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com History of Architecture -- Cloned from: History of Architecture meige Front Back

SeaFaring people ho have learned to expolit natural resources

Aegean Cultures

Smooth stone masonry laid so that joints are visable

Ashlar Masonry

Time imported and bronze created

Bronze Age

A Fortress in a commanding position in or near a city

Citadel

Walls made o very large stones, only minimally shaped

Cyclopean masonry

Several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings (Jumping Bulls)

Frescoes

Labyrinth

An elaborate maze, made to trap a minotaur(half man half bull)

Lustral-Basin

A pool used or ritual purification

Megaron

Rectangular room having a central hearth and four columns supporting a roof ith an atrium opening

Acaanthus leaf

A plant used as a model for decoration on Corinthian and composite capitals

Acropolis

"High city" In greek states the acropolis as the location of the most important temples and religious shrines

Agora

In greek cities the term applied to the area of markets and city government

Archaic

Very old or old fashioned

Caryatid

A pier carved in the form of a standing woman and used in place of a column

An egg shaped ornament

Egg and Dart

alternating with a dart shaped one

Entasis

The slight outward curve of a column, which then tapers toward the top of the shaft

Fret or Greek Key

An artistic meander pattern of decorative border

Golden section

Proportion where A:B is same as B:A+B

Hellenes

Waning of old greek religion, larger sized cities

Hellenistic

Period of Greek history between death of Alexander the Great and the annexation of the romans

Orders of Architecture

The trabeated systems of architecture develped by the Greeks and extended by the Romans. The Greek orders, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian - Differ slightly from the Roman orders. The Romans develped the Tuscan and Composite order

Polis

Ancient Greek City state

Polychromy

The decorative use of colored stone, seen primarily in medieval

architecture

Temenos

A piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain, especially to kings and chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary or holy grave

Temple

Is a structure resered for relgious or spiritual activites

Tholos

A dome over a circular plan building or more generally the building itself

Stoa

In greek architecture a linear building with one or more rows of columns, stoas could be used for shops, meetings, exhibitions

Cella or Noas

The shrine room in the center of a temple

Base

The lowest part of a column or pier often broader than the sections avobe to spread the load to the foundation

Shaft

The vertical element above the base and below the capital in an architectural order

Capital

In classical architecture the termination of a column, generally given a decorative carving

Architrave

In classical architecture the bottom portion o an entablature

Frieze

The horizontal element above the architrave and belo the cornice in an entablature

Flutes or Fluting

Vertical grooves incessed in the shaft of a classical column

Metope

An element of the doric frieze set alternately with triglyphs. Panels contain low relief carvings

Pediment

The gable end of a temple framed with cornices

Peristyle

A colonnaded court or garden

Stylobate

The base, usually having steps on which a colonnaded temple sits

Triglyph

A channeled block set between metopes in a doric frieze

Volute

A decorative spiral found in Ionic, Corinthian and composite capitals

Cornice

The uppermost element of an entablature, which projects beyond the plane of the exterior wall: more generally , the overhanging molding atop any building

Amphitheater

An area with raked seating arranged around a circular or oval floor

Apse

Ther termination of the nave of a basilica or the choir in a basilican church