thoi gian dung tlnr iro nen thich dung san pham do hon san pham cua hang khac co ban tren thi tnrong.

Nhan hieu ca biet (Individual brand) Chien hroc danh nhan hieu rieng cho tung san pham trong nhom cung loai clur khong goi chung ca nhom dirci cung mot ten.

Nhan hieu duy nhat dU<1c ua chuang (Brand insistence) La, giai doan cu6i cimg trong qua trinh chap nhan nhan hieu ella mot san pham. Khach hang chi chap nhan dung hang dung nhan hieu do rna khong chap nhan san pham thay the, ho tim mua bang duoc hang do rnoi thoi.

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Gid va Chien luoc gia

Nhan hieu quoc gia (National brands) Quy dinh boi nha san xuat, Tren thirc te doi khi ngtroi ta goi no Ia nhan hieu cua ngiroi san xuat.

Nhan hieu rleng (Private brand) Mot nhom cac san pham diroc mot ngum ban buon hay ban Ie siip vao mot nhom cung ten do ho hra chon,

Nhan biet nhan hieu (Brand recognition) La giai doan thir nhat trong qua trinh chap nhan nhan hieu cua mot san pham.rKhach h1111g co the phan biet nhan hieu cua san pham nay voi cac nhan hieu cua san ph am khac,

Nhan thuc (Cognitions) Kien thtrc, tin ngufmg va thai d¢ ciia con ngiroi ve nhirng st! kien Cl,l th~.

Nh~p khiu (Importing) Mua hang tic mroc ngoai.

Nhom hang tiem thirc (Evoked set) Khi nguoi tieu dung quyet dinh mua hang, ho luon co san trong d.iu mot s6 nhan hieu hang hoa ho dii tirng sir dung tnrcc day.

Nh6m san pham (Product line) Tap hop cac san pham lien quan den nhau.

Nhu cau (Need) Khi cam thay thieu mot cai gl do, su khac biet gitta tinh trang hien thuc va tinh trang dang iroc mu6n.

Nhu cau co kha nang thanh toan (Customer demands) La nhu cau Cl,l th~ co kha nang chi tra.

Nhu cau cu th~ (Customer wants) Cu the hoa nhu cau tu nhien thea dac diem van hoa, l6i s6ng va kinh nghiem cua m6i ca nhan,

Nhu cau nr nhlen (Customer needs) La mot phan ban chat co ban cua con ngiroi, g6m: nhu cAu v~t chat ve thirc an, quan ao, su sum am, sir an toan; nhu cau xii hoi ve cua cai, dia vi; nhu cAu ca nhan v6 kien thirc, st! tt! khang dinh.

o

o nhlem (Pollution) La thuat ngir da nghia, thuong co nghia la "gay ban"; ngoai ra co th~ hi~u theo nghia moi tnrong 6 nhiem (mroc va khong khi) va van hoa 6 nhiem (khieu tham my va tri thirc).

p

Pha gia (Devaluation) Khi mot qu6c gia danh sut gia dong n¢i t¢ so voi vang hoac vci d6ng ngoai t¢ khac,

Phan doan theo yeu to nhan khiu hoc (Demographic segmentation) Chia dan s6 thanh cac nhorn nrong dong theo cac tieu chi nhu tu6i, gioi tinh, rrurc thu nhap,

Gia va Chien [11'1(." gia

61

Phan doan theo yeu to dia It (Geographic segmentation) Chia dan s6 theo tieu chi cung khu vue,

Phan phoi dc)c quyen (Exclusive distribution) Phan phoi c6 tfnh her suc chon loc, nha san xuat chon mot nha ban buon hoac ban Ie d~ trao toan quyen v~ viec ban san phfun tai mot vung/khu vue xac dinh,

Phan phoi co tinh chon IQc (Selective distribution) Sa dung mang 111m ban le han che, c6 tfnh chon lQC de phan phoi san pham cua minh.

Phan tich diem hoa von (Break-even analysis) Qua trinh danh gia loi nhuan thu ve voi cac rmrc gia lua chon,

Phan tich di~m hoa von ki~u mot (Modified breakeven analysis) Ky thuat xay dung chinh sach gia tren co siJ ket hop mo hinh phan tfch diem hoa v6n kieu truyen thong vci viec danh gia nhu cau tieu dung.

Phan tich ket qua ban hang (Sales analysis) Nghien ciru cac s6 lieu n()i bo v~ viec ban hang, then do c6 phan tich chi tie't timg cau phan de c6 duoc nhtmg thong tin htru Ich han.

Phan tich xu the (Trend analysis) Phirong phap iroc tinh doanh s6 thirc hien tren co siJ phan tfch cac s6 lieu thong ke v~ doanh s6 thu diroc trong thci gian tnroc do.

Phuong phap t6ng chi phi (Total-cost approach) Tinh t6ng chi phi ella toan bt) cac khoan muc chi phi cua he th6ng phan ph6i chu khong tach rieng tirng khoan,

Phan irng (Response) Phan irng cua nguei tieu dung d6i vCri mot yeu t6 tac dong hoac met dong ca.

Pheng van thao luan theo nhom (Focus group interview) Nghien ciiu marketing d~ thu thap thong tin tren CO' sO phong van thao luan then nh6m g6m tu 8 den 12 ca nhan tai cung mot khu vue, then cung mot chu d6.

Phan tram tdng Jc;ri nhuan (Gross margin percentage) Phirong phap danh gia cho biet phan tram doanh thu bu dAp diroc chi phi va mang lai 1¢ nhuan sau khi dii trir chi phi san xuat ra 111<;mg san pham ban ra trong mot thoi gian xac dinh.

Phieu giam gia (Coupon) La cong cu khuech tnrong san pham, thirong diroc tang cho nguci mua de nhan diroc giam gia eho Ian rnua tiep sau.

Q

Qua trmh chap nhan (Adoption process) Mot loat cac quyet dinh khac nhau cua khach hang d6i voi mot san pham mrri, Qua trinh chap nhan cua khach hang g6m cac biroc cu tM sau: nhan bie't su c6 mat cua san pham, quan tarn, danh gia, dung thu va chap nhan.

62

Gid va Chien luac gia

Qua trmh pho bien san pham rnai (Diffusion process) Nho do rna mot san phftm se dtroc nguOi tieu dung trong mot nhom cong dong chap nhan.

Qua trinh trao doi (Exchange process) Qua trinh hai ben trao d6i mot tlur gl do co gia tri d~ cimg thoa man nhu cAu cua minh.

Quang cao (Advertising) Gici thieu ve san pham cho mot hrong khach hang tiem nang l6'n thong qua cac phuong tien thong tin dai chung d~ ho biet va mua hang cua minh.

Quang cao ban Ie (Retail advertising) Quang cao ban hang tnrc tiep tai cac cira hang ban le,

Quang cao cQng tac (Cooperative advertising) Chi ph! cho chuang trinh quang cao do ngtroi ban hang va nha san xuat cung chiu,

Quang cao tal cho (Point-of-purchase advertising) Sir dung hmh anh tuyen truyen va trinh dien de khuech tnrong san pham vao thOi diem va tai dia di~m giln lien voi quyet dinh mua hang cua khach.

Quang cao so sanh (Comparative advertising) Thuyet phuc khach hang mua san pham bang each so sanh voi mot san pham cung loai cua d6i thu canh tranh.

Quang cao tren do dung (Specialty advertising) Quang cao thong qua nhiing do dung co in ten tuci, dia chi noi san xuat va thong diep quang cao, tlnrong diroc in tren cac san pham nhu lich, but, lich thi dau the thao.

Quang cao thong tin ve san phim (Informative product advertising) Quang cao d~ tao nhu cau ban dAu ve mot san pham.

Quan h~ cong chung (Public relations) Quan M cua doanh nghiep voi cong dong trong do co khach hang, nha cung tmg, cd dong, nhan vien, chinh quyen, cac t6 chirc xii hoi.

Quan h~ cong chung (Publicity) MQt phan cua quan he cong dong lien quan den khuech tnrong san phdm hoac dich Vt,J cua doanh nghiep.

Quay yang dl! trO' (Stock turnover) S6 Ian quay vong mot lirong du tm binh quan trong nam.

Quy each phim chat (Specifications) M~ ta bang van ban v~ mot san pham hay dich Vt,J rna doanh nghiep can. Ngtroi dau thau tiem nang se can cu vao do de xem lieu minh co san xuatj cung cff'p san pham/dich Vt,1 do diroc khong roi moi quyet dinh tham gia bo thau,

Quyen cua ngllOi tieu dung (Consumer rights) Quyen diroc an toan khi sir dung san pham, quyen diroc thong bao, quyen duoc chon lira va quyen diroc gop y.

Gici va Chien lua« gici

63

s

San pham (Product) La mot tap hop cac d~c diem v~t I);' dich vu, bieu tnrng de thea man nhu cau cua con ngtroi.

San pham cung loai (Generic product) D6 an hoac d6 gia dung khong co ten tu6i rieng, khong quang cao, khong nhan hieu.

San pham hOO hlnh (Tangible products) La still pham v~t chat, chrr khong phai dich vu nhu nr van phap luat, dich vu y te'o

San phdm the eho (Cannibalizing) San pham the' cho san pham khac cung do mot hang still xuat,

San phdm cong nghlep (Industrial goods) Hang hoa duoc Slr dung true tiep hoac gian tiep Hun nguyen lieu dau van cho viec san xuat mot loai hang hoa khac.

San pham vo hlnh (Intangible products) La san pham dich vu nhu tu van luat phap, kham benh.

San xuat don dau (Speculative production) San xuat can cu tren co sd du doan cua nha quan 19 v6 nhu cau nrong lai tren thi tnrong cua loai san pham nay. San phdm duoc san xullt tnroc khi co don d~t hang.

Sinh thai h9C (Ecology) M6i quan he gitra con nguoi voi moi tnrong.

So sanh chuoi san phdm - dich V\l (Goods-services continuum) Phuong phap trlnh bay cac d~c di6m gi6ng va khac nhau gifra cac san pham va dich vu.

T

Tai sir dung (Recycling) Tai si'r dung chang han nhu d6i voi bao bi, Qua trmh nay tao nguon nguyen lieu dau vao moi va xu 19 dtroc mot tac nhan quan trong gay 6 nhiern moi tnrong.

Tid san von (Capital items) Nhirng tai san lau ben co thai gian khau hao dai.

Tao danh tieng (Prestige goals) Nam trong chien hroc v6 gia, Djnh gia ban d muc cao de tao cho nguei tieu dung an urong san phdm Ia loai c6 danh tieng hoac co chllt hrong cao,

T6ng di~u tra (Census) Thu thap dii lieu marketing tir tllt eli cac nguon.

T6ng ht;1P .l!c luqng ban hang (Sales force composite) Phuong phap du doan doanh s6 ban hang tren co Sd t6ng hop doanh s6 ban hang du tfnh cua tllt ca luc

hrong ban hang trong cong ty, .

64

Cia va Chien luoc gia

r

Ten nhan hleu (Brand name) Met phan trong nhan hieu g6m tir hoac chfr lam nen ten de xac dinh va phan biet san phAm ella doanh nghiep voi doi tM canh tranh. DAy chfnh Ia phan the hien diroc bang 1m noi cua nhan hieu.

Ten san phdm cung loal (Generic name) TU tlnrong dung d~ noi ve mot loai san phAm nao d6. Vi' du nhir cola, nylon.

Tau chuyen cha rleng (Unit trains) I.1t dich vu v~n chuyen cua nganh duemg sftt danh rieng cho nhtrng khach hang co nhu cau van chuyen nhimg 16 hang 1&1 nham tiet kiem chi phi va thoi gian cho doanh nghiep, Tren tau chi cho hang cua rieng doanh nghiep rna thoi,

Toi da hoa doanh thu (Sales maximization) Trier Iy dinh gia do kinh te gia William J. Baumol phan tich. Baumol cho rang nhieu hang muon toi da hoa doanh thu trong dieu kien loi nhuan bi han che a mot rmrc nhat dinh.

T6i da hoa Ic;ri nhuan (Profit maximization) Trong hoc thuyet kinh te' cO die;n day la muc tieu truyen thong cua chfnh sach dinh gia. Theo hoc thuyet nay, tilt cit cac doanh nghiep deu muon roi da hoa cai ho thu ve va toi thieu hoa cai ho chi ra.

Tap hQP t6ng quat (Population) Nh6m tOng so rna nha nghien CUll muon nghien ciru. Doi voi mot cuoc van dong bau elI', t~p hop tong quat chfnh la to an bo cir tri hop phap,

Thai dQ (Attitude) Nhirng danh gia tieu eire hoac tfch eire, cam nhan va xu the ung ho hoac phan doi.

Thong tin phan hoi (Feedback) Thong tin ve phan tffig cua khach hang truce mot thong diep, thong tin nay diroc phan anh ngiroc tra lai phfa ngiroi gui thong tin.

Thirong hieu (Trademark) Nhan hieu duqc dang ky ban quyen, ngoai doanh nghiep ra khong don vi nao duoc phep su dung, thirong dang ky ban quyen ca phan bien nrong va ten.

Thea dung ve thot di~m (Time utility) Khi ngiroi lam marketing co kha nang cung rmgsan ph Am dung vao hie ngiroi tieu dung muon mua.

Thea dung ve quyen so hiJu (Ownership utility) Do cac can be) marketing tao ra khi quyen sa hiiu san pham duoc chuyen sang cho ngiroi tieu dung tai thoi diem mua.

Thea man nhu cau (Want satisfaction) Dat dtroc khi nhu du tu nhien cua nguci tieu dung diroc dap irng sau khi ho tieu dung san pham do.

Th01. gian tit~n ban hang (Pretransactional period) Khoang thai gian tnroc khi tung san pham ra ban chinh thtrc.

Theo doi (Follow-up) Mot khau trong qua trtnh ban hang - hoat dt;'lng sau ban hang.

Gici va Chien ht(Jr: gia

65

Thiet ke chuong trlnh nghlen cuu thi truong (Research design) Xay dung mot k€ hoach day dii ve viec thuc hien mot clnrong trlnh nghien ctru, dieu tra thi tnrong.

Thir hieu qua (Pretesting) Kiem tra tinh hieu qua cua mot quang cao tnroc khi dua no vao thuc hien,

Thi'r nghiem (Experiment) Cac nghienciru khoa hoc trong do cac nha nghien ciiu thuc hien mot loat cac thi nghiern voi mot nhom mau, sau do so sanh ket qua thu duoc voi nhom khong thuc hien thi nghiem.

Thir nghlem y nnmg (Concept testing) Mot khau trong quy trinh phat trien san pham mei, danh gia y nrong ve san phdm moi tnroc khi chfnh thirc dua vao san xuat,

Th] trucng chung (Common market) Khai niem dung trong marketing qu6e te, thiet lap mot kh6i thi tnrong ap dung chfnh sach hai quan chung va tieu chuan hoa cac quy dinh thirong mai th6ng nhat cho urt ca cac mroc thanh vien.

Th] truong cua ngum ban (Seller's market) Thi tnrong hang hoa va dich VI! khi cau 1&1 hon cung.

Thi tnrong cua ngum mua (Buyer's market) La thi tnrongco d6i dao hang hoa va dich VI!.

Thi trmmg muc tieu (Target market) Nhom cac khach hang diroc xac dinh tnnrc.

Thi truOng ngum tleu dung (Consumer market) Nhimg ca nhan mua hang hoa va dich VI! cho muc dfch sit dung cua ban than,

Thi truOng san phdm cong nghlep (Industrial goods market) Thi tnrong g6m nhtrng ngtroi mua hang hoa lam nguyen lieu dau vao cho viec san xuat mot loai hang hoa, dich VI! khac. Vi du nhu thi tnrong cua cac don vi san xuat, cac co quan chfnh phu, ban Ie, ban buon, cong ty khai thac mo, cong ty baa hiem, cong ty ba't dong san, tnrong hoc, benh vien.

Thu nhap tuy dung (Discretionary income) Met phan trong t6ng doanh thu sau khi da trir di cac phan biit buoc phai chi,

Thue hlen don di;\t hang (Order processing) Qua trinh ban hang tai cac cira hang ban buon, ban le. G6m: xac dinh nhu cau cua khach hang, chi ro cho ho biet nhu cau do va thirc hien don d~t hang.

Thuyet trmh (Presentation) Mot khau trong qua trtnh ban hang. Ngum ban hang thuyet minh, gioi thieu nhtrng d~c tfnh co ban cua san pham, chi ra tru diem ella no va trfch dAn 1m khen ngoi cua nhtmg ngiroi da timg sit dung,

66

Gia va Chien luoc gia

Thuyet trlnh ban hang theo mau (Canned approach) Thuyet trinh ban hang theo milu da ghi nho de dam bao neu diroc mot each thong nha':t tilt ca nhtrng diem diroc lanh dao coi 13. quan trong.

Tieu chuan phuc v ... khach hang (Customer service standards) Chill hrong phuc V1;1 rna moi cong ty danh cho khach hang cua minh.

Tien hoa hong (Commission) Khoan tren tra cho nhan vien ban hang giin v6'i mire doanh s6 ban hoac mire loi nhuan,

Tra lal mf)t phan th~n hang (Rebate) Tra lai mot phan tien hang, thuong do nha san xuat mot san pham cung cap cho khach hang

Trq gili (Trade-in) Tlurong danh cho cac don vi ban nhirng hang hoa lau ben nhir {) to. Tro gia se cho phep giam gia rna khong anh huang den gia cong bo.

Trung bay thuong mal (Trade show) xem phan Hoi cho thuong mai.

Truyen thong (Communications) .S!! truyen dat mot thong diep tir nguoi giri (hoac mot nguon) den ngum nhan.

Ty gili hoi doai (Exchange rate) Ti gia giiia dong n()i t¢ voi dong ngoai t¢ hoac v6'i vang.

Ty I¢ chi phi hoat d(lng (Operating expense ratio) Mot chi tieu danh gia tinh tong chi phi ban hang va chi phi hanh chfnh r6i so sanh v6'i doanh thu.

Ty I¢ liii tren c6 phan (Rate of return on common equity) Mot chi tieu danh gia cho thay doanh nghiep da co lai den mire nao tren v6n c6 dong,

Ty I¢ Iii tren tdng tal san (Rate of return on total assets) Mot chi tieu danh gia cho thay ty l~ loi nhuan rong sau thue tren t6ng tai san cua mot doanh nghiep,

Ty suat IQi nhuan theo von dau nr (Return on investment) Ty l~ gifra loi nhuan va t6ng von dilu nr.

Uu dai hai chleu (Reciprocity) Co nhiing uu dai dang ke cho ngiroi vira la nha cung irng, vira la ngiroi lieu dung hang cua doanh nghiep.

v

Van hoa (Culture) Cac quan niem, thircc do gia tri, nr urong va thai d() anh huang den hanh vi ngiroi tieu dung.

Ow va Chien luoc gia

67

Van phong ban hang (Sales office) Nha san xuat lap van phong khu vue de quan Iy d()i ngii ban hang. No khac van phong chi nhanh ~ chb khong co kho d~ hru hang.

V~t phdm phu trq (Supplies) Nhtrng vat pham can thiet eho viec v~n hanh hang ngay song khong hien dien trong thanh pham, vi du nhu vat pham dung eho bao dmrng, sua chua, van hanh nhu cac d6 van phong, giay, but, mire, bang mire, quan ao bao ho, V.v. Vat pham phu tro kh6ng bao g6m cac nguyen v~t lieu hien dien trong thanh pham nhu cao su trong sam l6p, vai trong quan ao,

V~t tu mau hong (Expense item) Vat pham hoac dich V1;1 sir dung trong mot thoi gian ngan, thuong la mot nam,

Vong dOi ban Ie (Retail life cycle) Quan niem ve vong diri cua mot don vi ban le qua cac thoi ky: tham nhap, tang tnrong, bao hoa va suy thoai,

x

Xac dinh thi truimg muc tieu (Market targeting) Cac cong ty phai xac dinh va dua ngu6n lire cua minh vao phuc vu mot s6 nhom khach hang nhat dinh tren thi tnrong

Xuat khau (Exporting) Ban hang fa thi tnrong ruroc ngoai.

Xuat khdu chu d(mg (Active exporting) Cac hoat dong marketing tren pham vi qu6e t€ cua mot doanh nghiep nham chu dong tim kiem ban hang d~ xuat khau,

Xuat khdu thu dong (Casual exporting) Doanh nghiep thu dong trong cac hoat dong marketing tren thi tnrong qu6c teo

y

Yiu t6 tac dong (Cues) Nhtrng vat the trong moi tnrong quyet dinh ban chat cac phan img.

68

Gia va Chien lua: giti

Phu luc C - Thong tin be) sung

Chuang trlnh Phat trien D,! an Me Kong dii bien soan bo sach danh cho cac nha quan ly va chu cac doanh nghiep vita va nho i:J Viet Nam. M6i eu6n sach diroc thiet ke d6 sir dung mot each linh hoat, J)i6u nay co nghia la mot ngiroi co tM t'! nghien cUu toan b!) cu6n sach, mot giao vien co th~ sir dung de giang day, hoac chuyen gia tu van co th~ dung de tham khao cho cong tac chuyen mon cua minh. B<) sach g6m hai nhom chit de:

• Quan tri Ngu6n NMn luc trong cac Doanh nghiep Vira va Nh6

• Quan tri Marketing trong cac Doanh nghiep Vira va Nh6

Nh6m chu de 1: Quan tri Ngu6n Nhan lire trong cac Doanh nghlep Vira va Nho

1.01 Chu doanh nghiep va chirc nang quan 19 nguon nhan lire 1.02 Phan tich cong viec

1.03 M6 ta cong viec, yeu cau chuyen mon va cac tieu chuan ke't qua cong viec 1.04 Thu hut, tim kiem va lira chon ngu6n nhan hrc

1.05 H¢ thong tien luang va tien cong

Nhom chu de 2: Quan trl Marketing trong cac Doanh nghiep V ira va Nho

2.01 Ole khai niern co ban ve Marketing 2.02 Thu thap thong tin v6 khach hang

2.03 11m thap thong tin v~ qua trinh va xu huang mua bang cua khach hang 2.04 Thi tnrong IDIJ.C tieu

2.05 K€ hoach hoa va phat tri~n san pham 2.06 Gia va chien hroc gia

2.07 Khuech truong san pham va quang cao

Gia va Chien luac gia

69

Quan tr] Nguon Nhan Marketing trong cac nghi~p VLra va Nho

It!c va Doanh

PHIEU DANH (iIA

Chuang trmh Phat trien Du an Me Kong ra't mong ban doc giri lai phieu danh gia cho chung toi. Chung toi se phan tich thong tin phan hoi d~ co th~ cung cap cho ban doc nhtrng dich V\1 t6t han, cling nhu bien soan them tai lieu dao tao cho cac nha quan 19 doanh nghiep vita va nho. Tat cit cac thong tin trong phieu danh gia nay se diroc bao mat, Xin hay danh 10 phiit d~ hoan thanh phieu danh gia va gi'ri phieu ve dia chi dum day, bang fax hoac qua btru dien,

Ngoai ra, neu ban co can hoi lien quan den noi dung cuon sach, Chuang trinh Phat trien DI,l' an Me Kong se chuyen cac cau hoi cua ban toi tac gia (cho den thang 9 nam 2001). De nghi gjri cau hoi Cling voi phieu danh gia nay hang fax, thir hoac thu dien tir toi MPDF thea dia chi sau:

Chuong trinh Phat tri~n D" an Me Kong 63 Ph6 Ly Thai T6, Tang 7

Ha N(>i, Vi~t Nam

Di~n thoai: (84-4) 824-7892 Fax: (84-4) 824-7898 E-mail: dlien@ifc.org

2. B~ dA nghe noi den hoac nhln thay cuon sach nay lan dau tien a dau?

1. Cho biet ten cuon sach rna ban muon gop y kien? ~

o v« tuyen

o Dai

o Baochi

o 6 mot khoa hoc rna toi tharn du

o 6 mot CU9C hoi thao rna toi tharn dir

o Ttr mot ngiroi ban

o 6 hieu sach

o Khac(XinhAyneur5), __

3. B~ da: su dung cuon sach nay trong hoan canh nao?

o Trong cac khoa hoc a tnrong D~ hoc/Cao ding

o H()i thao

o Cong tac nr van

o 1I,r nghien coo

/

4. Ly do chfnh rna ban mua cuon sach?

o M~t so ngum gi6i thieu cuon sikh voi toi

o Cuon sach Ia tai lieu bat buoc trong khoa hoc rna toi tharn du

o TOi nghi ding cuon sach co the giiip toi khoi slJ cong viec kinh doanh cua rninh

o T6i nghi rang cuon sach co th6 gnip toi cai tien cong viec kinh doanh hien nay cua rninh

o TOi thfch each trinh bay cua cuon sach

o Cuon sach nay re han so v6i mot so cuon sach urong tl,C

5. Phan nao cua cuon sikh diroc ban nghien ciru nhieu nhat?

o Bai t~p nr kiern tra

o Bai t~p thuc hanh

o Bai tap ttnh huong

o Ke hoach ling dung

o N~i dung cua cuon sach

o Phankhac ~----------------~------------------------

6. Phan nao cua cuon sach duoc ban nghien ciru it nhat?

0 Bai tap tu kiim tra
0 Bai tap thirc hanh
0 Bai t~p tlnh hu6ng
0 K€ hoach lIng dung
0 Noi dung cua cuon sach
0 Phan khac 7. Neu ban la chu doanh nghiep, ban da ap dung nhtrng kien thtrc nghien ciru duoc tir cu6n sach nay vao thuc te cong viec kinh doanh cua minh nhir the nao?

o T6i da hi~u biet duoc nhieu han tnroc

o T6i da sit dung nhirng kien thirc nghien ciru d~ xem xet lai cong viec kinh doanh hien nay cua mlnh

o T6i da sit dung nhfrng kien thuc nghien cuu d~ dira ra nhfrng bien phap quan Iy moi

o Toi khong sit dung nhieu nhtmg kien thuc nghien ciru nr cu6n sach vi thay chung khong phir h9'}J

o Ly do khac (xin neu ro) _

8. Ban e6 th~ sir dung ke hoach rmg dung M giiii quyet cac van de trong cong ty minh?

o co th~ ap dung Mu het ke hoach irng dung

o co th.:l ap dung khoang mot nita k€ hoach img dung

o Hau nhu khong tip dung duqc mot ke hoach img dung nao

Neu ban hau nhu khong th.:l ap dung duoc mot ke hoach ling dung nao, xin ban cho biet Iy do.

9. Ban danh bao nhieu thoi gian d~ nghien CUu cu6n sach nay? Xin hay uoe tfnh thea s6 gio,

Olden 5 gia

o 5 den IOgia

o 10 den 15 gia

o 15 den 20 gia

o Khoang thai gian khac (xin hay neu ro) _

10. Ban hay danh gia cu6n sach nay theo thang di~m dum day?

ne rang 2 3 4 Khong ro rang
Thti vi 2 3 4 Khong thti vi
RAt hilu Ich 2 3 4 Khong hilu Ich
Quade 2 3 4 Qua kho
MAt qua ft thoi giant 2 3 4 Mat qua nhieu thai giant
cong sue nghien CUu cong sue nghien CUu 11. B~ hay danh gia vi: Bai tap Thuc hanh 7

o Qua de 1 2 3 4

o Hop ly 2 3 4

Qua kho Khong hop 1.9

12. Gia cua eu6n sach nay nhu the' nao?

o Qua cao

o Hop ly

o Qua thap

13. B~ se:

o Mua eu6n sach khac d cung nhom eM de

o Mua eu6n sach a nh6m chu de khac

o Gioi thieu cu6n sach nay voi ngiroi khac

Y kien b6 sung

Neu ban co them y kien hay nhan xet vi: eu6n sach nay hoac phan nao cua cu6n sach, xin vui long eho biet.

GIA vA CHIEN LLJQC GIA

CHUONG TRINH ntr AN ME KONG (MPDF)

Chiu trach nhiern xuat ban Bien t~p

Trinh ba y bla

Ky thuat

Sira ban in

LE HOANG

TRIE U KINH VAN TRIDUC

.:> ,

HIENKHANH

LE CONG

... A~? ?

NHA XUA T BAN TRE

161B Ly Chinh Thang - Quan 3 - Thanh pho H6 Chi Minh DT: 9316211 - 8465595 - 8465596 - 9317849

Fax: (84-8) 8437450

Email: nxbtre@hcm.vnn.vn

In 1.000 cuon, kh6 21 x 29 em. T~i Xi nghiep In U: Quang LOc.

S6 dang ky ke hoach xuat ban 2971l41-CXB. Do Cue Xuat ban cap ngay 7/3/2001 va giify trich ngang KHXB so 264/2002. In xong va nop luu chieu thang 3/2002.

nanh nhan tl/ hoc

bO sacn do ChUdng trinh PMt tritn DII an Mil Kling (MPDF) ph6"i hl1p v6i n B~i hQC rna OLA (Canada) billn so,n gam hal nhOm chi! 111:

. Quan tr] Ngu6n Nhln II/c trong cac Doanh nghiQp Viia va NhO . . Quan tr] Marketing trong cae Doanh nghiep Vila va Nho.

n bQ veJi 12 II/a saeh, tlllqe Ihi"t k"linh ho,t, tlOc I~p, dA tloc va dA ang d~ng. ii doanh nghiep, ehuylln gia til vln, giao villn va sinh viAn khoa kinh til',

In trj doanh nghiQp, Marketing dIu co tht lim Ihly tU' nhang Irang sach nay lng l1ilu b6 feh, Ij thu vii lhurt thlle eho cling vlee klnh doanh, chuyl!n men hoc t~p cila ehfnh minh.

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