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[Viet - Anh] Tuyen Tap Thanh Ngu - Tuc Ngu - CA Dao

[Viet - Anh] Tuyen Tap Thanh Ngu - Tuc Ngu - CA Dao

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:II

Lei NOI E>AU

Hien nay, trong miing nghien cuu, bien soan thanh ngif, tuc ngir tieng Anh moi chi c6 cac sach Anh - Vi¢t la nrong d6i phong phii, con hau nhu chua c6 cuon Vi¢t - Anh nao la day du va co d¢ ehinh xac cao. Trong khi do, mot cuon Thanh ngtr, Tuc ngit, Ca dao Viet - Anh la rat can thiet, No lam eho ngiroi dung sach tiet kiern duoc nhieu thai gian va cong sue moi khi muon tim mot thanh ngfr hay tuc ngu tirong dirong trong tieng Anh. De tai nay se giup ngiroi hoc tieng Anh co von tit virng phong phii, the hien y nrong cua mlnh mot each bong bay, giau hlnh anh, co nhUng cau noi day tinh trier 19 va thong thai khi giao tiep bang tieng Anh vai nguoi mroc ngoai, Dong thai, no ding giup nguai day tieng Anh dua ra nhtrng thi du rcrt hap dan trong qua trinh len lop, gay hirng thu hoc tap eho hoc sinh, mang Iai hieu qua eao cho gio day, Ngoai ra, tai lieu nay con giup nguol nuoc ngoai dang hoc tieng Viet tim hieu kho tang Van hoa dan gian Viet Nam.

Tuy da mat nhieu cong sue nhirng khong the tranh khoi nhGng thieu s6t do chu quan trong viec tlm nhimg thanh ngu, tuc ngfr tirong dirong giira hai thil tieng mot each ehinh xac tuyet doi, V~y nen toi rat mong duoc su gop Y chan tinh cua cac d6ng nghiep va ban dQC.

Tac gid Nguy~n Dlnh Hung

vAl NEllE THANH NGif Tue NGif

VIET - ANH

9

I. PHAN BI~T THANH NGU VOl TUC NGU.

Khi sap hoan thanh viec suu tam cua minh, toi co y dinh ghi r6 don vi tieng Viet nao Iii thanh ngil hay we ngil de nhUng ai can doc co nhieu thuan loi hon trong viec Slr dung tap tai lieu nay. Nhung toi thay ngay la minh g~p phai mot kho khan rat IOn.

Thoat tien, toi dua vao quyen T1}c ngfr Viet Nam cua nha xuat ban Khoa hoc xii h¢i -1975 thi thay da so cac don vi tieng Viet toi siru HIm la tuc ngit. Den khi toi xem cu6n Tir dien giai thfch thanh ngu tieng Vi¢t ella Trung tam Khoa hoc xa h¢i va nhan van qu6e gia - Vien Ngon ngu hoc -1998 thi lai vo Ie ra ta hau het cac don vi d6 ta thanh ngit, Toi xin trlch dan mot sO' tnrong hQ'P e6 51,1' sAp xep khong thong nhat b hai eu6n sach do nhir:

Sai mot ly di mot darn Ca 100 nu6t ea be

An co di tnroc, 16i mroc di sau MOt tien ga ba tien thee

o chon noi, choi chon ban Giau "d6i ban, sang d6i vq ...

Toi thay hoang mang qua va quyet dinh khong dam tlurc hien y do phan loai r6 rang dau ta tuc ngtr, dau Iii thanh ngft tieng Vi¢t nila vi ve mat nay kha nang cua toi khong eho phep, Tuy nhien, t6i thay cling phai rut ra mot sc dinh huang cho bim than va giiip eho cac dong nghiep cling hoc sinh khi doc tai lieu nay co nhtrng nhan dinh ca nhan trong viec phan biet tuc ngir vai thanh ngfr,

Thea dinh nghia trong Til dien tieng Viet cua Vien Ngon ngfr hoc - Nha xuat ban Da Nang -1977 thi:

"Thanh ngil ta tap hQ'P "tir cO' dinh da quen dung rna nghia cua no thuong kh6ng the giai thlch diroc mot each dan gian bang nghia cua cac ttr tao nen no ..

Thl du:

Mot nang hai strong Ran sanh ra rna Dam ba che cu."

10

"T!,Ie ngu la cau ngan gQn, tlnrong co van dieu, due ket tri thirc, kinh nghiem song va dao due thuc tien cua nhan dan. Thi du:

Doi cho sach, rach cho thorn Mot giot mau dao hem ao nuoc Hi.

Thira nguoi nha moi ra ngiroi ngoai."

Qua hai dinh nghia tren, ta chua thay het duoc 51! khac nhau giUa thanh ngfr va tuc ngu rna phai phan tich them nhu sau:

1. Tuc ngfl la mQt cau noi hoan chinh, dien dat tron ven mot y mang nci dung nhan xet quan h¢ xa h¢i, truyen d~t kinh nghiern song, eho bai hoc luan Iy hay phe phan SI! viec, Do do, mot cau tuc ngir co th~ diroc coi Ia mot "tac pham van hoc" hoan chinh vi no mang trong mlnh d. ba clnrc nang co ban ella van hoc Ia clnrc nang nhan thirc, chiic nang tham my va chrrc nang giao due. Vi du nhu cau tuc ngil Viet Nam "Thuan vq thuan chong, (at be dong cung can" dien dat mot nhan xet ve sue manh doan ket, mot kinh nghiem song va lam viec eo hoa hop thi moi dem lai ket qua, mot luan Iy trong quan he vq chong. Chirc nang nhan thuc trong cau tuc ngu nay la giiip eho con ngcoi hieu duoc eo sa cua quan h¢ vCj chong la binh dang. dan chu va thong cam voi nhau. Chtrc nang giao due cua no la gop phan dira tinh cam giO'a nguai va ngtroi theo huang tot dep trong quan he Vrj chong noi rieng va trong quan he xii hQi noi chung. Chirc nang tham my cua no la d~ truyen tai noi dung nen ngiroi ta dii dung each noi cuong dieu va co hlnh anh khien ngirci doc de bi thuyet phuc va tiep thu.

2. Thanh ngil Iii mot cum tir co dinh da quen dung. Xet v~ mat ngil phap thi no ehua th~ la mot cau hoan chinh, vi the no chi urong duong voi mot tiro Thanh ngir khong neu len mot nhan xet, mot kinh nghiern song, mot bai hoc luau Iy hay mot sl! phe phan nao ca nen no thuong mang chirc nang tham my chu kh6ng co clurc nang nhan thirc va chirc nang giao due, rna thieu hai chirc nang nay thi no kh6ng the tra thanh mot rae pham van hoc tron ven diroc. Cho nen, thanh ngfr thuoc ve ngon ngu. Vi du trong tieng Viet, thanh ngil "mat hoa da phan" chi noi len ve dep yeu kieu cua nguoi phu nu, nhung no khong neu len duoc mot nhan xet, mot loi khuyen hay mo: su phe phan nao d. Vi the, du duoc dien dat mot each bong bay. co hinh anh (chuc nang tham my), thanh ngu tren kh6ng mang lai cho ngiroi ta mot hieu

11

bier ve cuoc song va mot bai hoc nao ve quan he con nguoi trong xii hoi (chirc nang nhan tlnrc va chirc nang giao due),

3. Trong khoa hoc Iogich, co hai hinh thirc ur duy rna d~e diem va moi quan h~ giira cluing voi nhau co the diroc coi la nhiing co sb nhan thirc luan eho viec xac dinh d~e diem va m6i quan he giifa tuc ngu va thanh ngu. D6 la cac hlnh tlnrc khai niern va pharr doan. Xet nQi dung va each dien dat cua nhirng cau rna ta van goi la thanh ngfr va tuc ngil thl thay: noi dung cua thanh ngu Ia noi dung cua nhiing khai niem, con noi dung cua tuc ngiJ la n¢i dung cua nhiing phan doan. Quan he gifra thanh ngu va tuc ngif phan anh quan h¢ giua cac hinh thirc khai niern va phan doan. Chang han nhu khai niern ve "su udng cong" co diroc ciing phai trai qua mot qua trlnh khai quat rat nhieu hien urong nhu "mroc dO hi khoai", "ruroc dO dau vit", "da trang xe cat" ... Theo each mieu ta cua cac thanh ngu nay thl do la nhimg hien tuong rieng re, duoc nhan tlnrc bang nhimg tri giac cua giac quan. SI! nhan thee nay nham muc dfch khang dinh mot thuoc tinh nhat dinh cua nhung hien nrong do. SI! khang dinh ay duoc th~ hien ra thanh nhfmg phan doan, co the dien di;lt nhu sau: "Niroc dO dau vit thl rnroc lai troi di het'', "Niroc d6 la khoai thi mroc lai troi di het", "DB: trang 'xe cat bien dong, nhoc long rna chang nen cong can gi'' ... Nhu vay, SI! gi6ng nhau gitra thanh ngil va tuc ngil la b cho ca hai deu chua dung va phan anh tri thirc cua nhan dan ve cac str v~t va hien tuong cua th€ Siai khach quan. &! khac nhau la b cho nhfrng tri thirc ay khi diroc rut lai thanh nhiing khai niern thi ta co thanh ngfr, con khi duQ'c trinh bay. dien giai thanh nlumg phan doan thi ta co tuc ngif,

4. Su khac nhau ve clurc nang cua cac hlnh thirc nr duy tren day th~ hien ra b SI! khac nhau ve chuc nang cua cac hlnh thuc ngon ngif dung de hien thuc hoa cluing, Hlnh thirc ngon ngif phil hop voi hlnh thirc khai niem co chirc nang dinh danh. Hlnh thirc ngon ngu phu hop voi hinh thue phan doan co chuc nang thong bao. Thanh ngfr dien dat khai niern nen thanh ngil co clurc nang dinh danh, con tuc ngil d~n ta cac phan doan nen tuc nger co chirc nang thong bao, Trong ngon ngu. chuc nang dinh danh duoc thuc hien boi cac tit ngil, eho nen viec sang tao thanh ngfr ve tlurc chat ill mot trong nhimg hinh thirc sang tao tit ngu d~ dap img yeu cau d~t ten eho nhfing SI! vat, hien nrong moi, Do do, thanh ngil Iii mot hien nrong thuoc linh VI!C

12

ngon ngif. Con tuc ngtr khi thuc hien chirc nang thong bao cua no thl eo ban chat III mot hoar dong nhan thirc, nam trong Iinh V1!c nhung hlnh thirc hoat dong nhan thirc khac nhau cua con nguoi nhu khoa hoc, nghe thuat, van hoc ... Qua su phan tich tren day, ta co tM khang dinh SI! khac nhau giua thanh ngu va tuc ngu ve co bin III SI! khac nhau giifa mot hien nrong ngon ngtt voi mot hien nrong '1 thirc xii hoi. Do do, thanh ngu chu yeu 13. d6i nrong nghien ciru cua khoa hoc ngon ngtr, Con tuc ngii', tuy co nhieu mat dang duoc khoa hoc ngon ngir chu '1, song ve CO ban can duoc nghien cuu nhu III mot hien urong '1 thirc xii hoi, mot hien nrong van hoa, tinh than ella nhan dan lao dong.

Tren day, toi dii phan biet thanh ngil' va tuc ngu qua b6n binh dien nghien ciru khac nhau. T6i xin tom tM thanh bang tong ket diroi day de tien so sanh d6i chieu:

Blnh dien nghien . Thanh ngii' T1:1c ngil
cUu
Ket cau ngu phap Cum tit co dinh nrong CAu hoan chinh
duong voi mot tit
Chile nang van Chuc nang tharn my Chirc nang thAm my
h<;>c Chirc nang nhan thirc
Chirc nang giao due
Hinh tlnrc nr duy Dien dat khtii niem, Dien dat phon doan.
Logich khai quat nhirng hien khang dinh mot thuoc
tirong rieng reo tinh cua hien tuang.
Chile nang cua Chile nang d!nh danh Clnic nang thong baa
cac hlnh tlnrc thuc hien hoi cac tit thuoc Hnh vue hoat
ngon ngfr ngu dong nhan thirc
i +
Hien nrong thuoc linh Hien nrong '1 thirc xii
VI!C ngon ngil. hoi, van hoa, tinh than
cua nhan dan II. NHONG NET TUONG a6NG vA KHAc BI~T GIOA TUC NGU ANH (PROVERB) V A TUC NGU VI~T NAM.

1. Nhiing net tuang dong.

13

Gat qua cai vo ngon ngu, cai d~e thu cua tung dan toe, cluing ta co the d~ dang tim thay su dong nhat v~ nr duy va nhan thuc ella cac dan toe khac nhau trong mot cau tuc ngii'.

Rieng ve tuc ngii' ella hai dan tQc Viet va Anh, cluing ta thay nhieu Call gi6ng nhau ca vt tu duy, nhan thirc cling nhu phirong phap bieu hien tuy chung mang darn net dac thu cua hai dan 19c. Chi can bang v6n s6ng, bang so sanh clur khong can tra cuu, cluing ta cling d~ dang tim thay nhfrng cau nrong dang trong kho tang tuc ngii' Anh va Vi¢t.

- Xa mat each long.

Out of sight. out of mind - (xa mat each long)

- Tai vach mach rung.

Walls have ears - (Tuong vach co tail

- Yeu cho roi cho vot, ghet cho ngot cho bui.

Spare the rod, and spoil the child. (De danh chiec roi lam hu dua tre)

- Cua re HI. ella oi,

Cheapest is dearest - (Rib nhat lai la dat nhat)

- MUll su tai nhan, thanh sl! tai thien.

Man proposes, God disposes. (Ngirci du dinh, troi quyet dinh).

- Mat be> moi 10 Him chuang.

It is too late to lock the stable when the horse is stolen. (MAt ngua roi moi khoa cira chuang thl qua muon),

- Tha con san sM, b£t con ca. ro,

Throw a sprat to catch a herring.

(Tha con ca corn de biit con ca trich).

Diem giong nhau thu hai Iii trong mot cau tuc ngu Viet hoac Anh co the chua mot can thanh ngff, Vi du trong cau tuc ngu Viet "Chong yeu, xo chan 16 mui" co thanh ngii "xo chan 16 mui", Hoac trong cau tuc ngu "Chay nha hang xom, blnh chan nhu vai'' thi co thanh ngu "blnh chan nhu vai". Chung ta cling thay hien urong do 0 trong tuc ngii Anh. Vi du trong cau tuc nget "Don't put all your eggs

14

in one basket" co chua thanh ngir "put all one's eggs in one basket". Hoac trong cau tuc ngu "Birds of a feather flock together" c6 chua thanh ngil "birds of a feather".

Mot diem gi6ng nhau nua la trong Uri noi cua mlnh, nguoi V iet ta ding nhu ngum Anh co the pha va ket cau cua cau tuc ngu san co, thay d6i di mot chut de su dung vao muc dfch dien dat rieng cua bin than mlnh cho dung voi ngfr canh cu the nao do. Thi du trong tieng Viet, tit nhtmg cau:

An nen doi, noi len loi, Cai kho bo cai khon.

Co nguai da chuyen the thanh ra:

An khong nen doi, noi khong len loi, Cai kho lo cai khon.

Cling nhu vay trong tieng Anh, tit cau tuc ngfr "Man proposes, God disposes" co ngiroi da pha va ket cau cua no di bang each thay the cap danh tit nay bang cap danh tit khac tao thanh bien the nhu "The writer proposes, the readers dispose". Su thay dOi nay tao hieu qua sinh ra mot cau tuc ngil moi co noi dung thu hep phil hop VOl de tai cau chuyen rna ngirci d6 de cap den. Hoac trong cau tuc ngu "Never put off until tomorrow what we can do today" ta co the d~ dang thay dong tit "do" bang "eat" hoac "buy" ... de lam cho lbi noi them tinh hai huoc, d~ lam eho ngiroi nghe thay vui va dong y thuc hien mong mu6n cua minh,

2. Nhiing net khac bi¢t gifla tuc ngft Anh va Vi¢t.

Tuy nhien clning ta thay dieu kien tv nhien, xii hoi khac nhau tao ra ban sAc dan ttic va nen van hoa khac nhau, VI the rna tuc ngti cua hai dan toe Viet va Anh co nhung khac biet kha ro.

Diem khac nhau thu nhAt lit nhirng cau tuc ngil noi ve kinh nghiem san xuat, thai ti€t, thien nhien chiern mot phan dang ke trong kho tang tuc ngft Viet Nam, the hien rat ro d~c tinh ella mot cu dan DOng nghiep lay lila mroc lam luong thuc chinh. Vi du nhu nhtmg cau tuc ngtt:

- T6t gi6ng, t6t rna, t6t rna, t6t hia,

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- Mot IUQ1 tat, mot bat cam.

- Muon giau nuoi trau cai, muon lun bai nuoi bo cau.

- Dau nam strong mu6i, cuoi nam gio nom ...

Nhilng tuc ngu nhu the that kh6 rna tim duoc cau luang duong trong tieng Anh, bbi Ie tuc nga mroc Anh hau nhu tap trung phan anh moi quan h~ xa hoi rna it de cap Uri moi quan h¢ voi thien nhien va kinh nghiem san xuat.

Diem khac nhau thir hai lil trong tuc ngu Vier Nam tlnh phan phong, tfnh dau tranh giai cap duoc tM hien rat r6 net, rat quyet liet trong mot s6 hrong IOn nhimg cau tuc ngu voi nhUng tit ngtr va hlnh anh vita tham thuy, sau cay vira tao bao nham to cao nhirng cai xau xa cua giai cap thong tri, dong thai phan anh nhilng mau thuan giUa nong dan voi dia chu va quan lai tham nhiing. Vi du nhu nhirng cau:

- Mieng quan, tron tre.

- Quan thay kien nhu kien thay rna.

- Muon noi gian lam quan rna noi,

- Hay lam thi doi, hay noi thl no.

- Ba tien ba thee, ba coc gl ai. ..

Trong khi d6, tuc ngu tieng Anh c6 tfnh phan phong rat rna nhat, tinh dau tranh giai cap khong quyet liet. .. the hien a so hrong it oi, Iai Ie va hlnh anh kin dao chu khong tao bao, sau cay. Chung ta chi g~p mot so it cau n6i lien quan den vua chua, luat phap bat c6ng nhir:

A cat may look at a king.

(Chu meo nho dam ng6 mat vua)

One law for the rich and another for the poor. (Luat tnroc cho nguoi giau, Luat sau cho ke kh6).

Diem khac nhau thu ba Ia mot cau tuc ngu Anh (proverb) kh6 co the bi lam voi mot thanh ngff Anh (idiom), con d6i voi mot s6 cau tuc ngu Viet thi tuy theo binh dien nghien ciiu. phan tich rna c6 the vira la tuc ngit, vita Ia thanh ngu (nhu da noi a muc J). Vi du cau "Trong am. ngoai em" neu xem d6ta mot hien tuong cho ta khai quat thanh mot khai niem ve su yen 6n ca ve doi noi IAn d6i ngoai thl day . l3. mot thanh ngii. Nhung xet thee m6i quan he nhan qua "trong am" - "ngoai em" thl day la cau tuc ngu vi n6 due ket mot kinh nghiem ta

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