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Van Hoc Dan Gian

Van Hoc Dan Gian

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'2JI~ ctC'io

GS. TS LE CHi QUE (Chu bien) !Hi~; ~/'/fJ:

I PGS. TS VO QUANGNH(j~. NGUYEN HUNG vi

V AN HOC mAN GIAN

VIET NAil

(In Ifin thu V)

NHA..XUAT BAN D~r HQC Quac GIA HA.. NQr - 2001

~I

If,:

i

Giao trinh nay dUQc bien soan phuc vu cho sinh vien nganh. van hQC thuQc D¢ hoc Qu6c gia Ha NQi. Rieng doi voi b6 .man, Van hoc dan gian, day la phfui giao trinhcd sd, duqc vie't d ';.

dang tinh gian va di~n dl;\t phil nQp voitu duysinh vien, a ~C d 0 U;to'.tren D~ hocse cO cac giao trlnh chuyeil (M nhu; sl;lhinh thiL vdpMi triin cUa van hoc ddngia'nV14tNaifttrOTtg lich sit~g.' trinli stlu tdmvd ngmen .cUlL viinl;wc dan gian d Vi4t Nam,"

p"'lf!1'7RP/yiE1;IgiJ,ien 9~ vg,nhocd!ingiqn hre.n naY'" - '

", .';'~;~~,~~:W~()~~~Yfi'~'~*~a9"~ ~~eh~cli\~c.a.;,Ȣ gia,o~~;~V~' b,W~IlI),~llJlC~~~g D:)i I1QcT6I111 \j(!p I\:" N'Qi ttUO'cojy ito cae; pi~~St,t Dinh.'9i.~an?, Gu I'd."., Olen, V5Quarig Nhon vi~tva xuat 'ban tunani 1962.. d~n nam ibo f

Su gia e6ng ella nguoi bien sOC;lfllannay"la: .

1. Ve k~t eftu' ." I

Q. Tnrlfc da.v cac tac gid-dilllh hdn r(rp I (367 ,rang) clw

p/ulnDr1ll /Ocjn, gi6'i thieu v~ljehslrsUl\ t~m va nghi~n cfru van hoc dan gian a Viet Nam, su phat tri~n cua:van hoc dan gian Viet Nam trong lich str. Lan nay chung lor chI danh mot s6 h.rqng trang han ehe d€ gioi thieu nhiing khai niem co ban ve van hoc dan gian,v! tri cua van hoc dan gian trong tong ·u,i Folkore va trong lich str van hoc dan toe, m<?t s6 thuoc tinh ~u.a van hoc dan gian. ve lich sir suu tarn va nghien ctru van hoc ~[Ul gian. Sl! ph at tri~n cua van hoc dan gian Vi~t Nam trong Hen trinh lich sit chung tai se e6 gang viet dan xen vao tUng.the 1o~i. o bac dao tao tren Dai hoc (db'; V()'; chuyin ngimh vdn chung 'b, so c6 dip tro l~i cac v'n <1<\ do O19t each k9 <au hr

b. Phan win hoc dsn gian esc dsn ttic it ngm)i a Viet Na~ chung toi chidi sau hai th~ loai sir thi va truven tho: Cac th~ I .

kh ' h ' . oF. om ac e ,ung t61 trinh bay chung vm van h9C dan gian nginri Vi~t.

Tuy nhien tr.ang hie phan tfch ti'.rng'th~ loaichung toi cO' (J~ •

hi r h - 'h' . I:"ang

c I, I a n irng net c ung cua van hoc dan gian YiN N am then

nh~t, da dan t9c ~6ng thai eun9 cO' gang tim ban s~c dac thu cu! m61dan t9c CU tru tren lanh tho Vie; Nam.

" 2:, Ye ph~~~ phap b~en soan. d m¢ts6 chuang, mot sO' bai, nh irng ng uot bien soan vira dua tren thanh tuu cua ca . t' . ,?

, d ~ 'h' " , . ..... .'.. . c ac gla

tnroc ong t ()'] co thay doi it nhieu tuy' theo tinh hlnh tu.li A x .

h ~ . kh . .... leu va

tong tin oa h9C chuyen nganh va li~nngllnh mai, liep.~Mn

diroc, . .

Nhan dip giao trinh tinh gian nay~u<!~in h~IJhJanthu 5, nhimg nguoi bien soan xin thanh tam'giri .den ... giao .. su Dinh Gia Khanh, phogiao sir tien si NguyenXuanKfnhva Ban bien tap, Ban giarn d6c Nhaxuat banDaihoc Qu6c gia Ha

Noi Uri cam an chan thanh. .

ua N6i mua thu ndm 2001

. .

Nh6m bien soan

GS. TS i.e Chi Que -!PQs. TSV6Quang Nhanl Nguyen Hung Vi

Chuang mot

NHAN OlEN VAN HOC DAN GIAN

. . .. .. .

I. V AN HQC DAN (HAN TRONG r6NG THE FOLKLORE, v). TRONG qCI'! sLrvAN HQC DAN T()C ..

Tir thU(1 lao sinh va qua qua trinh phat trien, co hie con nguai clang tr~'l1~ khong gian bao la ma ngo ng.lc h(')i nhau:

Troi sinh ra tu dau? ... Oat sinh ra tu dau?

'.' N gUai sinh ra tu baa gia?

. (Dan caLoLo)

Hoac:

N ui kia ai dap rna cao Song kia ai boi ai dao masau (Ca dao nguCri. Viet)

Horn nay va ca mai sau, con nguai co th~ s6ng va lam vai t6c dQ "ngaydai han the' ky If. Su6t ca ,ti€n tjinh,Jfyco dong, Y~Qh9c:ch~lY lien we va 11 bam sat lich sir ffi¢t each dao"; do la v<lp.h.9c dan gran.

o b~t cli dan toe nao, chau 1'-;1c nao, khi chua co vie't thi van hoc-d'a~ gian la bQ ph~n chinh ella n~n van.. .' van hO-a cua dftn tQcdo. De'n khi van hoc vie't xu~t hi¢n t~i v~ hoc dan gian cling khong ph iii vi the rna bi triet lieu. Hal d~n~, vin hoc nay van t6n tai va phat tri~n ~o~g ~~mh, ~o s~ ~c .d~?! .', , nrong h6 Ian nhau. Ngay cii trong thoi ky hl,¢n d~, khi xa_h~la,,: c6 sl! phan cong lao dong chuyen sau, dii hl~h _thanh nhun~ th! he nha van chuyen Qghi~p va ban chuyen, khi ky ~u~t ~n ~oatJ ya cic phucng tien thong tin ~ai ,?hun~ p~at t~e~ thlvan hqc dan gian vftn gilt nguyen sac song ella, no. Dac biet (1 cac dan t¢c

5

thieu s(\trcn lanh th" V"

h" 0 let Nam van h . da '

P <;t~ chu yeu trona tdlT'l b':' ' ()C an gran hau nh It

Nhi d' .~ c 0 gla In sa

•... leu an toe truck kl' ' ' . . ,'. ng tao van hoc .. '

nhat " " , 11 gw nhap van uoc " 'A' L cua

con (j trong '1nh .tra ng ki. h t" :! ~ gra VI,t Nam \h6rig'

duqc h~ thong chi! ,,'tet va n~rl ta \ - xa h¢I thap, chua My dt1I1g

Ve mat hinh tha't' kl'n'h tA' _n ~c cho d.&n toe mIn""" .

M '" ' I e- xa ho hieu : ' Il;

n~ng,_ Ede ... tien th~ng tir che r '.1, n te~,thin t9c nhir Hmong

n,ghl~ xa hoi. v« van hoc.'] L e oo cong xa nguyen rhuy len 'h,' tir nen ta ,L. 10 xay dUng." c • .. c u

, n~n tang cua van hoc d A' " ','- mot nen van hoc hien d -.

di s: _ .' an gJan VI VA. hi . . , aJ

sail van hoc Clla nU0e Y' A t Narr ay n 1A loan cue d6i v6'

c6 vai 11'0 ~£t ,~c quan tr9ni. am da dan t¢c, van hoc dan gia~

, ~ghlcn cuu k)'. van he . d ' '

tro -; , ' oc an gIan 'h'

ve c91 neuon dich th';' . Lung ta se c6 dieu ki

th"" I • '- uc cua dan t A • d~ ,', len

ong ao d(')n g san xuat ' . 9C e hieu dUNC 1 ~

, ' . '- ' d quan he-si v ruyen

~~~C' ;" ~iilll"6c cua 611~ cha -. K~6~m\hoat; ~Ong c~¢c dung . _ co SLf, dim t0c hoc, lam I' h .' ~ p . a,l ngau nhien rna cac van hoc dam gian de~' h . Y 9c."da khai thac chat lie tr

lnh ~... . p uc vu- ch d'" ,u rong

mm . Chang han nha su" h N' 0 01 tuong nghien CUll' ,

bo sa '-. . oe gO Si L" L cua

, sach chinh thirc ci h" '- 1 len (the ky' XV) khi

ch'd' euan a ruroc Dsi KA • I soan

1 ya vao nlc str 1" .. s . " .1ft! sa kf {aim thzlkh6'

Thng~cm su ~i~u char l~~ut~a ~hlthqch hac h9C rna con dira ~g am chi 00 _ " van oc dan i (A' . vao d. A' A • . C SI Tu Giay con "T', l."? an phan ngoai ky) an toe dua !' _. A WI meu pho ' ' ~ , , Tit A; ~:;'-o nhung cau tuc ngii ""',(1) ng each an ella

'" von van hoc d' .' ,co .

thong sang tao 4-1... 2 ~ ~1, chung ta ding hi'· .» . V"t N' cnam my cua ca A ~ eu duoc tru "

dinh .. rn ~ua eac tMM CO ai:c :;~ dong ngUi1i Wn 'liinh :;

an xet kha tlni .' ~ g 11 can bO lanh dao cf ?

san thank oong'th' _~ rang: "Nay mai, dit ~ho aen' 'h:ua ~ang tao

.ngztdi Vi'" . l r.;u,U ca dao Vi" Ni - c u nghza cO

ta • • "It Nrun hdn hfft"" D" "It am van l<lm rung as ,~ ng

,0 th.1m m-' ,leu d6 n6i len r~ ...' ng wng

trinb 1 ,y m1a tuan theo nh - ang truyen thong san

••.• ao dQng llgh~~I1Uat toan .l. ~gl q~y lu~t chung eua qu ~

.. ... ... ,lll1an oar nIl''' I' a

1 ,_ .... "_, .. _._. ... ,u~lg aI mang'b'

() , . . '. .. ,an

Bao van n hi. 19

(2), g 9, 70, s6355 156

each mang x- h6" ' - - .,

197(',tr.489 ' a ,1 chunghiaO-VietN'

.. ' am, NXB sl! th~t,Ha N<)i

6.

.ir.c :~~n.tQc d~c dao. Va thi~t thuc hem, chung ta ch~I loc tti • tron-gildi san van hoc dan gian'nhU:ng. chl1t li9u quy d~ phlfc vu chcrchien luge xay dvng can ngueri Vi~tNam moi hi~n nay, r.hl)\l V1) ch~ s~ ng?i~p xa~ dung mot n~n van hoi. van "gh~ tien I

tl~'f\". d~m da ban sacdfm toe. '

j V~y Van h~)(,: dlw gia;l la gl?

; 1Troo£!. thuat 11£.U: V;-f[J /70cdEln eiNn co 2 vc: Van ho C chi bC,1

~ • L ~ .f"....,

pMnsang tao ngh~ thu~t hangcha't 11~u ngon tir.

..... ", .. X6t ,trenrht!.cmg. di¢ll .. nUJ .. ' t-.it-.ra ~.iiJl.h~ .• )L .•.• dC/.n ,C.O .. 1.'.a' •. 11. vat .. '.a.-n h.( .. ~) .. '

vil'l c6 llh iln g net tuon g d 6ngc Conda" piall d<5"eai trfl' nhue

ttnhtu>chi unh eMft;' dac;tftrn'~ loai . bieteua don£.' 'vanhocna . , Thu~t "gil van hoc drl~gian f, Vi~I'N~m mm xu'lit hi?n klioang fih\lI1g nftl11 thu9c,.l1tta sau the ky xx. Ch~ng han , tren Tsp chi n¥Hiillfclru van s;it tljt! s6 4 thang 1 nilm195 5, trong bai "N guoi riong dan Vi~tNan1 trong truy~n c6 tfch", nha nghien ciru Vu Ng.9cPhan e6dungthu~t ngli dan gian viin hoc. Phai doi nen khi cacbt? giad trlnhcuaTruerng Dai hoc su ph~m (H.1961)va £)~i fiQi: 15n g h<jp' (H. 1962)' ,u~t' hi¢n thi I hua tng ,r van h oc dan gi a" n1m dugctl!nh hlnh. Nhurigcho den nay n0i ham ella khai n~111 vftnhge dan gian vAn chua dUlo1e xac dinh ro rang. Co 1119t thOi, khl dong van hoc d~c bi~inay con duoc g'ii la viin chlfang blllh cffh,'\riiI1 h9ctruyen mi~ng .... thl cac nhanghien ciru (trong d6

d¥. s6 Iii nhilng_ nha giio d ca c I r~"ng ,tru~g, h<)c))hrr~ng b6c tach cal lOl ngh~ thuat ngon tu de lam dOl tu~ng nghien diu, ph~n tich, giang gial. s~ ph~n bi~t giila nhilng,tic phdm 'nay vcr; cac sing lac Ihanh viin chi I- b ch6 tlnh khi€m khuyel ten tac gia (khuy€t danh). Cach nh~1i Ihilt riay ve cobim lad~tvan h9c dan gian trong sl! chi ph6i cua quy d,!-o vari'hqc! thilnh van va ro rang la xa I~ vm ban chiit ngwtn I hQ)j

(sync,elique) cu. vanhQc dan gi.n. n khi t~ilnh 'I~p H¢i va~ ngh¢ dan gian Vi~1 Nam (22 \hang 11 nam 1966) va Vi~n,va9 hoa da.n gian (9 thang'g nam 1983),b9 ph~n ngh~ thu~t ng6* tu da QUac nghien c{ro trong m6i quan he t6ng hoa val ca~ loa.

, . ~ ,~ I 'I

hlnh nghe thuat khac nhu am nhac, vii dao, tao hlnh va moi tnnmg dien XLI6ng (I~ hoi), Dieu do tao qieu kien d~ dua van hoc dan gian tra ve voi c¢i nguonsan sinh va phat trien.cua no.

Nhirngcilng IU day Iai nfty sinh van d~ m6i quan h¢ gifi'a nghe thu~t ngon til voi cac loai hlnh nghe thuat khac trong t6ng the folklore nhir the nao? Do la m6i quan h~ "quyen uy" d~ng lap hay nrong tac? Ngay tu nam 1972 trong mot bai bao cua minh nha nghien ciru van hoc dan gian dAy tai nang Cao Huy Dlnh da: d~t van de "Quan cluing XUa luon luon gan viec sang tac van J19C voi sinh hoat thuc ti~n va trinh dien ngh¢ thuat. Vay b¢ mon van hoc Jan gian co nhiern vu stru tarn va nghien ciru ca cac hinh Ibuc sinh hoat thuc ti~n va cac kieu trinh di~n nghe thuatAy kh6ng?"tl). au hoi d6 de'ri nay dli duqcda s6 cac nha va~ hoc daii gian nu6c ta va the' giro rnlUri thea hU6ng khfuIg diuh. Nhtrng gao day mOt vai nha van hoa hoc do thieu khach quan trong vi¢c nhln nhan dac tnrng va vai tro cua m6i loai hinhngh¢ thuat trong tcSng the folklore nen v6 hinh dung da ha thap vai tro cua viin h9C dan gian. Dieunay lam cho ph6 giao sir Hoang Tien TI!U phai than phien rang ': .. trong khi kboa h9C nghit3n ctiu van h9C dAn gian dang c6' gang ehting minh va khing dinh S!1 dtJc l~p cti« minh d67 vdi vi¢c nghien ctiu van h9C Ihi dong thOi no ll~i co nguy co raj vao mtJI sir phu djnh va thon tfnh mm bOi ghfing khuynh hu6ng nghien ctiu khac, d~c bi¢( la khuynh 1JlI6ng nghit3n ctiu duoc g9i 18 "ph liang phap ngbien ctiu tling

'~hf/P ': Trong khi dirong ranh giro gifi'a nghien ciiu van hoc dan gianv~ nghien ciiu van hoc ngay nay diroc di sau vach f6 v~ ~1M~u. phuong dien (d6i urcng rnuc dich, phuang phap nghien , Arllp···) thi.ranh gioi nghien ciru van hoc dan gian va cac ngaoh ,~i;pgJrie,n, c;ffiJnhiing linh vI!c van' hoa dAn gian khac l~i cochieu

. e~H.®.g~j xoa rna ho~c kh6ng duqc t6n tr9ng dung mgc" (2). '.,

'~;~~J ski d~,dAn,.~e'n hi¢n tugng tn!n ia vi khai ni~m van h9cd/in ·>j"~~i:"-:

g~an rna chung ta dang nghien ciiu co quan' h¢ dEn. thu~lt .Qg,~ folklore von duqc Iiru hanh a nhieu nU6c tren th€ gioi. Thu~t ngil nay do m¢t nba nharr chung h9C ngum Anh lA William Thoi11s (but danh la Mecton) dira ra lfin dfiu tien trong bai baofolJd{jre (dang tren tap chf Atheneum so 982 ngay; 22-8-1846) dung;~ chinhfrng di ·tfch.·"Hia !~n van hOtI'v~rcha~va,.chuY€t1Ut .. 'nhimg di tfch van hml tinh.than cua nhAndanc6lienQllan vm\JJ~n!i~ hoav~tchat nbu "phonglljc. dso dtic, Vlr4' Cling Ie: djdoal1/ca dso, cdch ng6n ... cti« ('[/c (fuji dfJitJUtiL-': iTudo thu~tngfrna)" diroc Ian loa ra khoi bien gi6i rurcc Anh vr gi6i han cuanganh nhan chung hoc. No clyve de nha khoa ~l)c cua nhO'rlgJlganp li¢111 c~n nhtr dan tOc hoc, van hoa .hoc, van hoc dan gifl.n~'lSU dung va gia: thich then quan di~m rieng cua mlnh (I). . •.......•••..• <,

Chung quy nhirng quan dh~mJy pMt Iri6n theo hai huong va deu mang "tfnhcha! it nhieu eire doan l~:khuynh huon:gJ~~ nhal muon hieu folklore lit tat'cacaehj~ttfgng.citan~~~"f~~a tin~ than va tham chf ca m¢t s6 .hlnh thuclcpa n~tvcrm;~~~lt~ chat. Khuynh h~6ng thu hai thl I<;iigi6i h~n tlyJ.~t ng~~ trang khu6n>kho,sang tacng6nlutuy~n mi¢ng(tU'c 'l~~s.~ng.~~s va~ hoc) cua nhan dan rna thoi. Dieu nay phan na()do s.(iggpU;<?F the hien trong nhirng quan diem hoc thuat cua gi6i nghi~nc~{q Viet Nam.ChAng han giao SLI Dinh Gia Khallhtrong ll],¢t b~k9~o. dai c6 tfnh chat nhu Ia tuyen ngon hoc thu~t cua Vi~.n vtin, ~qa dan gian ','Van hoa dA/l gian hay folklore fa VJi?' dangli~l1,.trp~, hai s6 1 va s6 2 nam 1983 - nhirng s6 t<;1P chi dau tien cua Vi¢ndii dinh nghia "Tbust ngff van hoa dan gian eua chtlng ta tllang

. dtrong vdi thust ngff qu6c te' folklore" (s6' 1, tr. 56). d mOtf.cJ t<;1P chi tiep theo,trong bai bao: "Mon an dsn gian Ngh.¢Tfnh"

0) Xem them: V.E. Guxep: Ljch ~ thu~t ngu folklore nhiingngbia hi~n d~ cUa n6. T~p- chi' dan tQc h9C X(} Vi~ 86 thang 2-1966.

- L.M. Zemlian6va: folklore, sl! da nghia cua thu~t ngu, nhfrng nguyen nhan ti~n hoa va chuy~n nghia cUa n6. Trong sach: L.M. Zemlianova: Khoa ~~ h<?C dan gian cr cac mrac tu san hi~n nay, M. 1992, tr. U-33.. .

9

~o su Nguyen Dang Chi lai b6 sung them: "¥9't, 4n-:rf4n giq~ tfWo chung tdii cdn phrli alt<jc coi ta m9t b§ ph{)'k ,9f¥Llglj?lfil!J~, ;{?({i, yinOla, tru~ thong, TiL ng~thu4f' (s63 + 4: na~198~, tr.,~1t~., 1?P6 giao sd DB Bmh Tri tuy khong co y thuc dua ra m§t ,diph ngrua ve folklore nhung cau viet sau day da noi rO quan diem ~ua Qug "Dung lai qua trinh n~y sinh thoi 001 c6 ciia ngh~th~t dan gian (= folkolre) 130 mQt vi~ h€t sue kh6 khan vi thieu tal. ~u cUa thdi d6'l(l). COn pho giao.suH6 SyVjnh nhan gi&. thi~u"Gorki vcJi vin ng~ dan gip,n" cO clni thieh clng khai niem van ngh~ dan gian duoc sit dung d day tudngttng vdi th~t ngll folklore'"

Nhu v~y)' thuat ngli' folklore khi c11Uy~n dich sang ticng Vi~l co ngiroi goi la viin hoa dan gian, ngh¢ rhu(it dsn gian,

van nghtJ dan gien. _ ,

Trong. giao trinh dung de giang a~y cho sinh vien

nganh van cac truong Dai hoc, khai niem van h9C dan gien co lien h¢ mat thiet vrii thuat ngli' folklore nhung khong phai Hi dong nhat(31. MOt mat ehung t61 c6 gang khac phuc sl! llu tn " b giai doan dau, vi¢c nghien ciru van rhoc dan gian thuong chi ducc c.oi 1a mot bO phan cua nghien ctru van hoc thanh van hoac tuy la dtroc coi nhu mot h¢ ph~n rieng, nhung phai chiu SI! chi ph6i rat nhieu cua viec nghien ciru van hoc viet'>(4). M~t khac vl day 13. mot bo phan giao trlnh van hoc dan gian, phuc vu sinh vien nganhvan hoc, cho nen cluing t6i 'Iri~t d~ khai thac gia tri cua b¢ phan nghe thuat ngon til

(1) £)6 Btnh Tri. Nghien ciiu tien trinh ljeh sa ciia vsn hoc dan gian Vi¢l i~am. Truong dai h9C sir pham I xuat ban nam 1978, tr. 66

" '~I H6 Sy Vinh, Gorki voivsn ngh¢ dan gian, Nxb van hod Ha Noi

1986,tr.7.

0) 6 Lien x() ell eo mot thm kl hai thuat ngu nay hoa nhap lam mot.

Chang hau trong b¢ giao trinh xuftt ban nam 1938 do giao sir Iu. M. X()c616p viet mang ten "Floklore 'Nga". Nhung cac b¢ giao trinh sau nay, eiing do \:ac mon d~ eua ang viet, I~i mang ten '~5;ing lac viin ht;JC dan gian Nga".

(41 Hoang 'Iien TJ,lli M:fy vall dc' phuang pMp gi:ing di;1Y, ngl1ien Ctill vtin h(Jc dan gia!l. Nhl't xuat bangiao dl,lc, Ha N¢i 1983, t1'. 7.

10

trong sang tac dan gian. Nlurng khong phai VI the' rna cluing toi l~i,.Mquamoi quan he khang khft gili'a nghe 'thuat ngon tir v6i cacthanhphftn ngh¢ thua: khae nhuvf dao, tao hlnh, am nh<,lCI' va d. cac yeut6 phi nghe thuat nhu dia di~m, thOi gian, moi tnrong. dien xurrng.; '

T6m lsi, thtt~tng{j vsrr h9c dan gisn dll{fC sit dl,lflg trong. gi&o trinh nay dung de' chi nhitng. th&'lo{li,~ang ttfCdlingia~ troag d6 thlmh phfin ngh? lhl1~t jfi6/,,1i,lI,' (tt1cl,h, lill, h,., P, tJdIl, v.. ilIl h9C chiem vi tri quem trong, song baa gio- n6 c:iil'lg (;0 m(;iquan hf

hiiu co Vlyi esc thsnh phcin ngh? lhu!:tviIphi ngh¢Hhu#t kbd«. I

Tuy nhien sau khi. neu len dinhnghianhu,,~y,chung Wil thay vftn co nl0t so van d6cfrn laO) sang' ro.tru6i: hc't d6la ti le va vai tre cua thanh phan ~g6n t~ trong tung the loai khong' phl!i Ja~6ng d~u phu nhau 'tron~ tl1C1Tl~ quan v6i. cac tharih phftll' ngh¢ t:tlu~t .: va phi ngh~thu~.t lch<'ic ... Chang han trong di~n xuong truy~n;c6ittch.th},thahll'phan ngontir dong vai tro chu yeu, Nhung .. trong .. di~nxu6ng darrca.nghi Ie t111. ti I~ va vai tro eua

c.ac loai: hln,.h ng. h¢ lhU. ~t .. k.ha.~ crrhu v.G.d.a .. 0, am nhac, l~Oh,lnh·val ca cac y~u.t6 l~ nghi,.phong. tl;lc,.tfnngl1ong ... tham gia vaQ

nhieu hem. M~t· khac cac yeu t6 phi ngon tit va phi .ngh¢ thu~~ bang each nay hay each khac cling tharn thau vao cllu tnic tad pham cua ngh~ thuat ngon tu. Ching hanqua 'Cllu true d6i dap, 16i so sinh VI von, qua loi .gieovan. ngat nhip trong ca dao, chung ta co th~ hlnh dung diroc phuong thtre sinh hoat va ca moi tnrong di~n xuemg cua no.

Hay nghe:

- Anh den tim hoa thl hoa da ncr Anh d:'n tim do thi do da qua song Anh den tim em thi em da co chong

Em yeu anh chi nra co man nong chi mo ?

- Hoa den ky thl hoa phai nb

. Do da dfty thl do phai tro sang s6ng Den duyen thl em·pha.i lily ch6ng

Em yeu anh nhu fua d6, con m~n n6ng tuy anh.

Bang cau true v~n di~u va ng6n ngir d~~ ph~on,g. c~~ng :a

khc kho lam de hinh dung ra day la CU9c hat dOl dap gura mot

h?ng t . va c6 ga'l' xu No-he von dii quan he, hen ho nhung sau

c ang rm . u l:'. . • • _

do kh6ng d§.n d€n h6n nhan. ,. ,_ .

D6t khi du true doi dip d6 lai diroc don nen that chat trong

mot tac pham hoan chinh: " l' ,

_ Gap day man moi hOI dao

Vuon hong uii c6 ai vao hay chua? - Man hoi thi dao xin thua:

? VUbn h6ng co 10i nhirng chua ai vap. , ""

a dan cluing thu nhat neu chung ta COl la mot cau :ruc :a~

pham g6m CO hai ~e' d6i-da~ c~~g 190 hop 17' .~hlffig ne~ COl ~a hai don vi. tac pham d~t nOl nep nhau, co hen h~ lOgIC ch~~ che voi nhau thi cling chang phai 190 hoan toan sai. Chung tOI tarn goi do la cdu true long va.no co~i~ d~mda~ an c~a ~o,i tnrong sinh hoat van hoa dan gIa~',Con,o dan ~hun~. th~ haIl~ mot cdu. true chat va no da nhu tieng dan thoat khoi da~ 1<1, It

ai ~han ra dau la ngon tay nhan nha cua ngu~ ng~~, S1. ,

Nhfrng dieu vira trinh bay tren day thau tom l~l o muc d~c,h

" inh vien nhan dien ban chat van.hoc dan glan trong tien

glUP S1 .' ? h? , hi h

trlnh lich sa van h9C va van hoa dan Wc. Khm t uy no in

thanh ~a t6n tai trong t6ng th~ van hoa dan glan. Nh~g tr.?n~ qua trinh phil trien, b9 phan nghe thu~tngon:u duqc, g~an. ~cI y~ d6ng vai tro quan trong y6i tu each la mot hmh t~al y thuc xa h9i phan anh hien thirc dai song thong qua sir hu cau nghe thuat,

II. Sl!RA DOl eVA v AN Hoe DAN GIAN

Van hoc dangian ra doisom nhat tronglich sit vanhoc dan t¢c va g~n ii~n voi t6ng. th~ folklore. Nh~g vi~~ x~;. di?h h~oa~ canh vathmdi~m ra daI eua n6 khong phat ta 1m gIat dap da co

san. , " h l' ·,Dieu·ma m9i ng~Mc6 th~ de dang t~6ng ~hatvcll n ~u ,a

van ~9£d~n. gian xu(t.hi~I1 tu bu6i blnh minh cua nhan lO~l, co

12

nghia la t.~ thai nguyen thuy. Nhirng dieu chac chan Ia n6 khong the xuat hien ngay cung mot hie voi thai diem con nguiri moi chuyen tir dang dong vat bon chan thanh hai chan, nghia la thai ky rnong muoicua xa h9i" nguyenrhuy.

Tro?g nhirng giai doan sam cua sl! tienhoa nhan loai ngl10i ta c6 the ghi nh.~n nhirng hoat d¢ng cOog d6ng cua ho, Chang han sau mOt ?uoi di san v~,dc thanh vien trong mot cong d6ng naodo f6 th~ tv tap lai quanh bep lua hoac phia tnroc mot hang d9ng de to n6i vui buon ve ket qua da dat duoc va chuanbi cho cong v~~c ~gay hom sau. Ho cung nhau nhay nuia.dien lai nhiing ui)ng tac cua nguai di san hoac nhai lai hanh d9ng cua cac con v~t hie chay nhay, hie bi tning thucng ... Nhfrng hoat dOng nay thong thtrcng kern then nhfrrrg tieng reo ho,ti€ng hu.:~ 0 {fay tuy co vo am thanh nhung chua co n<)i dung ngfr nghia. Hay n6i each khac a giaidoan nay nghe thuat ng6n tir chua xutlt hien.

Ngh~ thuat ngon ttr, tac van hoc dan gian chi xuat hien khi trinh d9 nr duy cua con ngl10i phat. tritin it mot mac do nhift dinh, Nhu cluing ta deu biet loai ngiroi xuathi~;tu kf a~'ttituc la giai doan cuoi cung cua nguyen dai tan sinh, d.chdaykhoang trieu ruai nam, 6 khu vue Dong Nam A,}oai ngum xuat hien each day khoang mot trieu nam. Girii khao c6 hoc da phat hi~n dau tich.cua nguoi viron a D6ng Giao, mii D9 nrong U'ng v6i nen van hoa d6 cfi each day khoang30 van nam. Theo giao sir dan tOc hoc Borixcopxki th] loai hlnh nghe thu~tngon tir dan gian ra oai s6m nhat la than thoai. N6 c6 the manh nha trong thoi daidd da mcri nhirng phai dgiden thai dai d6ng thau m6i pha] tri~n(1). Giao sir Trrin Van Giau (duai btit danh Trim Vu) cGng. tan thanh y kien do: "N6i chun~thin tho?; phlil dst a .thCri d/;li do' ali m6i va thCri kj dong thau r 2). Nhir vay nhirng tac

(I) B6rixc6pxki. Ljch Sir ngh¢ tlw;1t nguyen thil). Tu li~u khoa lich sir.

Truong D~i h9C t6ng hW Ha N<)i, nay la truemg D~i h9C khoa h<,)C xa--h¢i va nhan van thuQc D~i hQc Quae gia Ha N(li.

(21 Dun Vu.· Tu ruemg ebtl yeu cua ngu&; Vi¢/ Ihili cd qua JI1l1ng tmyM dling d:iu frang thcw lhojJi va truyen thi~vet. 7'<Jp chi WUI hge s6-3. 1967.

13

cphftm van ~qc dan gi~n a ':i¢t Nam co th~ ~~l~h ~ha,v~(?,~~~,K.¥ ,,'an· h03 Bac Scm, Bau Tro, H<;1 L~mg (thm .ky d6datl1.Tre~ch <My khoang 5000 nam). Nhung no phat tri~n manh vad"tfl'M"lcY van hoa Phung Nguyen voi vi~c cac Vua Hung d~g ~u{k(cach dAy lchoang 4000 nam), d6 la thoi ky van hm! d6dfJrtg, & tren Hinh th6 Viet Nam. Chang tich cua di san van hoadan gian d6 ~hung ta nh~\n 1'0 tren mat tr6ng d6ng thuoc van hoa D6ng S<1I'l each ~dav kh~"ng 2500 nam vai hi~ti tuong con coc ha m6m goi mira, .til~1g top ~guai hoa trang hinh chim lac nhay rmia quanh hoavan hieu nronz mat trai ...

Qua nhirng. dr chi khao c6 hoc cluing ta coon nhan ra cac tuc

le, dau tich cua vice tho mat troi, thans6ng, thft.n ruii, than dat, ti\~ bien, than r6ng ran, than h6, thfincay eoi ... Ttt do than tbm}i va nhtrng bai ea khdn nguy¢ndfru tien ra dai trong tong the folklore. Nhu v~y, sl)' ra doi cua nghe thu~t ng6n til theo pht10n,~ thuc truy~n mi¢ng, tuc I.a van hoc dan gian danh dau 51! ra doi dll1C s\! cua ngh¢ thuat vci nr.cach 1ft m9t hinh thai y thtte xa hoi.

Tuy nhien day chua phai la "su san xuat nghe thuat dung vai nahia cua n6". (c. Mac) nic Iii hoat d9ng nghe thuat diroc cbuv6n mon hoa rna can gan v6i nhirng hoat dong khac cua dai S5ng can ngiroi. VI v~y van hoc dan gian ra dm thuong gan V?i nhirng "khons khi" "bdi canh nhat dinh". D6 la hie nl2,trai ta din

lill eo' . ~ c,

vui choi gi:ii tri, thu giiln CO the sau nhirng hu6i lao dong met

nhoc, D6 la hic ngt1m ta th~ hien niern iroc mo mot cuoc s6n~ am no thinh virong, nhu cau viron den cai can co cauhrrn cal \li~c6. Cling co th~ nhirng tac ph~m van hoc dan gian ra om ngay giiia do-i tmrong: hie ru con luc dau bu6n tien dua ngtrai oil khuat.cNhirng phong phii va hap dan han ca van lanhirng sang hie dan gian ndy sinh trong lao dong, trong qua trinh dau tranh cho su tien hoa xii hoi,

Do b6i canh ra'doicua van hoc dan gian nhir vay cho nen khithuCm£ thuc chunz ta cfins chi co the cam diroc cai hay cai

i ...... . ..... t:' . ~ ·.1

dypcua no trong moi tnrong sinh hoa] cua tac ph am trong

"khong khl thdm mY" cua tac pham. Chang han ngAi dQc l<.ti van . bim nhfi'ng ca:" vi phu0ng vai dugc ghi l~i tren sach bao chung ta

14

khooglbe' thu vi bang. su chtrng kien canh nhirng dcm vI. hat X{\11 xao "ng6i trong 11M chi em chin muoi a: a vi. it hat, a keo sci, a dua thoi, curig e6 it trao trau ti!-n mieng ... ; leo len giuong IhI quan ho nam hay ong: ong noi, ong cuoi, ong ngam tho, ong doc chuy¢n,l~i c6 ong lap ao triim dfru lin) . Hoac nhu nha tho qua cO' Xuan Dieu dil phat bieu v~ an nrong khi"s6ng voi ca dao, dan ea mien Nam Trung B9 "rang" Cai hay, cai sau sac ella cadao, cai h61).' cua.ca dao chi 19 ra duoc het khi ta s6ng v6'i no, khi ea dao lam .thanh khong khi ta tho, ca dao quyen lam mot.voi net mi;tt nhirng nha cira, chom x6m, lang mac.ikhica dao cat tieng len rat trfi' tinh mot each h6n nhien;ca dao da thanh m¢t cai dieu cua tam h6n c~nh vat va Hl.mh6n;connguoi"nhtl bu6i tnranhe nhe

. tr,?ng .~~ dao", "~on ~o~e vongem lanh.rukeo ket", "ta ru long bangtleng my ru em ...

IlI- NHUNG D~C DIEMC013ANCUA VAN RQC OANCHAN

Ll'inh nguyen h9'P vatinhda chuc nang cua van hoc dftngia~

Tfnh· nguyen hop (g6e tieng Hy Lap Synkretism6s, tieng Phap: Synchretique.tieng Nga: CHHKpeT~:3M) thea V.E Guxep, d6 la.~':sltdfnh 1i6n nhau ngay til ban~i\u eUa c;ielo<;li.hlnh khac nhautrong Sang tao van hoa ... ,,(3) Haygiai thich m¢t each d~ hi~u nhir ph6 gi~o su Chu Xuan Dien" c6 su hoa lim, tron lAn v6'i

(l) Van nfTn1?tng Iuu nhj nti. .. Diin theo Hoang Xuan Han: Nguon g6c Van Kie'u Hit phuimg vdi, Tap chi Thanh Nghi s6 ra ngay 16-10-1943.

(2) Dan eaNem Trong Be), t~p II, Tran Vi¢t Ngtt, Truong Dlnh Quang Sl.'U t~, chu thich, 1m bat cua Xuan Dieu, Nxb van hoc, Hanoi 1963, tr. 245_

131 Til die"n bach khoa loan thtr ve' vsn h9C. M. 1987, tr, 380 cot 2 (tieug

Nga) .

15

nhau mot each !L1. nhien von co cua nhieu yeu t6 khac nhau, b dang nhung yeu to nay chua tirng bi phan hO£i,,(I)

. a) Tfnh nguyen hop duoc bieu hien dau tien a st! chua tach

@ rai giUa hoat don dai s6 .;< vai sinh hO<;1t van h9c dan

r\. glan. 01 quan h¢ nay dUQ'C hieu la st! gan lien tac pharn van

hoc dan gian voi moi m~t sinh hoat cua nhan dan va tham gia v~o sinh hoat do vai nr each la mot thanh phan, mot nhan to cau thanh t6ng thl Chang han "De dfft de.ruroc" la ang Slr thi . than thoai cua nguai Vi~t - Muong g6m 28 chuang (nguyen b,it: gqi la 28 rilllg hoac ('uong) diroc dien xurmg suot 12 dem moi h& Khac voi D{li Vj~l sir kj {aim tbu hoac Dei Nsm quoc sir cs, cline la nhfrng lac phdm viet v~ qua trinh va cac giai doan hlnh th~H~k phat tri6n dan toe, "De ddt de ruroc' ban d~u khong phai duoc viet thanh sach, k6 thanh chuyen rna do cac thlly mo hat bel; thi hai nguai cher, "giup cho hon ngiroi chet on lai su viec a tran gian tir khi khai thien I~p dia cho den hie ban Muong duoc 6n dinh che do xa hoi duoc hinh thanh,,(2,. Boi canh dien ra bai mo I~ "Thi hai 'nguai 'chet ~ho vao quan tai, d~t a gifra nha. Phia dau d~t ban tho, bay c6 ... Con chau nguoi chet quay quan, tnrc ben quan tai. Ong thay mo mac mot chiec ao dai den hoac xanh let co vien do, dOi mfi gan giong nhu mii thay tang (co 5, 6 canh nhu canh la bang) ... thay mo len giong, mo tirng dean ... sau m6i

d ' , h h ' .. (3)

oan co am n ac c en vao... .

. The~ lai eng Quach Cong Cham (Ngiroi Muong a Ha San Blnh) thl tn6i chang hat nhu vay lai co nhirng quy trinh I~ thiic kern theo. Chang han khi ngiroi ta chuyen quan tai den, eng rna k~ v~ cai cay diroc khoet lam quan tai. Khi dua con trai nguOi

(l)DinhGia Khanh - Chu Xuan Dien: Vtinhljc dsn gian, ~p I, Nxb DH va THCN, Hi! N6i 1972, U·. 24.

;,,(2,) ,YiiN8t;IC Khanh: May vAll de" chung quanh lie phim "De dar de I1Utfc'~Trong sach "De dirt denuoc" (kyy€u hoi nghi chuyen de). Ty van hoa Thanh Hoa xuat ban 1974, tr. 45.

.,<.,(31Ho;mgAnh Nhan: ChUng tOislfulilm tic phffm 'Vi dal de nux': ·gach da din, tr, 32.

16

qua co dat con trau den nci tang l~ thi ong thay mo ke truyen thuyet trau tu noi hoang da da bien thanh gia sric nhir the mao. Tnroc khi danh vao trong dong va noi voi linh h6nngl1Oichet de thtrc tinh linh h6n nfuoi chet, ong mo ke huyen thoai v~ viec tai sao cotrong d6ng(l . Nhir vay dien xirong mo Uim¢t b¢ pMn

hfiu co trong Ie thtrc tang ma cua ngtroi Muoog.a daytac pham van h9C dan gian (mo) va sinh hoar doi song (dam tang) giin chat voi nhau.

b) Tinh nguyen hop con the hien a suchsa tach roicac loai hinh nghe thuat trong t6ng the folklore, nghla 1abO ph~n nghe thuat ngon tll' gan b6 chat ehe voi de IO<;1i hlnh nghe thu~t khac nhir vii dao, am nhac, tao hlnh ...

Neu'nhl1 su gin b6 gifra tac pham van hqcdah gianv~ hoat dc)ng thirc tien cua nh~I1·dan (nhfrngyeut6pningh}thu~t) the hien tinh nguyen hr;tp've~ hln1vthtfi jt~Lfccu:!-'~fl"hEJeddfl~ian co ngu6n goc va la mot bieu hien eiias!! flJi~in!tn~cn~ut~nhqp cua nguoi nguyen thuy thl sir chua tach. rftig'iii~;eacf~ihinh nghe thuat bieu hieri tfnh nguyen h9Pve'S(i'tniJn'ii2t:;d if'};}

M.O.Cosven co nhan xet rang "0 nhi~u BOt<?9co.tfll,xen ba nhirngbai hat ta lai qua trinh dfy cay tir khi gieoh~t clio den hie thu hoach, nhirng bai hat do to nh~cd¢mthe(),;d()l1.g thmnllay mtia last! ri16 ta bangkich ciia qua irinh d6u(,2).,

Khi quan sat mOt phien cho ella nguaiH'MOng a Bac Ha,

Ml100g Khirong, b: Lao Cai haycua Tay-Nung a D6ng:

Mo, Ky LUa, D6ng Dang (Lang San) chungtathffy'ra tfnh nguyen hop v~ nhan thirc th&m my nay. Cac chang trai,c6 gai den cho phien khong phai chi den mua hoac ban cac d6 dung can thiet rna con de giao .luu van hoa, van nghe .. Noi nay thi mot

(!' Tu lieu thtrc dia cua N.I Nhiculin tai Boa Binh 1976, trongbaiBan chatthllo~i ~ua 'De dar de mroc" (Le Chi Qui! dich), Tap chi Van hoa dan gian s6 1~1987 tr. 18.,

m M,O.Cosven. Sa yell lich SlY Vall hoi nguyen thuf. Nha xuat ban Van Sir-Dta, Ha Noi 1958, tr. 260 - 261.

17

I)hom . cac chang, trai H'Mong ngoiquanh chao thang c6' u6ng

. nrou, th6i Jd,.'cn1,a,giy dan moi. Noi kia m¢t t(fpkhaevilanha~ mua,l vita th6i kert iJng, vita bieu dien nhfrng bai vo.Ncri. nQJ~ mot nhom e6gai H'Mong tre t.rung mac vay theu hlnh bong hoa rtmg, hinh qua tram.ngoi d¢t nhirng t~m th6 e~m bang sQi!anh" 'Vifaftat bai hat roO coi, bai hat tinh yeu (Gau tu giua, g~u plenh), Gan tan phien cho, cac chang trai co 'gai moi dan nhau ra noi buoc ngua, vita earn day cirong vita trao cho nhau nhirng cau hat tam tinh:

Bai hat hl!t lai khong h€t Het nhl1l1€t met nira

Doi ta k& .nghia ban dm nhu mjii an hue Bai hat Mt Iai khong h~t

Het MU he-t mot phan

D6i fa ~t nghia ban dm nhu m6i an tlnh (l)

Con d~n chgKy Lira, ai.ma chang say trong cau sli, luon Chung chinh mat troi

Chung chinh cay hI

Gu hat cham vao nang troi lanh canh ti~ng go

C b" h ao lo A' inh rf A • (2)

au at c am vao ong tot, can rung rong rna

Vi vl)y den cac phien cho mien nui co nghia la chung ta hoa nh~p vao mQt loai hinh van hoa rna trong do c6 "su tong hoa cac hoat dong v~ chat va tinh than do nhan dan lao dong sang tao ra nhu cac mon an dan toe, cac hang my nghe, cac tro choi dan gian, d?<c bie. la dien xuong dan ca,,(3). Cling vi su hap dan d6 nen cac chang trai, co gai Tay-Nung elf sau 5 ngay lai hen nhau 4en phien cho de "thea n61 116'c mong":

(1) .Ngiroi hat:· Giang Lao ViI (Bic Ha, Lao Cai), Nguoi ghi Doan Thanh. Trong sach: Dan ca Mea, nha xuat ban van hoc, Ha Noi 1967, tr. 159,19g.,.

. • (')' 1 • •

. .~ .YdNhl:Nghr:Mt luon Crchf! Kj Lira. "Trai tim n6i nho", Nha xuat

ban Van hoc, Ha N(li 1974, tr. 81. .

. <J) te Chi Que': Diin xuang sli; JUfIlJ va van de' van hni h(Ji cho,

"Nghien ctru van hoa nghe thW}.i" s6 6-l986, tr. 35.

18

Anh co thuong ~m ngu~ gai ngrl~o Nam ngay se ve thco phien chq

vs d6i vm. ho:

etta kh~y sli

etta sli t6n

Nghia la:

Dem om dai

Dem sli ng~n

Va:

Ooc hung day tinh lUQ'n Ha, Leu Pat phian mi lOng laocu dfty .

Nghia HI.: . . .. H' U

.. , Ra cho nghe ti~ng lU\ffi ... a. ,U (2)

Pho kh6ng roa v~n an ngon lanh

~ de: tfnh de chtic wing ciia van c) .Tu tinh .ng. uyen hqp d ndA n . n chtrc na~ng nhan thuc,

. T ...• - hoc (In gta u ..

hoc dan glan. rang v~n _. hI!. vrny- va'chUc. nang sinh hoat

., d chrrc nang t (lm,

chtrc nang glao QC, -; .. . . h" kh6ng co lydo rna

hrtn. th. anh m. 9t th~ th.6n. g nha.t. K. oh ... 6 .•. n. g p ai h .. ien ~cUu cila. nhi~u ..

Yt' . d- t 0 thanh d 1 nrong ng· ,

van hoc dan glan ~ r ca una' nghien\' cuutri~t hoc tl .

nganh khoa ~QC kh~c nhau~uc •. ~u nhitng van de ve nh~nth c Way trong thftn thoai, trong .... g... ..•. . h tim th:l'y trong do

luan cua nguoi ~ua. ~ac _nha Il~ng ~~'!a c~~a benhfc}ic nha xa nh. itng kinh nghl~m lam an., 4U~hg Sldao n.hun-g hai kSc ve each

.... . .. A ' t e c6 tIC ca. .

.h¢i hoc t~~ thay,~ ~,~y.nuai N6i nhu P6n Laphac, van?Qc d?-~

ung xir glua ngUCil VOl ng" A ki~' thac ... ton giao ... tnet

. l' "bo bach khoa toan thu ve... en

pan a. (3) .

hQC" cua nhan dan.

• .! • d4 • viJt Dic. Nha xu:it

(1) Db Minh: Dux dti'u tim bieu ce nhec an glan. .

biufVi~t Bac, 1975, tr. 61. _ inh ray _ Nimg. Nha XU:lt ban Van boa

(2) Vi H6ng, Sli Jzrr;m dsn cs tru ti

dan toe, 1978. , th' li h su van hoi (tieng Nga) NXBCbinh tri

(3) PCm Lapha<.:, Set aa IC

;( . Xu:il ban Hin thu hai, 1928, tr. 54

QUuc gia, 19

1 \

V.E Guxep co ly khinMn xet rang "van hoc dan gian vira la ngM thuat vira khong phai la ngh¢ thuat ", VI trong do co sl! phan anh hien tlnrc bang hlnh nrong nghe thuat va co ca vai tro cua nhftng y€u t6 phingh~ thuat. Chang han khi nghien cuu sir thi Dam Xan cluing ta khong th~ kh6ng tim hieu v~ tue n6i day (chue nue) trong dai s6ng cua d6ng bao Ede, v~ t6 ~huc buon lang, v~ mai nha r6ng - noi thuong dien ra cac hu6i· Klti khan.

. Khi nghien ciru truyen thuyet chung ta khong th~ nao khong truy tim v6 co SCJ de tren cai nen do rna chap doi canh "tho" va "mong" do lu cac nhan v~t va SI! kien lich sir dich thuc. Chung ta cling khong lfly la VI sao thin thoai a mtacnay l~i la d6i urcng nghien ciiu cua van hoc dan gian, ij nu(rc khac lai dat van khoa dan t0e hoc hoac co nuac coinghien ctru than th~ai la m6t khoa hoc rieng tach rai khoi van hoc dan gian va dan tOe h9C•• Chfnh la tinh da chtrc nang cua van h9C dan gian dftn den tlnh trang do.

2; Tinh t~p th~ va truyen mieng eua van hoc dan gian.

. ~ t4~ th~ va truyen mi~ng 13. nhtmg thu~t ngU: thUdng' duQC nhac den trong cac oong trinh vg vanhoc dan gian, Va Iall nay d nu&: ta thl. tfnh truyen mieng duQC nh~cd~n nhieu hen ca. Xuat phat tit nhan thuc do rna nhieu sachvd tnt&: day goi van hQC datl gian13. van chirong truyen kh~u. Theochung wi nghi phuong ,th~truyen mi~n~ (truyen ~u) dong vai tro quan trong' trol1g qt1l1trinh hru truyen tic pham van hQC dan gian. Nhung cling nen .~ "t~uc lai rfulg phuong thuc do la do 'tinh tap th~ trong qua trmh sang ~tic va hru truyen chi phDi Vi v~y tnt&: he't cluing ta ~~~~~~~~~~~~~.~.~~ hlnh thuc ~c trtrng Clla s1;i san xuat nghe thuat lai noi . ca ~g

fB~~~If~~t'p~m trU thEim my ella ~an h~' d~ gian. ·:"·V~ ph~ th~ s3.ng tic,rn6i mc phfun van hQC ciful gian 13. S1;i.gia

;~~.~?~~,~gudi quanhigu the' h~ khac nhau. Tuy nhiell s1;i satlg tacf4p~d.day ld16Dg dOi ~p vOi vai tro ca nhfuL Nhii'ng b6 sit thl<~I~cUa.~l~gi6inhtt<]li3.t bditxe (Hy l~p), Ramay~na, Mahabharata (An DQ),Caleva1a.:(F'hfull..an);ne Mt de mtOC', ''DfunXffii'

20

(Viet Nam) uurong Ut ket qua cua nhieu ngum sang t~o; nhi~u thE M, nhieu vung que khac nhau, trong do khong loai truea vai tro cua nhtrng nguci ~o hoc van. Nhimg tu li¢u sau day la nhung minh chirng cho tinh tap the cua qua trinh sang tac va hru truyen van hocdan gian: "Nhimg c6 gai vung Lim dem dem ng6i quay xa danh suet, thuong hoc truyen kh1:lu nhirng dieu hat san. co cua

, cac my, cac chi hay ba con lang gieng di hat lau nam., cacc~u con trai lang thi thtrong hoc tap on luy~n cac dieu hat bang each . ngu bon nrc 13. ru nhau den ngu a nha m¢t nguoi trongbon r6i hat voi nhauden khuya~.?)

Sau nhirng ngay h0i, viec 6n luyen cang tra nen cap thiet vl

nhieu cau hat moi dttqc xua:"t hien. M6i ngttm nhd m0t rnau,' chap lai voi nhau thanh du m0t bai, NEu eo eh6 nao quen th'thQ sang tac.thern van cho du dan, du cau (1) • Qua It\ftuehuy~ntren chung ta tha:"yro m6i sang tac van hoc dan gian baa .gibc"ng~6 da:"u a:"n cua m6i ca. nhan (nhung nEu chi .eo m¢t ngt1ai thHd16ng tao thanh sang tac dangian).Nhi6u ca the trong e¢ng p6ng-cM,g. hop sue, gia cong thi sang tac dan gian tra nen haan,thi¢n~ '.Vl, vay co th~ dua ra m0t cong tlnrc sauday: Taephftm van,h~dtn

. gian 13. ket qua cua met qua trinh sang tao t~p the trong d6m& nguoi tham gia VaG qua trlnh lam0t ea nhan sang 4-0. ..'

Sa ill sang tac cua m0t ngiroi hay nhieu ngl1m traJh~h tai san chung cua tap the: ciia mot vung, m0t qu6e gia tham chi cua ea the giqi la VI sang tac dophu hqp v6i. tam If t~p .the. Co sa cua tam ly tap thl Ia tinh t~p th~ cua nhilng hoat d¢ng san x\t~h heat dong xa h0i cua con nguoi trong giaido~n khac nhauc~(l. lich sir nhan 10~i.Ch~ngh~n truyen thuy€t Thanh Dong duqckit W tir nhimg truyen thuyet cuab0 lac, thi toe va. ehuy~n h?a thanh truy6n thuy€t eua dan tQc.Sb ill qua trlnhk€t t\1 ya chuyen hoa a:"y thanh c6ng 13. do tilm 1y c¢ng d6ng dan t0c t~o n~n. m.~t

ap h!e m~nh giup cae ngh~ s9 dan gian eo dieuki~n nha() n~nt~i t~o nhiIng hlnh tttqng tu 6ng Kh6ng L6 d€n chang M¢c Sanh, Ly

(1) Nguyen Van PM _ U.ru Hfru Phuoc - Nguyen Viem. DAnca qU1lJ1 h9 Bde Ninh. NXB Van hoa, H1i N¢i 1962, tr. 28,30.

21

Ti€n; .• hoa nhap ~ao hinb tuong Thanh Dong ky vI", •. " '

Nhu vay moi quan h¢ bien chunggiira.vai tro ca nhanv<J1'£ t~P'lh~ vasU'c ma,.n~ eua t~m 19, t~pth~ d~ tao nen tmh t~p th4 cua~an ~9c dA? gmn. Ch~nh tinh t~p the ry da chi ph6i tinl: troy~~ m!¢n~ ~)'A,di ~h~n dinh ~~11 v~y~a vi ngay ca khi cac <.lAn\. , t~. da ~o chir viet ;a phu?ng t.17n tr,:yen. thong dai chung phat. , t?en thi phu<1ng, thirc truyen rmeng van ton tai. Dieu d6 n6i len r~ng)tfnh t~Pt?~ .lai chi ph6i tinh truyen mieng chir khong phai tl~~ truy.6n~11~ng chi ph~i tinh tap t~~. Tuy nhien, tinh truyen ~l~ng cua ,van h,9C dan gran duoc the hien khac nhau qua cac gIal doan i}ch su ~hac, nhau. Khi dan H)c chua c6 chir viit thi p~uan~ thu: tm,yen ml¢n~ d6ng vai tro d¢c tontrong cit qua tnn?, sa~~tac ~al~ tt~uy~n~_ ~61~ tiri~. hlflh v~, h9C dan gian

n~ll'O\;ylyt,;-tru~c th~ 'l<y Xva van h9C van n9cuAn:gian cac dan t9c.thlcU so tnrcc Cach mangThang Tam~

/Ngay ci ~~id~n toe c6 chii vict"r6t nhirng nhan dan lao d9n&.'ch~ chiem Iinh duqc phuong tien d6 thl phirong thirc truyen nn~ng vAn d6ng vai tro trong yeu.

'," .Tf?ng qua t~n? hru tr~yen ?~ng rnieng c6 hai yeu to' thuong durc sir ,~lFlg _do la-,ruy,~n/h6ng va ling uic: Truy~n th6ng 1a fI:~ur:.f5 ba!.~b~g cau co san, nghe nhan chi vice hoc thuoc va

k l~l, hat Iai.; . . .

,."Tu~nhi,en t~ong l~c truyen 1a,.1 tac pham cua ngl1m xira, cac

, ngh¢ n~an d~n gla? tuy theo hoan canh va muc dich da sang tao fl~n nhung tac pham hoac phien,'doa,n moi d6 13. pha"'·n 1.In~ t ~, T 1m ?' • g ec.

r~n~ . ~ tva :ruy¢n c6 nude Nam, Nguyen Van Ngoc co nhan

~~r ... cu.ng• cung, mt)t truyen thtrong c6 khi sai lac khac nh~u ;~a:Ngum ~~ th~ nay, nguoi ~6i ~?e n? DAy ngat ~ua chirng,d6 ~al ~he~ Val, ~a ~o'.1n ., Th~t la dai ngan khon do, them b6t kh6 lieu, dau Ngo minh Sa, rau .6ng no earn cam ba kia .. 0) . Trong

(I)

" " N~uyen Van Ngoc, Uri tua "Truyen cd auoc Nam ", NXB Minh Duc

HaNQli';l.)/, tr. 10

22

sinh hoat dan ca doi hie cung mot cau d6i lai xuat hien nhirng cau dap khac nhau .. Chang han c6 hai top trai gai lam d6ng each

nhau m¢t ba tre. Ben gai c~t tieng: .

o day thap ruong c:ao ba

Ben ~y c6 hat nghe nho vai cau

Ben trai dap lai:

V~ng nghe tieng hat dau xa

Rang tre hay gia rna tieng cling xinh

Khi tiep xuc voi mot top con trai khac)chung toi lai ghi cau dap nhu sau:

Vang nghe tieng hat dau day

Dt ta dap chiec thuyen may di tim (I)

Nhu vay ,tfug tac nfty. si~h ngay kip thm trong m¢thoan ' canh sinh hoat van hoa van ngh~, dAn gian nao d6. Neu.ll'ngtac· . hay, duqc' 't~p tht thira nh~nthi se beisung VaG bt) ph~n truyen I thong. Tren co sa truyen th6rtg va ll'ng lac d6 trong van hoc dan gian nay sinh m¢t khai niem mang tinh ch~t nhu m¢t.thu~t ngti , Hi tfnh di ban hay bien the: CUng mot cau ca dao n6i len niern W

hao v~ que huong;

Gieng lang ta vira trong vira mat Duong tang ta lam cat d~ di

Da nay sinh nhieu di ban khac nhau:

Gieng Trinh then vira trong vira mat Duong Trinh th6n lam cat d~ di (Thanh Hoa)

GientrP6 Ha vira trong vita mat DuongTh6 Ha lam catd~ di

.. (Ha Bac)

C\iJ1g tuong tv nhu vay chu\fg't. nghe k~ chuyen Trftu Cau a mien B~c khac chuyen Trau Cau .~' Ngh~ Tinh, chuyen Th~chl

Sanho Nam B6 khac chuyen Thach Sanh a Cao Bang... i

. " I

III Tu lieu die'n dficim c<>n hI? va sinh vien Truong Dai hQC T6ng hop Ha NQi (cii)l~i Dao x,~ (Phu Tho: 1970 do tac gill bai vi€t nay phu trach. '

23

Trblenchungtadatim hieu bo phan ngon tu trong 16ng th~ folklore va trongIich su van h9C. dft(l t¢c, tirnhieu nhfrng boi canh va thm di~m ra dai cua no, tim hieu nhirng d~c diem co ban cua sang tac van hoc dan gian, noi chung la chung ta d1l biroc d~u nhan dien van hoc dan gian. D6 la met dong dac • biet trongdi san van h9C va van hoa dantoe chay su6t til hie con ngiroi biet nr duy ngh¢ thuat cho den horn nay va con t6n tai

vinh hang v6'i nhirng nam thang rnai sau. .'

T A.I LIEU THAM KHAo' CHINH

1. N ong Quoc Chan: Nghien ctiu Van hoc dan gian Vi¢l Nam trong m6i quan h? gi(ja cdc dan {(lc. Tap ChI Van hoc. S6 1·

1974.

2.

'Cao Huy Dinh: Phuong thtic sang lac dan gian v;lvan hoc dan

gian.T~p ChI Van hoc, SO 2-1972.

3.~i~h ?ia ~ha~h: . Vgn ~oa ~an./jan hay folklore liJ gi:l T~p chi Van hoa dan gIan. So 1 va so 2 nam 1983.

Nguyen Khanh Toan: Van hoc dan gian Vi¢t Nam mot bi(fu

4. hien d(;c dso va xuiit sic stic song miinh Ji¢! cue dan li}C. Tap

ChI Van hoc, S6 1-1974. . .

5.: Hoang Tien T\fU: Ve'd#,c trung va esc b(; ph~n h9P thsnh CUe) khoe van hoc dsagisn. Tap chi S6 1-1982

6. ~du9ue': Di8n xu6'ng sli, IUf/T1 va v§n de' van hoe hoi cho:

·:~yJ'~~.~hi,l'tghien cttu van hoa nghe thu~LS6 6-1986. . .

'7'.'· ~~L;:ci:;~6~~.· Nhi1ng Van de' If lu~n van hoc dan gian. Tap chi

Van hoa dan gian. S6 2-1984. .

Chuang hpj

eAe THE LOAI TV su DAN GIAN

. . '.

I. THAN THO~I

1. DlNH NGHIA T~ LOAITHAN THOJ\J

Gian yeu va can ban, chang ta c6 dinh nghia than thoai v6i ur each la m¢t t~ loai van hec dan gian nhu sau:

Th~n thoai 1a t~p hop nhung fIuy¢n kG" dsn gian ve cac vi th~n, cac nhan vatanh hung than.linh. cac nhan v~t sang tao van hoa than linh, phan anh quan .?i~m eua co~ ~&ttO'ic6 ",etre'gi6'i tv nhien va dill song x1i h¢i can ngttCri.. . ..••• ...•••.•.. • .....• ,...>, .'

. Le eli nhien, mac du phat sinh, tan ·~i . va ke't thuc. ~6·~h.~

lich sU trong tron ven m¢t hlnh thlic xa h¢i (hlnhthai c6ng).~ nguyen thuy) nhat dinh, th~ loai th~n thoai d1i trai m¢tth.ill·gJ~ lich sir v6 cimg lau dai, til khi loai ngttill hlnhthihih Y thuc tinh than cho d€n lUc cac hinh thai y thee xah¢i d1i bat d~u oU\1c phan bi¢t kha ranh mach (6 hmhthai chiem hfrun6 Ip,). Bm v~y, . truce khi la "nhirng truyen k~ dan gian" chae chan th~n t~~i d1i tan tai m¢t each laudai trong trsng thai nguyen hr;tP di6n.hlnJr. n6i each khac, tnroc khi la mt)t Ioai hinh nghe thu~t ng6n tu, than thoai la m¢t t6ng th~ nguyen hop, b d6 quan h~ th~c ti~n .va quan h¢ tinh than, cac hinh thai y thirc, cac.loai hlnh ngQ¢ thu~ cac th~ loai van hoc dan gian dang hoa nhap nhuan nhuy~nv6i

nhau dtt6'i dang nhiing ye'u t6. .. . .. "}

Than thoai la toan b¢ nhirng hoat dong nhan thirc va kit°

tang tri thaccuacon ngtti'1i trong hinh thai x1i h¢i cong x1i nguyen thuy, la st! phan anh phirc tap; vira hien th~c vira hu~~~ hO~~; thuc tai khach quan cua y thiic can ngttm trong thm glan do,

25

nham nhan th'

lam '. ire thirc tai kha .h .

) cau .hoi "tai s~o?'" '" c quan, tra kri cho dtr

~itch quan do . . va nlur the' nao?" d" tIC (du

M" . ' a ton tal hien

" . , 1 !on tai tau dai t '" ' .

gIa tn n1t 100. "'.. . rong thoi glan lich sf

cacth€ Ioa.i va_Vn<1hI cicdhl'.nh,lhfli y thtrc tinh ths:. nen t~dn thoai

h? ••• . OC:ll1 g' <111 sau nay -

t e loai hila. N'u'" .. i;_ Jar C().au du.kh! n6 ~un~ nh~: cac tac phAm g hO'f ta cung. gor Ia tMn th "kh·.·h6 . ng con Ja mot

a ng e th at' . oar ( ay huve .

thoai nhtr nhiln h'~ . u-' sir dung mot s6 'e"" ,uy~n thoai)

TInh phoc ~~~rap ngh~l,hu~t. ' y u to thl phap than

trong mot dinhi ,p ... pbong phu cua the' 1 ' . ,

cht " ' ngh ra khong thA h'?" oai than thoai kh''':

ung ta can th''':?' ~ pan anh d' " . I~n

b" Id phai xem xet ,.; u va dung n6 0.2.' he'

an. e no C1 mot s6 dac t '? rxn t e

2. Mar • . . . . rung tM loai C!1

. . SO D~eTRUNcT ~ .

THANJr:A~OAI CO BAN ClJA

,.,."

2.1 •. D."i&.. '. kie"n x'a- h· .... ·? .u'>, .

,oj" • 01 cuth~ .

u~jiiiN9~ tfX{loaith"'.'~. tho .' i: a .. an thoal

r '. , ..... qJt oai.ra doi , ,.

,.o.ng.;ll~ttmixaho' ', "'_ .0'1, .t6nt{lI va pMt t ' ?

~;/i¢l"'. f){,'.' .1 cong ~a~guytn thuy Ia d6 nen, ~uYyln}rong

x&hOi tien .. 'p. tinh Iii m¢tqua trinh tau d;'l' co ng, ~At va bat bien

. ' ."' tran . "da . i:l n nguOl b~ .

. tl¢p,tIw!\t kIlOi I' . ~ . a man" del) "van minh"" ~g lao dong

chua ra d6"i. Sir / thu, s~ng thanh b:iy dan . Co,l~ thoi ky dJlu

eua con nrntlr~d':Y s~h cua tho .an thoai chac hh~ang ~~a, thdn thoai

lI.TL: eM"'" a kha phat ,.)' c an phai I' \' '

"m~u l:ln, de ca d' ,a trien, tri luOng t. - a, uc nr duy

tu'ong khi ' ,~~n than thoai C M'· d-' ~g da hinh thanh

, .' ... ,. . en chung ta luu' .: . ac a nhac tm e " , .,' hooctlng'deiI kh' , y. Mac!Iing nb' ,,,Ba' ,Y u to /rI ""R'g

n.rnfiitn"trort ~p~~c, kh6ng che v~ nh~' • t c~ m¢t thlln thoai

"Th:lnthdai ~,~ nrm:g Ilb!flg va nht'J ttl;;'· n~ cac II!C lll\ll1g cu"a tutln tuon .... :' 11 nhlen va ban than cac ,ung h~g. Ong I\Ii noi thac ~I)" ' g cua dan glan che bien di mOt :~ thru X3 h¢i duO'c tTl

. . . acb ngh~ thu~ va'vO y

(1) -----

Tii'diln \'(in hoc -.------

1984 _ tr. 356 .. t~p 1/ - Nha xu:!t ban

26 Khoa h9c xa h¢i m N ¢i -

Trituimg twng, san phim cua bQ OC da ph .. trien cac ciia can nguffi, cung da duQ'c hinhthanh mot each lich su tTongqua trinh hio dong xii hoi clla nhan loai, Chinh th~c tien clla loai ngu<n." hinh. thili cong xii nJlUy~n thuy dii thuc day ''1 n~y sinh tri-tudrig urong, ciing Ia nay sinh than thol:,li, Dau c6 au tri, dan gian'bllO nhteu di chang nila thitu dUy ngllOi nguyen Ihuy cfing dii d~ san sinhtren co sO- phan anh nhilng quan h~ cua cac hien ttrgflg:ay voi can ngUffi th{)ng qua lao dQrtg.D6ng thoi thffi chinh

n6;las~ phan anh thuc tien do, ....•.

"Chinh mot mi;tt 13 nhu cau nh~ thuc·th~c tai khach quan

tront lao dong, rni;tt khac Ta hhud\U giao ti€p' c6 tinh xa hQi cling nay sinh trong qua trinh lao d¢ng d6; mQt m~t la s~ thu nh~ nhilng kinh nghi~rn thl!C tierl,'rni)tkhac\anhu c~u I1;r bie'u hien minh tnraC thren nhien~ . met mat Ia su so hai tnrcc thicn

.... ' . . . ..

nhien d~y tai hoa, m~t kh ... ac la .. kh. a ... t .. ".o .... ng· ..•... ·~ ... b.p .. g.t.h .: 6.i c.h .. in.h .. Ph .. ~c .. no; chinh t~1 d nhilng cai do da1arri than tho~i nay sinh, . j

, M~t (rong nhilng d~c ?imcU~m?l ~uYfI1 thuy Iii trinh dQ san X1l~t v6 cung th:(p kern. Trorti!g;ial dO'!l1d~uci\a ~6, con nguiri bi vay bQc trong mot the gUn wnhi~n ddXP' ~ vii~y de doa, Con nguo. i chua tach minh.khoith€ gi(ri t .. tr, .. n~nd~.? n. gh·.·.l.t •. n ..... ; c(;ru n6 nhu mQt khach the. Nhilng tin. ngtrCmg· io tern c.ta.u ten. th~g gfu1 lien voi ni~m SQ' hai . clla con ngtrOi tnroc thien nhitn, ho sung bai die II!C luqng t'l nhien va thl\!l bi hoa ,no,

Q\lW' niern vQn l"Qt hilu linh la quan niern phO bi~n va W ,",ien cU,,'c.c cong d6ng ngui1i nguyen thuy, StIn1$l.thilc sal l~h va huyen ho~c v~ thliC t'li Ja cO th~t. W' Qi~u do, Angghendli. ¥mE! giiii thich: " Co sil cUa rnQi S'l nh:)n diM sai lam ~y ve gi¥ 11!l nhitn, ve nhilngthe' I"", rn~u nhi~ v.v .. thUimg thumg cltll~ rnQ! yeu t6 kioh ti lieu cl!C rna thOi; ti1c la trinh dQ'kinh teth~Ji !rem cua thM k.y ti~n si'r thide ra nhilng nh:)n dinh. sal Him v~

thien nhitn ... (1) . . I i

! (l) c. Mac vO Pb.'\ngghen, Vi ",'n hec va ngh< .h,";'. Nh' xuit ban' *'

lb4C Hit NOi, \957,1,-.52 .

- .

Nhung than thoai dau chi 13 nhlrng nhan dinh sai lAm va tam 19 so' hiii tnroc suc manh huyen bf cua thien nhien. Duch~ chap va tr~m I~ng thi kythu~t san xuat van kh6ng ngi1ng phat trien, kinh nghiern thuc tien cuacon ngum cling kh6ng agUng diroc b6i dap. Cling voi lao d¢ng, cung voi sir t6n tai thanhc\lng d6r~g xii h¢i, cung vcrisl! phat trien cua ngon ngfr giao tie'p, tn tue can nguai ngay cang mil mang va gia tang iJ nhling yl5'u t(i duyly. Cac elm ky co ban cua tu nhien dtroc nhan thuc co Ie qua hinhj anh true cam nha't 13 "dirong di" cua mat troi, chu ky cua mat trang, slJ Juan chuyen cua cac mua nong, lanh, mua, nang. Cac vat nuoi va cay trong tung buoc dtroc thuan dUC1ng. Thgi quen cua thu du, su sinh truiJng cua cay hoang duqe nh*n thuc dan dan. Con nguai s6ng thanh cac cong xii th] t¢c .thaYlhe'eho bay nguai nguyen thuy. Cac dia virc cirtni .duqc chiem Iinh dan va dan dan tn1 nen 6n dinh, quen thuoc. Con nguai dii bat dfiuy thirc diroc suc manh cua minh va nay sinh m¢t d¢ng ll!c.. tinh than Ion lao; khat vong chinh phuc tg nhien.

Nhir vay, ben canh nhfrng vi than tieu biciu cho nhirng Lge luqng thu dich voi can ngiroi.con e6 nhirng vj th~n lieu biciu cho y chi va khat vong cua can nguoi, nhfrng vi than bao tro cho.sv ph at trien phdn thinh cua cac e¢ng d6ng nguCri, thAn can lit "sg khai quat nghe thuat cua nhirng tien b¢ lao d¢ng" (M.Gorki).

Mot d~e diem khac cua thai nguyen thuy chinh la st!binh d~ng dan gian va sl! e6 k€t trong noi b¢ m¢t cong d6ng thft¢c . nay voi thi t¢e khac d~ gianh giat tu dA't dai, cam thti den phl:l nit. Hai qua trinh nay song song di~n ra va khong mau thuan nhatl. Chfnh thtrc tien nay dA lam xuat hien cac vi th~n nhuJa nhlfug anh hung chien tran, hien than cua sUe m<;1nh va khat v9ngchi€n tMng cua ca e¢ngd6ng. Songdi~u quan trQng han la chinh tu thl!e tit!n d6 dii nay sinh nhu dll nh~n thuc v~ chfnh con nguCt.i, v~ c¢ng d6ng, v~ ngu6ng6c eua thi t¢c"chung ta" khac vcri thi t¢e "chung n6". Tu nhling nh~n thlic v~ qui .lu~t thien nhten\ k€t hqp v6i nh~n thuc v~ ngu6n g6c can ngum dii ddn den vi¢c hinh thanh m¢t phuong phap tu duy mm d6 la fif duy suy nguyen thAn tho?i.Chfnh dinh huang suy nguy~n nayda .

28

lam eho thiin thoai hIn dau tien, co tinh he th6ng so khai. Th4n thoai bal dau thoat khoi nhirng kinh nghiern, nhtrng kyU:¢t~p the: nhfrng biciu nrong rai rae de k€t lai trong dong chaysuy nguyen,d~ng tra lai cac cau hoi v~ nguongoc can nguai.. ... ·

StJ phat trien manh me cua 19c Iirong san xuat va' SVlnfJ r¢ng khong ngirng cac eu¢e chien tranh dfl dan denstJbi~n chuyen sau sac cua cac CO' cau e¢ng d6ng xii h9i. Ca~.cb9 J~C' hlnh thanh, dftn tai viec hinh thanh cac lien minh b¢ J<;1cv.a c~cr be t6c. Hinh thai sa khai cua cac nha rnroc e6 d<;1i ra dCrl:.cac' y~u l6 van hoa rai rae cua cac thi tOc tnroc day hoa nh~pv6i nhau va tao nen btroc phar tri6n lucri. M9t Ifin nita, than tho<;li l<;1j duqc h¢ th6rig hoa thea nhu cau nhan thirc cac h~ th6ng.~iih~i va diroc nhan ban hoa khi v6n lieng nh~n thirc vechf~h

minh cua can nguai 'etii tra nen g iau c6. a giai . dO~Il nay tMn thoai phat tricin m¢t.cach m~nh.me ~mtu GaehJaf11.~f the loai, Chf~h no da lam. tien d~ cho m¢t thci loai, m6i·''{~~q tuang: h¢ th6ng Slr thi ra dai. Ngl1ai ta, g9itMn tho<;1ic~i.g\ij~ doan nay la thin fho{lJ phit tlien. Va chinh h¢ th6ng th~'tB~~,

nay nhu than thoai Hy Lap, than thoai An D9 dii Ulm d~iJ~~j, nghien CUu chu ye'u cua khoa than thoai hoc XUa nay.

Nhir viiy la, du nam tron ven trong m¢t hlnh thai kin~'~,xa hoi "mot di khong tra lai" thanthoai ciing co nhtrng buacphat trien khong ngirng cua I~G'luqng sa~ xuat va quan M san xu~t;q thoi nguyen thuy cua nhan 10<;1i.

2.2- Tfnh nguyen hop di~n hlnh cua thfin thoai

. Nguyen h9}J latr~ng thai t6n t<;1i cua m¢t hi¢~ tU<;mg,rt\¢t tbucthci van hoa (vap.hoa v~t chat, van hoa tinh thAn) ma,trong d6'c6 5U hoa lAn nhuan nhuy~n eua nhi~u b¢ ph~, nhi~uth.al)h ph an kh6.e nhau khi cac b¢ ph~n, cae thanh pMn nay can namq d~ng cac yeu t6 ..

Cd· m9ttn;mg t6n t~i khac, khl. cac b¢ ph,~n, cacthanhphAn

29

n~yda ~it nhirng thuc th~ d~c lap, ket hcp lai vm nhau, nguCri~ g~~d6 la t6ng h9P). "_. .;'.

•. ', Tinh nguyen hop la mot dac tnrng eua van hoc dan gran n91

ehling. Tuy vay, s~ the hien ella no trong nhimg phirong thu~~ nl;tpx,g the 10<;li~nhiing tac pham dan gian, k~ae ~hau; kh~ng ph~ ch6 nao ciinz d6ng deu nhu nhau. Ta thay C1 the 10~1 than thoai, tinll nguyen" hop the hien m¢t each dien hlnh nhA!. tao ra m~,t dactrtrng.eua n6 so vci cac the loai khac. Ta e6 the nhan thAy<?, than thoai, tfnh nguyen hop bieu hien a moi cap d¢ t6n tai ella nii Tho~t kY· thuy, c6 Ie do la sl;! nguyen ~qp? gitra cac Y,~u t,~ thuc)c quan h¢ thuc tl6n va. qllan h~ tinh !~iin cu~ c:m n~um voi thl1c te khach quan. Tu m¢t hach da,nguO'l ta ghe deo thanh mc)t chi~(; riu da. Chiec riu nay c6 thlduqc quan niem vira la mc)t d)ng cu tien loi, cho nang suat . Iao d.?ng ea.~ h~ ~a n?u~g ~O? Cli6i'tu nhien, vita la,mgt vat thleng.b~ng,.bCfl VI! co tM la, no Ia cqric~a "myda liflh thieng". D6ng t~aila ket tinh ella m¢t cong s~cl~o d6ngnhoc nhan cimg m¢ttrf tuang hiqng rilt kho khan

\~tffiq5~' Ir<mgshi€crlu ,d6~ ho,a.~~.nhuii~ nhu)'~n hai Y,eu t,~ ffl\ilJCve van hoa vat ch~t va van hoa tinh than. M¢t con thumoi

dit7ic' 'san ba~t ve, ngtrC1i fa vira coi d6 la san ph~m ella lao d¢ng, 1a th~c.an d6ngthCri ho ding c6 th~ vira coi n6 nhir m9t vi ciru tinh dahi€n sinh nuoi s6ng cong d6ng mlnh. Tir duy ella nhirng

ngumc6 xua la nhu vay, . .

. Tfnh ng\lyen hqp ella than thoai con the bien a sir hoa nhip nhuffn nhuyen cac yeu t6 1huQc cac binh thai f thtic xi b(Ji khac nhau. Trong than thoai chua dung mam m6ng cua ton giao, ciia tri€t hoc, cua luat phap, ciia sir hocccua van hoc nghe, thuat.; Nhan thuc mot each sai lam va sieuhlnh've thuc tai khach quan;

/ nhang khat vong kh6ng th6i nh~n thuedung qui lu~t khach quart; t~o fa "m¢t .vii t1\1 quan v~ ml?t nh!n sinh quan clIng vi~c du:vtrl. nhUngt~p t1;lc, l~ 16i s6ng ella c¢ng d6ng; mQt tu duy suy nguyen co tinh h~ th6ng bat cl1u; st! t6n t~i tha?h nhUng bitu tuqng phan anh con ngU'm dang woo l~n 1t! khang dinh mlnh truck thien nhien, su gia tang eua y€u t6 ngh~ thu~t ng6n tu v.V ... ; t~t d. nhiing ca~i d6d~u c6 trong thin tho~i. Th<1n tho~i t6n

30

t~V tr~ng sinh hoat Ie nghi, trong cac tap tuc va trong tam thu~ c¢ngd6ng. No H'! ffil/l t6ng th~ nguyen hop da yeu t6 tham !

g.I.·.a I. ~ ng .. hi thi tha hoathanh vao mQt Him thue than thO. ai ... K. hi Ct . kh6ng gian va thai gian deu la than thieng thi moi yeu t6 bit

hi~h trong do chac chan deu Ia nhiing bieu tUCJl1g than thoai, Ca d¢ng tacthuoc v~ hlnh the, am nhac, nhay mua, hoa trang, trang tri; ngon tir deu nhilt loat tham gia vao. viec sinh hoat mot bieu nrong than thoai t6ng the. Va nhu the; trong tn9t thai ky dai, ck tht?' IOf!" vall hoc dan gian noi chung cling chua tach bach d9t l~~ . .

Than thoai, v(ii ur each li't mQt the loai, phai dirocnhin nh~J!\ nhu mot t6ng the.nguyen hop dien hinh, yeu t6 ngh~ thu~t ng6n tlr, du Ia ngay cangquan trong ciingehi la ml/t y€ut6 trong d6 rna tb6i (e6 Ie vi th~ ma tlbietl iuuhg tam nghienClru" van hoc d~ £ian khone coi thanthoai nhu m6ttht loai thuoc v~ no,

L. L.. . .' • ••

Tharrthoai dang a ingtm6n hoc rieng bi~t: thin thoai hoc ).

Chinh day la mot d~c tnrng quan trong cua tht loai thin thoai.

2. 3-Chue nang co ban cua th~Ii thoai

Chirc nang co ban cua than thoai la clurc nang nhan thirc.

Du cho nhirng tri tlurccua ngiroi nguyen thuy phdn nhieu la sai 1<101' thl dieu do ciing khong phu nhanchirc nang nay cua than thoai. Than thoai ra c1ai boi nhu cau nh~n thiic thirc 'tien khac~ quan nay sinh trong lao dong xa hQi ella ngiroi nguyen thuy. Thin thoai nao ciing hireng d€n nilc thang cu6i cung ella tu duy suy nguyen: Tai sao lai c6 vii tru ? T<:li sao lai c6 con nguoi ? Vil tI1;l va con nguCri da duqc nay sinh nhu the nao ? Trong qua tnnh "nba iIi tuang tuqng" d~ ly giiii cho dugc nhi!ng cau hoi d6, tht!e chilt, thiin tho~i da t~o ra dugc vii t1"\1 quan va nhan sin~. quarl eho cc)ng d6ng mInh, n6 la II i thue chung clla cQng d6ng. Hau nhtr Uit d cac hi~n tl1CJ11g clla tl;! nhien, cac sinh ho~t c6 Hnh xah¢i deu dugc thdn tho~i Gm each giai thfch. M~c trCri, m~t trang, tinh tu, mua, gi6, sAm chap, cae cinh quan ctr tr1"

T

ngay dern, thdi"gian, .san ~hAI~1 ~an ~oa, t~p tl;l~ ~a n,~hi Ie, can nguoi va cac sinh v~t: ca de? nhfrng ~anh Vi tinh cam vv ... d~u'la nhling de tai cho than thoai nhan thirc.

Khong chi nhan thee nh~ng v!n d~ k~ai, qua,t va ym cac~ ly gini mot dch hUY,en ho~c n~,. th~n t~o~l,con _ la ~1Qt k?o km~ nghi9m qui bau cua con n~ucll, va cA~ml: ("1 mat nay, than th_o,!-I

nhieu khi phan anh dung dan th'!.c. te ~ha~h quan. Tr?,ng, nh~n~ bac tranh tren vach da hay dong hen su, ben canh cal ky 9u?c cua phtii canh (chang Iwn:. mot nip leu va ngub'i dUQ"~" the ~l¢n trotH:' than th0 m0t thu v~t ), ngtrb'i ta thuc s,! ng(~c nhien b01 su sinhcdt)J1~ va chinh xac \'6 gi,ii phfiu cua con thu do. Cae miii ten ~[!111 tre:nL than the can thuLthub'ng van nhirng diem rna no deur thu"lfl1£. nh[{\. R6 rang b day nhirng kinh nghi~mdUng dan va nhfrng quan nicm huy6n hoac t6n t<;1~ song sit ben nhau;, , A'

. Vai m01 vii 1r\1 quan va nhan sinh quan chung, VOl mC)t von kinh nahicm va hieu biet chung do thin thoai dem Iai, r6 rang con ngLudi' trong c0ng d6ng nguyen thuy co duoc n:Qt ~l! bl~h d&n£ trona nhan thuc, dac biet la. trong nh~n thue ve C¢I nguon

thal~ thanh cLla' mlnh.

Ben canh chirc nang nhan thuc,cac chuc nangkhac cua

than thoai ~iing c6 nhiing net dac tnrng.

Ch~c nang sinh hoat thirc hanh a than thoai dUQ"C rna rong

nhu la chinh do 13 phu~mg thirc t6n tai cua no, Doi vai nguoi nguyen thuy cac hoat dQng Ie nghi va rna thuat d~qe tin la ~6 tac dung true tiep nhu hoat dong lao dong san xuat vay. Than thoai song trong long It nghi va tham gia V~lO moi ,qua trln,h th~e ti~n bang du cie.tinnguang kieng khem. Ngucll ta nhay rnua lam cac d¢ngtac rna thuat voi rn¢t HIm Iy than thoai truce cac cuoc di san thti hoac bth ca. Cac.cong cu va vii khi duoc g~n giii nhu vat thieng. Cacq~i.trlnh nghi l~ duoc ti€n hanh ca~ than. Sau khi das[m ban duqe ~~n pham, l~i nhiing qui trlnh nghl l~ . khac duo'c ti€n hanh. D6 13 nhiing ho';\t d.¢ng lao dQng san xua't. Con trong cUQe song cQng d6ng,nguO'i nguyen ,thuy ,da gianh cho ca.c nghi lb m9t qui thm gian th~t la lan, neU khong ;oi la gin h€t thb'i gian song. a mQt muc d9 nao d6 rna noi sinh

32

heat thuc hanh cua nguoi nguyen thuy chinh la mot cuoc song

thin thoai. .' .

q L~ mot I(~~i hinh ~gh¢ thuat khong nr giac, gia tri tham my cua than thoai ding ton tai mQt each nr nhien ben eanh nhieu yeu to ~h~e va no c§ co s6 tir hai phia: sv hoang dUOng' cua nhan thtrc Sal lam va khat vong dep de cua chinh phuc tlJ nhien, iali

g?i In lang man t~1an thoai la the. a thin thoai, thanh than mang veA.ci9P ng~~ye~ rna? v~ l1guye~ thuy, mot ve dep khaI thuy khong thc d~lt 10'1 111a chi co th~ chiern ngufmg no ma thoi: cac hinh tU,9'ng ~Y ~ tro~l.g than thoai d~ula ket qua cua nr duy thsrn my do. Neu COl than thoai nhu I11Q1 loai hlnh nehe thuat dac biet thi ph~m e~at ,t.?£lm ~ny ella no chfl~h i,a pham ~i ~ai ca'o thUfh1§. 'Vai nhirng kieu mau ... khong the bat chiroc diroc", than thoai di'i tU~lg'la ~6'cm(~, nguyen vong cao dep cua ngl!di nguyen thuy, d6~~1g th~1 1:6 van, dung dong va phan n~1O phil hop voi ly tuang tham my .cua chung ta ngay nay. Va baa gib' cilng<v~y,tlr duy nhan IO<;1i cang ph it tri~nthl taOg· phathi~n· fa' nhieu Iinh vue rna con ngumchuath~ 15' giain6i,06 .thfnh·laUoh,vt!'e gianh cho tri nrong tuong con ngum;;aogt~o ranhU'nghl~h t~Q"11g ~gh~ t~u~t, d6n,g ~.<;1n~ vai th~n tho~UChric nang thfim my cua than thoai, co the n01, la nhu v~y .

. , Chfnh, dieu kien xa hQi cong xa nguyen thuy e6 v~n d¢ng va bien chuyen lam co' sa eho slJ hinh thanh, phat trien va bien deli cu~ than thoai, chinh bieu hien cua tinh nguyen hop dien hlnh a than thoai va chinh nhtrng dac diem chtrc nang ella n6 da lam nen nhirng d~c tnrng the loai 6 the 10<;1i nayKhi nghien ciiu than thoai, phai Iuon luon soi xet n6 bang caed~c tnrng nay.

a.THAN THO AI VII;:T NAM

3.1. nnh h'i'nhchung

Di6u dn Ittu y ddu tien; Cai gOI lil "thin thoai Viet Nam" khong phili la rn¢t khai niem chat ~h'e ctla khoa. ho~ van 'hoc d~n gian. N6 dun gian chi la ~i~c .gi61 h~n rnQt bien gi·0j hanh 'chlnh

33

qu~cgia hien dai de trlnn ba '. " K"

thffn thoai cua nhieu 1. y 1<;'1, co tmh chat h6ic6 - kh

I<fftglr~ qu6c Vr?' ;a:nx~9~fi~~~~ '::'.~ dang ciing t<ln ..:t " •. · · . ..;;.~ :

, . Can cir vao dac tnrng va~ h ' g la.< . .\.'

ve ~g6n ngil.a v~ y thtrc ur n o~ ~~t c~at va van hoa tinh tMlt

khoa hoc dii xiic dinh 11 V", N g y~n xac I~p dan toe, cacnh: ogulri. Vi¢t yoi 90% dan :~ tr~m c~ 54 ~an tQc tat ca. Troogd~ d~n )~C chu the cua ruroc viet ;;g I!ch sir ,<Iii .tUng luon luonIa

cU'chu yeu vao yeu to A • _ am. Tat ca cac din toe 06 -

A kha ngon nsu ngl1ct" t ., . , can

t~c hac nhaut nhom V'ct . "tv! , I a qUI vao hay nhom dan

Hmong _ Dao nh6 HI. . U'd. ng, nh6m Tav . - Thai nho

Kh ,m oa nh6m T . . ,om

.. me.va nhom Ma Lai _ D~ D" ang - MIen, nh6m Mon -

SU". b" ao.

. p l1C tap va phong phii ' .; (,

m~ng Thing Tam nhu ngiroi tcon, " ch , cho den tnroc Cach

opng nhar v~ h'inh thai kinh tA' a c~n t~ay, cac din toe khone nam cJ? n. A' A A e - xa h61 Tr khi C

cae "9 phong ki6rt d" h' . . {. ": ong 1 nguoi Viet

kh. 4tnh.1.f Muong' . Thai T" aChP ~t tn ncao, thi mot so din L.6 d6 h .. "' "aY, am Hre Kh . dan .c .,PQl1g laen srrkY.;{;QnmOt s6 d... ' me ang nam II chi:

Oh~ld?Xiihi/icQng:d6Jtg.CU6i ~ ,[¢C~icniia thi van nam th~*'t",c,.d!n l¢c thuoc nho M' (\J ky cong san nguyen

. doc ]n<llng San, milt t~ on: Khme i1 Tay 8£c D~,~<;:.;).Va ngay ir nhU;;' h' an ~9C !hu¢c nhorn Mii Lai : tn6;.~ chungciing khong ~htho;b~1 ~~ h~~ nhir the, sf! phat xen'lJl\ng.philc r~t da dang. g. la dien hinh, n6 co su dan

'. Tuy ahien khong chi la str '

dl~n khac nhau, cac din tA • V'. phirc tap, xet tren nhieu binh

then h..... oc cJ let Nam ~" hie

. g,n at trong mot cang d6n ~, . ,co n 1 ". net g'n giii va

1?C;\1 hlnh van hoa _ dan' toe rna g .a? hoa -=- lich su hay tropg mot A. Du co nhfing thay dA: a ngl1C1l ta van gQi Iil van hoa Na~

n ,.,' . vI cuc b6 song ou '

01, cae e"og dong dan to~ i1 da " . ng ~e m~t !<bu ",!c ma

c.~nh ~hau> trong suot tru~g k' { :a !an ;~1 ~~ on dinh ben tIep xuc ~e vlm hoa va d. uan ~e !~ ..... SI1,. c~ nh.leu m6i quan he. trong khl nghic.n Cll'u th~:: tho . 'vt~~p n61 ve e¢l ngu6n. Bai vay' dan toe be <. ~l let N am ch' ' ? • ,

h' ; , . > n c~n. "I phong ph" va" d ,~ng ta [hay r1 cac

t e co nhleu net tuoog d6ng. a d<;lng la CcJ ban, eon c6

34

Oi~u luu y tha hai I. dil 11 dan t<)c thu<)c hlnh th.' xi h<)i na6, duOnh tt~ng bao uru tr1ly~n thong hay bien thai 11 noi na~ noi no <r~m nhat khac nhau den the nao chfing nila thi.thm ky phO" thinh ciia [hin [ho~i ciing dii liii kha xa so vm ngily nay, Th1l1.\<:)'. cua than tho~i dii " M(>[ di kMng tri1I')i". Cho nen c6n~ vi~c dbng lai bac tranh than tho~i bao gi~ cting mang doh chlil h6i.c6. Thin thoai Mn vm chung ta llgay nay khang ph.i bftng' chlrth 06 ma lai b~ng cae thtl [oai van hoc dan gian co sau n6 nM sil thi, [ruy!!n thuy€[, truy~n c6 lieh, [~C ngil, 'ca dao. dan ca w ... Chlnh la qua cac the loai nay ngum ta !lm th~y' cac billu tuqng qui luat va tinh [han th~n rhoai. Ti1 (j6, Yi~c 'dqngm<)t \mc tranh than thoai hqp Iy Iii co thtl, song la m¢l buc tranh th6n

[h~ chan th'!c thi qua la kM khan. i

Dieu lhu ba la, nhu uen ta eii n6ith<l~,th°~ dar6"tl!ihhu .

JtI~t !fing thtl nguyen hqp dien hl~~ ~~er>cac og u6n tai lieu vtl dAnt\>chqc ding nhu. dc 10ai?'nhn.glirJl:u~d~ gian khac cung giiip cac nh' nghiencUnJ'l{,nhi!u hong Yi~e khO; phl)c

!<ho tang tIiAi,.thb~i C6i.~tlb1i6 hfu c.cy€ut6vai1ho~ nguyful thuy cua cac dan t¢C dang 11 de hlnh thai xii Mi' trucrc day d n.U6C ta dil lad6itugnt t5t d.~ viec n .' ghien ctru th~nth(j~j dat tl°·.·1· cban th'!c cao h<111. Thin tho~i cac dfin [¢C khac nhau c6 the, qu

so sanh, b6 sung cho nhau M bac tranh than tho~j them h~

chinh. . . .

T6m Iai, diem qua ttnb hlnh tren, ta th~y viec dl)ng lai bU'c

traob than thoai nhu n6 v6n co baa gill cung viin Iii cOng vi~c

kno khan vfin nam cr tUcJng lai.

3~2- N{)i dung th~n tho~i Vi~t Nam

C6 thii coi thiln tho~i la m<)[ phur11lg [hac nh~ thac tMc t~i !<hach quan d~c biet, n6 tUr11lg dUr11lg vm nhieu phuong thtlc nh~ thac \th"c nhtl phudng thac tfin giao, phuong thlfc n~h¢ thuat, phUcmg thac [ri€t h9c, phucmg thtlC !<hoa h<;>ew ... Nhilng v6n d(\ math!\.n tho~i quan tam, suy cho ding eung chinb la nhilng vdo dil rna cac hmh thai Y thue [inh thin khic tim cac~ Iy

g.iai: Do Ia. su t6n tai ella the gim vl}t chat, the gioi' tinh than, SU t6n tai cua vil tru va nhan loai, cuanr nhienva xa hoi, cac m6'i quan h~ giira y thtrc va vat chAL.tr~ng tinh nguyen hop dien hinh ella minh, than thoai luon luon la kho tang, tri thirc chung cua ngiroi nguyen thuy. Neu .nhu ngirci nguyen thuy c6 sir blnh d~ng don g.i<'tn v6 kinh tt' thi d6ng thai hociing c6 si! blnh d~ng trong nhan thirc: Cac thanh vi en cua cong d6ng t9c ngt1i1i binh d~ng)rUac thanh th~n chung ella ho va hodiroc trang bi nhung. von tin ng.uang nhu nhau. N()i dung than thoai chinh la nhirng tri thirc chung d6. (Chinh VI di~u d6, nhieu nha nghien CUll khoa h9C t~)C nguai cho rang: c6 ml}l thin thosi chung cilng la mot

trong nhirng lieu chuan X3C dinh t¢e nguoi). .

a) Hinh dung ve' vii rTF

M0l dieu d~ nhan thay rna ciing la mot net kha chung cua th[111 thoai nhicu dan t¢e 11 Viet Nam 13. co motquan ni~111 v.e khong g ian vu tru g6m nhieu tang canh nhau va nh'i~u the aioi a nhirng t[ing do hoac a dan xen lin nhau. Co so.khach quart qui dinh quan niem thtin thoai d6 chac chan khong gl khac hon la do sl! phong phu, da dang va phuc tap cua cac canh qual! dia ly, cua cac yeu to' thai tiet, cua cac san vat sinh vat tu nhien va cua ca qua trl~h phan b6 va bien d¢ng dan t¢c dem lai.: Nhtrng tnrc quan ve thuc tai khach quan nhu mat d.1t, rung ruii, song ngoi, bien ca, bau troi hoa quyen voi nhirng huyen nrong ve nhiing cai chuabiet a dum d.1t, trong rung, dum bien, tren .troi tao ra mot

hinh dung khong gian nhu the. ..

d ngirci Viet, traiqua mot qua trinh tiep xiic lau d~i vm van hoa Han, cac tang the gioi: dU'<,1C d~t teo, ehu/tian: Am phu, Tr~n gian, Thien dinh, d ngiroi Muong, ngrrm Thai, ngiroi ta cho rang co mot muong troi tren caoJco rnuengcho con nguoi a, co mot muong Ct dum d.1t vaco mct tM'gimdttmrruac. Nhieu dan t& thu~c ng~ h~ Ma Laida dao ~U' Ed~, Mnong ... d~u truyen tung sir t~ch ve h,ang Adrenh cho rangtru6c day h9 song tam t6iben dLftJI ~~t dat, sau do nha than ¥rim dan h9 qua cua hang do de len val m~t etat c11y anh sang, hoa thdm co I~ vathuc an v~t nuoi

ngay nay.

6 cac tang cua vii tru do, t6n tai cac the giC1i khac nhau.

The gioi ella cac dan V! than tieu bieu cho cac luc hrong tl! nhien nhir 111~t trei, m~t trang, mira gio, sam ch6'p,gicmg ban .V.v. thl tlurong s6ng tren troi: Cac loai thuy t¢c thuo-ng s6ng dum mroc. Con the gi&i da than va the gioi rna quy c6 the s{)ng a mat d.1t, duci mroc. The giai con ngum chi co th~s6ng tren mat' d.1t din du van rn¢t thci ky than thoai xa xua nao d6, hoac bang. rna thuat, ngttai ta co the giao tiep vl{di lai a cactang vii tru khae nhau nhieu dan ·tOe cho rang, dUai m~t dilt t6n tai mot the giai loai nguai khac d~c bi~t· a ch6 hoacho chi he bang ng6n tay tit, hoac moi cai d~u ngiroc voi ngiroi a tren m~t dat.

Vii tru khach quan do ra dal tir dau, b~t dau nhu the fl~O la cau hoi rna Mu het 1119i than thoai deu tim each 19 giai. D6 chinh la nac thang cu6icungtheo d~nhhu(mg ella tuduy. suy nguyen than thoai, Ta g~p tron? nhi~u sir thi than thoai sau'nay; cau hoi ve su hlnh thanh vii tro. do. Ngo-Cri"1hai dad~rcftu rna

dau cho tac pham "am ~t luong": I. ''1''}

Cai gl to tnroc troi?

Cai gl na tnroc dat?

Ngtroi Muong trong "rang" rna dau cuaang mo ''D6aJfde

nude" ciing k~ chuyen tu thai:

Dtroi d.1t chua co dat Tren trm chua co trm

Tren troi chua c6 ngoi sao d6

DUm dat chua c6 ngonco xanh xanh.

Trong mOt bai ca than thoai, nguoi Lo Lohoi: ' Troi sinh ra tir dau?

D.1t sinh ra tir dau?

Nguai Hmong trong tac pham "Khtia ke" hoi" . N gay xira ngay xua

Ai la nguoi sinh ra m~t d.1t7 Ai la nguoi t40 ra bau trai?

Nhung diU hoi nhu v~y co the tlm thay h~u het a cae ngu6n

37

th~n thoai cua moi cl&n toe. No clurng to khat vong nhan d~"n ea.i tan cimg cua con nglloi cho du each Iy giai If ho~c

() mot so dan h!c, Ira lai cho diu hoi d6 chinh Ia. sv,.h1rili dung ve mQt thai hlin mang hong hoang nguyen thuy. o ".," Vi~l: ltr mQt thuc the mit mung, mQ1 vi than toIon d5 sinh chandap dat xnong, dfru dQi troi len, xay 1:91 da chong trai,ti}C! nen trai tronMt vuong (Than try 1roi). Cling c6 khi 119 hlnll dl.lng VU 1r1;1 ulnr.mot vi than nh~lt th~: Ollg D6ng rna tieng 'noi l~ sam ren, bLr6c eli thanh giong. ba~, mat loe nhu anh chop, v. v, Sg _ tUdng tugng Ii)' dieu do ta thay cling gi6ng nhir vi than Ban c6 cua ngllCti Dao: Dftu ngaila triri, Chan ngai ia dat, Con nguoi.Ia trai tim cuu vua cha, va mat trai than ia m~t troi, mat phai ia. mat tranz,

'-Thfin Ai Die cua ngllai ciina chinh la vfi tru sinh ra ttr h6n

L-· . L -' . • .

IVtHU;: Dau tron.cua than la bau troi, iran than nhan.la may bay hll.}n.h(1i Ih~n thO' thanh khong khi, hai lay than la. hai cay try phan .chia dat trai rieng ra.

, Da so cac tQc ngllai khac, vci 111Q1 so ur duy co the duy 15' han, tUCmg nrong su ra dai cua vii tru nhu ket qua sang tao hoac sinh de ella mot cap vI.} chong than linh.

D6 chinh la "Ong Thu Tha, ba Thu Thien" cua nguai Muong. HOng Chay, baChay" ciia ngiroi tim6ng. liang X6 Cong Nha, ba X6 Cong Din" cua nguoi Thai. "Ong Ket Do, ba Ga Gi" cua nguoi LeI L6, !'Goc Klly Tlly, Da Kon Ke "cua ngirci Ba

Na. Ngllai Cham, cole do anh cua van hoa An DQ thi eho rang thantroi 1a Cha (Dyaus) va thandat 1a my (Adlti) d5. tao ra troi

dat. '

, Su hinh dung viec hinh thanh troi dat qua mot cuoc sinh nCr "sang the" la ph6 bien. Tu duy d6 d5 hinh thanhrat xa xira khi, thii nhat, con ngum hieu diroc rang quan h¢ tinh giao dire - cai se cho ket qua la con, d6ng thai, thu hai, con ngiroi phan biet m9t each dan gian cac ph<;\m tru d6i l~p (ffi¢t cach trve quan):

Tren cao, du0i thap, ngay dem, sang toi, rUng nui - song bien,

dat n1l0C, m~t trang - m~t trm. '

38

'. bi ~u cho hai xu hu(mg~

Ca hai each hlnh dung tren neu 1, '( I)

, a nh inh hoa vii tru khach quan. ,

nhan hlnh hoa va n an ttn , .,' • ' u- tru thAn thoai d6 thl the

, 'the gl(J'l cua va., ,

Trong cac t:1~g, cac , tnt tie c~a con ngum dul.}c' chu

gi0i. trftn gian, 0:61 trllan~ song 'l~ ~ , the gi0i khac .hau nhu y' giai thich nhieu hrm ca. ~rong~ u~ ~~en thi the gi6i trftn gian 6n dinh va khong cftn tru~ .tim hu : 6 g nui bien ca, d6ng bang

, . • • h n tu nhien n II s ng, , h .• ,

v6i Hlt c, a can qua " hi A th~n thoai tim fa' esc gUll

e deu duoc n I~U '. " ,.

cao nguy n. v.V .. , .' " d' nhan tinh d5. ra den va lam cong

thtcb. H~mg lo<;\t, c~c vi ~hanB' ~Yd6ng dao cua ngum Vi¢t \1\ vang

viecx~P d~t the pan nay. al, -

b6rig cila nhtrng than thoai nhlI, the.,

.Nhtlt ong dem cat

Nhl ong hit be

Ba 6ngke sao Bon ong dao song

Nfll1l0ng tr6Ilg cay I

" $au6ng xliy TtL. ' . ,

, " than mang danh hl~\l la

O· " Th:f hang loat cac V} dA '

, nglIol _ ,1, , " ~ dat vii tru: Chau rang 9t pu:

Ch~u (chua) da lam conp Vl~CSaJet ph~ng: nglIai dao khe sau. nglICri d~p nui cao, Chilu :~~~Oa~g cat tron dat lam nen fU¢ng

Ch~uch~ chau chao: ngllO'l '.

nen nll<1Ilg .. · _ - h c dan gian MlIang ciing di

Nhan vat Ba Nhiln tron¥ ,;a? 9 can apbtn lung. niii thfip

lam nhUng viec nrong W, khl. nut cao I'

'nap ben nguc" ba d5. tac gl~n:

co . Rut dao nhon nhon

Dao bay nam chu6i tron Chat dat chan chat

Chit cat am tim ...

. (Dang van va) , .

, '" d dia ban cu tni cho ngUol

Ba d5. lam cong Vl(~C tao t!ng . .

I

. . d6n dan toe, co nhieu sach \9

" til Hi nhien, c6 khi trong Chl m~t c?ng1 fm gt6c c6' qua trinh phttc t~p

. de ta' nay dac bl~t C1 n 1 g . i'

gi.ro khac nhau vi! :.1 .. " Thii Viet Cham,l~de, Hm6ng.

trong khong gian va thm glan nhu , .' 39

Muong.

Dan t6e Ma v' X' (' T A '0 ,.'i._ ~, ,

, ',' a ,n1" CJ ~I)1.,png) eung eo hang loat cae

h~nh tuong th~n li!lh nhu Tang" Uit,Kon Xur, Blang K;yan ... sang tao nen cay co, muong thii cho mat etato

Trong nhfrng b¢ phan thantho<,ti !1'ay, ta thfly y€u t6da than la quan xuyen 111 duy cua hau hel cacdan toc anh e)11 o t'~ ('

I,' I' .. )toa

1 iay .n lan vat than thoai miic d6 "than hoa" chua c: ','

.: _ /: " " .' "dO, no con

~a~l, cl~~t ~~CJ'I h(~<,tt dC?I:g Ill:) d¢J~g don gi,in cua con ngl1t1i (dao, chat, khuay V,\ .. ) V,lYl nhirna conu cu n6ng noh,iep '1 k'('"

, , ", '- ,-, '- ~ , s( Y IIU,

mal, dan. chav ... ), () l1£lrtri Viet do str phat l'rl'{Jl kl » " -

/ / • ",,', , .v " e lac Clla van

hoa,cac nhfll1 v~H Hay eli] triru tirona 110a cao tao II' h ,/ '

I .' 'I -, ' ' '- ' '. lan cac VI

than 111<1 iinh dung nhieu khi khti xac dinh: ThO< N c., Tht"

L '" TI" D'" 'I" " ' . an 1100c, an

ua, ian at, T 1(1I1 Sam, v. v .. Song yeti t6da tha" , b' I

M' li I" " c: • n van ao till,

Qt uicn th.tn VOl mot he th6ng nhat nguy' en nhu 'th/ th '

, h / " " , . " ' '- ''- an oai

(p at tl.,ICI1~ Hy ,~~IP, la dl~U tachua thay d day. '

Ve 111<,\1 thoi gran cua vfi tru. hau het cac thAn II '" V'A

T _,' ' , 'cl 10al a let

Nam khung chia thanh cac thai dai hoac cac-ky ng '" nh h/ h 'H ' ," _'. ' uycn n 11 t an

t, o~! ~ LSlp" Tat nhien, ta cung thay co mc)t thai gian .ducc coi

I,~ bat dau cua cong cuoc kh(1i nguyen va sau d6 La tho' k'" .ac 11 ~ , 't II " h ' , 1 Y cua

~ J ~ lan,V,) ~ .ian ,~ 0<,11 s~ng~<;lo ~.~ c~c canh quan d~a ly, Cau

C?,UYy;l d,t.: ng<ly thang hoac de thOI gran duoc k~ lai thuan I'

aiau Y VI A, To' I" g a

'-' '_ ' ngl;! ngol1. at 11 lien n6 cung duoc khoi dau b~

n~ung mo tIP sang khoai hao hung cua than thoai: d6 ia .h a~g

ban ru 1 () - , , ' , ' , ' , c uyen

, ng mat trm ma nhieu toe nguoi deu co de A' "",'

-it l' th ~ h' ,',' ,CUOI cung

\ ~ ,am, u~en ~c 0' ~a fa bien khai d~ g9i m<;lt tn1i len: tll d6 c6 ngay dem va co thm gian (I)

b- ffinh dung ve' !oai nglf('ti

B¢ ph~n thfin tho<,1i hlnh dung ve.con ngl1m' ly' g) 'a')' ,/ t'

o ~ '" , ~ , • no, 1m

ne~on ~oc cua no~ n~~n,thuc ve nhfrng th6i quen, luat tuc, va

nhung smh hO<,lt xa h91 cua n6, la vo cung phong phu 'Trbng tl1 duy nguyen hgp than th()<,Ii,vi~c dung con ngl1ai d~ nh~n thac tt!

. III Than thoai Tav, l\1uC1no Hmo D 'h' ,

kldo di "De dal 'de nU6c" _ Nh', il nbg,: ao, C am. v~v .. (.x.cmpha.n N¢i,tr.264-271. axu t an Khoa,h9CXah()J 1989Ha

40

nhien va nguoc lai, dung nr nhien de nhan th(re minh. Viec y thtrc con ngiroi la mot b¢ phan ella thien nhien va y thirc con ngl1Cti tach bier khoi thien nhien la sir W thtrc mmh, su sCJ hal khiep nhircc tru(Jc thien nhien va SI! nr 9 thrrc 1111nh 13 bO phan uu tu nhat cua thien nhien, co th~ chi phoi va chinh phuc rhien nhien ... tat c<} nhfrng cai do, t6n tai nhuan nhuyen, xoan xuyt ben nhau, kh6 phan biet, khong tach rai.

Co rat nhieu thfin thoai giai thich ve nguon g6c loai nguoi.

Co dieu chac chan la b Viet, Nam cluing ta it thay xuat hien ki~u chuyen giii thich 51! ra dai loai nguoi nhir thanh qua cua m¢t loai hinh lao dong thu cong nghiep nao d6 (nlur trong kinh thanh hoac trong than thoai Hy Lap) , Con ngirci ra doi tir thien nhien, d6 la nhan thric rna than thoai cac toe nguoi b day mang lai,

cau' chuyenve cuOc hon phoi gifta Lac Long Quan (giong r6ng) va Au co (gi6ng lien - chim) va mo tip D9C tram tnmgnCY ra tram con trai rna cluing ta v~n quen thuoc la ket qua cua mOt qua trinh phat trien xahOi Iftudai, cac ]{fptMn tho~ie6 diidl1qc truyen thuyet hmi,dap,ung nhu cau nh~nthucv~dfintOc pbong kien. Tren van ban cua n6, tinh thAn than thoaichi vang h~h kha mo ao. Song ciing co th~ tu do, nguoc ngu6nso sanh vQi;thAn thoai de dan tOc anh em d~ thay ctuQ'c nhfrng .gia tri . thAn tho~i dich thuc, nhirng tin ngl1Cmg to· tern, mo tip qua bt\u m~'ho*c

tnrng thieng sinh ra loai ngiroi hien nay. '

H~ thong than thoai v~v~t t6 co th~ con tlmthay· nhi~u cong 'dong cir dan phan anh st! t6n t<,li tll xa xua eua cac th! t¢c nguyen thuy ma v~ sau nay khi xa hOi hlnh thanh cac cong xa lang gi~ng, thl thi t¢c luu chUng 6 cac .dong h9·

Nhi~u dong h9 ngum Khmu con maI'lg ten d¢ng v~t,H9 TWai co nghia 1a chim phuQ'ng hoang, h9 Tinoongco nghia la con eh6n, h9 Rwai co nghia la can h6. Kern thea do, tagi!p nhftng thftn tho'.li giai 19 do mang h9 va di!c bi~t la nhftng 19 do kieng ky, cau eung. cae dong h9 CY cae dan t¢c khac thl10ng c6 nhftng ki gan veti mOt 10a1 sinh v~t nao do. Nguai Muemg c6 nhung kieng ki cua mot sO' ho gan vai chim boi ca, chim se, chim'-cu6c, Nguai Ede ~6 diu chl~y~n ,,6 cay tre thieng Ale,

41

Ptgll01Cha ? Th ," ,

.•.•.. _: ~~ o m~.n Hai co chuycn v~ ho c- . ,

, D~,e biet can r6ng. _ voi ur cac ~ " au.,~Y Dira.v.v ..

tan -irro thanh tin num1u' .t.. .0" ae~}a m9t 10m thuy tOe. V'f>.t. N'" 1::"" g. cua tat nhieu cu d: 'RO< :/ .•

:}y.~ ". ag.a cua Khme N" ".. an. ong caa

L' . N" ., agan cua netto" Ch: "

. ao.. ~It1O'e. cua ntlu>-'I' Thai B ,-.1. am, N ak cua

• ,-, ,_ v Il l U' KJ' .,

cua ngl1<':ri Tay v .. \~.. ' . a lLl cua nguai Murrng,

Du l'/) -'U' k'j' I .

, ' ", .nac nl;lU kll"~ '," ,., .' ..•••.

'or"1 I ' ' . I ) !lldl ve \"II I' ( . " .

c'o' rcn ioa, ngu 11!l6n h ') '-, ,-,,~) II U)'CIl thuyet hoa,

dA 'I ,,' c, oa... SOI1i.'. Pia IT I' '

.. ong.llIyct Ih6110 cua C,,'I' II' '. -::- ! n 1(~11 thirc V0c{)11U

h'" 1::"' d': 11 hK' .u: I' - . 1:"

n len.V:l Iftl nhicn Di '\ '1' I'." l. cl 11l nglwllt! V{1I Ie) 11\ (,. 0'" . . . ,vel! (0 phan rinl, tr ." u

?ngi l'Ollngtr0i ra dil'i !2illl bo cl ; , '1 ~ 1;~lIg lam Ilurc ,,'ill' cc)nu

cua thi~n ?hic~l. ,-" " 1,,11 C ic \'(11 ur nhicn, I~ sail pl;&~

Mo up ycQ' ;' bf" .'

, ..' , . Ud ,HI me la m61 ott', 1 ( ,';,' .

tam thuc dOl tronc dieu ki" I' .,'. . rrc p rat trien can h(1I1 cua bcn ~i1 (1', ~. _ yll 1m 1 thanh:t'3c b' lac ,.... .' (

'.' .... ,'-_.1.,10 luu !,UUa cac drill t'" t- 1 . Q .. ac, !rOTli.'.. dieu

.. hra: ,-.., ()C l . ( ( Ire'! " , ~

S)I1 .... '[(' .. 1 con IHW0ivae..'l" "j'. : ' . L 11111 rona. Tirquabau

<". '. r' " '- <, .. {an I ()l' . do F ' h . " -, " ' II

cu.£! ... klcu.l!uycn .. 'nav"OV v ]·11'N' .' ,:11111 uer dien hinh nhrl'(

d '.1.. ' . ~ • - C ,lin n !2lf'1 t, t;-,· t

.' ~ .... 1I •. ' a.t) vetruven .. Q .' b'" '." ''- .. l 1 a ( a tim th{IY h' , ..

..••....•...• " • . Uct au 1tt Tav B-' " ,', ' allg tram

i .•••..•. ' .........••. B ,e. 1 .. 1 canh loai truyen P ;' 'h"~ ac xllnn~ den Irung h9 hi

't?'O'jtll ~. h " ,..:-ua .IU me la COl Ih" . '

' .. ' .. ' an. t 1\"1\11 vc qua t 'tt' h"'" 1 av nhieu dan t' .

• '0-' . ,] ng t ICl1g '. I " . oc

tl.u ... n .. gD.iC'ni£!. d. 0 etA' hi '-',,'- 110](1 o a i n atrrri. D' I'~ t.l '." L ul C lin Av cal lV " . . c 0 a

tno~lI De dat de mroc .: ',. ' a sinh ra trona Sir thi thr'

, oc cua nairrn MltlO' c an

tnrng thicng do chim Ong 1-6" (.ng.. o cling chinh la chicc

~tluong cua n~wal' Tho" '- n slllh )(\ trong. sir thi than thoa,' "

... '- al. " an1

Nhtt vay bo t,' . A

h" ~" '.~ ,c rung do Me Au C ,"

c .... ac "han ChI IA mot b "d " J1 smh ra cua nvttrri Y' At

Ii'" .' . UO'e uy ly he ( h - t" II.::

n~t~~uy~n l?uyet L<;lc Long Q~' )aA n ttng ~han tho<;ti tren. i1

hal~~U t6 than tho~ic6: tin ngU~an + Au.:! 01, cung hao IltU etttoc nguC1l. c ng V~l to, va m6 lip Inrng no ;'a

ill

f)~ng Nghiem Y'

s6 3- I 972. ~ .• ~[l - TruY¢ll Qua hau me - T' '

, ap clll van h9c

42

c- CU{j(' d::!'u trenh chinh phuc tu nhien va sing teo van hoi eila con ngt1(yj.

Trong truyen thuy~t cua ngu(ri Viet, cac ky tich di~t Ngu Tinh, HS Tinh, M9c Tinh cua Lac Long Quan tnang Thuy Tinh l'ua Sl11l Tinh 13 nhtrng cau chuyen mang darn eta tinh thiin than thl1<~i. no ph;in anh 'congcu9c dau tranh chinh phuc thien nhien ella ng.l1oi Vi¢t c6. N~u dem so sanh 110 vt1i nhirng "rang." (ChI1l1ng.) n6i ticng nhu "Ch~tchu", "San mu()ng" ," San ca dien qU~l dien", "Ntt(rc lu: nu& can" trong sLt thi th~n thoai Dc dat de nuoc ella ogu0i Mucmg. ta cang thfty cai c6t lOi than thoai xuycn suot trong do. (j cacdan 19c khac. ta ding g~p hlnh anh ky vi l'l1<:\' nhung anh hungdi chinh phuc thien nhien. Do la chang kh6ng. 16 Ai" Lac C~ckhai pha d.ccanh dong 16n i'1 Tay Bae ella nguoi Thai. La hai. ong ba cl,l kh5ngI6 Pu Luong) Gia cai khai pha cae canh d6ng Hoa An, Nguyen Blrih cua nguCfi Tay ... D6ta chang kh6ng 16 Prong pha dap <lat mii lay nUOcu6ng, lieu di~t

yeu tinh trtt Hi [ut va h~n han chong.uCiFEde .. v:V.\> I

D~"o nhtrng diu ban cu trU 6" dinh 'cbo'th, l~C, hi) lac, con

ng\.rO'i thai xua (15 phai ,,6 l\fchang. tram tMh~ vm 'mt)'h{)ii xttcmg mau mai (1<),1 dl1(,1C. Va d€n Ittc;rt hQ, hQ cling khong tM tubrlg luqng n6i doi ban lay nhohecuamlnh l~i c6 the lamc1uqc nhfrngdi0u ky di9u nhl1 th~, Nhung hlnh tt19ng kh6ng 16 khat san phi th~ch' b dffy "hirth I. ,~kl' VI hoa con ng uOi, silng siln* nhU n:hi1ng tuqng dai ky ni~m nhfrng'sang tac van hoa d&, .

Vi~c t1m ra cach lam lira cung duqc coi nhu m91 chi~n cong van hoa Ian clla nhan lO<;li. Th~n tho~i Hy L<;lpve th~n Prome te danh cap lila eua Thftn D6't da tro thanh m9tbi~u tuqng v~ dOlc dung cam va t1nh nhan van cao ca. Song v~ t{nh van hoath1 vi~c l~y li1a dlm ttt tr?11 v~ eho 10ai nguai aua Prome te chac khong sanh n6i de thfll1 tho<:,li 6 Vi~t Nam khi 6 day can nguoi khong chi d~t dUlJc li1a trC1i ma bang mULl tr{ cua mlnh t1m duql' each lam ra li1a lt~ vinh vito ngl.?n li1a sc snng d0e l~p hbi bf quy~t do. Truy¢n " Scm Tinh d~y dan lam Ilra" cua nguOi Vi~t, cau chuy~n

chang ru6i trau eli 11m Ilia (1 tfai cua MUCrn" Thai D' d- kh: '

I, h ' fo' ,an a at

[lac I eo huang do Du moe mac nlu ...... g no' d- kh~ d' h ' h

_ " ... ,'".' " Ull " ,a '. ang In tm

van hoa fat cao, ' ,

"Vi~1 Na~11, each day hang V~lI1 nam, dJ la que huonc cua l1~hc Irong lua mroc. Trong kho tang than thoai, chune taL thav hinh I,U(!ng bi\. me hia co mat ('r nhi0u, t(k nguo-i, I~ ng'-h,'\',; .,

I ' , ;0 " " .... ," • e nle

ua \'(1 huyen thoai ve Iwt hia Ih;111 11'1'1 nen I)h6bien kl ." .:

C' " I I' " " ,>", ',ldP nor. .ac <Ill 1 lUllg ve truyen thuyct va SU thi cuna 111l1tmg ," ,"

, , t" ' -: , . L... 2.dl1 \ (11

vice C I tun 2.1011£ lua vc cho nhan '1:11'1 VU'I Huns I'd'- A .'

" ' ,'- _'- ,"....,' g uav an cay

IU(1, Dam San cia 1011 [rtf! IflY 111\)( gi6ng dum: 1111"1·('1 1'/ .:

]' " h , ',' , ,(an SlIY,lOIl

am til, lnJ'dl1g, Onu Ndu eta mall" thoc ttl' am phu 1'1 . "

Xrc '~1"'''' t-' en C io IH~lWI

rc va. I~I ~I .. > <-

e6 t h0 mii. khon g C<1 mnt boat don g V'-111, hoa 11a' ') '1;'" I' h

, ' '. ',,'"" • .'. '"" .v r ." ({ C C 11Il

pbYl, 11.1 Ilh~cn 111:1 khong dU(,1C de dan tsw nh~1l th,lre bal1g than-

Ih(1(;lI, Thu.in (lLl'l1lH! vat nuoi (':IV 1n'\0(> I~ n h' t'

J, • ~ ,'-,' , " - t-' d 1 n (I, (ao mlt(1ng

l(:l Il~h,~, tl~l! ('l;ll~ gta, elmhY'ollg dll1f xa langgi&ng.v.v .. , ,

d~u I~\.lk tal \'o.~,}n, ~ua 1h~n Ihcx,l,i. Tr~n con dlfang chinh phlJc II;! ~lllH.:n ~I ong x,a hi/I nguyen thuy, than thoai vira la su.nzoi ca nhirnj, th,anh qua lao dong vua, la don!:!. hrc thoi th ic h'-'<' 'k!' ,

" , . ~ . ... , uc n irng tat

Y91~g vtr~fJ1 tor k~:am phri I~~p IV nhien. Than thoai vjra truyen dat n~:rn~,' kinh nghiem thirc tH~11 vira co doi canh cua trf tU,<'m,g, t"1'1 .

g ,.. , " ' " uyl1g

.... lUP conng.u~1 tin vao,kha nang cua mlnh trong wang lai. '"

. . Tn~ng. .n91 dU_I1g. A~ua. ~han ,tho'.li, ta con th£{y phan anh nhiing cuoc duu tranh xa h91 gnra cac thi t(k, b¢ lac, va lien rninh bA lac th' \' '-, . In 0

~ c;. uong., a _glua e?ng (~~l1g v~l 16 nay voi c¢ng d6ng vat t6

~~a.~. ,SO?g nh~~g c.u<{C eh?cn tra~~l do, thu~g duqe de the'lo'.li

sau, no I1h~ s~, thl: truY~Pthuyet,.truY~11 GO tich (than ky) ti€ th,utha.nh cot 10: eua m~nh. Nhirrrg truy~n thuyet xoay quanh Tan ~H~n,truy8n t"huy~t Thanh D6ng,str. thi ChucneHan (Khmu), Dam San CEde) thtremg co mot c61 loi than thoa ':" tr

d' Chf dA' ,. ." 1 IOlIg

~. ",u e. na: chung lOI danh gim thieu a nhilng chuangsall v~

cae the loai do. ' ' "

*

* *

44

Dua mdt kho tang than thoai phong phii cua 54 dan tQc vao mQt chuong trinh cua giao trinh la mQt dieu va cung kho khan. Bang each di~m tren nhfmg nQidung chinh, chung tOi chi gidi thieu mdt each cd ban ve than thoai Vi~t Nam rna thai.

TAl Ll$V THAM KHAO CHiNH

1- VB Quang Nhon: Vauhoc dan gian cac dan tQc it ngiroi d Vi~t Nam. Nha xuat>ban Dai hoc va Trung hQC chuyen nghiep Ha NQi - 1983.

2- Dinh Gia Khanh, Chu Xuan Dien: Van h9C dan gum.

T~p I va t~p II. Nha xuat ban Dai hoc va Trung hoc chuyen nghiep, Ha NQi - 1973.

3- Nguy~n D6ng CIll: Luoc khao thdn thoai Vi~t Nam, Nha xuat ban Van, SiL. Dia, Ha NQi .. 1956.

4- Sb Van ha thong tin'Vinh'Phu. Truyen thuytt HiJ.ng

VlIdng.

5- De adt ae nude, Nha xuat ban Iilioa hoc Xii hi}i Ha

NQi 1988.

6- Dam Xiin.Nxb Khoa hQC xs hQi, Ha NQi1988.

7- D~ng Nghiem Van, Cam 'I'rong, Kha Tien, Tong Kim An. Tti li4u nghien cztu vt#ch sa va. xii h9i czla ngztdi Thai. Nxb Rhoa hoc va xs hQi. Ha NQi.

8- D~ng Nghiem Van, Nguy~n True Blnh.Nguy~n Viin

Huy, Thanh Thien: Nhftngnh6m dantgc tuc nga hq Nam,AlJ Tay Bdc Viqt Nam, Nha xuat ban Khoa hoc Xa hQi, Ha,NQi 1987.

9- Cam Trong, Mdy vdn ai co ban vi kinh te; xah9i

ngztdi Thai Tay Bdc- Vi~t Nam. Nha xuat ban Khoa hQcxa hQi, Ha NQi, 1987.

10- Truyin. c6Tay Nguyen, Nxb Vanhoa. Ha NQi. 1961 11- Vu NgQc Kh£mh, Ph~m Minh Thao, Nguy~n Thi Hue. Kho tang than thor;r,i Vi~t Nam. Nxb Van hoa Thong tin

1995

45

. T~UrE.N THUYET

I. BAN C1Wn-IE LOA! VA p A ~

A' HAN LO~ TRINb~

DAN GIAN V$' NAM.

Trong khoa n hi A ,

thA' .". glen cuu van hoc da ' ,

.? gun Vl?C coi .truyen .thu . et lao A n pan ,0 ~hi~u nuac tren

thanh truyen thong khong Yh;' b' mot the loai rieng biet dii .t..,;,,'. & sa t h I -' . P at an Juan nhi AN' ' ,.. ...

. '. , .. ran uan ~e noi h' ' :. ~ leu.tu co chan r

,tung thi phap coo n6·m"I~:·ngo~1 dien cu. khai niem va ~;t phai bi~n giai them. . oi. Nhung " nu&c ta vfn de nay c~

,Glao sa Ngu,y~nD6 Ch'

t(C~Vi¢1 Nam" cho rAn~~Tr~i"'g!11i I.Ma':khola~g.truyen ~d

~l\!II'g,c.a" ehny'~n cii, nhirn Y Q !~uY~1 thu1mg dung d~ chi ~)1u~g t,;"yen lai nhung kMnggd~" ~~c l:eh su COn· dl1l!c quan c.9!-~.tI!-J.xenr9ng rna sai lac. ciin am. ~ aOh ~ve mat chinh xac (co .the

.quan cluing huh " tr: g CO t e do su tu"

tIl . . < P U 9a theu del ma c .' ang nrong cua

. . < \lye! ph~n..nh.i~u chua duocxa a cang ~aI lac hon. Va tru ~n

:~ ,9h'1"g mau chuyen. N€~ no Yh~t'n~ .than~ truyen. N 6 moi ~hi

uXJ~eo n(>idung. n6 co.'. the trb~h' htne.,n ~61 rmrc hoan c.'hinh thl xet ~e n~h~. thuat va y nghia ~l h~~· c~ hC~ ",hay than. thoai, Con

~P)"; ,tl'rn, ~ay ~uy6n tlIuy€1 Vie:nNloan ~lOng cd t Ich h~ Y thAn

.. ~gm_khl ,V! c6 tfch nhieu hC1nh-- a~ tim duqc con. rat it oi

.~~ IAn vao t6 fich vacoi t An thoai. Vl vay khi SItU' ; \i!lii(ltrlli'Jll.g daih a COl nhir truyen c6 rich" ,I) T IAmt~1 1970 ~ ,1?C sU'phamxuat b' , - . . rong giao

co dua truven thuyet ,. a~ tu nam 1961 den n-

dAhgian nhun (, d- vaccc cau cac the loai - . am 1M' . h l g~' ~tMn canhthan th .(2)' . van hoc »s an hung dAn tOe trong loai h' ~~' . 0 sach "Truyt!ll

. . ' III til sll dan gian Viet

(1) N .

... guyen DOng Chi' Kh '

:oa;;~h~t;.~~~Z~y~:i~~;~:i~g(i~r;nth~65;i~:n~if~ :,;~. NXIl

" a N91, 1979 (Tap I phanI) n..; an boc dan gian, NXR Giao

46

w\

~(ln1" (I) co ba bili nghien cuu truyen thuyel nhu ta th~ 10~1 rieng'bi~t.

T4y - cac h ,~p x€p truyen th uy€t tr"ng h¢ I hong eac th~

loai van noc dan gianc6 khat nhau n~~llg xac dinh ban eh~t 1h,2'o.icua truyen Ihuy~t thlchung ta c61ht tim th5y tieng I n6i luang d6ng gitta cac nna khoah9c. ,Noi chung: cac nha khoa hoc Vi~t N am khi nghien cUu truyen thuyet bao gio .

cungd~t no trong m6i quan h~ vai than tho~i va c6 tich.

ang Tam Vu khi nghi~n ecru "Trr ttffmpchu y€u cua ngrrm

Vi~J!lhitic6 qua nhimg truy¢n dimg diu trong thiin thOl!FviJ ,ruyen 'huytt" c6 nMn xet:' xii h¢i cong x. nguyen thuy Ian fa thl trtiy~n thuyet trd nen th~nh so vcri thftn tho~i. Truy~n thuyet n~ng v<\ M tai v~ lich sit noon. ,hiln· tho~ -.n~. pb'" vl""'~ tll{u !ranh trong xii hgi g~y M!lili" ~~I"~~ru~cn!'c<", ngu<ri philn khac vi dan s6,c6ng c\lvatri:thUcd.i.'l1attii~rlkha'd€nmUc doi vlll 'jh\ennhiert con ttgwn i'r "hiM d\l!1e'bi\<y V~i BA ~ gili ... ngU1ri

anI>. hung hay nhlin dan, anh \lUng. Mqc ·Ihu~n hoa trong tniy6n Ihuy€t .: Truy~n thai'm!! tha1mgkhOnggilm di nhatrong thiln tho~i .nia ngay cang phuc toW hon. M*t \cMc. vl nhiri' 'thtitig tfl 1~1mg tuqng trong truySn thuy~t ding khOng bay b6ng b~ng rrong Ihitn thoai. cang ,~ sau: thitn .trong truy~n Ihuy6t can~ khong da<!c ph6ngkhoang ,6 I~ oh~ thiln trong thitn l\lo~j/c6 If vlanh haCmg Y thuc h~ giai cdp boc H}t,,(2). . ... . . . ...

. .. cOng trong sach niiy OngP\Wl Tran q) bOi ''Tinh tlilin #U

. t.od qua cac ~n t1iuy~tljcb.~it ., (j.d~I\ngPhan Trftn dii,n2u

I~ndinh ngbi'a v~ truyllntli\lytt\thu;sau:' .~yl1ntliuytt ill nhilng truy~n truy~n tl)Ilg trong dan gian ,~\thi'mg 51!' vi~va \than vat 00 lien quan d~n ljch sit. Nhftng nhsn v~t va 511 vi~ do t1irtiJng'dIlQc pb3n anh qua trl tuisng w<!ng eua con ngUin • qua

(Il vien.van hoc. Truyln thong anh hung (TOng }ol;li hinh W s~rdan gian, NXB Khoa hoc xs hoi, Ha N~i 1971,

,2) Tam Vu, Tlf tlfdng chll ycil ella nglfai Vi¢t thai c6q.U8

nhJ1ng(,"y~n dlfng d'u Irong (Mn (bo,! va Iruy';n (huyU·. sa" d.

diin. tr. 102

SI! hu cau cua nhan dftn",(I)

'. Pho g iao SU D6 Binh Tri khi cha bu ,'. '

cua giao trinh van hoc dan i." T ,P ut ~han truyen thuyet

N¢i cling neu ra dinh' nghia: ,,~;u ~lIang I?~I~ h9C Su pharn Ha dfnh_lfu ,den lich sfr rna lai c6su k7 d~e~~y~t }a n~ii'ng truy¢n, co _ hoac la nhimg tru en tuan' y " ,1a ll~h str hoang duang sfr" (~) ye g nrong It nhieu gan voi sir thirc lich

Thea chung t~i nghi viet mot .' h k '

thuyet la bai bao cua eng Ki~ Th' cHac ha co.pg phu v~ truyen

d. h - . : U u oach, O dA ~ d~'

r~ ~~ nshw va SI! phan loai d~ diroc ch! . .« Y . np - a ne~. la mot the tai truyen ke truye .~' ~ p nhan , Tr~yen thuyet

dan gian. N(>i dung c6t tru enn ~~yng.nam tron,g loaihinh nr str lich Slt hoac giai thich ca hY' l~l. truyen tfch cac nhan vat

• . . . ae pong vatdia ph h .

cu~ nhAri, dA?. Bien 'pMp nghe th~fU' h~.' u~~, t eo quan diem

phong d~l dong thai n6 ciln sir.dun p 0_ bIen ,fa khoa tnrong, ky nhu cel tfch va than thoai g N' kha g ~ht;ng}~t! 16 hu ao thiln phan anh sung d~t .giadlnh· :. '. °h .. ~., c.c:~ hC~ a. c~6kh~ng nham

,? .' . , ,sm noat xa h61' 6 h '

~a ph~nanh nhfrng van.de.thutk· :hb ....... '. v~ s, . p anca nhan

Ian. No khacthan thoai O'ich5' hP, _ VI qu6<:. gra, dan t¢c rong

casa s'1!h~~ licbsti. qtthe .. ~h6- ~~~' nan ,tll nh,len va. xii ~¢i tren utqn~vabiing tri.nrongnrcng'' (3). g hoan .toan trong In nrong

kien :Satl day cua c6 th·. 6'n" ..

kh?~g nham dinh llghlatru ~. uhtlt, g Pham Van D6ng tuy

nhieu cho cac nha nghien } n.' : uyet nhung da giup Ich rat

h ' ? C\t'l van hoc da '

c at the loai cua n6. Trang. nhan '. n gran xac dinh ban

• , / au xet Qlla el1U th' ,

sir v~ tfnh n~M .thuat, y. nghia' tu tuCm vi ., u-tuong.tfnh lich

tr~ye~ thuyet, d~u duge khai quMidA Ju.II t;Ul_ 1.q tha~ my cua dan gran thucng c6 m~t- cai: 16i l' Y ha ~hl1ng ltuy~n thuyet qua nhieu the h¢ dii ly 'tuang hoa a ~~ t ~ ~t 1!~h s~ rna nhan d!in

. : gin gam vao do tam tinh thiet

<I)

, ." .• Phan Trftn: Tinh thin dan I

sl1,s~~h dadan, tr. 141 , {1e qua cae truye'n thuyer lieh

, V,1n hge dan gian NXB .,

phan!, tr. 73. . glao dl;1c Ha N¢i - 1970. Ta. 1

, " .' "Trtlye'n thrIng anh hi} d. ' . p

gl:1I1 Vl~1 Nilm" NXB khoa hoc :fhO.§nl~~e ll:~ng lO{li hlnh tIf s1/ dAn

48 ' ,1,laN91-1971,1r.176.

tha cua mlnh cung voi tho va mong, chap d6i canh ella sue luang.' nrong va nghe thuat dan gian lam nen tac ph~rn van hoa rna om:

dai con chau ua thich" II)

Di~m qua Y kien ella cac nha nghien ctru chuyeu ho~c

khong chuyen v~ van h9C dan gian cluing ta thay n6i len may net sau day v~ ban chat th~ loai cua truyen thuyet:

~ Truyen thuyet ra dCri sau than thoai nhirng vfin co nhiing.

yeu t6 song triing v6'i than thoai. . ... ,

_ Truyen thuyet !Va truyen e6 tfch co nhirng net gAn g:Ut~

_ Net rieng biet cira truyen thuyet 18 ben trong cai vOtlUlO, ky ham chua nhi'ingyeu to gan v6i lich sir dan t¢c thai kyl d.vng niroc va giii' nUGe.· .",28";1;

Tir d6 cluing ta co lh~ thong nhat v6'i nhaudinhnghi:~l'(6. truyen thuyet, nhu sau: Truyen thuyer III m911he' Iosi troa~lo# hinh tu su dangianphgn anh nhiing sukien. nhdn V(}tl!~h.(Wi

danh nhdn vdnhod hay nhdn vdt ton giao thong qua'Slihu cdu ngh¢ thuatthdn kY.! r '1;. i,

V~n d~ pbanloai truyen thuyetVi¢t Nam tir truac d~mmtY it duoc ban den. Tronggiao trlnh nay chang toi tam chiaitru,&l

thuyet thanh 3 loai: ;i (" 0

Truyen thuyet lich suo ;i .

Truyen thuyet anh hung. '~;!;~>

Truyen thuyet ve cac danh nhan van hoa. ,., ,j

Truyen~huyet vecac nhanv~t ton giao, ..'~!{5'.

N<?idung cua b6nlo~i truy~nthuyet do duqc trien~~~l{:ri

su phan tich cac ti~u muc cua ph~n tiep theo. .

. "

A ?,' ~ . ",n·'i,;l; ..

II. NOI DUNG PHAN ANH eUA TRUYEN THUYET~I

•. • .' .' . '.>.:;,' .: .....•... , .. C'.,';

1. H¢ truyen thuyet ve thm ky cac vua Himg;~.t.mg

mrac da ftn chim duai 16'p than tho~i day d~c ..'

Lau nay h~thong truyen thuyet nay duqc nghien cU'u nhula nhii'ng tac ph~m thffn tho~i. Di~u d6 cung co ly do euan6.

Nhung tu sau khi cae nha khao e6 hoc, d:ln toc hoc, e6 suhoc ...

.. ... .- :.,'. - .- .

,i) Plu:tm Van Dong: Nh<in llgay gi6 ttl Vua Hting. Bao nhlIn dfln ngay 29/4/1969.

49

~g rninh dugc rang cac Vua Hung va mroc Van Lang la th~<thl viec stru tam vanghien ctru van hoc dan gian.lien quan. <;\6'0. thOi ky dung nuvc ciing da: d6i thay. Thanh tl!U dang ghi nh~: la 'cac nhavan h9C dan gian tren da:-t t6 da: cho dn hanh va

b6',sUllg nhieu lfinl~p "Ituyen thuy~lHung Vwng,tIl. "

Dieu khi€n chung ta hru tarn la dia ban phan b6 cac truytn ·tJ1uy€t thai Hung Vuong gan: nhu tuangxang v6i cac di chi khao c6 h9C. Chang han vung trung tam cua truyen thuyet Hung Vuong la nga ba song Bach Hac va cac vung phu can. D6 ciing chfnh la dia ban rna giei khao c6 hoc dii phat hien nhieu di chi qaan. trong .thuoe thaiky d6 da m6i va thai ky d6 dong tirong irng v6i thoi dai Hung Vuong. Nhir vay la truyenthuyet va lich .sUlu6h luOn di song d6i v6i nhau,thuy€t minh cho nhau.

~ncl;lnh nhtrng di chi khao cO, nhimgtfn n:guang dan gian Ph9ri.gt~c, l~ h¢i dan gianciing di s6ng d6iv6i truyen thuyet, Ch~~ h'.!n C6t TrungDl;li.Vuang:}am(>tvj .tuoogc6 cong danh gi~cAn vao tbOi Hung Vuong thu VI, nay i1 xii Me Linh con c6

·ct'-tA&.Khib!gi~c du6i 6ng quay lai nM'chon da to bang chiec ·~,nem~o qUdn· gi~c; d~1]. nay. vdn 'con' dau rig6n tay cua ong tren\da. Va hiu nhu in6i truyen thuy€t deu gan v6i mot den tho, m¢t tuc hem nao do i1 dia phtrong» Nhu vay, v6i 200 truyen thuy~t dugc ghi cheptren vung 4a:-U6,chungta phan nao yen Him v6i viec nghien cUu the loai nay. Do 13 truyen thuyet ve Lac

,~pngQudn - AuCo thuy t6 cuadan t(>c, thu Iinh dtiu tien cua 18 d~l1~ng Vrrong Di~u chiing taquan.tam laAu Co.khong phai con long nu, H6 Dorig Dlnh nhu cac soan gia "Linh nam chich qt!ai"",~hich6p. TheqlOi ke cuanMn ddn vung da:-t t6 thi Au Co Ia J6 'gai hai dd~ ken bili cat s6ng Da (2) • Chi ti~t nay g6p pMn Q?c; R?1. di .16p van hQa Han truJ.111~n van. hoa Vi~t trong thOi ky hac thul}c.

(}), Truyen thuytft HUng VlfOilg.Ch.i h¢i van ngh¢ dan gian Vinh Phil xu~t Mn 1974. (in Iltn tM 3 c6 sUa chua, b6 sung).

(2) Nhiing tu li¢u tren day d6u trlch trong "Troyen thuycl Hung Vl1011g" (sacb di'i. dan).

, . cJ, A " "Thanh Phong

", vuong chon dIU d6ng (J, ,. B' H6'

J.ruy~n 'Hung, _,,' inh chUng cho cau not ac" . .

Ch~ ""Con voi bill nghza ... m , ~." Nhltng truy~n Vua

"r:;i~ ;¥i!a ljungd~ c~ ~~nlf.v~V:~~:;(;;;'6~g ke era l!a If, ~~u~

Hi,'lnf!, d.f1Y dan fay l~~ 'kh' . h' h tuan.g Vua Hung tu ngum co

""'p .. ~, - ,. h- trien al m. .. ., dan

Hitl14t;11; .. san ~ an:, ',. '~t cach tri ncoc. g~up "

c6ngdWlg nU(1C d~n ~gucn bi ~n thuy~t con khac hQ~ h,l~h tuptg

"0, A n canh Vua Hung,truy L" co' hieu c6 tal nghl ra

• 0"'.' ,. D' r Lang leu ,

c~c C()~ trai, con gal. '~', a da rna mai den ngay nay khong

cach 'i~m banh C?un~, banh a~hfch. D6 1a Tien Dung c~n Vu~

" aen dan Vi~t nao 1a khong ua "ai danh cho chang trai

ng , . .. ,., an rung d6ng va rn 'hung'

Hungnhung tr~l am v , Mi NU<1ng 1a ngoc canh vang n" .

d~nhca ho Chu. C6ng ch~a '~ trai v~ noi ruii Tan. De,da.p 1~1

A vang lenh vua cha the,o chang , fnh yeu trong trang c~a

v(.I.n,.,: '11' Hung .vuong va L .g.' 'on

"conmat tinh ,den .cua_ , dan khOng Chl1a re hien n;a c.. .

Nu<mg Tan Vien da)tung, . t; " ti h "nam niun bao oan

My', . r; kh6ngchidanh,lm:thuy.m d' hTh. ucr6isau

la tu6ng glOl,,, ., Hung Vuang an . ; I

»»: om oanh ghen rna cop grup ; h Thuc Phan de· hal- b6 con

UUl 'huem.g ng61 co. e » T' , (1)

d6 khuyen Vua Hu~~ n von bilt diet tren dinh nu~. a~ €~

, . s6ng cuoc dC1J. bilt .. ' ,. ~'" 'vuang din phal n61 d

cung / ., gioi then Hung, nhan v~t 1 Trong ~6 cae ~U(ffig, . D6n ,1(J.) • Trong hll:h ,tu~g i, Me, 11 I

"NgI1Oz anh hung lang., g€ t6th'lin tho at va su thl" d~

&1 thuy~t nay co nhleU ,y u b'~,,'t n6t 'bi6,t,eUen r6~ s~,u ~

:r be sinh ra dli ba naT ~a kh6~g ltlt nghi d€n chu be Ihax.i~

'bfing hoa thanh diing~ SI khl~~. c[~:~h6ng chi ng6i~en m¢~~c~n Mur6m trong trang SI c~ N.g Nh?1 phep than thong cua d~o Y dA.

- a tm 30 nam. " d' lai duoc. va sau 't'

trong 3 nam m uen hat rong ma chang ,1 . T ~ffil nguy cho

mlnh tront; ba ng ,'?' d' h tan qua.n Tac - a, . ?

tnJ thanh dung S1 tai gIOl,. an . tang D6ng v6n la con cua

thanh bang Kiep. ~on cha~g t:alvi thtln kh6ng 16 sinh ra sam

. en dan ba X.au X.l que mua va . , b

ngU ..' ',' or "Troy 11

. " 'thu !t HUng Vlf(II1g, _

. 11) Xe~ui J~u, ;::;~ v~~ l~~~n da~ua ~~e(~a~~\J;am

thuy!t San Tinh, Y. _~t:)i t~l huy¢n Taro

crng Dai hoc T6ng hqp. ',~ , h . . Ha Nii _

tnt ' . :. bai viet nl\y ph.':l tr",c . • NXBKhoa hoc Xii. ht)1,

1970 do lAc gla ., 'b Cao Huy DlIlh, .

111 Ten m¢t cutin sac 51

1969.

Ii I

,

, I

chirp (ong D0ng). Khi nghe su gia nha' vua goi ngiroi tai ra dcp gi~c ciru nU6c thl em be lang 'Dong cat len tierig noi dau tien, Em be vung day Won vai trb thanh dung sy. X6m lang phai gop g<;lo, gop ca cho Dong an. Nhirng eng thq ren phai xe mii lay silt v~ ren ngua, ao giap, roi sat cho Dong di danh giac. Va sau khi chien thang Dong khong lrb ve bao cong v6i cac Vua Hung rna len dinh mii Soc, bay rhang ve troi. Hinh nrong nguCri anh hung lang Dong 11'1 sir ket tinh va st,r phat trien tit ngtroi anh hung b¢ lac, thLt¢-c thanh nguOi anh hung dan toe. Hinh tuqng d6 dff duoc ghi trong cac thanh tich, d~t trong cac den tho va s6ng d(mg trong cac Ie h¢i dan gian "Ai oi m6ng chin thang nr, khong di hl)i Dong cling hu mot doi". Va m6i khi dat mroc c6 gi~c ngoai xam thl hlnh tuong ngum anh h~ng lang Dong Iai dtroc

. khoi goi d~ khfch l¢ tinh than quyet chien quyet thang: .

Ta nhu thuo xua than Phu D6ng Vut dtrng len danh du6i gi~c An Sue nhan dan khoe nhu ngira sat Chi cam thu ren thep lamroi Lira chien dau ta phun van mat Ui sat nhan ban ruroc hai noi.

(T6 Hiru)

2. Nhirng truyen thuyet vt An DUmIg' V'l1mIg - Am -vangcuoi cung cua ban hung ca dirng mroc va man rna diiu cua t~n hi kich mroc. m~t nha. tan

a) Khong th~ khongkh~ng dinh.vai trolich sit cua Thuc Phan An DUO'11g VUO'11g trong.viecdoi q6til mii By CUO'11g cua vimg

Trung Du-\{~ d6ng bang song Hong va xay thanh a lang Ga xua.

Chi tiet ban ngay quan linh An Duong VUO'11g vay thanh hlnh tron 6c va ban dem bi tinh con ga trang lam d6, phan anh cuoc dau tranh ac li~t gifra luc luong ella An DUO'11g VUO'11g til mien mii vci dan ban dia (c6 Ie 1.1 b¢ lac tho ga lam vat t6 ). Viec than !'lw. hay. cach cho An DUO'ng Vt.wng xay thanh c6 Ie d6 1.1. sl! h6

52

tro ella luc lirong trong bg lac eli cua An Duong Vuong (e91~c nay tho riia lam v~t t6). Cu6i cimg lire luqngA cua An Duoyg Vuong da chien thang, thanh diroc xay xong. Ong Tran,1bap~ Mai du nhan xet v~ c6ng cuoc xay thanh C6.Loa cua t\n Dll'~g Vuong nlur sau: "Vice An Duong Vuong xay thanhCol...{)aB9i len su t~p trung nhan dan dong dan tren 11191 dja han m6'1 t~f'1? noi len sU 6n£ ba ella chuns la sau khi du di dan Irai qua nfiieu aoi da chon dUCfC dia ban ~h[\U Ill() song H()ng Ha - TMIBlnh 111a dinh cu lau, m~ an cu lap nghi¢p tai do, '-me'" dau ChOr191 ClI(K 's6ng thai biuh lau dai .. S~r vice co that ma truY,¢n .S6tfch ph~ln anh ay la st! viec nay: I~l dan l(lC Vi¢t Nam dinh 511 t~M!MP VI!C H6ng Ha - Thai Blnh. Thyc Phan Ia anh hung dan.'~G.~ .• ;.reu quai la nhllng kh? khan ttr9ng ~ru~g cho nhiing phA~'~~lg~\n dgng mu6n duy triquan h¢ san xuft eu,ch6ng lai ~.~·~~r,~~~iW xuat moi. D6 co the la, nhiingten IU trtrang m<,lnh.cu~.Shfg~,~R lac mudn bam eh~l Iffy quy~n loi cua chung tren e(1sg:~41.'r~~m, s~n b~n va danh cuop Uit~ nhauch~~gl<,li qHaI1 h¢,s~R.f:~~~ID,~i lu,c ~ay gia dua tren ,co ~o chan ~U~l va t~6ng,> tr9t.c;ll~~l~.l~~e de cua diu chuyen nay la ca ngql cong due cua nhungJi1~lfOl.:§:~ c6 anh huang 16n , trong cong cuoc dinh cu dan tQe'f~¢~,.l¥i binh.thinh tri va phat tri6n ella dan t¢c bang each' dien hll}.pn?~, than th~nh hoa cae, cong due a'y de ghi nh¢ doi dm"lo (!rttlj~n 'dinh tren day clla6ng Tran Thanh Mai c6 phlln naohoiJlihf~I,l;g ~6 xa h¢i hoc, nhtmg theo cluing toi nghi no co CO sbkh,o~.h9~ nhat dinh, Cong due cua ~ An DUC1ng Vuong ~t!CJc nhan~,~b,~;~6 Loa ghi nho qua can truyen ngon "Chef thi bd con boChtiJt,';,~flg khongbo ngaymdng Salt thdng gieng''1(2) va qua tuc nroc vua ~~n,~(3)

(I) Trlln Thanh Mai; Tim Julu va phsn tfch tniyen cd Vi¢t Natrl.lf~p 1, NXB S6ng~, mi'N()i 1955.

(2~ Ngay 6 thang gieng la ngay An Dtrong Vuong nhap dien.

-.r~.5I!tfch Nrii 51ii va N rutt- Vua song. Tu li¢u (tien da ciia sinh vietl Khoa Ngu van TruOng d~ hQC T6ng hqp-Ha N()i, ~ huy~n OOng Anh niUn 1975. Ph~ Ha chinh Iy, in trong sach:''Vilng ven s6ng Nhf'. NXB m. N<)i 1979, tr. 25-29

53

.j"r~"yTron~ h¢ th6ng truyen .thuyet vt thoi An Du .. ,.. . '

l~~~~Th~n ,~ao ~6 chera no Lien CMu m6' " ~g V. ,

,m~!iiten va tieu d~et diroc nhieu A ,_ 1 l~n ban •• Q>.u:.,lll

.tfi.~t;l.nay rna An Duong 'Vuoo diU? gl~C, ~hmh nhO: •. ?€npu¢c ttin cong khac cua frieu ~~. lUl~N c~¢c t(I) .... "",~ .. ,IIMt'C. ~lIWhm\ ve s~ tien b(i ky thuAI a. Ph ai ch.a.ng do I. s~ I?,JWng Vuongche lao ra miii . ·9uAn ~~ thm. !y khl m~ • .4 c~h9C d1i dao dugc tai cd L~:,en d6ng rna sau nay cac nha khat

, b) v OJ chien coria xay thanh Cil L • ..' "','

Puc:ng VUO'ng 10' la crnh giac. Tron l:a v~ ch,e tao ~o t~~n: ~n

r),;41t~em nhieu ~€ d¢c d,~, quyet ta~ t~lO ;n¢u ?a !1gay ding ~a'p~alcon trai ciiaminh la Tron'TIl ,,}l, tIp.~nuO'c Au L';1c,)' ~a~~t l~ cAu hon, ben ,.tiong 13: rg ~Yh sa~g Au Lac, ben ngoai R~gngVuoog~inh'xu~t, M ~ ,cac ?anh. trao no thlin, An

tl).,ay,c .. hitc no. thlin,. ,','lie ' .. da '·hY. h. ~u kh? dai. Trong Thuy d1i

V' '.', ,. , '. "'. ,... ,,(lng c a. Trieu Da tfu -6 ,.",~arg h~t kha nangphpng thu M" :. n~., An Duong

dW~X.thO' cu~ minh bang each nhdn Yn~Mu phai tea gia cho sl! .,M,Du<~g VUO'ng, nhan dan kh6~ no dlUO'm tn:~ng.~h';1; ~on TliaJ1, Kim Quy d1i re ntr6'c d' .lL' 6ng ch~t rna ke rang t~p" ~u6c m~t bat dAu tir do. ~h~n d?ng ~un~. r,a:n, hi kich nha

\~l,¢tlaxung quanh viec d' h .,' h inh ve tan bi kich nay, dac c~cJ1ha nghien cUuda traannhglla An An vat Trong Thuy, My' Chau

(re 'T'" .. uun trong mot thoi "

", ,JL}~~ chi Van hoc (ttl s6 12 -'1960d" C11 gran kha dai NliAn da t6ng k€t cuoc t - h' '1 ',.. .. ~n 9 - 1964), ang Phan

IfCh'd' . ran uan do va rut h

' •.•..•••. ~ .. "~ cau chuyen la nnarnCa' n .... ,. ra n ~n xet rang

lh. feh If do mlli nuoa Y hi ~9'I ky cong dung nutic, giEli

" ,ng 1a r6ng hen la I>'d " •

quan niem v~ tinh yeu thuy chu . I>' ' V(1n e canh giac,

ng, Van de chong chi€n tranh II (1)

': a>Phan Nh1n: u .. ' . ~ k' , ,. .

bi ' ,- ", ,w.ldY Y Jen ve vAll dlkh 'th" '.

fen lnJyen thuyei My CMu, Tron Th ,. llJ, a~ tnJy~n dAn gian va di

,'g lJ'j. f<;lp chl van hQc s6 9-1961.

54

3.«Tuy m~nh y€u co hie khac nhau, nhung hao kiet then' nao ding co» (hay ta: nhiing truyen thuy~t phan anh cC'lng CtlQc chi6n d~u ch6ng ngo';11 xam thong qua vi~c ca nggi nhandan anh hung), Ttr sau ~hi thanhCd Loa thtil thu, nuac Au u~,cdua An Dacmg VUO'ng roi vaotay TIi~u Da. Ngot 10 the ky daGl acn 06 h¢ cua.cac trieu d~iphong ki~n Trung Boa, nhan dan ta khong ngtrng n6i d~y chien d~u gianh lai d¢c l~p W do

cho dan t¢c,

I

a) Sl! phan khang cua nhan dan d6i vai bon phong kien xam IlHJC phu0ng Bac th~ hien s6'm nhtit III truy6n thuyet v6 than nui Tan Vien, than s6ng T6 Lich, than chinh khf Long'D6 d6i v6i Cao Bien, m¢t ten quan cai tIl kiem phu thuy dOi Duong.

Tn/Nn ,Mllll"i Tan vien c6 do~nftl"t sau "Khi Can Bienl rtha 'Dll?mgden a An Nam muOn yim nhung nO'i linh tl0h ben m6 b~ng ci>~ gai ~htta"h6ng''''~''''bi\y~6i.vUt ,u¢t di. nh6i co bAc vao bung, m~c aoquan r6i'iQ~rJ~nngait~ bangtiaubo, he thf(ycu o¢ng thlvung kiem'chem driu."Plrammu6n danh' lila cac

thrin. Mu phai ,dung phep,~hu~t d6:. Bi6n ..... d.em.·.lh~ .... ft ... t .,.,Q.6..dE .. t .i ... t!~· .. h~mh dann DatVUmtg nUl Tan Vlen·,thl chi thay VUO'ngcU

ngl,fa trang C1 tren mAy nh6 naac bot xu6ng rna bo di.Bie~ tha: rftng bnh khl bphuO'ng 'Nam khongth~ luang dugc. Oi di vU'i"\l khi dm nao b€t d uqc! S~ linh ling do hien 'hi~n ra nhu .~y

dol"( )

Trong truyen thuyet v~ thiln song To Lieh va Ih~n chl~b k~l Long D6 co chi tiet: "CaoBi~n dlnh dung ngh1n can sat duc nrong thea h1nh' dang th~n nhan d~ lam bua y~m nhung Y vira doc than chu thi b6ng trai Mt mu mit nhu dern t6i, mua gio gi~t d~ng dung, tugng sit nat v\1n ra ma'tung len khong, Bi~n sg ~ai

,., ~ h B" ,,(2)

muon ve p uemg ac '

(I) LlTlh NaI11 tlich quai, NXB Van hmi Ha Nl?i, 1960, tr, n (2) &tell d1l d[m, tr. 68,69 va 107 _ \08,

55

Nhu v~y tinh thanph~n khang chong ngoai xam cua ca dan H)c ta dii nhap vao khf thieng song nui, lam cho ke thu phai

khiep sq. -

b)Trai qua cacthOi ky lich ~u: nhieu vi anh hung dan t¢c dii drrng Ien-lanh dao nhan danchong ngoai xam. Ben canhsir sach, nhan dan cling dff kti chuyen ve cac nhan v~t va sl! Jd~n lichsir do.

- Ngay til d~u cong nguyen, Hai Ba Tnrng dii n6i d~y chong quan Dong Han, mo- dftu su nghiep ch6ng ngoai xam cua dan toe.

Hien nay nhan dan (chu yeu la.vUngVinh Phti cil) con hru truyen nhieu truyen thuyet ve Hai Ba Tnrng va cac vj tUemg cua hai ba (dac biet la cac nu tu6ng)(l) .. Dieu dang chii y la nhung truyen thuyet nay khong hoan roan gi6ng cac b¢ chfnh su thai phong kien. Chang han D{ii Vi¢lsukjtoJ,n tbu (NgQ Sy Lien) Vifl Szf th6ng giim cuongmuc (Qu6c .sir quan trieu Nguyen) ghi rang VI To Dinh giet Thi Sach nell Trung Trac moi n6i binh chong lai, Nlurng thea truyen thuyet.dan gian thi:

+ Cap trai tal gai s~c Thi Sach va .Tnrng Trac ket hon tnroc het la VI ho co chung y chi crru dan c~ mrqc. Cah<li d~u la. dong doi Hung Vuong, deutoan tinh khalngbia.

+ Thi Sach bi Tc; D!I:th_-giet,Tnrng. Trac khiri nghia O-.Hat Men v6i loi the:

Mot xin nra sach mroc thu

Hai xin dem lai nghiep xira h9. 1;-1 ung Ba keo oanirc long chong

B6n, xin ven ven sO- cong I~nh nay(2)

(1) Ttuyen thuyer Tnmg Vuong, (Nguyen Van Mao bien soan), Chi hoi van nghe Vinh PM xuat ban, 1975.

-Nti turing thr'ti Tnmg Vuong (Nguyen khac Xuong bien soan), NXB

Phl! nit, Hn. N6i - 1976 '

. (2) 7JlJ'r3~7 Nam 11gti iljc (khuyel danh) NXH Van hoa IH N<)L 1958

56

N hu vay, ba Tnrng da dat nhiem vu danh du6i gi~c ngo~i. xam len tnroc viec tra thu chong. N(! niroc co den xong Jhithi:l·; chong moi tra duoc. Ba Tnrng khong coi viec tra thu ch6nglam~ rnucdich cua cuoc khCti nghia, con vi~t danh du6i TOl)inhchi:,

, " - di h( 1) N .' 'th' hA 'df'{ o' h 't~,

la ket qua cua muc le·. ell. VI u C ong rna ay em U~;

lam sao dan chungcaruroc, cung irng, nghia,d<;tp bang 65 ~hanh, quet sach quan thu ra khoi ha coi?-. Nguyen nha!, cua eu(lC khffi nghia.la do to~mthe dan tgc Viet kh6ng chiu 116i sl! ~p buclJqc 19t cua bon phongkienngoai bangxam hroc, da·.noi d~YJbeo Tnrng Trac, Thi Sach, Tnrng Nhi khffi - nghia, Chfnh VI v~y rna; "b6n quan Giao Chi, Ciru Chan, Nhat Nam, Hop Ph6,cuug huong trng, quan di nhu gi6 lu6t". D6 la thuc te liehS-U. [)Qtl~ cuoc t6ng tien cong n6i day dau tientrong lich sir dan tQco. L.wi) tu cua nghia quan tronggiai d01;\ndau la Tnrng Trac, Thi .~chr

Tnrng Nhi; giai doan sau la TnmgTrdc, Tnrng Nhi (2.) ,

+ Ba Tnrng giet ToDinh.rthu 65 thanh; len ng6i vUfirm,m~ phat tang chong. Chl1 tuang va. qufin;.thAnhoi¥]sa~thid.'m~)!:

"Neu tnroc 10 quai hieu (de tang) thi nhu~khf binhsi se Qis\lif;;.~.,(0

+ Ma Vien sangdanh, Trung VuongkhoI:tg thua,·.N~,ij~ll-< phai giang hoa phan chia ranh giro Han - Tnmg, Hai ba'~l1'igay tinh hoa hi~u. Rui thay hai bil Tnrng nhiem b~nh,. nira dent:~ay v~ troi va trO'. thanh phiic tM~-Iammua ~thu~ gi6 hoa;.Haiba khong con, dan ta thieu nguOi earn dAu nen nuoc ta 11;\1 ilL nhli Han cai trio

R5 fang each k~ chuyen cuanhan dan mang mau sacthall ky cua than thoai, c6 tich va each danh gia nhan v~t Itch su, cijQ.g

(1) Tam Vu: Tu tlIdng eM yeu cua ngllOi Vi¢t thm cd qua. nhfirJgtruy¢n dUrJg diu trong thin thO{li va tn/y6n thuya. Tap chi van h9C s6 3 -1967> -'

- In lai trong sach: Truyiin thOng anh hUng dan tqc trong loai hinh tl/sl/

ddn giaii Vift N am. N xb Khoa hoc Xii hQi) 971. T ., , . . "0'.'

. (2) Vi¢t Dung: Toi dJ xic dinh eM de. l~ tI!cmg i-'~ l1~rw each ,I1han v~f {rong khi viet va kich Tnmg Vuong nhzr the nao. r~p chI van h9c s6 2-.1971

57

il) Vfi To H' B'1]' .

, ao: a n¢lI qlla mo: s6' tu Iieu vsn hoc dan gian l111 {1m r

Thanh Hoe. Tap chi van hoc sO I _ 1974. . suu u (1

, . ~inh ~ia ~anh: S~c ~6n~ ctis truye'n th6ng anh hring trong esc nbsn vat Uta =: than thoai \'{/ c6 ticli lich sIr Trong sach: T,"/Y", tl " I J •• . .' . u vr n lOng all'

1lI~,g (~ml~ = (rang loai hinh tu S~( ddn gian Vi¢t Nam. NXB Khoa hoc xs

hQI, Ha N~l~ - 1971, tr. 138. .

58

_ SI.! tich U~ L(Ji trong Lam San thl;fc luc '(Nguy~n Trai) la ml)t via'nhhung xuit chung, c6ng ddc bao trurn thien ha. Nhung tr~ye~ thuyet dan gian, l~,i keo on? ve. g~n gui yfti q~an c.hli.~g lao dong. Nhan dan ke rang co Ian ong rhua chay, sap bi ,gl~c Minh'b~t thl nha c6 su nhanh tri c~a hai vg ch6ng nguQi bat ca du(~rllQng rna ong th;)(11 nan. M~~ Ian kh,k ong ~r6n ;b bui cay rung" cho ciia gi~c Miph da~hh~l.dU~~c. Ngay, Inc do oa~ hO~ cuamat thieu riu bi gl~C Minh gl~t hl~n ra thanh con chon.de

• • • " A h' hKt (1)

d,h}h 1~chl.!6ng dan ch6 cua gJ~c va ciru ling t oat C e

H? th6ng truyen thuyet v~ Le Loi con ph6 bien 6 ngl1ai Mtrang, Thai (Thanh Hoa). nguai'Tay - Nung (Lang Scm).

Tm):en thuyet"Song chang, fling nang" ke ding. h6i diu

t~ii~ti~~ l~~~ y~Ci~~t~~U'~~~t if~iC~:~~i~~~~~i~~:l~~1

Ba Ml100g Ruang. Ngh~, tin kh~p np npall d~nddn,g le~ 9i~~: gi~c, giai ph6ng que hUong Ilan~ Ba ~ung .. ch~eu; t~p ,m¢td¢l qllAnMl.!ang dang l~nhubn.gan~ .• Khl.l:~.L21 keo,qu~. qu~

~~~!~:,:i~qnr:c. !~~i~~§:~\~~ti~~! ~iiJ;p~~j~ i~~

sac. De· ghi nh6 cu¢c ky ngQ duyen trC11 ay ngl1C11 dia phu~g g<1! k~UC son&,chb d61a song Ch~Y va MlIll)Ig ll.lIlmg cung do. ten Ip

nang Ba -

Truy6n thuyt! ·'S~ tich d6n th~ Don Ban va ten nui Pu ~~J: ~M v~ m6i quan h? gtlll b6 giua U. Loi va .nhan dan ThalC1 Muang Ky, xa Ky Tan - Huy~n Ba ThtrCle.d d6 c6 Don Ban (uic go Chang Ban), dinh d~n vua, tieng TI:ai la ,f.en ~ten pus r~ qua mii Ian Pu Ten (nui Den), Chang Ban 1a ngUC11 nong dan ~6t

I

(1) NguyenD6ng Chi: Kho tiing tnJy¢n cd ticb Vi¢t Nsm, NXB Khoa

hoc Xli hoi. Ha Nqi \973, T 3. tr,nO. . ,

. (2) "Sang tic d;1n gian vt5 U L(Ii vii kh6i nghiC!. LaIJ! Son" Sb Van hoa

Thong tin Thanh Hoa xuat ban 1985, trl14 - 115. '

59

bung. men mc) danh tieng Le Lei, sau d6 then Le L9'i di danh gi~e. Nguai dan ban Bo cling eong g~o, hai mang dern len nuoi nghia quan, Tir khi 'quan Le Lei rut di noi khac dan ban nh(J

he hanc B N I'" di: tho. 'hA·(l) "

ong, n 0' e ang an nen ap en la, mo yl ..

Trong t~p truyen "Ky tj'ch Chi Lang "n€u duqc bat di nhirng doan van mieu ta cua nguCti viet truyen, chiing ta urn thiiy trong d6 'c6 nhieu truyen thuyet dich thirc ve nhifng chien cong cua Le Loi va nghia quan Lam Son, tam long cua nhan dan Tay Nimg

"d6i voi vi anh hung dan t¢c qua viec d~t ten "Niii Mat Qui", "Den Cfrn" (2)

Qua mot s6 truyen thuyet vira dan ra tren day cluing ta c6 th~ buoc dau nhan xet rang,m5i nguCti a m¢t cirong vi khac nhau (Vua, nrong) c6 mot hoan canh khac nhau (khokhan, thuan lei) nhirng tilt c:i deu gi6ng nhau 0 ch5 he) la nhtrng ngiroi yeu mroc, thirong dan, cam thi) giac va quyet tam chien dilu de gianh lai d¢c l~p cho dan toe, Vi vay ho du<;rc sumen m¢ va huang rrrig cua nhan dan cac mien, cac dan t¢c khac nhau. Cac cau chuyen deu ket thiic a dinh cao chien thang. Neu c6 n6i su thiit bai hoac milt mat thi nhan dan giai thfch bangnguyen nhan khach quan va chuyen ho ve coi bilt tir, Nhieu truyen thuyetcon gan voi cac di tich vat chat hoac van hoa a diaphirong. Hauhet cac truyen thuyet khong dam dirong nhiem Vl! thay the chfnh si':r rna goi lai va danh gia lich si':r thea quan diem thirctien cua nhan dan.

4.«Viikhfpheblnhkh6ng thay thedu<;1c su phe binh bang vii khi » (Hay la: H¢ th6ng truyen thuyet phan anh cuoc diiu tranh giai cap qua· viec ca ngoi cac vi anh hung nong dan khoi nghia).

(1) Sing tic dan gian vl L13 L(!i va kh6i nghia Lam SUn, sach dii diln Ir,64-68.

(Z) Nguyen Truemg Thanh: Kj tfeh Chi Lang, NXB Thanh nien, Ha" N¢i, 1984

60

Sau khi t~lP hop luc luong quan cluing chien (Mu chong ngoai xarn thanh cong, bon phong kien th6ng tri tro lai (Em~p, boc I<)t nhan dan. VI vay nhieu cuoc khoi nghla lien tiep nara. Dac bier la van nhfrng Bam cu6i U dau Nguyen, thai k), suy rhoai cua ehc·dQ phong kien Viet: Nam, hang loat CU9c .khm nghia nang dan long tnJi 10 dat rna dinh cao la cuoc khCringhil:l cua ngiroi anh hung "ao vai cd dao" b ap Tay Scm .. Do lacO'si1 lam n~y sinh hang loat truyen thuyet anh hung ma nhan v:~t trung Him la cac vi lanh tu nang dan khOi nghia.

Qua cac truyen thuyet chung ta nhan 1'5 thuc trang xii h¢i v(1i e:t h6i canh lich str rona Ian: to thue nang ne, nan d(Si lien

. . '- . . ........ .

tiep dien ra khap noi.; Che d¢ phong kien vai nhirng t~pdoan

tan bao. clang hilp h6i. Dong dao dan ugheo va nongdanbi pha san, hru tan va bi dfiy tai buoc.duong cung, phai vung Jench6ng

lai trieu dinh. "

Cac truyen thuyet tlnrong tai hien hlnhtuqngng.~~;(inh hung nang dan khoi nghia dum hai khiacanh d~e sac:.·m~f)m~t. IH) tieu bieu cho nhirnguu diem va nhuoc di~m cua"qll~n?c.b6ng

" nhandan duOi thCti phong kien, mat khac ho mang"nhitngnretphi thtrang rna nhirng can nguai 'khac khong c6. Tiitca cae nh~nv*t a'y deu gi6ng nhau 0 ch8: sire khoe, tai tri, dung cam,..cO long trong nghia, up u m¢t chi cam thii sau sac d6i vaiched¢ phong: kien thoi nat. M6i nguiri tu mot canh ngo rieng dan dan!ho/da hi~u ro nguyen nhan cua 1119i n6ikh6 bat cong trong xi hoi. Dieu nay noi len rang, a ho neu chua coy tlurc giai cap vA~ll tranh giai cap ro rang thi cling la sg nhan tluic sau sac v~nhiJng mau thuan von eo cua che d<) phong ki~n: nguCti nghen vm.nguCti giau, nguci dan bi ap btrc voi vua quan. HQ d5. phan ung "l<:ti xa h¢i do va thirc hien su cong bang theo quan diem rieng cua minh: Nam Cuang philn phat lien b~c eho nguai gifra chq,chang Ua cu6'p eua nguai giau chia eho ngtrai ngheo ... Dinhcao eua chien c()ng Iu hq eta dung len dm vli khl ch6ng l~l tri~i{ dlnh. Keo Chat (tuc Hoang C6ng Chilt) eta xay thanh Xun Mlin (1giiia

61

lOng d{"lne. ban Thai Dien Bien. c6 th~ chua dUIl1!.1 van ho~'-c 3 v~n cai coi gia i~o va bi rrieu dinh phong kiennhiLd:~c~ coi la giac, 18. nghich lo<;\n(l) . Nguyen Hiru Cau scm khidl,tbinbit khl.,.i nghia da dap lai diu doi cua Pham Dinh Trong tU'(mg,tallfI phuccua chua Trinh rang: "Ngoc tang nhat diem xuatvi eN_Ii nh~p vjvUt1J1g"y muoh noi rangnguai anh hung d6 chico tlll'~,· lam chua h~~clam vuong chu khong chiu d,iuhang..Chi ti~tn~H mt?l m~f n6i len y chi chien da'u den cimg.nhung mat khac cfingiJ lh~ hien nhfin quanchinhtri con han che cua cac V! anh hung; nfmg dan khrri nghia tnroc khi tiep can v(1i tit nnrng ella giai cap congnhan. H9 chi nghiden vice thay ong vua nay hang ang vua khac chu chua ban gio nghi den viec thay d6i motche d¢. Tren la err kho-i nghia ho ciing chi rheu dtlq'c chii' vtrong; chii', deI1l~i thai. Ben canh do, trong de truyen thuye! nhan dan con .. gancho: nhan v~t anh hungnhitng di wong: nhirng phep thu~t huyen, b!~i chting han duoi aan ban chan ella C6 Bu co lone. trane, Hdu Tau; c6 06t llb trona '-vanh tai, ba vanh rang li611 m()tha~ .. Y) . Dua ra nhUng chi ti€t nay 1110t mat the hi~~ long kinh troua cua nhan dan doi ~v(Jicac vi ;nh hung 'm~t kh~cth~ hii?n S,! h~~ che trong the gim quan cua ho, Ph.Ang-ghen trungthu gUi Sotulenam 1885 ban v~ nhirng bai ca each mang pharr anh ca nhirng thien ki€n cua quan cluing hie b~y gia trong do co ca nhirng dieubay ba co tfnh chat ton giaO(3) . Tuy vay nhin lai he thong truyen thuy€t Viet Nam, nhirng truyen thuyet vt anh hung nong dan khi1i nzhia co e.ia tri noi dung ttl tui1ng cao hem ca. '

'- c....;.,.. L···. "'-

5 - Truyen thuyet vecac danh nhan van hoa, Ben canh

nhiing anh hung danh thii trong gi~e ngoai, dan t¢c ta cung dii san sinh nhtrng nguffi taigioi trong Iinhvirc van hoa - xli hoi. Truyen thuyet dan gian da danh che ho nhiing Uri ngoi ca xirng dang,

/

(1) Vo Quang Nhon: Vall hoc dsn gisn cae den t~1c If nguiri (1 Vi~'1 .

Nsm, NXB O;i)i hoc va TTUng hoc chuyen nghi¢p, 19~3. tl". 17!l - )79

(2) Nguyeu ~ng Chi" Kho tang l1uY¢l1 cd Ifch ~/i¢1 Nam" NXB Klloa hyc Xii hQi, lIa NQi, ~975, l<!.p III tr .. 70

(3) C.Ma(.;, Ph,AllggJlel1: Vii I'/lll h(H.: va llglJ¢ (hflat. NXB Sv thAt, Wt N¢i 1958, tl". 383.

62

Truyen thuyet veSl;Iki~n "ULqi .. vi quan, Nguyen.TOO vi. than", ye Nguyen Trai q Dong Quan, v6 diem gO' bao tnroc Nguyen 'f,raib! tru di tam toe ... noi len tam long cua nhan dan doi voi nha van hoa, chirih tri, quan sl! 16i lac cu~ dan t¢c.

Tru,y,~n thuyet "Dam,Ml!c".,(anggi nh~LgiaoChu van.An va cac h9C tro cua ong da het long v1 dan, 10 den tirng hat mira tren manh ruong cua nguoi nong dan"(l).

Truyenthuyet v~ Trang Bimgca.ngoi Phung Khac Khoan dii c6 cong xay cau a chua Thdy (Ha Tay), d?y dan lam vo, mang cac loai giong ngo, d~u a Trung Q~6c v~ gieo O'.n'uac ta(2).

Truyen thuyet "Ba pho nrong dong den va ngoi chua Ban V?C" cua ngiroi Thai Tay B~c(3J ke l<;li viec diic nrong vua ao den, vua Minh Muong la. nhung tu tnnmg eu cai quan vung dat bi chua Thaichiem, viecvua ao den cho xay chua Ban V<;1C (chau Yen), xay thap N1.ubng Xang(bau Moe) "Da>, Ia mot truyen thuyet lich su da du~ceac m?l1~ s9 dan .sian ~ai htr cau nhao nan it nhieu, trong d6ket hop reulen.h<lis'!lci~IL lich sir 100: mot.mat phan anh qua trlnh chiem dat, ciJ.!hg Muong, dung bo may thong tr! phong kiencua cac M\remg Thai c6 dai, mat khac danh dau 'vi~c du nhap dao phat tir vuong quoc Lao va dong bao Thai Tay B~C';(4).

6. Truyen thuyet ve cac nhan vat ton giao: Ngoai nhfrng 'truyen thuyet n6i v~ dric chuong, xay chua con c6 h~n mot 10<;1t cac truyen thuyet v~ nhan v~t ton giao, chu yeu la dao Phat. D6 Ht truyen thuyet v~. su Tir Dao Hanh di sang Tay Tnic hoc phap thu~td~ v~ tra th~ cho cha la Tir Vinh. Ket qua

(l) Nguyen Dong Chi: sach dii dan, t~p 1, tf. 284 ·287.

(2) Bui Duy Tan - Nguyen Ngoc Lien. Trang Billig, Phung KluJc Klioan. Ty Van hOlt thong tin m. Son B1nh xwit ban 1979.

(3) La Van Si ghi:Van ngh~ Son La sol - 1975,

(1) Vo Quang Nhon. va'/1 11(;)(' dli/1 gio/1 elle (hill fiji" if IIgl(/Ji J\fi¢t Na, NXB I:)H va THCN In N(>i, 19R3, If. ) R3,

63

64

Tu Dao Hanh dac dao va giet duqc sir Dai Dien. Nhtrng do "lay ~an d~ baomln" cho nen TuD~o H~nh sau khi dfiu thai thanh vua Ly Than Tong thi bong dung long la moe day minh, nanh vuet m9C ra nhir con c9P. Cucicimg sir Nguyen Minh Khong phai dung phep mau chua benh cho moi tro lai thanh nguoi, .

Truyen thuyet dan gian nay dira tren c6t 15i ve mot nhan vat co that trong lich sir Phat giao Vi~t Nam, nhirng nhan dan di dung nhtrng bien phap lur cau nghe thuat nhir dfiu thai, hoa kiep ... d~ lam cho cau chuyen them phanhap d~n.

III. MAY DAC TRUNG NGHE, THUAT CVA TRUYEN THUYET DANGIAN

1. Truyen thuyet dan gian dtroc xay dung tren co sa mot cot 15i lich sir va duoc chap them doi canh "tho va mong", nghia la su hu cau hoang duong. Yeu tohoang dirong trong triiyen thuyet rnang tinh chat thi vi, lam t~ng ve dep, sir oai hung cua nhan vat rna nhan dankfnh trong. Mat khac no con bi~u hien sq r()'i,r~f'?t1a)!~ rigugngdan gian thai nguyen thuy va su xam nh~p cua nhtrngyeu to ton giao sau nay (Phat,

D~o).

2. Neu nhu thai gian trong than thoai la buoi hong hoang,

khi troi dat chua phan chia, con ngiroi chua dong due, thai gian trong truyen c6 tich la thai qua khir phiern dinh "ngay xira ngay xua", thi thai gian trong truyen thuyet la thai gian quakhir - xac dinh. Truyen thuyet nao cling k~ ve chuyen da xay ra roi va vao mot thai ky lich sir nhat dinh nao do (Vao thai dai Hung Virong, each day khoang 4.000 nam, vao thOi An D~cmg Vuong each day tren 2.000 nam, vao thai Hai Ba Tnrng the ky tlur I, ba Trieu the ky thir III, Le Loi the ky thu XV ... ).

Tuy nhien that kho rna dean dinh khoang each gitrathoi gian sir kien va thoigian sang tao tac pharn.

3. Ke't cau ella truyen thuyet gan.giong'ket ca'u.cu(\ than thoai, e6 tich la ket cau true tuyen, khong eo d6ng hi~~:V3.· ~~~ quay tra lai .. S,! viec trong truyen thuyet khong da)'~t} chi tiet· nhir trong sir bien ,nien. Phan gioi thieu lai lich nhan' v~t va. ke} cue cuoc dai thirong dtrqc hir cau ky dieu: Dinh B~ Linh 13: eoilcua RafOi, Sa Tnrng mat m¢t cachd~t ngQtsau derl)9~.~ say va hon bay len trci lam phuc than, tao nen mlra,6u~n'gi6 hoa 'cho ha gioi. .. ,..

4. Truyen thuyel thironggan vai cac ditfel1v~tc~NtJg8" d6i, song, suoi ... ), .cac di tfch van hoa (den lho,tHap,:-c~ua .. i nrong ... ) cacphongwc va l~ hoi (h¢i Dong, h¢i l{i€pb(,\cJh~i" Lang, hoi Ch~a Thay). r., ., ~t-"

KET'LU~N

M. Gorki noi: van hoc dan gian bam satl!ch;sitlfii~'ttcci~1~ dQc dao: Nhan.xet d6hoan toan hop vmth~ lo~i truyti1.th~~t. Truyenthuyet.vira giup ta nhan thirc mQt cachda:ytlirv*i~6~' lichsir dan tQc viragop phan b6 sung ttl- lieu- 000 lic.n{ suo Kheng phai 13. khong co lydorha Ngo 59 Lien, QU6c sir quan i trieu Nguyen da dira nhirng 'truyen tHuyer ve ~haiky"C:itft1g' mroc vao phan ngoai ky hay tie~ bie~ cua cac bQ su. Gia tri Ian nhat cua truyen t}juyet'1a;iod16d6~

TAl LIeU TRAM KHAo CHINH

1 - Truyen thuye: Hung Vuong, {Nguyen Kha.cXU<1ng bien soan, gici thieu), Chi hoi van nghe dan gian VrnhPhu . xuat ban {Ian tlnr 3) 1974.

65

:::t2 ,:.rruyen thuyetSon tinn (Ha Kinh D '

t~J,rl,p,lnh Gia Khanh ,., .' ,oan

9~Wl1?75. " vu~t Un bat), Ty van hoa Ha

~~1'~r;~~i~h:::!r;'l(/)g V lfdng(Nguyen Van M~~:'t·",

"""4,, _", Nit tuclng th;"; T~' gran Vinh Phu xu at ban 1975., .",

".'" .." " ,Vt lung Vuong (N Z '

~1~2~'" x~~t "",,rIW nil.l:ia NOi . guyen Khac XlIfI!l/f,

5-Khao sat kho tan ,~".; ~gJ6.; -, "

V;aI) Qr<'m N ,0 tang va~ hoa truyen thong Liiu D .. ","

b01i" /'" 19... :ll~Y!'ll Te, Nhi suu lAo bi . 01 (BU!., !)";F9~h?c~~~,mI'lOi. 198~11I' len soan), !'1M xuat

'~.'L' . ;-.l(Y tich Chi Lang, N u e . , ' .

ban Thanhnien Ha N6t' (H'lg,y n Truong Thanh, Nha xuat

. 7' . Lap va tap 2 t" b? '

, _ Sang tdc dan . '., . aI an), 1982

c;!., , • gtan ve Le Loi t kho .

JU Van hoa Thong tin Th h H ' . ,va WI nghia Lam Son

8 _ . anQaxu~ba 19 '

" _ Nhiing mdu ehllY' .' T' ". n, 85.

N _ , . en ve ay SCI, sa -

,ghiaBmh xuat ban, 1986.. n. Van hoa Thong tin

. ,! :,/J ~'. K.ho tang truyen cd ", .•

DOn!>Chi,Nh3ltudt ~ Khoa t~:~ V :~t ~:,a~; tap 3, Nguyen

,,10,.. T,-uyen cd rich F -J,1' Xa hQl, Ha N91, 1985

'*1.- ", Thu _. ,.,.. cac-aan toe thie' .:« ,.,'

~,. ,., Vo Quang Nhon Y n'" . u so mien Nam (HA

l'>f"ha,~uattdn Van hoa .H'a' N', '11en"g chon lQC va bien soan)

, '91, 975, ' '

, 'I

SlI'THI ANH HONG

I - 0101 TRIEU VI~ , •

. .-;. LOAI TAC l'iIAMSLrTlfI ANH RUNG

, ,Trong di san van hoc tru ~ •

o Vr~t nam, mot trong n'hu-n Y1 n. th,6ng c,ua cac dan 16e thi~u so"

" b' ?' g om tac ph" hi , .: .

cac an su thi anh hun' (. ' ,: am c iern noi bat do'I" "t ' , " g ma au nay h'~ , " a.

nrong ea , Nhirng tac pham nay chin ~ le~ ngiroi quen goi ia

66 c g nhung diroc dong dao

b~h~~>M-!~ii1i nghitn cuu. sang uic tr~JIlgn~,~c Ian thuimg\" • rna ~~~~c~c."n Myh~p diri ,161 '.6i ban Me va l!ii1ingmen'~ilub

mtC1c ,ngdili.

TUY'flhien, cho den nay chua phai la cac gi6i nghiendru da hoart'loan nhftt tri rrong vi¢c sit dung va 1y giai n91 dung th~ Ioai'

., thi h h' h T - (1)

su t Ian ung p uong ay nua "

Naffl 1957, k:hi dich va g:i6i thi~u uk ph~m str thi khan Dam xan tren t~p chi van ngh~, Dao Ttr Chi da dung.kh~i niem truy~n. S'au d6, khi in thfmh·sa.ch (1959) nguCri dich lai dung nhan d~ Bai ca Chang VJ",: sanvh6ghiChlltMm" T".img ca dan toe E De ". Til d6 danhtil "t~ta\" da,dU'q(}:s\:rrd9ng [9ng dii tr6ng gi6i sang tac cungnhU trongdic glm nghienccrugHtng d~ (~)','Tuy v~y'mai g~n day, trong khi dich va gi6ithi~u cac slt

,

, ,(i) Vi d~ nhu : _ Oao 'flt;Chf': 'fiily,¢hHtiitiglJam San· Tap cttfvan'

ngM~61 - 1957 '

~ .Chu Xuan Di~n : nmhiiugia tii: bJi ca i:hang Dem San -:r~p fehl

nghieneUuvan hoc s6'3 -1960.

_ Vo QuaJ\g NhOll : IRrw ttfS111g tig1tr'1ianhlil!Pa trPtIg trltflllg;ctLTly

ng~y'n.bao do khoa hOC tai Khoe ng.VI\n Tnrlmg I),i hoc TOng hQp H'

N~1,196L., ,'. : -~ui V an Nguy~n: Ve d~p hung {ring va nell tlNlrOng, trll('1I10 ea fflY

nguyen- T'1--p chi van hoc s6 3 -1975... ' . ,

ll)vj du nhU:

_ D.Antomarchi _ G, Condiminas: Chanson epique Khari Kdain Yi

8.£.E.E.0.T XVII - fase2 -r Paris 1955~

_ J, Faublee : Trong Histore g6neraledes litteralures T.11I Lib. Aristi1e

Qnillet. Paris 161

_ N.J. Nikulin : Episekie xkadania naroda Ede - ldodatdxtovO khu

d6jextvennaia lileratura MoxeOVa, 1970.... "

(3) Dinh gia Khanh. dIU Xum Dien: Van hoc dan gi,w,T~p 2 - NXB

D'1--i hQC va Trung hoc chuyen nghiep. Ha N<?i 1973, tr.6L

~ Lien T6 van hoc Vi~l Nam: Licb s/i van h9CVi¢t Nem, Hp 1 , ~an

hoc dan gian, phan II - Nxb Giao due, 1976 tr. 77 ,,,

67

thi Dam xan va Dam Di nh3o;nghicn cuu van h9C X6 viet N. Nikulin lai dung khainiem truyen thuye~ anhhung (sach da.dtln (y tren ). Nhu vay, cung mot loai d6i tuong nl~ ell nhieu ten goi khac nhau: lruy¢n, Baj cs, anh hung ca. sir {hi va truong cs, truyen lhuyel anh himg.: Hiennhien day 130 m<)thi~n Luqng khong hop Iy thi khong nen de keodai, ohitt la d6i' vai khoa

nghien ciru van hoc dangian. '

Vay thl nen goi cal' tac ph~m khan cua .dan tQcEde (ding nhu d6i voi cac tac pham cung loai cua cac dan toe lhi~u s6 khac) ban~. thuat ngi1 nan cho hop 'ly? D~ giai dap 'duqe dung dan diu hOI dat ra tren day, ehung.t6i nghi rtmg dieucan thiel" nhat la phai xuat phat tir nguon gae cua van d~, tuc la xuat phat tirthuc tien cua chinh cac tal' Fn~m.dang dl!gc nghien ciru (1d~X trong ngon ngi1 cua dan t¢c E de, cac tac pham dang duoc M cap den co len la khan hoac akhan.Trong tieng EM, kh~n c6 nghia la k~ chuyen, nhung khong phai la loai k~ chuyen thong thuong nhir bat cu loai truyen nao khac' I) • f)l tim ra mot thUAi ng~phu hop v6i loai k~ chuyen nay tal nhien Utchung ta kh6n'g the d~ c~p den cac van M noilen d~c tnrng lh~ loai cuano, nhu phirong thirc dien xu6ng, d~ediel1fv~ n0idung ngh¢ thu~l;

X6t ve phuong thirc dien xirong, khan cua nguoi Ede{cung nhir ,~c1II10!1 cua r:suui !lana, Hori cua nguoi Gia rai, nolong cua ngtroi M~ .. ) t30 kieu ke chuyen xua, vira co hat thea 10i tho, vira co, xe~ kc nhirng doan noi 161 thea 1m n6i thong thuong, vira co yeu to nghe thuat san khau, qua.viec dien xU6ng docthoai hoac d:)i thoai gii1a cac nhan vat, co kern then nghe thu~t dien 'ta tl~h cam, thong qua net mat va dieu b9 cua ngum nghe sy dien k~.

" , D6i chieu v6't phuong tlurc dien xu6ng t6ng hqp caG,

yeu t6 ngM thu~t tren day thl Cal' djnh nghia eho dmg khan la "Nhi1ng bai tho dai", ho~e nhi1ng"bai ea" kh6ng khai cC:n phi6n

(1) LA" "I . '

01 nOI C llIy~n thong thU'ong duqc ngum Ede goi la Yaldlie khac

h,in vdi khan, ' .

dicn, thieu sot, chua phan anh diroc d~y dll han chat th~ loai cua lac pham, That v~y, nhirng dinh nghia do mm chi chti ydenm9t dang ng6n ngi1 (bai tho), hoac mot dang dien xu6ng(bai hat) ella khan rna thoi. Con khai niem " tnrong ca" ciing khong ph:h la m9t thuat ngi1 van h9C, VI hien nay no duoc dung m¢t. each ph6 bien khong ph an biet d6i v6i VaH h9C dan gian lruy~nth6ng ciing nhu d6i vtti tac pham van hoc hi¢n dai, Nhuvay, kh~li ni~m "tnrong ca "khong khoi gay ra tinh trang mo h6, khong. ph~n biet ro rang giua tal' pham van hoc hien dai, co nhfrng d~c tr\,rt\g

th~ loai va pham chill th~m my khac nhau, .

Nhu vay, xet vephutmgthuc dien xu6ng, can cu thco'd~\1~ v6n ton tai cua chung, co th~ noi dmgkhai1 hoac hamo« hQlclr# rio la nhung tac phdm thuoc loaihinfi.t« su dan gian,trong'd6 co su kct hop.hai hoa m¢t each tt! nhien. cac yeu t6nghfthu~t kMcnhau: loi n6i cua van.xuai\ moiv~n cua they ca,.lIat cii~ thanh .nhac va dien xu6ng cua s~n· khdu. ;. ,i'

:J},j::t:i:-\:l

Chung ta xet tiep v~ phucmgdi~n n9idungi,Caei~C2P~~ dang .duoc d~c~p tren day thuOng la nhirng cau chuy¢nc~.tl~ cac nhan v~tanh hung,la nhirng nhan \I~t tutruung,t9t:;t~~ . n6i tieng cua buon lang, nhiingnMn vat ay dli co. c(mg 'hW~ffg, dfin" nhan dan trongcQng dong lam an (lam nuong rfty,;dl.!:ianJ'9i bat ca ... ) de dat duqe cuoc song am no; hoac la nhtmg nguOi dim dau nhandan lap duoc nhung chiencong vangdt)i, danh thang giac cu6'pcr ben ngoai tm, dam bao cu¢e s6ng yen w'ic'tla cong d6ng; hoac dang len dau tranh quyet li~t chong l~i nhli'n~ tap tuc 16i thiri rang buoc buac tien cua cua xii h9i. Oil' n¢\dUtI& do tran day chat hien thuc, phan anh.xa ht)i lich sir " thCtidJ)il.tiJh hung"(!) (khai ni¢m cua Ph.Angghen trong Nguon goccifag-ia.

. 'dinh, eua. ehrf dt) (If h{fu tiii san va eua Nha nlfde). NhUn.gn~i dung do thuang dU'qe dien k~ v6i phong cach ngh¢ thu~t hao

(I) Tue then ky dful ehu quan st!, vao hie che dl> c¢ng san nguy~n tbuYi tan ra d~ chuy~n sang xa h¢i c6 giai clip.

69

~~~y vi, man g dfun dau < • ..'

~nthan thoai, . an eua carnquan lan . ..,

",:, . g man cua sang

,j!f"Nhu v~y, can .. ell \11"., .

l;;~.tr",?gngh~thu~tba~~:~,:g,,!,ltC dien xurmg, Mt hw v<li

n vat anh hung vO' tf '-' y vy:mang am dieu n ....

quanh cac nhan VAt'anhl.h~~' dun!'; day cac sJ.kic~ ./:,e. cac

~!nh,d~Qe rang c~csir \11' :1: c6 Y nghiatoan dan·.do ' h~o~y pham trii sir thi anh hU I an gl:m ca. dan 1.& it ' co, the xac

. .: ng trong the loai ttl U d~' . ngl1C1I thuoc

, .' .. . s. ~n·glan.

~~~". ~e v~a phan aoh ~uQ'c. tlnh ch'" .,"? .

ti" a~ gran dang dUQ~d" can ._ at 10~1 hinh cua the loai .

acpharn khan v<li ,', " , . :r:cungnh~.vi<» kh .b·' . v~n gl<1l ,nhu [I" .' . ":ac, tae pham: anh. bu: .~ I~! diroc cac \11' ': tat, Odixe . .;) , chii .,' • n.g ca co dlen tre h~

ili:fhhl1P boo co. la '5itcthf .;;,ght?lnghl ;ang thu~t .gil sir ~~n e

i og, thuat ngil n' " - , ,ung. Them nm. r • " g

",nJ; phat tri' ~y cung ,phon anh. duoc " ,xet ve' mat h~

\fi~Na'm ~U',etnh}6gthlC c;ua Ioai .. hinh sir th'i d~9t. ~hau trong tien

, . ,~. ~n Oat d€ .. ? an glan c' d'

~,l'ng¢iM"IIn' > nSJt,thith~nthqaj(nh~ a~ an .'~e.

li?~ge.cA dA'. . • g:: amr;(Ju6ng cua na ,. !~O a:1lae

h .. '.' .P ~nJrong;baJvi€t ~ h" gUI1l.Thal. rna 'h'

d~ .. ~;v'sq thi sinh """,xi h ~e(:manlbO\li); cMdO~' sir t~' un~

an.toe thieu s6m. eh6ng'Oi ~~ de~A"JJn tit" ca dAngi~ ~~c

, . P en trong bai sau)

, Cung vGi van d~ xa . . ' .

cua thi anh hu _ , c dinh .the loai, van d' , . .'

'~,lhilioai do~~ ~.unf.!a mot trong nhirng vau ~~h~ ~Iem ra dOi Trong khi gioi th~~ P '!' c~ s~, xern xet. xac dinh e~ y n¥hia lich NhllXu'" ba vs ,",,~ thi Dam Xan (Blri .: ,e 0 dung dan. t' , ,n an hoa, narn 1959) , c,a chang Dam X-

iC ph~m nay ra di1i tti tM k . '. Dao Tu Chi co xac di:n :

inh tren day xac di h co y XVII. Muon tim h'e . h la

nhieu can' inn co xae dang khOn .' .1 U xem nh~n

phdm, rna ~i~~ ~~?'lg/hien I. chung tag~~~~ b~al xu"t phat tit Dam Xiin' d' I' u y u la phai d~a van mY d am. sat vau tac Dam X" ;" ':. a s~ vilng len cu~ I' . I, . ung .oua ban sir thi

Un) ",hollg l~l va muon th 't kOlh)' .ngU'C1.1 mm (tieu bi~u l'

oa 01 ~J' ~ b a

70 . rang U9C eua tue Ie

. .

,q6 truyen. cua we Ie m~u he (tieu b&u Ia hai chi em H(1 Bill) \ill:,!\! d6 Iii chuyen quy<ln quim Iy gia dinh va xii hl,>l tll ngu<n dloll' ha Sling figuOi danang iJ dftri t1)cMe. V6i n¢1 dung xii hoi khtl xaxua do, c6 the nao sir thi Darn Xan lai ra dili muon v1tb'i),lf)iYXVll, \ljc rna xii h¢1 nguili IlM diichuyen sang chE d¢ n61~ gla wOng tit IAu r6i1 M¢t C-ff lieu kit • c c6 quan M hilu e(i ,;die'e tac philm:d6 10 val tro cua ngum Cham va mill quan lihiila ho v6i "guili Ildekh' ph6 bien trOng sir thi Dam X'n.

ChilO"ta blEI rang vimg TAy Nguyen dlililitgla dil"t .him thu~ I cila ~iI(mg qu6cChiimpa thoi phung kiEn e6 dai tnlOe kia. Nhilrig di rich tieu bieu cho thm ky 'tieh sir do Iii th:lp Yang Prong do vua Champ. Xinh."aemaD IV (C'M Man) xAyd~ng " .ung E' Hleo, phia bac tiith Dk l~c,vao dfu.t the ky XIV (\301), dGng thili v6i' viee xay ihap P6 kl6ng Girai b Phan R;irigll)' , ho~c die IMp Yang; Mun va Drang Lai, do Clic vua

Cham.pa xay dJ!!lg, til 'Ihe clti"X;!" cr vimg. Che6 reo, thu¢C tin~ Glalal Kontum ngay nay .... ' .. '.' '

ain catheo \tQi dun g t~c pb.£m' vHan c6;t11.eo nhilni .chUng tldtll.ch sU c61i~n .qUatltltn.tac ... ·ph~m diid~n.radtr .. e.n .. ,ChUng t~.i neo gilt Ihuyel cho riing tkphftm'su,l\li anh hung DamXanfh die tac phlim cung [oai khllcoUy Nguy~n 't.nh6t ciingra dtri v~" quiing th€ky XIV, ho~e ,,6 th~ sem bon. vao quiing the \;.y

xn~ XIIl;chu khong th~ nao ra dm vao th€ ky XVU. .

n. esc V AN DE vE N\lI DUNG ellA s0TH! ANII HtJN6

Sir thi anh hung cua die dim t¢e co m~t suc h6p din mf'h . me, woe het la VI n6 cMa dl!llg nhilrig n~i dung xii h¢i r<?ng1<'m va phong pha cua thm qua khll cua cae dan t¢C it ngum " Tay

Nguy~n.

(1) ,,1) H. pannentier lnventaire·descriptif des monuments Cham pp 557 ~ 559

7i1

MOt de lilieo tinh cha; ph~) bien, ndi~~t &d.c sir thi anh h,lmg cac dan tOe Tay Nguyen: D61a nhirug cuocchien tranh dien ra quyet li¢t,iien; mien, dai dang gitta .cac huon Umg. Am dieu chinh m)i len trongcac sir thi anh hungHt ca ngoi cac nhan v~t anhhung da chienthang.oanh li¢t cac l()~i tu !ru<1ng;th~· dich, bao v¢ cuoc s6ng thanh binh cua cacong d6ng va bao v~ hanh phuc bi ke thu tranh CU'l1p. Van d6trung tam duoc str .thi anh hung tap trung neu len la van d6 dau tranh ch6ng cac the' h,c thiidich tir ben ngoai den uy hiep, danh ph,a cuoc s6ng cua c¢ng d6ng. Tuy nhicn tfnh chat v~ pham vi e4c~u9c,dau}ranh~iq l~i duoc the hien duoi nhiing dang khac n1lau!d4Y theo cac su thi mang tinh chfll xu hOi lich str (1).hiing dan tO~kha~ nhau.

Khi th] do la nhG'ng cuoc ,olli~l1i~ranh bao v~ cong dong, .m& nbt nrong tnrng co y nghiakhaiiq~at 4lJ:Tlo JJp ve vi¢edallhcu~ va gianh lai nguoi yeu giiia nguai -anh hung v¢i .kethu; Trang Hamon Dong Tir cua nguoi Bana thi.do la viec chang Dong Tu danh l'.litlfQ11gcUOp D6ngjTAJtellg"~ baa vg nang Hbia.Phu va chang Tam Dong danh lai ten Lang .p(}t. M bao v~ nang Hbia Luy.i, Trang cac khan cua nguai Edenhu.khan DamXan ch~l1g han, thi do la cuoc chien tranh rna nhan v~t anhhung pan1 Xan tien hanh voi cac tu tnrong thudic]; nhu MlaoGnl, Mtao Mxay de chong lai hanh dong cuop doat nang Ha Nhi d~ bolo v~ buon lang.v.v .. O day tinh yeu va hon nhan chua phai la cong viec rieng nr cua nhiing ca nhan trong cac xa hoi da phan chia giai cap. Ma b day tlnh yeu va han nhan la cong viec chung xciY'fa trong khuon kho cua cong d6ng diroc rnoi nguCri quan tam giup da, xay dung va thamgia baa ve no.

Khi thl d6 Iii de cUQc chien tranh trung phc;tt va chinh phlJc cae c6ng xa thu dieh M baa v¢ cUQc s6ng lao d9ng eua c¢ng d6ng, thong qua 1116 tip chien iranh tieu .di¢t cae can v~t than ky

(can cqp sau duoi, COl) nhfm than kY ... ). a day do cu¢c chien tranh kh6ng chi di~11 ra trong ph<~m vi ch~t hyp eua cong.xa

72

(duoi khau hieuquen thU(lC " Tnt thu cho ella, l~bi x,~o'n>g,e~o me") voi 11191 ke thu nhat dinh xay ra ngay tr01:g Ie cua~ cua :~q nhan vat anh hung. Ma day la nhirng cuoc chien tranh hen IllIen" v6inhi'6u ke thu khac nhau vai qui mo rong 16n hen (~hit.hl,., danh v6i ke thu O'm~t dAt, khi thi danh.voi ke thu "a tr~n·trgi'\.J khithi danh v6i ke thu "& dum m~t d~t"). Va nhtrng anh._n,ng.u tham gia nhtrng cuoc chien tranh d6 100ng chi, la nh~g,nhAfl.· vat Ie 10i dan doc rna la nhimgtap the dong dao (khi thi dum dang ",ba' anh e~"; tham ,chi c6 ,~hi dong. qe'n. r~mugi. ba~f~nl1 em". Hinh anh ca cong dOng ngurn tham gia chien tranhb~o!f~. tinh yeu, . bao v~ cuOc s6ng,. th~. hi~~ m¢t ~ach _ sinh ,d¢n,g: tip~ chat toan dan cua str thi anhhung. Dong thai, nhirng hmh~,4J,l'! cling th,~ Qi~n Ifha sau. s~c m6i q,uan h¢ h~i hoa: gan b6 gi~a <:Ac nhan v~t anh hung ymCa t~pthe cong dong rna h9 .song vi:l;ho~;j

d¢ng~ vay, tinh t~p th~, tfnh cong d~ng T9ng Jan la ~¢l;?"~~'.~ nhirng dac tnmg chinh cua sir thi CaG dan t9c, trong dOl)e}l~' hinh nrong tieu bi~u cac nhan v~t anhhung.,' ;; .. c,iL<. :.:d,'

~·?~·,;'·;f; ";. ,,:.:;-fl Vl

Nhirng tfnh chat va pham vi khac nhau cua caccuQc,c~\ tranh a tren day la nhG'ng dauh~~ut?~ ~i~n.O'!Uu~d9Va'saTth~ khac nhau tinh lichsir xa hOi cua cac Stl thi, a cae dan t9C' kh~j) nhau, trong tie'n'trlnh. phat trien lau dai cua str thi cac.clitn,;*~') anh em. ,··.fiiJi\i

Qua d~ tai v~ chien tranh, hoac la ca ng~i. c~ie'n c~ng ,eUa. nguirianh hung, tieu diet ke thu tuac do~t ngUat ~eu, hO'J..:Ja,c!. ngci .ehien cong,tie~jdi~t ke ~hu da?h.~ha ~u~c s6n_g yen~aIlh!\'a): lao dong san xuatcua buon lang, sir.thi anh h,ung c~ng ~alJln~n.: cao chu d~ 16n thunhat: Ca nggi nhG'ng pham chat, Wt d~,~ua nhan v~t anh hung da c6 c~ng ba~ v~ cO~g d~ng: .. do~g t~~:q~a.~ d6 kh~ng dinh mOt each day tl! hao sl! 16n tc;tl vaphat men ,¥us

x~i hOi c9ng d6ng.

*

* *

73

, D6ng thoi v6i chu d~ 16n tre " a, n .... h mot caehk'h'dA ..•. ren.dav. ta con th'" " "

;,.. . a oe dao v' A ~. ' a) sl1 thrph' "

nght.a xli hoi I' , . .: "a SaU sac mot noi d ,: . an

1'-; . . ' ich SI! .Ittn lao.rba ' , , . . ung khac; '~6 y'

a su • i\dA " ,0 quat ca 'I ' " ..

h'., .' v. n ong chuyen bien 1.4-n • . mot oat cac su tIli'd I

e dan dan h' ' • vu cuaxii hoi di i' '.' 0 treri; '.. p at trien len thanh xa hll' .,: 1. u cong xii mAu

v,dl1ffi1g Mn len hlnh thanh dan t':' ci>ng dong rOng Ian htlti'

l~t Nam. ' 9\.: trong dai gla' dinh d'

. ' ' ,m ant¢C

Theo su xac di h '

dan toe & ni N m -cua cac nha dan toc h ~

" y guyen truac n a h . 9C, xa hoi cua cac

xsm' chiem. ca ban F _ hA•g Y t I,I'c dan Phap va etA: '" - t,",o milu he trona d; xa "Q' theo ('h~ d(> cling xa ~. quoc ~y hie • , . , ... nguC1J phu nil' d" ng gleng

. n (j cac mat: V~ inat ki h" ~ng val tro chu ch61 B· .......

trong gia d' h ( ,10 t~ nglt<JI phu - ' reu d6i v&i ch;n chieng, che, trau, voi, no I~ ~iJ ,uan I)' tai san

phuc dieh °c~~ cnohn: con c:ii sinh ra then ho·~:v<.~ho~<;lt ?y quyen

" a V(J trong lao dA • • .' ng o nha YO'

san:" DO la nhling n6t ca b' Nh<;mg. grao dich va quan ly' t~: che d A '" ... v an un - h . at nh' Q mau he d6 khang phai' dan g e xa, 9' truyen th6ng thee

" ac tr?~g m¢t khuon kh6 nhu g y n ? mot d;~mg tinh, crrn

bi~n, bl~U hien;" h'A nhau. No dang tre d' ,g

ph" . v n reu dang the on a chuyen

ttlea;~nh nhiing chuyen bi"" d~~tron' p~uc tap. Otinh sir thi da dun ab~ Nguyen thong qua nhfrn tg xa h~~ cong d6ng cac dan

. gang nhil'ng hi h ' g ruyen smh do d

thuat doc d' ...... l~ anh ~c sac vf1i 'rno . ng, l1Q'c xay

thi kha~ nh ao. bieu hien i, nhirng rmrc d6 kh; PhhUfJng phap nghe

au. . ac n au trnng cac su

'C6 nhlin • . . '

trauh'> c'. g s~ thlnhu khan Dam - .' .

miiu ~u'f dQ s~c quy€t li¢tdai ding x:.. tM h.¢n cu(le d:(u

latne ~. n tuycon m!:lnh, nhUn da b" gI, rn¢t ben fa ch€ do I . '1.n61 dAy, chutJ nu,~) va rno/be I,at.d~u lung lay (tieu bie~

OI nullng dang t ;to • n a tM 111c ,.

h' . _ fOi d~y rnanh _., ~ ::, mm, tuyc6 ve Ie

ung Dam Xan) ," . me (tlcu bleU IiI nhA '

. an v~t anh

euoe oau tranh • ' ,

d6 the hien ,< qu,Yet h~t giiia hai the Iu ~ A' - ,

. quan xuyen suot cit b' k.h ,e 1 xa h91 eu va rnai

an an' K' t' I

74 . e 11 ue mbdau

tiffl~'V~i chi tiet Dam Xan kh6ng chiu tua~ \h<o we (06; day) trUy~#tth6ng. urc Hi. khong chiu lily nang Ho Bhf va' He,:1 Nhf lam

VQ' _dtJ~6ng ba ttuyen lai cho den diem ket thuc cao nhilt eua truy~n 1a Dam Xan bi ch~i, VI d1i dam be, vI} b nha dt di chinh phuc nu tMin M~t Trai. Qua tnnh dien bien cua khan Dam ian ti'ituc'mo Mu bang cuoc cl\u hon cua HO' Bht den lue ketthuc co tlnhcMft bi kich ella nhan v~t trung 'tam Dam xan the hien rnt)t qua trtnh tiln cong va ph{m cong di~n ra lien tuc: GiUan{)j day vm khong chiu n6i day, giua viec bat hUQC phai tam nhiem vu vm khong chiu lam nhiem vu cua nguai ch6ng theo tuc l~ truy~n tii6ngqui dinh; giila viec ton ti<!ng: baa v~ cay v~t t6 Iinh thieng eua dong ho (day HI cay Smuk)v6i ch~t bo, 'tri~t pha cay vat t6 ~6. eM. viec tuan thu vcr; ch6rig d6n\lA.rt~cd,onban v~t s~u nhi~ la ong Gbn dieu hanh; giua vi~c ehiu an ph~n s6ngvITi VQ' con 'thea n~p oK dinh san ven 'vi~c"Mota con ducmg di thea y i\lii6,,'M chinh phuc riii'thl!~M~tTriJj~a trinh dau tranh d6 dl~nra thee mi)t IItqe d6ti~~ tri~n J5rjt: th~o huan\" ngay ding ,,"-0 dan, ng!.Y c!.ngquy€tlitt htm:1J'ni e1l6i di ~en ,c~6ng d6i, ti:rch~u eh5:p nh~n di d~n ti:r bO, ti:rdilutranh oblnh di~n the tuc 0 dum tran the den blnh dien th~n qilyen linnlhieng b tren tr01 ...

.'. " . I

K€t C\lC cua s6 ph~n nhan v~t Dfun Xan (b(chet ng~plunl rrong d[t dh1io ella rtha ba Sun Rit) mm' nllln qua thi thily mang linh bi kich, the hi~niJ s,! thilt bl;\icua nhttn v~t anh hung Ibi lac d6. Nhttng chi ti~t c6 tlnh chilt thlln ky b cu6i ban khan (Dam xan l~i dau thai thanh Dam xancon vao nguai ch! eua mlnh va so k€ t~e W "ghi~p tnt6'c day) I~i toat len khat vQng kh' sau sftJ, manh li?t ella nhftn dftn, duqe gi'ri gam 0 trong hlnh tlIqng nhftn ,,~t trung tllm cua ban sit thi. Then cam hang sang t~o cua c~c righ~ nMn dan gian, ro ri\ng I!. Dam "an khllng chet mil vlln ~6ng; Otang ti!!\l tyc s6ng 11 th€ h~ ""u d!! ke t~C va phat tri4n cu¢<: dau tranl'(oanh'li~t rna chang da philt d~ng trong su6t tM h~ truae. Hlnh tuqng Dam xan con ra'dOi " N6i ti~p hlnh tUITg Dam xan c~u" th6 hi~n s,! chi~n thfmg cua cM.n ly cUQc s6rg

75

dang trong qua trinh van dOng di len ella no: khuon kb6 ella tuc l¢ noi day thea dOl1g"mAu h~ qua .cMt hep, l~L"tbqi,.khOng c~>n phu hop vci yeu dU"eu()c s6ngmai nita: n6 khongIam the',n~lO bop nghet dirqc sue song rnoi dang lr6i d~y vaduQ9 Quoi dU<mg ngay trong long cong xa. Nhardinh la kh~n kh6 16i thoi. do se bi Ivc luong rnoi trong xa hoi pha v(j thea chan J y cuoc song, eho phu hgp voi tien trinhkhach quan cua xii h¢i,cUngnhu phu hop voi tam tu, khat v9ng cua nhari dan, ngu01 da sang tao nen ban

sir thi bat hU.' ,

Co nhirng nha nghien cUu~d~nhan manh vaitro.bao thu cua tuc l¢, tham chi cho rang" Tpan PQba(c~. tpMlen ta~ cas,ac manh cua 111~l l~ dieu khien npung m6iqllan M YCf ch6ng(l) . Nhirng thirc ra, nhir tada thay,:toanb9qaf}':khap pam xan khoflg phai chi dien ra Il19t .chieu nhu'H{e". 'trong lilt thi, nhan Yilt Dam xan khong phai la. rn9tcon I1.g~Qjl}go~n I1gpa.n c~ju tuan theo tuc l~ cd truyen. Neu Dam Xan c6chap nh~n' tlfc .l~ chang ni"i'a, thi cfing chi nhan thea nhling di~uki~n do chang d~t ra: khi nao chang duoctang themsu giauc6, 'ho~c augc tang them uy the

cua minh trong xa hoi, . , '

Ta co th6 khang dinh ITl¢t.clich cQ co sa ding: Toan b9 truyen xoay quanh .trlfc ~oi l~pgay gat giua m9tbenJasl! lip d~t twin thea tuc l~ co truyen, V m mot ben la su chong d6i quyet liet de thoat khoi 51! rang bU9C cua tuc l¢ ay.

Dola tuyen chinh cua n9i dung khan Dam Xan. D6ng thbi cac nghe nhan dien ke Slt thi can xAy dung nhan v~t Da~ Xan thanh mot vi anh hung "Tramtrantrarn t1"lang", dafhien tMng oanh liet cac tu truong hung-marth nhuMtao Gnr, Mtao Mxay, dern lai sir giau ,co va bao v~ cuoc song yen .lanhcho . "b~n ruroc g6c da". _M~t khac Dam Xan con la ngum tu tru6ng tij gioi, bi~t' huang dan cae tMnh vien cong xa khai pha nuc1ng ray, san bat,

(I) G. Conltominas H.E.F.E.O.T XXVII face 2, 1953 - P.S56.

76

danh ca eo hieu qua cao. Nhirng chieng c6ng trong chi~haaU cling nhu nhirng thanh qua trong san xuat la nhirng n1~t.quan trong khac trong n¢i dung cua Slt thi gop ph an kh~ng dtnhVaj tro tich eire cua Dam xan d6i vO'i cuoc songcua cong dOng. NhUngchi~n cong do khang dinh val tro cua ngum dan'6ng ngay rang duoc nang cao, trong dieu kien che ct¢ mau qUY~~~~,t

dau lung lay. . .

~ .

Su bien chuyen trong noi dung Slt thi th~ hien xu lil1<1n;g trimg hop a nhirng rmic d9 khac nhau cua sl! tien hi~n ·c.Ua'·c~6 d¢ xa hoi. N6i tiep lap Slt thi anh hung' phan anh cuoc dau!ranh gaygaJ giqa .the h!ccua ngiroi dan 6ng dang len v6i the'l,!c ella t~p tuc mau quyen bat dau bi .lung lay. coca 16J: Slt thi pMRi cinl). slJ.thangJqi c~a -the' lircphu qUY~fl d6i vai mau quyen;li?R,dta tnrong hop cac khsn nhuDam Droan, Dam Di ... Trong khfl['}~ Dam Xan, nhan y~t Dam Xan bUQc Iongphai tirng bUQcr);hl1qng . b¢ tuc l¢ ri6i day tnroc su cu6'ngep cua cac the 19c cua.m.~\l. quyen; qua hlnh nrong hai chi em gai He Ang va HO' Ly, ya; ~2ai la qua hlnh tuong ong G6n di~u khi€n, chi ph6i e.u¢c~rt~ tren cao xu6ng. Nhung trong sir thi Dam Droan, nMnv~It~~ khong' he chiu nhirorrg b¢ tnroc met the)t!c cu<m!6pnao-'.l1{;~. chf ba me Ia nguoi tieu bieuchoquy~n lI!c mauh¢ trqqg,~~I'a' dinh,·f)a~ Droan ciing lanh lung ph6t qua,kh6ngch~un~ne;:;tm:

Ba me con chon cho chang nangHbiaEsun ., m¢t ngU()rldari'~ dep va.diu d~~g han tdt ci ", tuy "khong m9t c~n~oc~'t~~~0 sanhdiroc. vm nang" chang ciing khong nghe.· Ba bao dl.h(u vf! chang cjing khong chiu di, chi phai ngum ngt1m noJ¢ l~~ Molo di thay thoi! Sau khi vg v~ a voi chang mor thm gian&irt'l Droan dli "thay d6i nhumot conngua dugc they.eucng''; ~ bo y~, quyet dinh di tim' ngirci vg khac thea y mu~n cu.~.minh. Du rang nguoi dan ba ay (~ang H~ Lung, da ~6 eh?n~ r~~;ht~ cfing bat chap luat l¢,quyet dau va qu~N thang ke tl~~~tS~d~ chinh phuc cho duO'c). R5 rang day la 'm9t con nguC1I davuf:'fl qua gim h~n cua W~ l~, Anh dli y thll'c dugc sue ma.nhc~~minh~ mu6n tl! minh d~nh do~t lay s6 ph*n eua minh, kh6ng ch~u m¢t

·77

\(;~fahg buge. ~c che ' d" / ,.

~JmlJg. Lai d' . . na<: .. u Lto la ngui1i me th' - .

:.*~' , , ar kien nghi cua chan " , ' an .yeu da slIth,.,

h~!If' ,pa pw the hien.y Ch'i do' "Ba s II ,uae I", Can ngan, Ih'll,ilio

~g de 1I111111l)t 16i di t6t nh~ d.r~ g": CO~ se di chat 'City Iron

~g,khan Dam Xiin .nhan : a', s c~a bay chim luc vao ,,(\)g

,~r:c ,va ,m~~h ~ ;hl "uy~t ~ v~~ng co ,doing len ch6~g dlli day t1gc d~! ~:' m,ng ,quyen hrc da chUy~~nv~ tlIong tay nil ghlil '

, I? ret ve sUC manh cu" a lnh ay nguc)'J dan 6ng·

va"x'" heY d . mm tron d'· ,.(

"a ,'. day ngiro] dan On " g ci song gia dinh

cbong, chir khonz .phai ngu'rlg) .CUC11 vC!.va. nguiri dan ba th

tro . t' • <- HC at nhir ? kh eo

fig ac p~am nay ngtroiph~ nu·? hA' (J~ an Dam Xan, N~u

;ro~Y, ch uyen n g.rm dan On g 't ' ;' I e chu dong nam I uat tuc <It! ~,~ don g II! pha bO tucle' 'ih h'''. day chinh- ngul1i dan' ha 'd' , n.g ..... Uffi yeu: "nhir nhii'ng· c.;". / ~O.A. tieng g\licua. trai tim. deil d' l· a ,~ que " , u 'gatvep 111' ",' ' vm

<,o,g!u, dong song, ho miEtth' ,e, mal ;h~y theornot "ai

"!"in.ca I~ng kh6c cua me f~ eo" t~omaltniiqil60 d6 m' ~~ cua thAn linh vii sam s6;;,,,:eng hon 'g1~n crraelm, ti€ng chJ

" .,·Th

,.J," eo tuc leo trong h€ d. . . ..' ..

tT?ug. Nhirng t~~ngkhanC D~ fJ mA~ he, vai tro 6ng cau nIt

_) chang h' . . am Droan, Ong' ca d"" . q uan btt6n ,n/ irng khpngcan'ngan du .d' . u .,a 0, dia V! thap

,g, ma chinh ongcao .'-. 'f!c (fa chau nr d

yi~c"guy hiem co tht' u ~ n bi dfiaclulu loi cuon d··r ° ng~ng kitac.) .. "Chu . '(3) '. gay tal hoa'(gay chie" t h 1 .am nhirng

( • , ? U <11, , chti hay d' , n ran vmtiitntem.

., .. )dua ca chiec khie '. tra cho chau chiec girom ci g

=~!c~~n~ Mtao v~ :~~~~~f~fra'T~~vl ~hu da khan~u~~~~

Nb" u cua Dam Droan khan' C SU~ ep m~nh me do, b 11 v~y: trongkhan Dam Dr g m~n dl ro! cfing phii d'''('!

u6ng 1m: ngum ri1\,dii btl ht o~ ky c11<1JIg cua tllC It ~a b:

. c, ng cau dii hi lep;" !

. , . . ve, co gai da

(1) TOn' . . .

(l)T::'rn g ca Tlly Nguyen, tr.388 '.

(3}D' .i.. _g ca Tlly Nnguven tr 395

lCIl ··'C' " •.

(4). ~u thi dUng han VI da r "

(1) Trubng ea Tlly y a em eua me Droan

(!5)Tnron~" nguyen tr. 371. . .

. g .... a Tay Nguyen tr.372

78

,

pha bi> tuc I~, bO ch6ng theo ngllbi yeu. pay la n';tkhac bi~t kM

r6, so vffi sir thi Dam X,n, trong d6 the \qc mau qUy~J1 dang 0

Ih~ giang co trl)I1h chKp vai 1he Iu.c phu quy6p. ,0 day, mroc su

1~n ,<lng cira the IIIC ph9 quyen dii thang the, the Iu.c mAu quyen

lU'l (j dia v] thf\p kem- Canh ph6n thinh cua bu6n lang. do Datu Droan dlmdau 0 cu6i ban ~iI thi cang \<h1uI& dinh In!)t c:lfh

vim]; ,hac 511 thang IQl cua vai tro ph9 quyen trong xii h~i. Dam Droan 13 hi~n than cua su pht phan, cua sll phil nh~D WC I~ mAu

h? da gia nua cu ky, khi\ng con phu hqp vai sii doi cua IIIc IlIqng

Dlili ,tang vuon len manh me (rong x5 Mi nil a. Xu huoog cua xii

hqi ph9 quylin cang the hi¢n 1f-hii.,5 " nhUng sit thi khac, nhu Dam Di nhan v~t chinh cua tac phdm la 'ba . ann. em !).ffi .L?i. Nhtmg thuC ra, quybn IIIc lai t~p trung trong tay ngu1ri. anh t. Dam Oi. Trong lao d~ng cung nhu irong chitn tranh, {Jam Oi chu y~u d6ng vai tro ngllCli t6 chuc dieu hlmh, ngI!bi chi huv, eM anh ta kh6ng tr1)c tiq. d(mg ra lam cu~g vm cong dong nhu

Dam Xan. Dam Droan. 0 trnoggia din)I, khi, ti~n hanh ~6n nhan thl ng""i em phiU nhlllmg cho ngum .nhtrllOC, Ngum em gai ph"i nghe theo, ph"i wan I~nh ng"bi .nhlrai. Fhld<N,ng co m~t chot quybn IIIc nao d6i vffi ngllbi""h tra! (tr'i ,h%P vffi tnllmg hqp H<1 Aug va Ho Ii dung quyen IIIc chi em gai <1,) 19c I~ danh cho de cllUng op £lOrn x.anphai I~y H<1 Bhi, Hu Nh1 irong sil thi £lOrn xan). 0 ngoai xli hl)i, Dam Di did.u cling c6 ki:h~u ngllCli h~. 0 day, xu~1 hi~n nhfmg·nel mm Ih~ hi~n uy th~Va quy~ IIIc <Iii t~p chung kha ~nh me trong tayngllbi til tnlimg vagia trllUng 10 ngum dan (lng. Sit thi. bang nhUng hlnh anh sinh d(mg,

dii dJ!!lg Ito ml)t kiiu quan h~ mffi trong ,ii hl)i. M6i quan h~ c6 tinh ch~t dan cho blnh dluIg \fong c'lng d6ngdii nhlllmg chO cho m6i quan h~ mm: Mqt tr~t tIl xii h¢i, m1)t quan ni~m d~o .due thea kibI gia trllimg ph9 quyen <Iii hlnh thanh. D61a n¢i dung c6

nhUng net mm dl1qc phim anh trong nhi~u tac ph~m.

Cung. veri nhilng n¢i dung n6i len s~ chuy~n bi~n 100 troug xii hili trtn day la Sii manh nha giai dp, xu6t hi~n tang lifp si'"

. I

eo t~p trung trong tay mot s6 kbaJan cua cai, nol~ ;'hang tram, hang nghln", trau bo "hangdannhi nhiic", chieng che "d~ chat nha khong c6 10i di" ... Cuoc song em dep, hai hoa trong xii h<)i coria donz thuo ban dau dan dan bi ran nUL, bao nieu SL1 tan va VI nilli~g miu thudn sau sac ve quy~n'Iqid~n de'n nhang tranh ehdp gay gat, tham ChI c6 khi d6 mau gi11'a cac tu tnrong (cac si'r thi anh hung Dam Xan, Xinh Nha, Khinh DU ... ) va giUa ke giau voi ngL1ai ngheo (sir thi Y Ban) ...

SI! van de)ng bien chuyen cua xii. h()i diroc phan anh trong hfiu khap cac tac phsm va nhieu khi dat tai mire d6 kha manh me. St! van dc)ng bien chuycn d6, ·ho~c la·· th~ hien 2t sir rung eb~yen dAn den nh~ng sir d6i t,hax .t~cl~H6n ~han trong c6ng xii mau h¢, hoac la the hien c1 sl! khang dinh vai tro va quyen hrc ella nguoi te)c tnrong,

Nghien ctru mot s6 si'r thi, theo each tL1c1ng nrong cua cac ngh~ nhanke khan, slJ' bienchuy~n ella xii hoi vtrot ra ngoai khuon kh6 c;6ng xii truyen thong d~vl1an tai sir hinh thanh dan toe trong dai gia dlnh dantoe Viet Nam. S,! kien Ian lao d6 diroc th~ hien 6 hlnh tuqng giadlnh Khinh 06 chia cac be) phan tro~g hrai guam than cho cac the he tu .t!:Uang 01 " Xay dt!ng buon lang 6 cac mien cua ddt mroc'', Ngum ongKhinh 06 gitra than gua,ro, cam dau be) phan dan lang a lai xay dung vung Tay Nguyen. NguOi bac la Trong Dan giucanguom, cam dau b<) phan dan lang di len xay dung vung Lao. NgL1m chau la Dam T~i gi11' vo guam earn dau b¢ phan dan lang di xuong vung d6ng bang xay dung bu6n lang va trtrthanh . ngiroi Kinh.ngay nay (Sir thi Khinh 06). Neu tnroc day cacanh hung Dam Xan, Xinh Nha, Dam Di can chien ddu trong pham vi chat hep ella cong xii truyen th6ng, thl gio day cac nhan v~t anh hung Khinh Du, Tr6ng Dan, Dam Thi dil chien ddu va xay dl!l1g bu6n lang trong qui m{) clla ca ce)ng d6ng ~an tC)c Vi~t Nam, du cho qui m6 ay m6i duclc phac thao chii' chua duqc m6 ta vm nhi~u chi tiet cu th~. Han mia, moi quan h~ ay con phat trien sang ca dan t6~

Ling gi6ng. nhL! dan t<)c Uta nLi'a. L.

80

Nhtn chung lai, sir thi Tay Nguyen eta trai qua mot qua trinh phat tfi~n, c6 th~ phan fa thanh nhj~u 1(1')") khac nhau .. Lap lac pharn c6 xira nhat duqc sang tac ra nham ca ngci viec xay dung xa h<)i cong d6~g, til mau h¢chuy~n· sang phu he. Sau d6, trong qua trlnhphar tJi~n lich sir, cac lap tac pbam xuat hien muon han phan anh va ca ngoi vi~c pnat tri~n xii h¢i cong xii tniy~n thong thanh dfui t¢c trong. dai gia dlnh dan t<)c Vi¢t. Nam. Qua hlnh nrong lum guam thiefrg trong str thi ta tha:y cac ngh~ sy k€ khan co trf tuang trreng rat d<)c dao, H9 huang tri luang urong d6 vaosu sang tao nghe thuat co y nghia khai quat rdt sau sat:

SI! ph at tri~n til xii h¢i cong d6ng tie'n len dan tC)c dircc dieh ra trong hoa blnh chtr khong phai thong qua chien tranh thon tfnh nhau. Va s,! phat trien thanh dan t¢c d6, von xuat phat tilm<)t ngu6n g6c chung, khong phai tir nhirng thanh phan khac biet nhau, xa l~ vai nhau mfUlITrm¢t c¢ngd6ng cac dan t¢c ngiroi anhern co s6ph~n gan b6 cli~t'cllev6'i rihsutrcng qua trlnh lich sUo

* * *

M¢t noi dung quan trong dircngnhu c6 tfrih chat chu dao tc>at len luhauhe't cac taepham,Jn{)t am dieu n6i b~t mang y nghi.axa h<)i - lichsir 1(rn clla cac sir thi la ca ngoi cac chieh cong cua nhan v~t anh hung tren chientnrong, ca ngoi nhifug chien tich oanh liet cua ho trong-viec mtia khiendo dao vm'ke thu, d~ bao v~ xii h¢i cong d6ngclla minh. Nhirng se la thieu s6t, neu chung ta khong de cap tm mot n<)i dung khac, cling khong kern phan quan trong khi nghien cuu sir thi anh hung: 0.6 la chien cong lao dong, ciing khong kern phan hao hung ~Y vy cua cac nha.n v~t anh hung. Nhfrng chie'n c6ng lao d<)ng b6 sung cho nhung chie'n c6ng 0 chien truang. t~o nen buc tranh trQn Vyn ve ho~t d<)ng clla ngum anh hung. Va ciing do d6, t~o nen n<)i dung ho~m chinh, ve dyp hai hoa cuacac ban si'r thi.Th6ng thuCmg, sau khi d[ an mUng Ie chien thang chinh ph~c duqc ke

81

'.ffm~ Jake' tie'p den viec nhan vat anh h una ch - .vie

,~~~y,~?ng ,?h6n vinh,h<;lnhphuc cua ~~n~;: 10 ~?cx.a7 d~g "'~.~.~fVI~e nayIa canh chiao lang tim d""', di . ng. et 4i.en~~H

, , h' "..' a i xay dungIs ,d

..tac P )im d~ qanh nhirnz .. doan .. ke d " d'" h" .: ang tn~h

A " " -'AO ..• • . aI, ay ao hung d'· "

. C~JI)g vlI?q co Y ng. hia toan da 'd> T.' .• "ef\~J

Add' . . .,. ,an .. 0.· .long su thi ' h;,i

~~(} .. n. at en rmrc khac .hoa sinh ·d.A.n·· .,,' h· _ ...' ,co;1!J1w.orU

b ' . ' •. ug vO'! n u 'h·T

~~n la,ng d~ng YUi,f¢n di trong tha~h blnh: ,ii c~,n xA:: d~g

~~ ngan~~pam nguci uon xa doc mot _ ' , ~C1I ~guC1l c~ S<;lp. Ire, Ho. lam d n.g.·a' v ca dem ·'iI. ·k'h ?,am nguoi khac cbira Jai.

-,' .• ,. J vm Van ' ong D- . ",

de? lai, cat sai xa thi cat lai, Chun·· .' ..•.. ,~ong .. _eo sai c9t.~

bC1I dUoi ruroc, ve con soc'd b gq.ua,nh C?ti)l} ve can ca dang

hinp ehim Kotraodang hot a~r diY nh~y Iren, ~A~ va ve cacanh hinD tran, hinh.ran u6nmin; .... ,,(I)n, phfa .ngoat tam phen, ho ve

, Nhirng con nguCri lao don duoc "

Rhi la nhimg con ngU'ai cua~gg tnl~gc. n:? t~ trang, sirthi khong

ng}m. H9 con Ia nhftng con n~ai dl~6C? s~ckh~e ph~ npi bat thich mo phong thea thien n~en dira n:- thirc ,hu~~g. v~'cal dep, thu.9c trong thien nhien Y' t' l1?g net dien hinh, quen

. ao rong cuoc song h' "

d kha h'~ :!:,. • u ang ngay cua ho.

a ;t 1 u ,cho khac nhau, canh dichat doi " . , -'

... r(}nrang, nao mrc that la hu- .b" ' . A may, canh di san

, d .' n ng at ea lao dong ira hi ,

.:'-f.ml .. ~ dach!~ tho: "Ho b"t 'r: '.. • •. . v,ua ung trang

1 " . bi , " ..,~ ,c,on vOld\ltll dai nga A h-

. ~l VOl . l~t keu .va co nga cham.da' " ..... .> ryng: n ung

b~;,con, voicai thang banh . A t. Can ~Ol,?l!C, ho bac banh

Clmn D- 0' . " . . may, can VOl cal bac -ba h t

_ ..•. ,g . am .1 g91 dan lang ra di H h n re ...

q,eQ, dao mac nhu bong lau t' hI. . 9 t e,o dtrongcong, dirong ~ennhu trai rnuftn tre " ,ac, c~ung no nhu nhanh cay, 6ng

N ' ,~t' n glan va rau cam h .'. d"

gum d6ng nhu ki~n nhu 6' _ 9 m9c al nhu rau ngo.

nghin nguGi di sau .. ," (2) m I, m9t tram nguGi di tru6c, mOt

Theo cach rno ta cua n u" h'

khong chi la canh dAn lang l. ~ ng A ~ n?an sang tac su thi, day

la nhiing hinh anh s6ng dtm~ s~~ "m~1 cac? bi~h th?Gng, rna day

_----:-.-- ~_._.' ac o~ ca ,0191 doan quAn trung

(t)T

III ~Ong ca Tay Nguyen, tr. 490 - 491

82' S3.ch da dan - tr. 95 - 96.

trung diep di~p,keo di diiy khLthc nhudolU1 quan di fa chien truong v~y. Phong each anh hung ca trong ng.h¢ thll~tmo ta nguai anh hung trong chien d!u cung duoc ngum ngh¢ sy dan gian van dung de mo ta nguai anh hung trong lao dqng san xuat.

Ngum nghe thuat nhan kekhan lam ngum doc kinh ngac bi~t baa ve. sl,f ,giau co. cua nui rung Tay Nguyen, qua vai net phac l~i dtu v~t cua bao th~ h~ nguO'i .disan taigioi tn.r6c kia con luu lai: "Vao rung nho th!y diiy nhimg xuong k<J 101lg~ vao rirng 16n th!ych!l day xuong nai, vao mien Lay .. gia xU(1ng .thii vat diiy tran, khong con noi naoJha chanx.u6ng".(}) .jvl~c du thu rung bi baa lap nguai xua .san,t)at nJ:ti~u~huv~y nlllffiS- 4o~n nguoi di san trong ,sir thi yin *u411qc.!<-~1 qlla th~t. ~aph9I),gpQu .. Ngay nay, nghe lai cimbdi sa~, tJ."9n,g,,¢c,pl1a.w,.kh~ngai !WOng lay lam thichthu va W hao ve. nui b~C~g,v~g..,l1\y.N'gllX~Il:

"Khinrr Du san can te ghk dlly silo, ban con voi day Ian; con can soc, can chuot, con khi, can vuon thl nhi~u ~~tkh()ngJC.ue nita. N ga voi simg te giac xep thanh d6ng. Thit, hirou nai phcri dlly gian ,,(2) • Trang hoan canh sil.O..v~t cua thien nhien con kh~ d6i dao, sungtuc nhu vay, con nguro songv6inhau con mang nhieu tinh nghia cong d6ng sau d~tn n~ay d6iy6i nguOi n6 l~,. t{)i to ciing v~y. N~p song urong than,tu(mgai d6thehi~n ngay trong each chang Trong Dam .chia qVit thuc, sau khi di san ve.: ',',d ban Dam Pora Molo? ban hay dem.thl,t.va rau ,chia. cho dan lang. Nha nhieu nguCri chia nhieu. nhajt llg~m ~hi~iL .Con no l~ lang ta b~n dt phcin tim gan cho h9 dem nay, NhUn~ nha goa b1,la khong eh6ng, d6ng can, b~n chonhieu hon b~n a.-" 3) •

Hoa nhip v6i bai ca lao dqng ca ngqi ca.nh dong vui, ao ~t dlly khf the cua cac chang trai ~isan btm, di ch~t d9t mAy ... tren nui cao, trong rUng gia la nhiing bai ca dlly thi vi ta dnh cae co

(1) TruOng ca H,y Nguyen tr. 100 (2) sach da dan, tr, 206

(3) sach da dan, tr, 325.

83

gai di ~ai rau, di hat ca yen su6i, yen s6ng. Doi lap V()1 canh sat phat dam mall b ehi€n tnrang ia ·cann rung miilinh mich yang n)n tieng ellaj vui, ve, h6n nhien cua cac c{j gai. huon lang: "0 day mal c6 rang tre true, tre nga, mm nghe ti€ngcllOi cac co gal hai rau hai ben ba s6ng. Gitra long song co nhiing chiee thuyen n~nva"~;m! lr~ len xuong. &~ ,nay latieng cacclY g<ii ngllaj kinh cirot tren bC1, hen kia nghe tieng cac c6 gai di bua lUm chai. R63. tf6~g thay cac c6gai tre manggui di hai rail dang doc bo sum, hat rau epong doc bo song Rava hai rau lucri con nai tren ha s6ng Hing, s6ng Bue ... ,,(I) • Si.'r thi da dira ta di khap mien dal Ta~ Nguyen~ vrti nhi~ugiaidi~u the hien nhiing khung canh khac nhau: ,tlt cung bac hao hung, khde khoan ciia nhip dieu lao dong san ban tren vung cao, den giai dieu nhenhang em ii cua nh~~g ~ai t.h"C1 lao d9~g,vui nroi dAy ch«t the1 Ct vung s9ngmrac duoi thap, tiep can val vung ell tni cua nguai Kinh anh em.

" Nhu,ng. canh lao d9ng rna a dotae c6 gai phat huy vai tro v~ ;ru t~e :ua mlnh ro ret nha:"t cole Ia canh lao d¢ng nuong dy. Chinh a day, ta thuang nghe yang len- tienghat lanh lot cua cac co gai dep cua buon lang, d~c biet Ia tienghat du6i chim: "0 Iii chim nghiec, chriden h6t a day! cJbay chim. kalia,chaden keLJ nu~mg .lUa eua tal Liia ke ta chim de ta lam gi6ng, lua bola ta ehla,?e}a n~oi ch~n(tr~i. di .s[m ·b~n. ~g()ai kia .. ;,,(2). R6 r~ng ngll(1~ h~t. k~onff ChI n?l ~~ ~hlm. Ma tieng hat duoi chim chang q~a la ~al co de co ~ih ~U; gao; tam tlnh cua .mln.h tm con ngiroi mm~ _hang mon~ .ur,:: Tl~ng h~tily I<?0~g chi th~ hien moi quan h¢ g~ua ~on ?~um VO'I th~~n ~~len rna no can tM hien m6i quan h¢~ sau ~~? ~llIa ~?n. ngu~m v~ e0!1 ngiroi. N6 chinh Ia tieng hat t~~m }h~~t~cu~.tral tI~, lam c~ubac ~ilia cac chang trai anh hung ~(~1 cac. co gal th~~en,~uyen , nh~ (1 dAy la tieng hat nang Hbia ES~ll xlO,h d~p gl1I to'l chang tra1 Tr6ng Dam tai gioi (khan

Khuih Du) ... .

'(1) '1' 'T'

: , rmmg ca ay Nguyen tr. 95

U sach ria dan, tr. 297

84

Nhir vay ben canh nhirng lIi)i dung mang am dieu haohu?g th~ hien tfnh chilt anh hima ca,·s\t thi anh hung Tay Nguyen con c6 nhfrne. noi dune. vdi sUhai hoa am dieu em <l,nen tho th~ hien

. tinh chat t1~h ca. 'bi nhi'en ti I~ gilia nOi dung co tinh chat anh hung ca va tinh ea trong de ban sir thi ~h6n.g p~ai .ho~UI t,oan ~i6ng nhau. Sa di nhu vay la do cac yell Call ve ehu de nr nrong, ~~ noi dune. phan anh cua 1116i tik phttl11 c6. uhirng net khac hi¢t nhau nhill~linh. Lam nen cho cacn<)idung xii hQi lich sir trcn day, la nOi dung sinh h()~t CU~l cU9C song muon mau muon ve. b buon lang cua cac dantoe Jay Nguyen:. Tir nhirng canh xay dung buon lang d6ng vui den nhimg canh "an ~am u6ng t~al~( ron di tieng trong,tieng chieng ngal~ yang hau,nhu pho ble~. khap cac ban str thi. Ben canh d6, nhimg tuc I~ e6 xira duoc ghi lai kha s6ng d<)ng.qua nbirng Ie "bo.ma" tien dua hon nguaj ch~t v~ the gicri ben .kia, hoac nhftng I~ cu{,i xin dilynhfrng tuc I¢ kY· thu cua nhfrngc~ptraitai gai sal: ....

*

* *.

Tir trong cuoc song phong phti ay, tir trong cuoc dau .tranh xa hoi nhieu khi gay g~t n5 lira Yang dong buon lang Dong Tay ay, n6i len hlnh anh nhirng con nguoi ki~t suat, nhfrn~ ch~ng trat tai nhu Dam Xan, Xinh Nha.Trong Dam, Dam ru, Sing Ma Nga, Dam Droan ... nhirng co gai sac v~ dam, dang .nhlt H(! B~f, He! Nhf Hbia san, Prac. Hie (Khan Khmh Du), Hbia Blao, Brae Etan (Dam Di) v .. V ••• La trai, ho 10. nhiing con nglt{ri.suc khoe phi thuoog,day tai nang va long dung cam,thlhi~~ chang nhftn~ trong nghiep khien dao rna ca trong nghe sa~. ha~, ~rong c6~g viec mrong diy. Ul gai; h9 la nhi1ng ct~n ng.uC11 cO s~c dyp ~n d6i "may nuae sao troi con kern thua, dcn nt}) huau nal tren rltt1g va trai kh6n trong huon lang cung phiti ng~y, ng~t, l~ngy,en .dung .ngam ". D6 la nhung nMn v~t trung tam cua cae han su thl. H9

85

~ tMu cho sire lire, (oan. h9.ta .. i nang, y' chi-va lr1'Ct'lA ,.,'

rn.7Ilgcac da to' Tt.· N . '. . .• C cua

,c' , n ; c ay guyen, Nhii'ng con ngui'ri.d6\ruflltr

~. k~t, !lIlh :UC:'A1<,l!1~ cua t~p the, vita la bhiu rtJrtfto·.u"'lkA.i .... ~ ... ·CC ttl'lmg tMm my va dao duc cua'thai dai,

''>'''fa'tea cacsir kienlffil' " . .i

anhhun: d~u tA" . 'c • cac n91 dung quantrong 'CU3;\SU'ttIk,

g ap chung xoay quanhcac nhan va "I an' hi' .':( .... i'.

ti't'''''~ " A hi , c lUJU~"dy'"

,,-'<I.e ,cuVe c 'Ien tranh ban 'Ie xa h()i cona d6 . :d~ .~. ' .;'

ttanh giai phon "T ,. h'" " ' t:' .' ng ncuoc Chl~1

.' '. '. A ,g 1 a t u cho cha, e\rtl·lhoat: eho me'i,. ·h· dei .'l..

coog~u9c lao d9ng hoa binh xuy dirne.buo r" ',.' c ~~ WJ ann 'hungayhtiu het HI t' t.·' 'h' .~.~', n aoS'" Cae nhanv~ Itt', d h .' .' ,u IAuO'ng• O<;lC 1a conchau cac tu til1(m~l

~g . an , l:amdAu cac cong xii truyen thJ'{ , '0' -.. ,Eo'"

t~.,buon Yi.ng ha.u n~u chua co Sl!eachbie~~1' •... I~a h<;> va .~~pi nht8um61quan he gao b6kh' th an . " CA' a nhieu. H9 con! ~tM)d'" ,..... • . a, U' g' xuyen va'khd'chateh(HI~

c. / on~. 'Pi,nh t~an dan ehu, y.thuc' tap the lh~hienkh" '5\ quan xuyen hau het cac mal hoat dA. .' . ,'. r . '.' " a r .';1 d6ng: tir viec lao dong mrona ra·y. d9:g t.r~oftkg ,dm s6ngcua:cQrtgt tht h . . '- t:' ,I;;n vtec eo nhau di danh k'

,,~, .'ho~e .~hia chien .Iqi pham, hoac x~ toi k6 dich I an MN~ quan ~ gum nhan vat anh h' ci ~ t «: ",: v. v.... ot

Ho~t, em dep, eho nen sir n ~~: \ 1. tap the la ~olqllan h~ hai

. cuangu(ri ann hung d6n' th~l. ~ o'.l~ dQng, ~hung chien cong: eua t~p tht, thehien suc -mg h ~ulx:g 1~ s,! n.ghl~p va chien eong .

. an va y tirong cua cong d6ng. -

*

* *

Nam trong cac M thtlng cac str thi h ,,' ~~y~guye'n can co h~ng loat cae'tac I h~~ hung, cac da~ t~ cleng khae cua nh~n dan. N :um B N p., ,quen thuQc van61 Tu, Me Xet... N um X(1 ~ . ,a ,a e.o e~e. H(1 m6ng. DtJng

Mooong e6 cae ;u thi Dii~ar:~~ (~:~ SU th~ Tam Til!h, Nguai' nMn v~t ehinh cua cac su th' , t', ha~lg Tranf, .. ; H. fiu het cae

I'.' , . I nay an trng nguffi anh 'h' .. ' v tUO'ng sue nla h ' , h" - ung mano J. • . n va y e 1 eua cac dan toe baa ve ~ . . to

dong dong gop vai tro tIch cue eua ho vih') ~l' ec th; xdaA'hQI c9hn,g . . . lie ay st! P at

M

f

I

\ tritn cu. x. hl)i c¢ng d6ng .. di.Mnhlt mang lai cuoc song ~m no , vui nroi cho cong d6ng. Nguai Cham code sU thi anh hung nhu 1 CMmf, Cha Lim (hO~C Talim, tuy theo giong phat t\mclla lung

vimg ), co cong giup dan diet gi~e cun !1u~k: sir thianh hung ('hay Axft, Chay Prong, veri nhftng nhan. v~t.anhh~ngda lap

11 hieu chien cong hien hach va hysinh C1 chien tnrong Tay 1\:guyen, ola ngay nay a day con di tich t6n tho, urong niern. I\guO'i Khome co str thi Si Thach kha gan glii v6i truy~n Thach Sanh ella ngum Viet; va'thien sir thi n6i ti~ng Riem Kien; khai

lluktu anh hung ca Ramayana cua An Dq,Thien str thi nay ke h.ti eU(K doi oanh li¢t ella Hoang Tu Ricn tiic Rarna, nhaeD stf f.iup da ella tUtln~ khi Hanuman tai gi6i ctiil~pnhung chien cong vang doi, tieu di~t ke thu:la chua qui Riep(tae Ravana ella An D9), de giai phong nguai yeu'la nang Xita.: Nh~n v~t anh hung Riem vira tht hil?n longdlingcam ella nhfm dan, vira tieu hi~u cho long tu thi~n dao duceua n¥rt dan Khome (it nhi6u chiu anh huang ellaj,thue _h~Ph~tugia()vad~o'Balatn6n)dilu tranh de chien thangke' thu tan. b~o,d~idi~n cho' cai ac trong' :d. h9i. Do la net khac bi~t ve ccr sotUtUC1rlg tit~p thu tun~ll'v.an hoa ('I ben ngoai cua str thi anh hung Ri6m KieIi euanguaiKhmne, so v6i sir thi dan gian ella cac dan tge anh emkhaccongan kha chat vci truyen thong van hoa dan tQc Ct him dia. Su thi anh hung· Riem Kien ella ngam Khchne thuemg duoc cac dQi ngh~ th.u~t. nhan dan Di ke mang ra dien tu6ng san kha'u, ph6 bien va duoc d~c bi9t yeu thich a cac Phum. Ngoai ra, no con duqc minh hoa

b cac cong trmh dieu kbac a de chua chien.

Cung v6i h~ th6ng su thi anh hung ella cae dan tQc it nguai [rang Nam, cae dan tge ft nguai a mien Bae ding c6 lac phfim dQe d{w ella mlnh, Dan tge KhO'mu cling cO tae phfim nbi lieng

nhll ban su lhi ChuO'ng Han. d day co m<)t di~u d1ng d.n neu len va lam sang to la: ngay nay ca nguoi Thai l~n nguai KhO'mu deu xem bim str thi Chuang Han lil di san van hoa tinh thlin ella minh. Di~u do xay ra Hi mQt di~u UtI nhien, do qua trinh bien

R7

chuyen trong lich sa cac dantoe ngui'1i Tay Hac. Ngui'1i Khomu vein cu trti a Lao, nhl1ng do 'Sv:t;(~Il d<)ng l!~hsltcua quoc gia phong kie'n L~ln )(~n{{bi·ph'anIYtMmhd.cti~U quae, trai qua hO<;1 xam 1 ucJe cua phong kie'n Xiem vao the' ky XVII - X IX) nen m¢tb0ph~n .quan trong dildi err sang Viet Nam. Den Tay Rae, nguai Kh(1h1ug~p nguai Thai la dan 19c chu yeu cir tru t1 day. qua qua trinh c¢ng cu, hai dan tC)c anh em d5 hoa hop vao nhau moteach tv nhien. Qua trinh hoa hqp dan t¢ed6 dan den qua trinh hoa hcJt> van ho&,trong d6 c6 nhfrng di san vanhoa da tro thanh tai san chung cua hai dan 19c anh em. Sir thi 'Chucng Han lil m01 hi¢n tuong kha lieu hi~u cho qua trinh hoa hcp do. Tinh tiet cua su thi xoay quanh nhan v~t trung tam la Chuang Han (hoac con c6 len goi la Khun Chuong, hoac Chirong Noi), Chuong Han v6n la con trai ut cua Troi. Vi uong ba6ng, chong d6i vei vua -Troi rna Chu<1T1g Han aa .bi d~yxu6ng triin. DAu thai vao mot gia dinh 1l9; chang mang ten ,13 Chmmg Nqi 1a m9t chang trai c6 sue manh phi lhrrcmg,. I~l. mot: vi·· fuang thien nghe cung kiern.ilam chu dl1QC vu<khf thdn ky<cuamlnh.ChuC1ng Han da hacay than "co chuongco.hae" xu6ngd~ lAy City· kiem than, linh thieng,mAkhofig co:at ,ltty dm;td Nghe lin nurong ban bi giac ngoaixam uy hiep; €hU'CtngHan'cum:voi;ctit quan didanh giac, cUugiupmtrOngb~n. V6i:taingh¢ va long dung cam ella minh.Khun Chirong da danh tanquan gi~c. Tan binh giacchay len muang. troi, du ciru Then Lo. Than nayda ren dtic ra m9t d9i quan dong vo k~, ky hlnh di nnrng mot mat 16i g91 la Men Ta Thot, danh lai Khun Chuang. Tuy quan It han, nhirng Khun Cmrong khong h~ nao ruing. mot mlnh ta xung hitu d¢t,di¢t baa nhieu gi~c. Cudi cung ca voi va nglrOi ng~p trong he mau, Chirong chet. Nhung long utit uc khong nguoi, chang lai tiep tuc len danh nhau voi Then La tren troide hoi toi than nay v~ viec di'i giup giac durn iran danh chang. ca miroi hai than tren troi hiep nhau lai danh Chuong. Mac dir vay, chang danh tan ca muoi mc)t muong trai, chi can m6i mirong cua Then Vi. Vua trm thay nguy eel Khun Chuang dong den ngai vang cua y, nen cho than chien tranh la Then in ra dan hoa. Nhung Khun Chuong

88

, Truyen Chirong Han von la mc)t truyen thuye] (I) di'i diroc c~c ~gh! nh~nd~n La? va Thai tiep thu, xay dung lai thanh b~rt sa }hl d~y :nau s,ae than ky; Tuy vay, chua phai nhandan dil kef thuc qua tnnh sang tao, bo sung sir thi Chuonz Han, trailai ho

'- ..

(l) Duqc ghi chep trong be sir bien niencua Vudng quoc Lao cd dai

Xieng Xen V& nhau d~ Iii. Thao Hung, 111~O Chirong, xin ;em: .

- Phurni ';'ongvichit, Vaynhacon Lao (Ngii phap Lao) bang chi! Ut~.

NXB NeLao Hac xsr, 1987.

5-197;~ (5 Quang. Nhon: Nen win h9C truyen tMag Lao .. Iap chi van h9C s6

89

#~~titfptl}C b6 sung, thay d6i mot ''-'h' . A' ,

till ..... }' , ' • so I,; 1 ttet cho rhi ih h ;.,

~ .. y va nguyen v9ng cua rnlnh. . I,; \TfJ V(Jli

. .' Vf ~I:I ~hl1 d6i vai cai chet cua Chuon ' Han c ," ~.

n~tu nO'1 ke khac nhau: c6 noi khc "g" hang han, COl

."bung che:t ngap trona b~ n1a'11 cu 'I °kl~gd~h!U d,e cl:n I~h~n v~t anh

1.:A' ~ , 1:" ,,< e ich ma lai ke - h'

Guct Him liet tren dfiu voi trona kh' " hi ' e rang cant Hoac c6 di' ban cho l'a'nO 'eha' L.' hi, grao ~ len ac li~t vai ke thu:

, . • ~ ng nhay xuc • ,

C?tt, , minh thi chlm nh~ng diu vin " onJ song n,lI('fl~ n6~lg ma

hl~n duoc, vat len d('\t Nh'" ....... g I' l,elI ~Ol.,D() do ke thu phal

.' ,UIl ap ire cal ctr 'CI

no tung. gie:t sach ke thu dan " dd au cua .lUl1ilg Han

Y' }<., I ' g ng xung quanh d6t lira

a nnn nrong Chuons Han co fA' ..'"

manh me trong 10~H! nhan ~rln N ~. l~P ~l}c song. mOt each

hi <." gum ta sans ta bi " b

n leu cau chuyen truvcn thu .'1 A h ,1:", .0 ra let ao

,. . ye VI;; n an vat nay Nha d' ,

rmrong Xai (huyen Thuan Ch A ti h S ',2 ~ ,an an a co mO Chironz Han V~ co' daa_Uy 1Il,. band~a) ke rang 0' day con

• <.' nut a au chi h r h"

cuabaanh em Chircnz Han h 'k'A' , .~ 10 a l~ntl¢n rtmg hlnh anh hoa m; net vanoa ,le~:. Va nhl~u noi nhan dan" tin

Qlua he chinh la hlnh a~rlh "' nhac tieng ve sau keu "ve ve" van

, " <. eua n ac ngua " Ch

aanh gl~c hoa ra .. ." II) " cua irong Han fa tran

TiJ: hien thuc cua cuoc son " h ~ d' .'

truag, chat 19C, ~a dun tM ~, n an an, ea~ dan IQC dii t~p

quat ky vi. Hinh t~C1n~ :h!' nh;. hl~h tl1<!?g S,l! thl mang tfnh khai '

s6ng~rong long nh&n c, dan a:i~~ t1O~~~ Sl1t~l quay Ira lai tiep tuc CI:I the sinh dong do nha n d' t~:' tiep nh~n them sue song moi

h' h.n« an lep tuc b6 . h ' ,

.m " tl1C1llg dii diroc CC') du Q' " sung, pavao trona • ." . c. ua tnnh d' I' . . -, ...

kMn~n~Ung,mang tfnh qui luat cua sa 0 ~ ,qu_a tnnh sang tao

Cl;l. th~, sinh dong dinh h' h kh·'· , ng rae van h9C dan aian:

_ • '. III al quat TiJ: ',' , •

nhung nhan vat anh hun • ~.n ' ,,' " ca,e tac pham ca ngoi

cae ta' h,2' ,g _'6 bo. VO'I eU9c song cong d6 de:

e p am ea ngql nhl1ng liMn vat a h h' " ng, n

mr6'c, dam dung l~n chong d6i Ult ." :r n~. ung ~ho vua giup

.th, e cung nhl1 tr~n coi thAn l' h) cact:3e, th.e. It!c th6ng tr~ (b tran

• • Cl III -" 0. la ca mot " ,

fn~n phong phu eua si.'r thi.' 'da A ~ , " qua tnnh phat cae n tc)c, gan lIen vfri nhG'ng di~u

m Nfr- '

llmg truycn thuyct nay do nha~ sv To N' ,'1'1'

. ". gl,l" l<lllh cung cap

90

kien xii h()i, lich slr khac nhau va llblrng nhu diu ur lU(fng th~m my Kha.c nhau (:1 cac dan tQc.

Nhf!ng dieu kien xa hoi, lich sir va nhfcng nhu cau ur tl11mg, tham my tao nen nhf!ng net khac bi~t ve nOi dung cling nhu ve phongiCach ngh~ thuat trong de nhom si.'rthi khac nhau cua cac dan tQc anh em: hoac 1a can mang dam daci3:hcua van hoa dan gian; ho~c la ben earth truy6n thong dan gian da chiu anh hl1<1ng nhi~trho~c It cua Y thirc h~ thongtl'r duzmg thai; ho~e la tren cd s8cua truyen thong dan gian ban dia oac6 tiep thu, chin anli hl1drig cua <; thac h~ tit ben ngoai vao, qua qua .tdnhgiao ltru van hoi.Cung vai th~lOi~i van hoc dfln ginn' khac\caoUlcph~msu thi -anh hung (nhu Riem Kien,Chuong Hah, va eaeHlcph~m knac}UI. nhil'ng chung tfch vanh9c ngh¢ thuat rH'li len m9t each Cl:l1he, song d¢ng moi quan h¢ vast! giao luu van hoa phong phu giira de dan tQe anh em 8 Vi~t N am cimg vai cac dan tOe Lao va KhO'o'le anh em tren ban GaO Dong Dl1dl1g,'cungnhU vaj cae dan

t¢t khac viing Dong Narrt A.

*

* *

Nh'in mot each t6ng quat,' nOi dung hi~n thuc, I1?i dung xal hOi 1a mat chu y~u, 1a m~t nhat quan, neli bat trong cac sir thi anh hung. Nhung ben c~nh d6 con c6 'n1¢tye:u t6 khac t6n tai xen ke, lan 1Qn vao trong nQi dung ily, kh6ng th~ nao khong d~ c~p tCJ1 trong khi nghien cUu cac i.'r thi. D6 la yeu to thlin Iinh, 1a vai tro cuath:ln thanh tfong cae slr thi. Trong" khan Dam Xfm, nhanv~t 6ng G6n (tuc la ('mg trm cua ngl1ai Ed~) da d6ng vai tro kh quan tr9ng. Chinh 6ng 06n da can thi~p, daep bUQc Dam Xa phai lily hai ch! em Ha Bhl, Hcf Nh\. Trang nhi~u si.'r thi kha , van d!p c6 nhung st! ki~n quan trc;mg, cae nha.n v~t anh hun thl1ang du vi~n de:n sl,! phu trq cua than hnh: trl1CK khi xuilt qu n ra tr~n, ho~c sau khi chie:n thtmg ke otch tro v6, cac 'nhan v~t an

91

hu~g thirong t5'\ chiic If ciing (H)ng th~ MI<;t (11\ cac than Nih, than Song, than Dat, than NI1<lC, than tren cao, than c!tt(ri thap

v.v ....

, ~hlr vay then each phan anh ella no, Slr (hi cho ta (hay rang. t1~an 1.I~h c.~n thiep vao cuoc ~ong. cua eon ng.lraj. Hoac tham gia van viec dieu hanh tucle, the che xii h()i. Ho~c tham gia vao su thanh bai trong eong cuoc dau tranh sinh t61l cua con nguoi c6 dai ... Do la nhirng han che' khong th~ nap iranh khoi cua slr thi (cung nhu hau het cac I,ll' phfim van hocdan gian, cal' dan t6e trong qua klur). Nhirng han che do ganJi~nYl1i tuduy 1..'6 XU'il g~a e~e dan t()c. ,Trollg nep III duy do, nl¢t m¥ nay sinh nhirng yeu 16 duy vat hon nhien chat phac ella con ngl1ai lao d¢ng bwlc d&u nhan thirc thien nhien va chinh phuc thien nhien; nhung mat khac lai virong phai nhirng yeu t6 duy tam than bi, phan~n'h trinh d¢ san xuat con thap kern, su hi~u hiet .nhUngqui lulU cua lh~en nhien v~ xii h¢i con bi nhiing h<;m ch6 tat yeu. Do ia hai rn~t n~.au. ~?Uan, nh.l1ng lai thong nhat v6i nhau trong mot 16ng the the gio: quan cua nhfrng tac gia dii sang lao ra cac su thi mot th.6 giai quan duy vat nroi sang hao hung, kh'~ng dinh srrc manh cU~ .. ngtrc1i l~o d9?g !ren?tro~ dtrm:~ di len cua cong xa trong hu?,! rang dong cua Itch su; dong tho'l lai la met the' gioi quan it nhieu co tfnh chat duy tam than bi cua nhfrng con llgtraicon bi de nang duai nhirng mang bong toi cua thuc tai rna ho can to ra s9 hili, VI chua kharn pha n6i. Neu chi riha~~ manh 'mot chieu mat duy vat trong tlif gilli quan tren day. khong sao tranh khoi su cuang. di~u theo htrang "hien dai hoa, It nhieu phi lich su . N~l!ae lai neu x~rn nhe hoac bo roi mat duy v~t rna thciiph6ng m<;lt duy tam than bi ,thl kh6ng sun lranhkhoirai vao h6 ton giao hoa sang tac su thi nhu truangphai th§.n lho<;ti dii mac phai.

Tren day la nhin m¢t each khai quat. Nhl1ng di van cu tht! phan tich cae lac ph<lm Slr thi vai tro clla veu (6 than linh tat nhien I~li co SI! thay ddi, c6 51! bien chuy~n, tuy theo 51! quy dinh

92

cua dieu kien xii hOi trong cac su thi. Ngay trong khan Dam Xan, nhan vat anh hung nay khong chiu cam him khuatphuc tnroc ap lire. du nang nf ella than linh. Anh ta dil dam dUng len chong d6i than linh m91 each quyet .li¢1: ho~c lachang ngang nhien don cay thdn Xmuk ella chi Col Hc.Bhl, Her Nhi, mac du no l~ dii bao cho biet va v9 chang da can ngan. Hoac la chang ca gan doa "chatca dau troi" neulrai khong lam theo y muon cU.(l chang. Cao hem nira la nhan vMDarn Xan con dam di chinh phuc ca nv than Mat Troi, Vdi hlnhurong n6i tieng la Prornte len trm lay lira "la ngtrai dau tien dii tuan liet trong lich Slr triet h9C "v] hanh phiic loai nguai "(liri cua Mac) fll dil lamrurc long bao the he cac nha nghien ciru va sang tac, thl trong sir thi .Tay Nguyen, hlnh nrong Dam Xan can trl1ang dung cam di chinh phuc nii than M~t Troi d~nlll'l1 du tl! do, hanhphiic va SI! gitiu co cho.rnlnh va cho cong d6ng. D6 la .fi19t hanh OQng dang kham phuc cua con ngI1Cri,m¢t bieu hien vira cao cave. m{lt dao .dirc, vira dep de ve rn~t thAm my, dang diroc ca ngoi den chUng naol Tir ch6. iJt I~ thuoc vao the gioi than linh, bi than thanh chi ph6i, khong ep, con nguai da viron len chong doi lhA'n linh, han theconb~~u19 y

chi va sire manh chinh phuc than linh niia. .

Y chi <.tau lranh ella con ngtrm vuon len d~ che ng,! thien nhien, d~ khang dinh V! tri ella mlnh trong xii h91, 1'0 rang da dOi manh vao Slr thi; dong hrc va sue rnanh do cang ngay cang han che, Ian at di\n lac dung vao vai tro ella than Iinh. Tan s6 xuat hien ngay cang giam sut cua hlnh urong than linh trong sil thi th~ hien kha ro dieu do, Neu .. trong khan Dam Xsn, ong06n tnrc tie'p "eh6ng heo" xu6ng ban b<;te. dl!ng vq ga chOng vm chi.em Ha Bhf, Ha Nh{, h9ae t11!c tiep "go ong die'u vao d~u " gay sue ep vm Dam Xfln. Thl "en khan Y Ban, ong ta. chi xuat hi~n mi}t cach hu ao qua giac rna ella nang Hloan rna th6i .va eho den

, khan Y Prao thl khong tM~y6ng G6n xuat hi¢n mia. 0 dAy chan

(] I K. Maeva F. Engghen. v6 vtlll hfX' va ngh¢ lhu~t. NXB SI! th~t-Ha N<)i 1958, tr. 2 \.

93

ry:~gh.~thu~t dLl thang the vai tro hu an lieu cue cua thsn linh (di iiHien iiI. chua dat den mltc triet M tron veil).

" . .. . . -. .

. Nhuvay, rorang sir thi anh hung. du co ke thira truyen

tK6ng'cllath~n' tho<;ti,v[nbat ngu6n ttl tht;te titn sinh dong ella ~ihhs6ng va do thuc Ie khach quancua cuoc song qui dinh. Dieu tf6ho~ toan d6il*p vaphi1 nh~n lu~n di6m eel ban cua tnrong ph~l tH~ntho~i ciia phU'drigTay trongkhi h9 neu len v~ "ngu<in g6e ffi~n thoai" ella anh hung ca. Khong phai Slr thi anh hung bat ng.u6ti'tn-nghi It tho-curig cacvi thAn, hoac n6 la mot cot truyen iHi ao d~ cung cac vi than d~ minh hoa cho cac IG tiel than thoai fy/nhtr trmmg phaithan thoai v~n chu tnrcng. V 6i chat lieu ~:g!'phongphu va song dQng ella no, ro ding cac Slr thila nhiing 'baV'dfha6 hung ve mot' eh~rtg dl1O-flg da di qua day gian kh6, 'flht,t~g cung. choi ngoi nhfrng chiencong, ky tich, nhirng khat Vi?ngcab ca eiia-xa hQi cerrg d6ng trongqua trlnh van d¢ng lich

"sui·Hlu·Hai: . j.

",' TinhtMn dan chu,y thue tap th~, moi quan h9 cong dong g-!WbO'giiia nhan v~t anh hung vm nnan dan',' do 'la·nhilng net ~2tn1ng n6i len y nghia xii h<)isiiu sac va tfnh nhan dan manh m~ ella cae ban su thi. Mat khac, tinh th~n dung cam tuyetvoi, nhimg chien cong yang d¢i ella cacnhAn ,,*t anh hung, cung vm 1·canfr sung ttic 'r¢ng tieng chieng ngan cua buon lang, d6 la

nhitll.g' net d~c tnrng noi len khat v<;mg manh ·li~t va tieu chuan v6

"phiht dha't dao drrc cao qiIy cua nhan dan. Nhilng pham chat d6 ding la lftl1ang tham my cua thm d<;1i. Ly luang lhftm my ella t~Oid~l 'fhi hi¢n·t~ptrung a ly tmmg thftm my clladc ngh~ ~riha:nkl khan, chi ph6i toan b¢ phl[(1ng phap va phong cach sang

t<;1o ngh~ thu~t ella h9 trong Slr thi anh hung.

Nhu dii neu len" a phiin gim thi~u, Slr thi anh hung Tay Nguyen U~ mf,lt lo~i hlnh thu¢c th~ lOC;li tlJ slJ dan gian, c6 t1nh chat nguyen h~1)r trong do hao g6m ca cac yeu t6 ngh~ thu~t cua

94

_ _ xuoi n2.on ngii tho ca, am nhac va c3 ngon ng.G'

l1!!.tmngU van ., '-

sftnk~~:~€U to nghe thuat ngon ngG'tren d~y la:?¢~ t6n~ ~~~

, . h" hoa an bo hiru caval nhau, tao nen .gla if! d¢\,;

k ;thrm 'al oa g . ? ., . hi h h' g

.. ~ ';'t'., , b~tchI10cduelCI'CllaCacbansut la~Aun; ,

kh~.ng the nao a _ « t"" op p h§.n tao'nengia tn doc daova

Mot trona nhl1ng y~u 0 g., ._

mrong ~iru d.~ ban sir thi la yeu t6 ngon ngu.

, '" b 'ff urong sau sac. dac

Co the n6i ding co m0t net nOl ~t ga~ . n ,. .: 'th' . h

. ,"" - dA ii duoc tIep xue VC11 su I an

biN ly thu d61 voi nhiing 9C g. ,. ,., h' h anh tran

. • d' Hl. each nOl VI von rat giau In ,

hung Tay Ngu~en , 0 , Ciin la n6i ve ve dyp· con ~~um,

ng~p trong khap tac pha~. ht gum ngM nhan k~ kban nO! nhu nnufl.g,khi mo ta cha~g tral,~ t~n~ th0&t "ohU c6n'"tirt Prn<!l hue. sau "Anh di tren duong cal ,oan ,'. racr~ ... M~Lkhi Ann'di lrang dam co tranh nhanh nh\!' !ar: l' . h bay Iftn".

, h ella Hun nha san rung nn , .

anh d~m marrh vao ng~c , mai vita kh6e khoan cua

D6 Ul cai ve dep v~a n~an,h nohy~: ~~~ii thi' dung nhiing 1m nhu chang trai. C?n ~hl md,ohtatch~ngaml 'ln~ ~y~n chuy~n nhu canh cay

"IS' di dung In, a . , d di

sau : an~ ~' _ canh tren ngon cay, glO ua 1

bit> sal qua, mem deo nh.l! nhtmh g b' nhu chim dieu hron tren

1· N' di nhu chim p ung ay, h'

dua ~l... ang , , . . "'. 11 Day 1a ve Jep nhe nang,

kh6ng, nh~ == chay d~~b suot~~ tren khong. chlt khong phai

uytin chuyen cua con ngl1<11 ay .

, diduOi ddt nira! ,

~"- ii thi dua tad~n lam quen vOican~

, Ta hay nghe ngon, ngir .s . 1 thl1ang cua buon lang Ta~

song giau co, dong ~uc ;Ul htl1cJlb' ~ 6i bay ki~n. DuOng tit ben

A "T a bo nhi nhuc n u ay m ,. .• d' .

N gUYl;;n. r u ,. '" 6i hat n 11m dung hal ben uong,

tnii qua ~n phal r¢n~ d~en n Ot cai ~a va mQt ngl!m th!ng tay ffiQt ngl1<11 thang tay gl?, ~ m, h &~;n, nhau. D~u chiln ng\lil giC1 len mQt con dao dal e~ng e .~a nhumot srri dily danh. To voi tren dt,tong Ian: cho duang gl ~~ ngUC• To g'ai vu sat vu ... ". trai di 1ai chen chue nhau, ~&I,te sa ,',. K tru phil cua buon Qua 1a 'mQt bLrC tranh lieu bleU cho cuqc song

95

lang. Edt: nhiing. buon lang xa vang, voi cUOcs6ng vtin yen tinh, hau nhu chlm dam .trong canh niii rung menh mong hat 'ngat cua Tay Nguyen duoc ngon ngii hinh luqng cu tht pha v~lO motsire song ron rang bie! baa! Do ta nlurng hlnh anh eu th~ elm sir vat co hinh, co khoi dap VaG tIt! giac, Con nhiingA~ thanh, v60'la nhirng cai vo hlnh, cung duqc cac lac gia sir thidung ng60.ngii hinh anh M vat ,th6 hoot no, ti;\{7 cho ngl1m doc va ngiroi nghe co cam giac nhir mat nhln lhay dUlle.am thullh dang "hoat dong" tac dong den moi su vat, Day la dang mota tieng chieng; "Danh len! cho tieng chieng Ian ra khap xu; Danh len! cho tieng chieng luon qua san xu6ng dtt6'i dal. Danh lcn'!.cho tieng chieng vuqt mai nha vang len den tan trai. \)a.nheho.khiquenC11U chat canh cay, cho rna qui cling quen kh6ng h'.linglloi tao Danhch(;. chuO! quen lnW 16, cho ran 'nam ngay bo, cho thbphai gi~t rninh. Cho huou nai ngirng nghe quen an co". D0<.lnviib day hlnh anh sinh dong tren day lam cho matta nhu thay dugc Hftca khong gian cung nhir cuoc- song cua moi v~t d~u ngt.n1gdQngI'.litntde sue hUI ky la ella tieng chieng. 0 day ngon ngii hlnh anh dirocsfr dung dae dia duemgnhtt. tao nen mot thti "rna thuat" nao do, khiencho.cac cam quan trong con ;nguCri(thi gitic va'tftfnh giac) co mOt sir giao hru hai hoa, nhi;\yMnl~ thttang. Trong str thi ngon ngfr hinh anh khong chiduqc~si'rdilngkha:c hoa cac nMri v~t hoac de mC) tei. nhirng earth 16n nhd ca~hsinh hoar r~)fl ripcua buon lang. canh hOi he dongvui voi tiengchieng ngAnkh6ng ngot ... rna ngay nhirng loi giao tiep hang ngay cling diroc dic!n dat bang 101. noi, hlnh anh song dong. NhU' Uri cua Y Dhing noi . voichi ella Dam Xan, khi den hoi Dam Xan ve lam eh6ng cho H<1 Nhi: "Chung toi toi day nhir ong tim hoa, nhu trai tim gai:

Chung toi Wi noi chuyen trau chuyen thuoc" ...

Nhin chung lai, cac bien phap "ph6ng dai, ngoa dl:l ... trong ngon ngii hlnh tI1qng clla su thi dfi dU'qc cae ngh¢ nhAn dftn gian su dl,mg rfit dat. H¢ th6ng de bi¢n phap dttqc c~u t<;to gan b6 hfiu . c<1 v6i nhau t<;to nen mOt ve dl?P ri,eng, m¢t phong each rieng cua Slr thi; do la phong each lang m<.m hao hung dAy sue hap dAn ella su mi Tay Nguyen.

96

Cung WTI dac diem cua tfnh hinh tuong. ng6n ng:ii strt~iGon lh~ hien mot da'c di~m kha quan trong nira, ciing gop pMn:t40i nen gi~ tri ~gh¢ thuat cua str thl: do l~ ng6.n ngii giau n~~c,dl~U~, xct v~ mat mIii am, cac tieng Ede, Gia rai. v., kheng phaJ .1aJ(ll;l1 I1c'on ngfr e6'-nhi~u thanh dieu, khi noide tao nen am httanglen h~ng x~6ng tram, gi~lU nhac dieu nhu tieng Vi¢l. Nhrmg tro~ ddl dien dat cua str thi, ngon ngii cac dan h':>c Tay Nguy~n,J~ th~ hienm6t iru the khac. Do la each noi eovftn dieu, t<;lowen; am hU6ng hai hoa va co sl,l' lien ket chat che v6i nhau gi.ii'acac.ive trona mot cau. Vi du doan noi v~ danh chieng: " Tong ?chIng mun~gen~l, ching tlai pra, T6ng bia bia hra car n.li nan,e,_TOng tel' su suor mbong, tong d(1 dlong suo: eda ... ", (d!~h n?hl~;;?dan~ ~hiengkeu nhfit, chieng am t\eng~hat! da~h d~n danh6Ilr;~e tan khap xu. Danh ben dumn6 luo~q~a san; da~h ~~:tr~~,:? vQnglentrai). Ta de dang nh~n (hay ;a~g.ca~han'~h{1t'~\Sl'~~ trong tl~ng nhac chieng tr6ng dttqc ~h~ hl.~n bang thu ng()~~$tf uyen chuyen nhip nhang la di~u hien nhien .. ~hU'ngnfa~.~~~ lao dOl1g dong dao khan tnrong cling duqcdlen dat ba~g'n~~

ngii giau nhac dieunhu vay; , ',,;,-'

"Saetuh co chua, dua chao co kjuk". .

(M~t tram nguai vach luong hai rigan nguOi mot

Hoac la: . . '1, .c.,

"Dlang mnuin· kpluk kplak dok huh, .mnuih JU SI imam.! :tam

si nuor hdam" ,,' A' • ~

. (Thay nguai ta di lai lai ria liia, nguai den nhu m~y l~~i;~~~

nhu kien nhir m6i)., " ,,' ..• . .• '>'>'

Nhu chiingta da thay, ngonngii nhac dieu philt hUY;ta~

dung tfnhtichcirc trona viec rno ta cac nhan v~t trungtarnt~g s& thi, ciing nh~ ,nhiing dnh vui cheri trong t!~ng tr6ng,~t~g chieng vadmh lao dOng sim x~fit,trong t~~nh ?l~h. Ng6n.ngu.~y tao nen O16t each c6hi~u qua ve dyp hal hoa, em dyp c~olitle t;-anh m6 t~con ngum Va cuOc's5ng cua cae ngh¢ nhan ke .khan. TUy nhien,cho dc'n dnh danh nh~u aeli~t~ b chi~n tr~Cmg·t;°n~ chien tranh h6n lo,?-n cling dU'qc (hen d<.tt hang O19t ngon ngtl nal

97

~~~, ,giau.,nh~c dieu. Day H canh anh hun ... , - "

'\1~tu tnrong Mtao Mxay: "Saba knr g Dam Xan danf nhau

la'ang sa duorm 0 chie~ d~ie an~h.~ttng sa duor hlang, saoang

(N?ay mOt nhay ~lIqt qua m6~ d6.1 0 to gu, ,chi~~ to ngo .. ; ': xtlong phfa dong, anh chay Ii h~' tr;nh, nhay lUI m91 nhay t~y) ... Tatnhien Ia tfnh ti€t laUn ~.la h(~ng, aonh chay leo phfa drr¢.u m91 111~1 lam cho o£.l1m .. hn !P, n, ,ang ~~a. ngon ngu nhip

th'd~ c, ng e co cam grace tai d"

1· one thiri mat khac n( khc '-: h' ..em at e chiu

sinh da~£. ac liet'cu'a ca'nh)h.~mg t, e khang giam bot tfnh cha~

• L, e l~n tmang.

St! hai 1\Oa trona ngonn -" " . '

00. irng van di¢ut.11ffi1'-g d6i Ch~lIchs~ thi ,kh?n~ Chl~119C thl hien i.'1

df{' , . c, e, rna no con the' ·h·A ., k' '

un xtrng, tao nen su.hai h " hin " .• ten o et cau

"Nhiiym9t nhay, vucrtquao:~,~ J~.nhang}ro3.g hinh tl1¢lg nfra: "'.6'i. "Nhay lui rnnt nh'ay V11"" 9 dl}ranh .. dOl xtrng nhip nhang

. , ' .' Vl qua vI trernc o"'h - "M'

ng~rn vach lu6ng" d6i xtfu nhi ".;, o~c . 91 tram mot 16" .... batcu b ,ch6 ,g h}P nhan! vcn Hal ngan ngiroi

d6i xirn . a' " ,'. ,na~ c umg fa eungc6 the ··a d .

, . ,g y. d6I xtrng ve '86 ll1ang tel'" . '. " g, P I1qc s,!

xirng ve canh v~t. Ngay den ca' te '~/ ~ xirng v~ h~nh Q9ng, d6i tao theo ki~u d6i xtrng cap de'l' ~ ea~"n~an vat ,cung dugcc~u Bhang, Y Lang' Y sah 511 h,·1 hn ,11 ~~y. ,Y Dhmg, Y ling, Y nhung cau, nhfrng hlnh'tu~ at oa va nhip nhang a nhjrng ve, tiliiing diep khuc rna ta thlI~ g r:hl1v~y d,utJc~hat tri~n thanh idrn:tn m6 ta tieng chie ,n~ g<;ir trong lac pham: do 1& nhirna N. hung diep khiic do' t~g,c~n u~ng TUgu, canhmac .qmln ao '-

... . L, ao nen nhu khuc ,- '. '"

~g;chUng. gay anh,hl16'ng it nh~~ d'~o~ ma~ tl1C1I1g d6i ben

I'ham .. ,.nhl1ng cluing lai thua 1 i ch ~~ tl~h. linh hoat cua lac

~ ~ . khuns ' . n ot c 0 vtee dte' -

n m9t . ungcanhb~ b6 '.' .: n xttcrng va de tao

'hUng. Qua th1!c tien nge'lnn'gn~ ~l"~nf,dlYp, trong cae Slr thi a~h d€n k~ lu~n rang: cach n6ith uka,« aC/ha~, chung ta e6 the di

m~ b'A h· eo d CaU d61 xUn h'

..... l~n p ap duqe cae nM nM. ' ,. g n. ~p nhang la

phd bien nhl1la me'lt qui l!at' eh' ~ ~~~ ,glan s~ dl!ng co. tfoh ehat t<;lo cac ve' trong ~au, dc' cauI:a~I, ~adW cau t<;io van di¢u, cau tl1CJng dl1crc X<I)i dllng b tr f{ C!C 0<;in diu eung vai· hlnh

n - t' d/' . '- ong o.y nUa Cach d'~ d .,

gl1 II 0 tao neom6t hi' 'd- .' < len <;it eua ng6n

, • ~u qua <;tc hlet ro rang' do' }' A h"

, ,a am l10ng

98

uytn chuyen nhip nhang cua m91 ban nhac va ket cau chat che cua mQ.tban nhac va k€t diu chat checua m91 mach van xuyen su6t ban sit thi. Va nhu v~y trong tac phftm ngl1m nghe nhan dienke c6 th~ dung 1m ca; hoac lai n6i thong thuang thong qua cac am dieu ella nhac, d~ ca ngci ve dep vira hili hoa, vira hao hung ley vi cua nhirng eonngum va CU9Cf s6ngly tuang cua cac dill1tge Tay Nguyen, theo phong each dien dat ddy hinh anh va

giilu nhac dieu.

Cung v6i hai dac di~m gi3.u hlnh anh va g.i~l.U nh~c dieu. tren day con c6 m9t d~e diem nita tao nen ve dyp hoan chinh ella nghe thuat sir 'thiTay Nguyen: d61atjflhk~ch trong flg6n agu tac phtim. Hau nhud~ cau chuyen ella su thidu<Jc trinh bay dum hlnh .thuc nge'lIl' ngu .d6i.~ho~i,gil~a. .qaC,nha:nW~tlF~ dtiu ban kh#lnPall,1 Xan.la:lcnd6i'dapgiUf\ .hai,ina:ns;HoBhi&.aHcr Nhf vOl nhiing ngttbianh em.eu~ll,11nhban dinhvi~cdiel16i Dam Xan. Cau chuyen .di~nbien then hlnb thuc d6i thoai .nhu th~,cho, den ket thee 11\ 1m Dam Xan chau g9idan lang d€n lam Ie T€tdau nam. Cung val d~t di~m h'inhtuqng cu the ella hQi hoa va .t~c di~m nhip nhanghai hoa ella am nh~c,nge'lnngir kh!lfl con the hien d~c di~m nanh d¢ng k~chclla sa.nkh~u.'Neu ,ngl)nngir htnh nrong mQt mat co tinh.khac hoa cu .the, thl m~t khac khong khoi bi han che do tinh ch~t tim l¢ tuong tnmg.cua no (thong qua cac bien phap :in du, ngoa du .. c). COn ng6n ngit I nh~cdi~u m¢t mat tao s,! haihoa nhip nhang trong k€t cau tac ph~m thl m~t khat: n6 l~i gay nen am hU<1ng trimg l~p c6 ph an i iW-ng n~ va:c6phtin' 116e thuc nge'lnttr lrong khu6n kh6 c~av~n di~u. Chinh ngon ngu kich 06 sung ehe, m~nh eua n6 de khac n1we nhU'ng nhuqc di~m tren dlly liong ngh~ thu~t dien d~t cua tac pha.m. Ta thay c6 nhirng man tl1ffi1g phim gay nen t1nh hu6ng k~ch leha sinh d9ng, lam n6i len nhiing tfnhcach khac nhau euai cac nha.n v~t ma su thi mu6nneu len, ho~e la the'lng qua d6il

tho~icua hai nhan v~t.

~"Mtao Mxay: Khoan khoan.,M tao x.u6ng dat. D\'mg vl}i'

,9~

I

dam tao tn1<lC ltic tao xU6ng.

, -Dam ~an: Tao khong th~em d~m ~ay truoc hie may xu6ng.

Con 19o diroi dat tao khong dam thl rna)' ta? cilng khong dam'!

Doan d6i thoaingan gon naylamn6i ro hai tinh cadt khac nhau: m<)t dang'la keto ra nhritnhat lo sq. Con mOt dang lamOI

con nguai co nr the hien ngang day ve khf khai. .

Hoac la thong qua viec mo ta ngoaihinh cua cac nhan val:

C~ng l~ tu truan~,::hun.g ~l~nh, nhung .. MtaoMxay (keitthu~ua Dam Xan) dvqc dien ta bang nhirng net sau day:

"Mtao Mxay la m¢t tu lrvimg giau manh. Gong cum to binh ch~t c~ la~r Long ~ha? day~~U'dap lenm¢t lap. Long may sac nhu da mal. Con mat sang ngcn nhu da u6ng het m61 chum moo

. den n6i mot con trau lan ciing khong dam di qua". Trv6c rita; c,hu~g ta: ro ra,ng?da~la chan dung cua m¢t con.ngjroi hung bao; tan ac trong co vedv tqn ghe sq. Con Dam Xan thilai duoc ro6' ta nhtrsau: .., .

. ~ "~6 k~6ng, bie'~Da~l Xan a~,t16 khongbiM ngcic1i tu tnri1ng dau dQI khan kep va Val mang tUI da. No khang bi~t E)am Xan

d,anh tieng ,(~~n ~~n t~~n linh song ntii, khong con m¢t lUcrngnao la ~h6ng, bl,et ,de? Da~l Xa~. N6~hong bier rang DamXan day khong co ai bl kip, Dam Xan muon bao nhieu chieng bao nhieu to~, 16, ciing l:uqe": Ro, rang day la hlnh anh m¢t con nguOi co ttl th~e d~~g ,hoa?g lam liet, co uy danh lung Hiy khap noi, d6i lap han V<1l ~m~ an~ rn¢t con, ngum manhkhoe nhung hung ac. . .

, Hoac la thong '.lua viec tao nen nhitngtinh tHe'tuffilg.pMn.

VI ,~~ n~t! t~o~g k~l Dam ,Xan dangdan ca dan Hmg di bat ca d~<1l SU}Jl, di s~n th_u tre~ rung, th! Mtao Mxay hungh6 keoquan den cuop vq cua Dam Xan, ChICO m8i mlnh nang a nha thci.

Nhir vay trong str thi, ngon ngu duae th~ hien nhi~u bien ph~p s~~h d0~g, c~u yeu thong qua bi~np'hap d6i l~p trong ng6n ngu dOl th()~l, ho<,lc trong rno ta ngo<,li hinh nhan v~t, ho~c trong

100

each dirnz len tinh .the tuong phan ... D6 la chua k~ den cac hanh dong mang n0i dung xung d¢1 chua dung kich tinh cua nhan vat. Nhimg bien phap d6i l~p v~ mat ngon ngu d6 giup dien dat mot each fO rang, manh me n¢i dung nr nreng cua str thi.ca ngqi nhan vat anh hung, phe ph an ke thu cua ho. Khang dinh nguai anh hung 1y nrong cua nhan dan va phil dinhke thu, d6i lap lai

Iy nrong cua nhan dan.

Tren day Ut nhirng yeu t6 CO tinh kich t6n tai ngay trong

ngon ngu sit thi. Con ms)t yeu t6 quap trong niia tao nen' ng()n ngu kich ella sir thi rna ta khong the naokh6ng noi tai ~hi nghien ciiu loai hinh van hoc nay. Do chinh.la ngon ngu dlen xu6ng sinh d¢ng ella nguai nih~ sy ke khan, baa ham cac yeu t6: 10'1 ke binh thuang,lai haUen bong xuong tram va dieu h¢ cung sac thciidien dmCllan.guai ngM s9 dan gian. Trong do, xen ke .vdi cau truy¢n,thinh thoang.nguai ta nghe ti~ng l1:gh~ nhan roo phong tieng .thac d6 ri rao ben··ba· su6i,.tieng voi r6ng' trong .rirng tre, tieng ngl,l'a hi trend6i t(auh, lieng chieng e;t6,nb yang limg .. ~ Trong do xen Ian v6ilaiketheophl1qn~thU:§.·W sl,l'j thong thueng co giong hat bu6n khi ?Ui;l~a,.c6 giQnghat :vui: trong dam cum, co Iai ri ram eau khan thanhnhtrong ugh! Ii . phung t€ ... Cac yeu t6 k~ hat va dieu b¢ dien camtrong ngofl, ngii dien ke ella nguai nghe ~. ke ~han i.~o n~nm.¢l. hln~ thU: ngonngu san khau tuy con han nhien, gran d~, nhirng .cung da kha phong phu trong ve nguyen hop haihoa cua no.

o day chung tathay dang nguyen hqpcua ngh~ thuat dien ke sit thi anh hung da vu¢ xa dang nguyen hep con tho sa, duom mall sac huyen bi ella than thoai trong thm bu6i sa khai,

. Ben canh phuong thue dien xu6ng, ~lr thi mang~n~ ng,h~ thuat san khau con ad~ng sa khai a nhieu dan t¢c,thl ~u thi a dan toe Khorne nhu Riem Kien ) da duoc dira len san khau ea miia kich cua tu6ng Di ke. Day la mot hinh thee san khau da

kha phat trien, duqc nhAn dan rat ua thich. '.

Su thi da thu hut ca tri thue va cae sang t<;1o ngh¢ thu~t ngon tu ella nhan dan cae dan H)e til cae lai thu~t ngli vfin ve ngtm g9n

101

den cac bai ca nzhi l~ cline than, nr cac bai ca tuc Ie trona cona d6ngd€n nhting'- khnc tlnh ca d6i dap nam mi .. : Chfnh s~'t6ni hgp dotao nen dang ve ngh¢ rhuat be bon phong phii, chtl'adl,mg nl\U'ngn¢idung xa h¢i r¢nglan cua mQt "qua khtr khong trd;~i~!f (Mac).Cho nen chung tach~ngllayla.m Ia rna nhan tha-yrMlg kh6rtg chi nhan dan Tay Nguyen va ca cluing ta, khong chi d¢C gia va gioi nghien ctiu sang tac trong n:lt6'c rna ca i1 nu6'c ngoai ding say me thich thti cac ban sir thi. Chinh i1 day, gi6'i nghien cUucling nhu sang tao ngh¢ thu~t c6 tM di sau va khai tMc nhi~.11 dieu 'b& Ich, nhieu truyen th6ng t6t dep, ca v~ n¢i dung din.g nhu nghe thuat ngon ngi!, d~ gop phan xay dl!l1g nen van ngh¢ 111m th6ng nhat va dadang ciia chung tao

. Toanb<)· nhfrng yeu t6 sinh d9ng v~hinh tl1<;111g, hai hoave nh~c 'di~u. d6i l~p v~ kich tfnh do da dugc cactIigh~ sy dan gian chat lqcnhao nan, phoi hop lai, th~ hi~n·ra dum m¢tphong each ng~tht$d¢c dao, tao nen ban sac choIoai hlnh Slr thi-anh l$l1g. DO fa phong each ky vI hoa cua phuengphap Uing man, t»ong qua cac 'bi¢nphap oUCmgdi~u, ph6ngd~i ngoa dt} rat,la

~ .•.•............•.. · ... c·.6 ...•.. ~.;.! .. ~' •. ·. qU<l.fi .. XU,y.e.'fl ... ·.tmn.· .. g.>k.h. a._.p c. ac .tinh'tiet cu. a .. cau. t ~Y,¢rt, ·~,g,icich'·x4yd¥R'gnhan v~t; enag: nhtr tmng each mo ta canh

~t~ nhi~n!'Ph6ngd~i;rt6irtgoa ... "nhirng van rat that nira'']. ~'Y~yjm~lmrtgchting>1iil!nnhi~n la ngay· nay chung· ta aida t\:tng dQC suthi anh hurigTay Nguyen cling d~u tim thay cai hay cgj ~ deuduqc inngd¢ng vi nhiing camxuc tMmmy tht!cs'!. Sb dj nhu v~y, lavlcac bi¢n pMp ph6ng d~i cuCing di¢u d6deu. dllG1C cae ngh¢ nMn dan gian sirdl;lng rat dill, rat phu hqp vm qui lu~t tham my, nhu nM my hgc c6 d~i Arist6t dii n6i "m~c dau nhiing con nguCri maho~ sy DcrxiX<1 dii ve ra di~u kh6ng tM t6n t~i trong th,!ct€, nhung can rat coi trgng cai khong th~ co do, vi phili vuqt xa hsm cai maO. (I) •

Chinh cach n6i phong d~i, canh dien~a "vuQ1'xa h<1I1 cai mau" do lam cho tac ph~m sa thi anh hung chua chan suc m,!-nh.

ttl Arist6t: Ng# mil?l lhcr ca, xxv. Din theo Iu.a.B6xep. NhUng phfl1lJ trii my hpc ccr ban - NXB D1.li h9C MatxcC1Va 1960 (Ti€ng Nga).

102

, n2:M thuat chua dung ca s~c

/ h /. elo' lam cho hmh nrong '- " h t> 0 ky' vi tbeo Him Cae noi uv « d' d ng hoan rang, , "

manh cua c¢ng d6ng. d~t ~~ ~heo tam CO ella vii tru, each n~l

vo'c cua niii rirng !a~ Nk¥uhY~~ich manh me tri nrong urong cUh~

, di A kv Vl do IC . / ch sang tao ng e

ettcmg ieu, J ,. 1 ~ hien mot phong cac _ . .

nguCri nghe, nguoi d9~' t 1 / . em hoa trim d~y ch~t lan? man.

thuat thea k.huynh huang !Y :~ dro cua cac ngh~ nhan k~ khan, Qua phong each ngon_ n~tt d~c duoc mot ve ky la trong sang tao chung ta duang nhu d~ b~t gJP m6t each sau sac: "Cai. dep d~CJc nghe thu~t nhu Gorkt da h~~} 'h·a"'t lieu khac nhau, kc e.a nhttnh~

. 'kA't hqp n ieu e. , . h' th en ng e

nhan thuc 1a sl,! ,c .: _ h) no rna con ngUe1l, n a 1. "

~ thanh, mau sa~, ttl ~~~'t~ ~6ng voocal11 xuc va ly tn, nhu, m9~ che- tao neu m9t hinh t a~ ac ttdi d~u ngac: nhien, W hao va VUl

,'e ~anh khien eho moi ng" mh" (11

s~Cmg ~6i kha nang sang t!--o c~a l11d1~U ky' ~1 hoa do dli dUCJc ca/~ su , gtl cl10ng Ie di VOl

Phong each ngon ~ h ~ot ke-t diu trung rep, "

nghe nhan k¢ khan , dien d~~t ~,e:hac -lai nhu nhfmg di~p. k~ue nhi6u doan mo ta diroc ~hac . the dmh lang m~c dong VU"l glau

ti€ng chi'eng, dnh an uang h<)1 Un' di~p khue do q~CJc ch~t l~c, (, . h mua khien dao ... ). Nh, g _ d'· h hlnh trong qua lnn~ co, can , h- m6 - tip da tn . duoc the

co due Iai thanh ~ u~g h' Chinh ket ctiu trung dl~P, A " d

, tao nahe thuat su t 1. _ A tl' d6 da tao nen vc yp

sang e- . kh / hung ffiv P . K

hi~~ bftn~ nh?ng. di~h" r~c,:o ta ~1<)t rrong n~Ung nha~ to, ~~:~

hai hoa cua sir thi. N c \ . Y . A bao ve va hru truyen cu

a ben virng trong VH;C .

trong tao nen s~

thi anh hung. , . LlEUTHAM KHAO I

TAl . J

, Kh hoc xa h6i

. .,." ) Nha xWlt ban. oa. .

1. - Dam Xiin (sU th1 Ede .

Ha N¢i, 1988. _ Nh't Stc thi E De. Nxb Khoa hQc Xa hQi

2 c .. Phan Dang ~ . Li

1991. Nh Su thi anh hung Tay Nguyen. Nx~

3. Vo Quang on.

Gi.ao duc. 1997 . ""t

___ .. _. ~. _----:---::------:,:; " . '. • .fy- hoc Nil" xua

- h' tnJ (.'(1 ban CUll It. .

Y dX twng Nllll11g p \lm

(1) Iu. B. BOlep, ~~ _ 1960. (Tie'ng Nga). 103

ban f)~i 119c - Matxc()'\.l

_ :l ...

TRVY~N CO TICH,

I. BAN CHAT THI~LO~I VA TINH HINH SUUTAP

NGHIEN GUll TRUY~N co rtcu: .

06 nra tap truyen c6 tich Ngh}n Ie motdemos« nha xuAt b~n Vien han lam nam 1929. M.Gorki viet' "Cong trinh dan del b~g ngh~~ thU~,t ng?n t~ nay XU,At hi~n t~ thm.thuqng c6, nnun:g sq!. tC1",mu~n ~au ciua no Ian toa khap b6nphuo'l1g trai. phu len ira! dat mot tam tha~ngon ngu dep I~ lung" (I)

Nhirng soi 1<1 muon mau Ay co suc dan h6iv6tdn.N6c6 th~ khoanh tron quanh bep lira a O19t lang ban, O16t khu vtrc mot q~6~ gia, t~~I?, chfphu tran kh~p moichau l~c .: :M~cd~~ ttuy~n c6 . tich pho bien tr?~ng ph~m vi, h~t srrc r9~g raiva. hl(p dAn moi ~61 tuq~g nhung VlYe, nghien .ciru tr~y~n co tfch dang con la vt~c lam ph~c ,t~p. Cho de~ nay m¢t s6 nhakhea.hec vAn cho rang chua the tim ra m9t dinh nghlachinh xae ve fntyeneeJ tich. VI ~~y tnroc ~~i di vao k~am pM bim chill truy~rt c6' tlch c~nphai tim ranh glm truyen c6 tich v6im9t s6 th~Jo~i g~ngiit

M9t nha van hoc dan gian ntii tieng nguOi MY'la W.R.Bascom d5 xac dinh ranh gioi gifra truyen c6 tich v6i than t~o<;li v.a truyen thuy~t k~ ve nhimg thCriky khong xa chung ta lam. Rle,ng tru~~n ~6tich thi thoi gian duoc trai ra theo s1,1' tuong tu~g e~a nghY~han.W.RBascorrPa h~ thong hoa luan dien cua

mmh thanh sa d6 sau day: .

(1) l\1.Gorki: B/m ve vsn h9C, NXB Van hoc nghe thuat M 1961

tr.170.Cfieng Nga) . . . , "

104

D~ng Niem ThC1i O!a Quan Nhan vat
thuc tin gian diem he
Thi:ln Ofch Qua The Than Khong
thoai thtrc khir xa gi6i thanh phai
xoi khac nJ;?uai
Truyen Dich Quakhu The gioi Tran the NguOi
thuyet , thuc kh6ng tran the than
.
xa xei I" thanh
c6 tich Hu cau Bat ky Bilt ky Tranthe Ngl1C1i
hoac
khong
phiti
nJ;?uOi Th1,1'C fa thi chinh Bascom cling thira nhan rang h~ thong tren cfing "Chi dua tren nhung d~c tnmg ve.hinhthuc". Tiens9 L.~.Zemlian6va nh~n xet rang vi~ct~p ho/{> nhifng.d~ctrung;tM 10~1 nhir v~y khong phai la khong coca.sa v~tkhong b6Jm;d()i c6pg vi~c cu~ cac nha van. van h9C dan gian, d~C'bi~tlatmthc mat chung ta d~t ra nhiem vu phan .loai cac tU li~u khon.g phai

cua mot nuoc rna cua nhieu nuCrc. .

Tuy nhienhan che ella Bascom la b chb tu trong vo s6 cac d~e tnn;tgthi ong ta khong chon ra duoc nhirng dac tnrng ce ban nhilt dexac dinh ranh gimcac th~ loai tfuy~n ctl dAngian.(l) .Tronghe thong phan loai clla BascdID·chuadtira dltC$cm6i lien h~ va S1,1' phat trien caeth~lol;li treng.tien lrlnh.d!chslr. Gng kh6ng thAY rtmg. niem tin vao tinh dich xac ella than thoai (nhu la hien nrong cua tinhnguyen hop thOi c6. khi COli ngucrl chua tach minh fa khoi the gi6i t\l nhien va xii hoi) tht cang ve sau cang .bi~nd6i va cu6i cimg thi c6 ket qua cua 81,1' biend6i11Ch sir

(0 Xem L.M.7emlianova: MUng van dl ban eMf thl/o<,li tmni1rhoa Vim h9C dAn gian hi¢n nay u My. Trong sach: Ban eMf the loai van hoc dAn

gian, Nhaxuat ban Khoa hqc M. 1973, tr, 278 (Tieng Nga).· '

105

d~u.gma c() tich veti than thoai va~truytn t~uY€lc6S1/d!n X~' b6idflp len nhau nlxr vay nhung dau sao chung ta vIn n"'n dien

duoc ban sac rieng biet giii'a cluing.

Neu nhu than thoai fa dffi va lieu vongtrong th0iky nguyen th~y,trong d6 nhan' ~~t chu y~u 1a ca~ vi. tMn; tr~yen thuy~~ hlrththanh gan v(ri cacnhan v~tva Sl!kl~ll ~.!ch, SU~l J:'uy¢n c6 tieh tuy co mam m6ng. tronggiaido~n CUOl cua xah~l:nguyen thuyJ1hung phat trien chu yeu trong th~ k~ phOl~g ~Jen, ~ha~ v~t.chfnh 111 con nguCfi b tran the (conthan.lmh ChI dong val tro

phil tro)

Tom lai, chang ta c6,h~ x~c diQ~bAneh,a't tht loai cua

truy,en c6tfch nhu sau: q. b . b'" ..

!'-Truy¢n c6 tich 1~sangrtac:4angia~,trpJ1gJo~i hinh tl! Sl!

rna thuoc tinh cua no la xaydWl.gtr~n)ll~t1g ct?t truyen. ,

'_ Truyen c6 tich latacphfin: n~h¢ !U1u~t dllqe: xay ,dl!IH~

thOng qua. su hl1 ~a'ungh~thu~t t,ha.n, ky.,· ". "

. ".",- Tru ye~ c5 tlch la, m¢t ~9-e loa.i.,hoan .ehlnficue van hoc dan

gian, diroe 'hlnh th11~h~9tca~h lidl, Sl1' ;: , .~' , .

-Sl1 hu cau than ky trong truyen co tfch.do hien thuc dOl.

;6ng.q~y~td!nh va, no cling. c~u sli bien,d§i thea tien trinh lich

SU.,

\ Tren the gioi truyen c5 tich diroc .. ~&u tam va nghien ciru v6i tinh chat khoa hoc da diroc tien hanh tir la.u.Nam 1893 ba COx nguoi AnhdasUu ~m.350truy¢n LQ Lern. Nam 19106ng Antti Aarne ngiroi Ph~n Lan d[ d1Jatr~nly thuy€~ cua b6conl Kronln neu ra d~ xAy"dlJrlg Bang chldtln p1c kilu truy¢ncd tich trenthlgim. Narn 1929 N.P.An<.treep (Ngirci Nga)da xay dung Bang chi dan cae truyen cd tich theo h¢ th6n.g A~e'~iim, 19321' Stith.Tompson (NguCti My) da xay dung Bang, chi dan cae. mo tip van hoc dan gian va g~n day L.G.Badic: N.V.~6~lC6p LP.Beriozxki, K.P.Cabasnhic6p da xay dvng~ang chi darr>S'q);.

sanh cac ctft truyen cd tich D6ngslawJ. . :

107.

(Lc-ningnll-1979)( J I • V~ mat ly IU~Il. neu khong k~ den twang phai rhan thoai (voi anh em Grim ngLIm Dire), trLIOng phai di chuyen (voi Benphay ngirci Dtrc, Coxcanh ngtrCri Phap)h6i .th! k}' XIX thl ching chu f nhat 11'1 cong rrinh H!nh Ih:ii, hoc truyen ed tfeh cua V.Ia.Pr6p(2 va nhsn v?{ trllYI:-~n ec1 ttch than ky cua E; Melechinxkt'. Nhii'ng cong trinh nay d5 d~qc dich ra nhit~uthu tieng tren the gioi va gay s,! ban luan soi nt;i trong gieri van h9c dan gian quoc te. Ben canh do cung dnnhac den nhling c6ng trinh cua P.C6kiara (Italia) "Lich !Ill kho« van hpc d9-n..gi;Jna Outu Au" va A.Dandes(My), "Loui hinh hge csu true truy¢nc6' tich ella [J!!LIoi Anh dien!! o' hac Mi'j'.

~ '- J'

6 Vier Narn khoa h9C nghien cuu ve truyen cei tich cfing nhir khoa van hoc dan gian noi chung m6ihintr thanheach day chua lau nhirng viec siru Ulm va gioi thieu truy¢n.c6 tfch chac' dii co tir nhimg nam dAu xay dirng Nha mr6e phongkientt;r chu. Van ban sorn nhat co chua dl!flg nhirng c6t truyen •. m6ffpc6 tfch Viet Nam con hru gili den nay la sach Linh Nal11 Chich quai do TrA~ The Phap bien soan vao the ky XIV va Vii Quynh, Ki~u Phu h?an ~hj¢n va~(~he kY"XV. Sau d~ Iii ,TTflen.Kf m~ ~1j/4) , Tru yen ky tan pha -), Thanh T6ng di thdo . Cu61 tM ky XIX

mot ngiroi Viet Nam thea Tay hoc la Tnrong Vinh ICy da soan Ttuyen doi XLIa (7). Dau the ky xx 'Nguyen Van Ngoc la Ilguai y thirc va chuyen tam stru tarn, bien soan van hoc dan gian ntrac nha trong do co truyen c6 tich tM hien trong b9 Truyen cd nuoc

(I) Xem Le Chf Que: Vah de' xay df!J1g h¢ thongctJf troy¢n cd tfch thea huang so sdnhtrong nganh Folklore XO Vj~t. V lin boa dan gian. 56J .. 1 Q8.6. (2V.la.Pr6p: Hinh thai boc troy¢n cd tich; NXB Vien ban Jam, 1928. rai han hill thU 2, NXB khoa hQC. M; 1969. (Ti~ng Nga),

(J) E Mel.echinxki: Nhsn V?t troy¢n cd tk'h th1nkf. Nha xuai ban

Khoa hoc, M, 1968

(4) 'Nguytn Dic - Troye'n kj m{ll1il;lc. NXB van hlX' 1988

(51 Doan Th~ Di~m: Troye'n kj t/in pbti, NXB ghio dl;lC 1962 ,6) Thanh Tang di thao. NXB van hoot 1963.

f71 Trueing Vinh ky: Troy¢n dm Xila. Sai Gon 1866.

108

N.1m( J I . Dau sao cac I,lL gia tnnic Cach mang thang Tam chi bien so,?-n truyen c6 dan g ian n6i chung. Phai doi den sau cat.:~ I1UU1(' thang Tam, d~c biet lu sau nam 1954 nhirng b<) truyen co tlc'h 7-icn£!. biet mrii xuat hien, dang ILIll y h(H1 d la h<) Kho tang truvcn c6' tfch Viiftl Nam(21 'Clla giao S\1 qua c6 Nguyen D6ng Chi g6ri1' 5 I~p voi 100 truyen, duoc lLii ~im nhieu l<1n., Trong ~hfrn.¥ narn g{in' day vi¢c 'xuat han truyen co tfch d~(Je no ,r0i~~ha xuat ban khoa hocxahoi an hanh 6 l(ip Truyen cd dan !!Ian- rna thea lai;gi(Ji thieu thi d6 lanhlrn~truy¢n ceS tf~h. ~ha xua~ ba~?P~1;I nir Hong chuycn muc My kc con nghe cung 1I1 Truyen co twh Vicl Nal1l+) (Do Nghiern Da Van bien SO~lIl). C~c nha xuat h~~6 ~ido dUCI~1 va nhaxuat ban dai h9C va trung IH.'C chuyen nghi¢p) '- ~ung in truyen cd' tich dirdi goc dO lam nr lieu tham kh~o cho sinh vien cac khoa ngiI van. Ngoai ra 0 cac dia phirong hau 'rihu khona co tirih nao la khong in nhimg t~p Truy~n cd tich rieng

cua d1a phtrong mlnh. . .'

Di san truyen c6tfch cua cac dan toe It ngtrai tlr.trtrcJe dFn nay van - dtroc an hanh chung vUi cac 10';1i Tiuyen cd. dAn gJa~ khae. Ole tfip truyen c6 nay duoc bien soan then tirng dan t¢c,

. r : ,. (1) T. ' ""'h ' (8; Ti ~. '0

nhir : Truy~n c6 MLf(1J1g ., J ruyen eo u am , ruyen c

(1) Nguyen Van Ng9C: TruY¢ll cd nuoc Nam, NXB Vinh Hung Long.

A. 1932. B. 1934. . ... .

,1f Nguyen 06ng Chi. Kho fang truyen co' tich Vi¢l Nam 5 t~~ NXB

khoa hocxa hoi Ha Noi, In hill dau 1958, l:in gAll nhat 1975- 1982. ,3; Troy¢~ cd d~ gian, NXB khoa ~QC xii hoi Ha .Nl?i 6 t~p

,4, Truyen cd tich Vi¢t Nam. NXB PhI;! nic Ha N¢I ,1986 ,. , , ,5; Truyen cd ticb Vi¢l Nam (do Vii NgQC Phan ke), NXB Giao due Ha

N()i 1976. .. ... '1.' '

• ,6.1 Tuyen t?P truyen cd ttch .Vi¢t JIIam.(Chu. Xuan .•. I)j~n, Le LuI Que

bien soan) NXB O<).i hoc va Trung h9C chuy~n. nS~J~p Ha N<)~ 1987.

- Truyen cd tich cdc dan toe It ngum a V/¢( Nsm: Vo Quang.Nhtm, Nguyen Dl.rili Buu bien sO<).Il) NXB D<;\i h9C va Trung h9C chuyen nghl~p, Ha N¢i 1989.

(7) NXB Van hoa dftn t¢c. Ha N<;>i 1978 lSI NXB Van hoa dan t9c, HaN()i 1978

ICl9

EdrP " Truy,:-~) <.-II Pupcd2; hoac thco IlJ'nf khu vue nhu Tru.r~Il c:f/Yi¢/ B:ic I.". Truyen c6' Tru(J!J.!c' Cit TAy NpUyc}J]HI, Truy~n c{/c4cc!4n lc)C rhie'u SlY Ji..1icII /Vmnl)l. Nhir vay cho den nay cluing til; naw.du:gc hang Ir[1I11 l~lP truyen e6 dan gian trong a6 chua d~rng t\lIy¢rtc6 tich voi hang nghin van ban truyen c6 tich ella mroc v.~~.Wa.tpda dan t¢c.Ngay tir thai trung the ky nhtrng ngtroi SU'U. t~.bi€fnso<:tn truyen c6 tf~h (va truyen c6 dan gian n6i chung) q.~.tP1~;;r5gia tri cua cluing, VI chiing co "quan he den wang t~~~r~phong hoa", Nhirng sach ~y dircc tir "dira tre dau hoi den PJ}"ii~J8qb~c" ua thich va truyen tlJng(VG Quynh - Kieu PM. rw..ljpl} nam chich qWll).

Trql1g nhirng nam van d¢ng each mang dum anh huang cua ban .. ~'clfong van hoa Viiftl Nam(1943), bai.dien thuyet cua nha viln~guyen Dinh Thi tai nha hat IGn ngay·5 - 5 -1944 "Sue s6ng cua dan Viiftl Nam trong ca dso, c6 tich " (Tri.Tan. 56147 ngay 22 - 6 -1944, tr.6 - 16) da co nhirng rnam m6ng quan diem Mac xiHr()ng nhln nhan, danh gia truyen c6 .tich va van hoc dan gian nOr chung. Trong cuon Chii nghiaMac va van de'van ho« Viiftl PJam{l948) dongchfTnrong Chinh da phat bieu tnrc dien quan d~em Mac xit d6i voi di san van hoa van nghe truyen thong Trang do co truyen c6 tfch. "Ben canh van hoa chinh thong cua cac thai dai, co d mot nen van hoa nhan dan con hru lai trong pntnmgngon, ng~n ngu, cao dao, c6tfeh, tranh galqn. Van hoa n.~}'.t\, sg phan dau cua nguoi san xua; (lam - ruong, lam tho) long mong moi hay chi phan khang cua nhan dan, che dieu me tin, hu tuc hay khuyen ran dieu thi~n(6) . D~c biet nhirng lai day

,~- (1) NXB van hoa dan toe. Ha N6i 1978 (2) NXB Van hoa dan t6c. Ha.N'6i 1988 (3)NXB Vin hoa. Ha N/?i. 19,63

(41 NXB Van. hoc. HaN6i. 1988

. (5)NXB Van h~a. III N¢i. 1975,1'1 va 1'2

(6) Truemg Chinh: eM nghla Miic va Vim de' van hoi Viet Nam. NXB

Su that , In N~i 1974. .

110

t

I

In

',' Gfil~ day ph6 ,giao str C~,u Xuan Dien da ll~ng hop nhti'Tlg y kicn khac nhau vc truyen e6 tkh(J Vi9t Narn va tren the' gi(~i trong. chuyen luau "Truyen cd tich Judi truit cae 11hi1 khoa hoc" do. kho~l Ngii van tnrong D',li h9C t6ng hcpthanh pho H6Chf Minh {m hanh nam 1989 gom 112ttang tieu luan va mdt ban

dich, .' . .

Tap saeh,nay "se guip cac ban sinh vien va nhiing ai tt~ thfch tr:LlY¢~ C{'l ~fch btrrrc dau lam qucn vai nhli'ng each nhln da dang cua cac nha khoa hoc" (Uri ndi dau. tr.3).

II. PIIAN LOf.\,I TRUY~N CO Tic]! vrsr NAM

., Khong k~ each phan loai truyen c6 tich trcng mot s6s~ch gla,o khoa tr:un~ h9C do Nghiem Toan, Thanh Lang bieIlS0l;Ul. chu~? ta ~htr ban qua each phan loai gan day cua mQts6.nna nghien ciru van hoc dan. gian n6i tieng, Theo Tran Thanh Mai thl truyen c6 tich chi co th~ .chia fa thm. hai loai: loai dal! tranh ~h6,n~ :hien ,nhi~n va IO,!i, da'utranh. xa ~¢kNhtrng',\rong thuc te thi VI muon de nhan dinh khi. phan' tieh cUllg nhu khi M thong ~,oa '~ 6n~ da~ t~~ chia th~nh 410l~.i" nhd' tuytheo Y nghia, mt,l~ dI~h va mtr: dQ d~u lI}nh cua tfuY,¢n". Ct,lthe lit: loai Y thtrc quoc gla, dan toe, lO~1 dau tranh chong thien nhien, loai d~u tr~nh chong phong kien va loai co tinh chat hien thirc ·loai.· nhieu ye~. t6 ~a dich hmf)Nguyen DOng Chi cho ra'ng~ ';N~u~htrcAn ~hal chia t~l, v= y cluing .tai, nen chia lam ba thu: truyen c6 tich than ky, .... truyen ca tfch the' su, truyen cO tich lich SU"

(2) (" h MI' , '.

. .ac p n oat nay duoc cac tac gia giao trinh van hoc dan

(1) Tran Thanh Mai . Tim hit/u va phi1n tich truyencd ifeh Viet Nan

NXB SOng Lo _ 1995. " 1.

(2) N • f)A Chi Kh ' .

guyen ong . I, 0 lang truyen co tich Viet Nam. Tip I-NXB

khoa hoc xa hoi, J-Ia Noi. 1974, tr. 27, '.

112

gian .cua trtrCmg dai hoc sir ph~tn chap nh~n: Chung ta co th~ turn chi a c6tfch lam baloai chinh:

:.. Loai cO tich hoang dtrang trongdo yeu t6 ky dieu, c\·) t lnh

chat me .tin chiem un the'.

~. Loai: ttuy~nc6 tich ve· sinh hoar.. Co yeu t6J.tY· di~u . ho~c

khang,Hrongd6vai tro con ngl1m la chu ye'u. .

- Loai truy~n.cO tfehl~ch suP) .

: Thco quau d.i6rt1.cua. c;ck,tacgia giao trl nil :ytmhRe dangian tnrong Dai hoc tOng hop thi bat cCr truyen e6 tfch lich su.hay tilC sunao cung.P1ang ycu tohoang <:Uu'lrpg; VI v~ty vi~c tach: ra m(l' loai truyen.co tfch.hoartg plfqngri.~f1g HI kh6ng, can ,hiet. Guns tirquan ·di6m do, cae.;laqgia~ho ]!ang .':Xe{,;d~n""" .. ung:(r\:ly~ri;i;() tlch chi. nenchia lamhai IOi;li chinh: lr1ily¢n e6Jfqhi~(.:h"su·.va

tfU~~R.c6 t(chthltl>I:t':(2), '-'

. . D6iv6i.truy~nc6,lichcac.d~J¥tQeltR.gtrqi.0 \l~~\l~am, de ()ng .Nc)flg,~uOc,iChan,Bhan~ngNilt4Lyje't':~h~.Ilg;i taj';o th6 chiatruy~n;c6:.tich" cac·;dan 19c.ft nguQiJ'~\am m~y;Jei'\:;····

. . ...-

- Truy¢n M\ing ngtrq~diing sJtai~,

- Tnwe.n.nguai b.ito,Uinh.

- Tr\:l)l~nm6c.6i

T ..... ..... ,i('3)

- ruy~n .c.um. ..

Trong giao trinh "van hoc dan gian de dan lQC It ngtrai b Viet Nam" pho giao su Vo Quang Nhon tuy khong trinh bay ro v~ su phan loai truyen cO tich nhung qua die trang viet v~ Il9i

(1) Lich Slr v!in h9C Vi¢tNanl. T~p l Vall h(')c dan gian NXB ghiO'di,Ic H?I Noi 1970 tr .130

<2)£)inh Gla.KhIlnh, 'Chu Xuan Dien: Lichsli vsn /1C1CVi¢c Nam. Van

hoc dan gian. Tap 2, NXB Dai hocva Trung.hoc chuyeanghi¢p HilNqi -

1977, t1'.93. .

(3) Lich st"r VtiJ1 h9C Viet Nam. Tap l , NXHKhoa hoc xii l1<)i, H?I N0i

1980,t1'.109

113

dung va nghe thu{lt truyen cei tich cac dan tOc It ngum chung La thA'yp6i h~n cac loai truyen v~ cac chang trai khoe manh truyen ;~dU'a tre me coi, truyen cuai va truyen thuyet- . Tuy ~hien' al

cu6i trang 141 b giao trinh tac gia. co chii thich "V~ mat the loai \'

~,;ph~n tJ:,:.~nc6 tfch Iich sir,kha gao gili voi-truyen thuy€t: .\

Gan day gIO'I khoa h9C Qu6c te c6 khuynh htrong xep b¢ phan

dy v~o loai truyen tpuy€t. a .day ehun9 toi cilng goi Ia truyen tnuyet nhung vtGt de trong IO~l1 truyen c() tfch, theo nhir cachp;hlin

l~quen thu¢c,,<I), .:--

Theo clning toi nghi nning dong chti thfch nay th~ hien su chua nhar quancua tac gia trongphan loai(2) . Mot mitt ta~ gia"chu y dung mire d€n nhirng sac thai rieng cua cac' dan 't()C it ngum, nAy sinh tlr nhiing dieu kien lich Suxa hoi cu th~ ~ht(t dinh". Nhirng m~t khac tac gia lai bi kh6ng che bln "~ach phan

lo'!-iquen_thu¢c". .

GdndAy cac tac gia giaotrinh van h9C dan gian tnrong DaLhoc Khoa hoc Xa hoi va Nhan van da It nhieu di~u chinh .lai quan ~i¢m phanio~i" truy¢nc6 tfch: Sl! di~u chinh d6 th~ hien "cr

.Im tua va each sap xep trong tuyin tqp truy¢n elf tich do Nha x:.u!t ban Dai h9C va Trung hccchuyen nghiep ful hanh g[n dAy(3). VI v~y khi bien soan giao trinh nay tac gia da tiep thu nhiingquan di~m moi ella cac giao sir lau nam. N¢i dung cua sl! "ddi moi" d6 III phanloai truyen cd tich dua tren phtrong phap

rlOiP 111nh .lich sir, cu th~ c6 3 loai sau day:

,- . ;-/{-,

(1) Vo Quang NhC1l1. Va.? hoc dAn gian cae dsn toe it nguiJi 0- Vi¢t Nem; NXB D~ hQC va Trung hQC chuyen nghiep. Ha NQi J983 trang 141- 195.

(2) U Chi Que: Vo Quang Nbon v6i van 11[JC den gian cac d9nf<}c it ngWi II Vi¢t Nam. Tap chi van hoc, S6 3,1986, tr. 143.

(3) Chu Xuan Dien - Ii Chi Que: Tuyln I;JP truyen cd ticb Vi¢t Nam (Phrut tru)'t;ll> c6 tich nguoi Viet). NXB f)~ hQc va TIlCN, Ha N¢i, 1977.

- Vo. Qua>},! Nilan: Uri tl!a t~p Troy~n cd tfeh cae dan t¢c it J1guiJi 0- Vi¢l Nam, NXB V~ h9C va THCN. Hil. N¢i, 1989

114

rTruy¢n c6, tfch d¢~g v,~t

_ Truy¢Jl co tich than ky. ~ A'

_ Truy¢n c6 tich sinh hoat xa h91.

, A' --hac n II"h ban chat noi dung va thi phap tirng

Chung \01 se p '-.' ,

.~ :,. w

tieu IO<;l1.

m:TRUYf~N C() TicH DQNG V ,~T"

A ~" • y . '11 Viet Nam xuat hi¢n

Thu~lngu tru:~n ,~o .t~~h, ll~ng v: t~~ 'i~1i thl n6 rat quen

chua lau nhung dOl VC11 gHlI k~oa ~9~ ..... > g.... <!. - d.a.u tien.do

, • 1 b?ng hi dcin vi cackrku truYt;nt ". . - ."' ...•

thuoc, Ngay tI.ong a -';' Cd'" . -.1910 lhl <.til chia truyen co

A.Aarnes (Phan Lan) xay \!ng. nam

tich fa 3 nhom chinh:

. " h' t " a .truyen

A. eli tich dong Y~f, truyen co t~eh t uan uy Y _ . ::~

. Tr~~yn , han he nay duoc StlthTomp~on (My) tiep

YUl cum. each p an n ~m .? ml~hvao n~tn 1932,

tuc sir dung trong cong trlnh cua .... . . . .. _ .... h'u 'a'e

• ?" _ ,,/, "' .• t ' • h dai hoccung nLe a Lien Xo cu thi trong Lac giao !l.~ . . ' .. d c danh

~()ng'trlnh nghien ctru khac, truy¢n c() tfch dortg v~t. UI!

l,; , (ll '. .

. ~, dang

V! tn.xung " l.! tich dong val lau nay dl1<;1C nghien

d ;ViN Nam, truyen co tc . '

"h' . voi truyen ngu lu!.on. .' . '" 1-'

cuu c ung u • ':' ~L d .~ it' dung tren co so cot 01

•. Qua la tr~y~n ugu ng~~~ ~~~)giU~. hai loai trny?n nay ciia truyen co ~1;~ dQ?g. "12) T g truyen c6 tich dong v~t

ding c6 ranh glOl nhat ~tRh . rong .

nguoi ta nhan ra 3 16p chinh:

__ -c-------'-' -.~. V A BakhC1china' CluTc nang chAm mY (l)Tieu bieu 1i1. chuy~nlu~n c?a, . hie au tren co sO truyen c6 tfch

. "u t6't.h· an" ky' trona tmyeJ1 co tich (ng ten C '

cua ye u' C -'

dong v~t Nga),Xarat6p 1912. 6" h Trong sach Til JiriJ1 van h9C . Tap Il,

, I}) Chu Xuan Dien: Troyen ctIC. .

NXB Khoa hoc.xa hei, Ha Nt>L tr. 452 "1453, , ch Til didn van hoc. T*p II.

TrlID Gia Linh: Truy¢n ngl) ngon. rong sa

NXB Khoa hQc xii. h¢i, Ha N<)i. tr. 457- 458.

115

.: 1. }"6'r truy~n hinh thanh S0n1 nh;Yt la nhCrnt!'rllY~~11 v{il l({ pan VOl /117 fI!:!lJi I'll,!.'. /() {em Pf:.iO ella I1p{f()i, nguyen MllIv. Nhtrns;

truy~n ni'ty ('f de Iltr<'il' Chau All CCln h,lo luu nl;iell. (j Viet Nan~ chull~ til chua lim thilY ll~uy0n d(.\n~ cua n6. Chung ta chi thflY t;l'l'p tho:rl1¥ h\)I1& d:111& l'Uil n()' qua llhtrligmi1u chtlY¢n v0 chil;l

'V"~l' chim ll;'\ ,-'lb !\hriing hoac tl"uy¢n (;1 p.Jy /70:.1 r/!np cuaIl~1l8i

Ii;!. ~

2. ,Urp ~rlly~n lUling d(~i ph() hifn n~N chung ta con ghfchep chrqc la :l,hlr~\g '~lIY~1l phan anh ef{1e diL~in ella losi v{il qua do cOl2 IlglJ\.ll Il: the, h¢ nay cien the h¢ khflc·truY~Tl 1<;11 chi) nhau nhlfng t;'[ tlurc \'0 thc~l(ri tv nhicn ct~ nharn chinh ph~c no, str dl),ng "? ph~c, vl;I:'hoCli()C snnf'cohllg(fof;'i DolA 'trl1y¢n giRl thlc"h tai ,sao vn t~'6ng keu khan khan, tai sa()16rigqu<;l mau den tuyell:, «~[ sao mal rua Cll nhfrng vet han nhtJ'r~nnt1t;t3t saog'fiu va khi khong choi VO'1 nhau nfra, tai sao trau chi co' mot h~~lll1 ,'allg ...

.x., N~l ChU}lg (~h6~1 fru.~;¢n I~ay hien nafc~n duqc SHU t~ptrong cac ~9 I~'uy~n co dan gran cac dan t()(~thieu so nhj~uh()'nta 0 ngu~l Vl~t., vs each' gi3j thfch cat-nguyen nhanttraisao'IJtrong truyen C? Itch cac dan IQc'ft ng.uoi ciirigchitpM~; h6nnhie~ han . .chang han Ngm)j Van Kieu (1 Blnh Tri Thien gi<H thfch nguyen nhan ga va vii hien nay kh6ng a chung mt)l chu()ng. k,h,ong a~.ch~ng mot ~5i la, VI,hl.) nha vit hj~u nham khi-thay.ga II 0:1& ~~lfJ ,tren l,l:.ng VII rna] de sang _nha vit du tiec. TUy v~y ho nha ga ::hol1g bier chuyen do nen vall gitrtinh nzhia than thiet nhu x,ua bal;¥ p~ch thinh thoan~ vAn up tnrng cho ~v~t va .nuo] vi:

con nrur nuoi chfni. "')11 minh V~/I) . . '

--- .. _---- .. - .. _._--

(I) r J J' , ' ..

~ 111 ] ng lliJ ga l'!l I rung sach Con voi thin (lhn"el/ ct'i vall Kicu T:'

Ch). f'o.'XB ·nlU{j.n lloa [{,lX(I, [I 94-95 . • a

116

la cau cl1Uy~11 gifra "Khi Ya H6" (I) . !<hi von nglrai h,c nho hon .~ sue v6c veu honnen phai dung In de khuat phuc H6,va cho He) phai thua het keo nay den keo khac. H6 dim nrc vo cung va tim each tra thu, bung bao dl(ky nay se khong d~ m~c mUU n6 ntra". Th€ nhtrnz H6 v~n luon bi Khi dira vao bfiy. Khi' chi cho H6 thffy mat troi t;en dinh rnii va bao dffy la Ilea, phaidi Iffy Ilea ve mrong thit Ion rung an cho ngon. H6 len nui met nhoai ca nguoi v~n khong iffy dtroc lira. Trong khi d6 Khi Iffy Ilea cua ba con canh rurong d~ nuong thitan, chid~ lai tho H6 XH<1ng du, long ruot. De'n khi khi ch~ng may sa xu6ng h6 sau van tim each Iira de H6 cimg nhay xuong vm mirth, roisau do choc tUe d~ H6 quang mlnh len' m~t dfft. K€t cue la Khi thoat nan con H6 thi bi ngiroi d6t, xuyt nira thl chet 'mat mang.

Cau chuyen nay khi€n cluing .. ta lien tuemg den chuyen (tCao

. ..... . 'd·'· 1I.r (2) CJ'. I' h

va Soi" trong kho tangTruy~n C6. ~n glan riga . ao ua c 0

soi tha duoi xu6ng 15 thung. tren m~t bang de batca nlurng cl.l6i cung bi ret c6ng va gfiy mat duoi. S6i dinh tra thu caonhung Cao l~i l~p muu bal s6i cong di long nhong tren caquangdttang dai,

Di~11 hinh nhat trongnhirng chuyetr v~ con v~t thong minh' la he thong' truyen tho cua ngl1ai Viet va cu~ cac dan (¢eft ng~ tren d~t fluac tao Con tho be nho nhung nhanh nhen, th6ng mmh da l~p miru lira duoc ca voi, h6,ca sau 13. nhii'ngeon v~t to khoe va docac.

H~ thong truyen tho nay rat ph6 bien b Campuchia, vung

Dong Nam A va nhieu mroc tren the gioi (3) • '

(1) Trayen dsn gisn lhaj..NXB Khoa hQC xii hoi, Ha Noi, Tap 3 1987,tr~

84-96. .

(2) Troy¢n dan gian Nga, NXB Khoa h9C xIi hoi, m, N(li 1988 (U Chi Que, U Thanh Huang, Tri Diing dich).

(3) Nguyen Van Hoan, Niculin: Nhfing mm quan M vsn hoa cua ngllm

viet va 'cec dsa toe khac 0- Dong Nam A. Trong sach: Ofi truyen {hong va cd; moi {rang nen'l'iin h9C iJOng Nam A: Nxb Khoa h9C. Matxcova 1982, tr. 13-25.

117

3. Loo lBU" ba ,," A?

'., ~y, () I,;ua truyen c6 tich don ,A' -

ehi4u quan h¢ ella xii. hoi '0' a' ' ' ",' g V~l 'a ohung truven do'

L ~ '., :- "" .' I ogu(n vao q hA.' , " ••

. ~n~y ,~al hien mU¢11 hon. eo the 11 k u~n _ e (;,',la cac con v~t.

gUll,feap. O,i:Viet Nam lc'1p 'I" ,. ,( hi xa h91 da phan chia

" . ,Iuyen nay lhu' ,

n~~n~?j va phat tri~n i'r ngtr~i Viet '. h.7ng co ~u ~u6'I1g nglj

th~eu so. , ," n leu hon (J cac dan t¢c

Truyen"" doi ,. '

. ' . con. en, 1031 chim v~ loai ,'" " ,

ch~m va loai thii danh nhau thi a n~1 th~ ke rang khi loai

hal,' mat ella no Kh,', oa-p,l "',1, LL)O doi thu<1ng boc 16 tinh chat

, • • ' , M' oal c um th' ~, "

VI c6.qanh bay. Khi g~p loai thti th' 1 ~o n~"m thuoc gi6ng chim

cO.v~. Nhirng khi ioai' chim va I ,~l1hO' nh.~n thu¢c gi6ng thti vl doi khong co ehb dirng b' " h: . 0, a~ ,t ~glang hoa v6'i nhau thi

h. "lea ell oai danh d JI,

C tl1,vaohang song, doi d€nchA ,K' .'" U()L Vi v~y doi phai

CAJl. chuyen nay ph' eA ph '-l~ ~Ol mal bay ra clap m6i.

..:. . an oat ngu" khA

HJ~,.tl"Ong cuoc s6ng. Noi then' •• ~ ,. en. _ y~g co chinh kien r6

ng.uOl.cC1 h¢i. tl~t)n ngu hien nay, do la loai

fi;;'fruyentrC '" .

) '. .., ,'. 9P,co, ,C,ao, chuot".. h rfi ,

CO'lu"ye.n the'. Co thi that th" / v<;tch, .1'0, su hcng hach ella ke

tp.tn'h nh ' ' , ' . a, cao t 1 xu ninh h A "

'~,"',":, ; ,l1ng t~t ca deu khong 'hi~, ' ~ . ,c uor thi lang

~ .... " ClAU h ' ," , ' ,e euvua y cop a bi

~"~ c uyen nay neu fa m6t bai" , ':,. ~a l e9P danh

~g.haeh nhir yay chi' co/ A', hoc la dOl xir voi nhiing ke'

k"" " ' mot each Un • hf

~ y~u phai doan ke't nhau l~i d~ l' e ' ~. xu t ~ Ich ~h<ll.:la nhiing

d, ung, d~t fa ella truyen +r-«: "b '--< 1 ~' l~t no.. Do cung Ia noi

hao l~ . ,L-Ile oeo va '<Ie J:" A' " '

_ ' " Oly quyen cai quan dan r .:; ,a " c la lam hirong

an ~g ella e~.~o beo, Cheo :;;d~at ehe? reo di p~u f6i a nha ben xm ra khoi lang lam t6 . " phu ve, dircc biet chuyen d6 bay qpa,ca ho cheo beo keo ~€~a~aeao. ~a ,~6i khi thay 'ae la neu len m¢t van d~ ella xa hoi 1 ", nh toi bci, Cau chuyen nay

bongl1ai bi tIi hay dung len chii~ d~~l ::oum kh1a keu g9i nhung con

, n tb6ng tIi.,' ng oan nhu9'ng d6i v6'i

Nh~ v~y truy~n cd tfch d¢n vat ' , ' ,

trong,dl san truyen cd tI'ch ~. hg . }a m¢t tli~u IO<;tl d~e biet

t' h" . no) e ung a d ~ ~ ,

roc, mh trong k€t ea'u cau t ~ , 0 COle can v~t d6ngvai

truy~~ v~l nhung ;::~ ,~. ~hun~ n~uC1i k~ chuy¢n da 1 g 1. quail hy y nhu con ngu>";

118, u.

v~y.Leni.n CO m91 nhan ~el thu V!: "Neu nhu ban k~cho cac em m<}t cau chuyen c6 tich rna con ga trong va con rneo kh6ng noi duqc li6ng ng.aOi thl cac em ch~ng thich dau,,(1\ .

Truy~n e6 tich than ky la be) phan phong phu nhat trong cac

li~u loai truyen e0 tich. Day cling Hi nhomtruy~n mang tinh chat llJ'ong (J6'ng giiia de dan 1<1C ro rang han ca. N.P.Andreep co nhan xet ding giiia'truy~n Cel tich Nga va truyen e6 tich phaC1ng. Tay thl so cot truyen e6 tich thftn ky mang tinh chat urong d6ng nhi~u hen ca. Trcng, s6 192 kieu truy~n tuabang chi din AenC1

thl danh muc cot truy~n c6 tich N ga co tm 106(2). L.G, Barile va d£d6n~ nghi~p ,,~. fingcui1g ri\t'f.j. rtlQrke~I~~ 111" ~~i~ ,6 1Ugng 100 nhat trong cac v~nbimtruy~nc6lkhxu~t bart crNga, Utritina va Beiorutxia la truy~n cd tith than ley rna d~c diem cd

bim ella no la tinh ~nviing ,cua,'d~ng thuc truyen th611g.Cac nh'. van hoc dan giruiLi"",~ldti(fa-cung:c~pm~t .'/IT*, so sinh ve, truy~n c6 tich thftn'kf cua 3 dan tge klluv\icD6ng-S1avo.li1i,r -.' sae: b Nga c6 225, a Ucrainaeiing c6 225 con a Btlorotxia' c6 1.99 (con s6 nay chenh l~ch kha 16'n trong danhni~c truy~n cd tich d9ng. vat. 0 Nga 119, Ucraina 336 con b Belorutxia chi CO

R7) m. '

Truy~n c6 tich than ky, nhu ten g91 cua no, yeu to than

kt dong vai tro quan trong trong k~t .cau va qua trtnh dAn d~t cau chuyen. Y~u t6 th~n k" nay co' ci)i.ngu511 ftr'tr'cil1gtfn nguoog cua nhan dan thai nguyen thuy va bieu hi~n r6 nh~t 1a trong thlin tho",i. Nhung trong than tho~i yeu t6 than ky dong vai tro chu y€u, n6 viXa 1a thll phap ngM thu~t viXa 1a niem tin c\la

, (1) V.L Unin. Toan t~p. Tieng Nga. np 361. tr. 19

(1) N. P. Andreep: Bimg chi dan cae ceit truy~n cd tfeh thea M theing

Acno: Ht>i d~a \9 Nga xu1t ban narn 1929

(3) L.G. Barac va nhi~u tic gia: Bimg chi dan so sinh cae c6t truy¢n cd

tfeh D{Jng Slaw. L.1979

119

uhan dan. Trona rruyen ,'(\ tkh than k)i yeu lei IIi6m tin nhat dan. '\tftCc'1i k~ chuyen chi mtron y611 to than: ky,de' lam rhlf<1I~g ti~n h(\ tn,1 L'IHl h. 1~11 <.I()1112 cuac. 111 IIptt'11, qua (M ITuyen dellcho con Ilpflli m()1 h~li 11t)(; &j{j.o hu;l'll n:l.O chly. Kh(l1I~ ph:li kht1ng eo ly mil ke1 thiic bai Ilwl'\) tich "Conga tr6nf \,~lJ[g" A. Puskin vie-t:

Truy~11l ('(J tich Ii) hj:! d~ll Nhl(l1p ;-ii] chii» hili hoc CJ10 /()p tn: 171211 ngosn

Khau .~at truycn co ~fch tluin kv Viet Na111 then lien trlnh lich str cluing fa thay fHii len m£IY l{tP truyen sau day:

1,: NI2iing"Il"U,y¢n lhan ~nhbi klc~ gia drph .trong,q\l,~ fri~b chuyen ur 'fhe thy n?au quycn sang phu quyen, tir •. ch¢<lQ q,~n' hon va hon nhan th~ ,~Qf;s~ng ch€d(},hon ,nha.nA6Ht~gAu va,h6n,

nhan ngoai toe. . ".,. , .,

Truy.¢n tu« csu noi len, tfn~.pi\*!~~:gia dlnh.do hai a~h yIn c~ng yeu 11191 co gaj va \'0 gau141.~~g.ghcnt:;4a .ngLlqi anh, Ke't cue cau Chuy~n la ca 3, ngLlai: .hai i:lnh em vaea gai, d~uch¢t., Nlurng nhan danvoi chu nghia nhaflviiIl v6ncoda,str dungycfu t6 than ky de tai sinh c1I9c song cuah9 thanh trau cau va voi. Cao hon sl! tai sinh lil hoa nhap ho lai thanh t~c an trau: "Mie'ng trau la dau cau c~lIy~n", "Mieng trau nendau nha ngiroi",

Truyen II Trsu cau" dLllJC ghi chep Ian dau lien trong ~'Lln.h nam chinh yu<ij''(lhe ky XV), Cung ki~u(typc) v6'i truyen Trau csu c6 truyen I!a dng JEW rau. Sao tue rua. Trdi ph;p mu., Ben canh truy~n. T~-a~ cuu hru h~~~}aunay con C<1 d! ban truyen Trliu csu trollg,truy~n dan gian Ngh~'ftnh do Thai Kim Dinh: 'suu tam! I ~ . Truyen nay don gi<:Ynva -a~in -aa sac thai dan gian hon trll,Y¢n duoc ghi trong Linh nam chinh qwii va Kho lEmgfl'uyen c(} rich Vi?l Naill; Ten nhan v~t dua -vao mau sac, mui v~{xan'h,

11) Sa lich Tdll call" Fruy¢n d:iII gian Ngh¢rinH' (TMi Kim Dinh SlTU Him bien SO~l1 ) Nna Xu<lt ball Ngh¢ Tin}l, J 98l lr. .Q

120

trans. thom l chu khong phai chiet tu (Tan + Lang=,LtnI: ' Tinh tict ~au chuyen cung gan v(~i cuoc song Ihlr~ng ng~yc~a nha~ dan Ian d()\1~ hcrn. Kh6n~ phai haianh em dell 111.,)(; (1 nha dao Sl

ma ho CUI~£ ~llhau eli san thti Hiy thjt v~ gi(~ bt\. "''''''

TrUY~~l B016duld cua l1gudi Cat~ \1) ~h6n.g ~o ehltle~ ha~

anh emruQt hi~unhftm nhau va dan deubl klC~uh~~ lai eo chitiet hai ngUdi eh6ng (truoc va sau) tranh mQt llgU!1l Yr:).

Cu6i cung ea hai deu chet. , . ,.... ..... ;," " '

Nhu vay t[t ca cac truyen tren de~ x?ay"quanhtr~,~ba.

nhan v~t: hai nguci dan eng va mot ,ngum ?an ?a. ~Vi ~ung d¢t .• cua hai ngum dan ong rna ca 3 nguCri cun!] ch~~.,,!~ ~l~tk~t ~a:~;c~~. ehuvcn th1 duong nhtr no nham rnuc dleh glallhlchW:: an·tt~m.

m9t phong tuc co ttr rflt [au.oua ngLl~i Vi~t, ciing nhucac;'~~~ 6 kl1u vue D6ng Nam A \21. Nhtrng khao sat ~y. c~cc~i tl~,r",!vl chiunz ta thflv n6 phan anh hien thvc m91 thm ky xa~t!a\sqa, nhan lo~i, D6"la thm ky rna cong xa va che' d9~on ,~h~nco.~c,~B ph6p anh em cimg Ifly chung m9t v9, Th:o.m91, tal~7u JlC~}~ ahi lai tu the' ky tha II sau cong nguyen thl,o€n tan thm kynaXi<! Viet N am vtin con nhieu noi co we anh chet, em th,.aya~,q. [[~. C~! da~ lam vo tal' [a che' d9 hon nhan anh em vq, m9ttal)".~du S~~ che' do quin h6n thmthi t9c m~u M" Nhung sau,~6.sh,;~?¢ ,~;5,n nhar; ~9t~9 mC)t c~6~g h1~h t?a~h v~ duoc ~a. hC)~ th,~a6nh~~l Truy~n Tr:lu call phan anh tan bi ~~ch trong bll~"c yua~(5d ,,',n,

Ciina tuong nr nhu truy~n Trau csu, Truyr;n ,W tlC? dat£~t phu h1nh thanh dJong nhu de giai thfc~mQt hi~n tLl99gt~ Il~l~? la hon ruii dfi co dang nliu ngllOi me be con lro~g ch~ng ~1h~rf, Scm va a R1nh Djnh.G:ln veri hien nrong tv nhien do khong"cSo,!

co truyen c6 tfeh rna ca ca dao, dan ca: ' ,

, D6'ng Dfmg c6 ph6kj Lira ,

05 nang T6 Thj, c6 chua Tam Thanh

. (Lang Son)

I) --,-':--, -'-1..,-,- -r.,' "'m "'a'" NCTliven Nxb Van hoc,

( Tnly~;[J C(] tlch cae ( illl t9c I n,ong .c~ ,I. J ' "" <' .'..

Ha N6i, tl". 45-48 ,." , d' t6' mien . ,1, Hoang Si <.}uy: V 6 m(}t stY phon!] we chung co a cae ,,10 . C .,'

D6ng N:Jm ( n;)u ,\. fap chi Dan tQc h()c. S(') 2.1 i.)~()121

Bo'ng COf} npLa'ri nra Irc:n non r,~1I1glh/J l/;im! l''ic {IN \'()J] ',/ '," '/ ~,'

L ~ , ~. c:. 10 t' Jon!!

l Khanh Hoa) L

Trong H{'Ji I(ill,!.:' {(ill!.:' ('1 xa Y Ti-I " -

ngoaidG nhan \,,)1 SI, Ih');!"'- 'h ,L 1. C~11 ,Lang IL,lJlg SUn)

kc II, 0' '. c' cons. I lftill" co lHI 1l11l T' TI ' h

n , '_ u plunrng tlurc the' hi0n nhu :I,.. " ()!. _~) ,11 an

ch\l~~p van >,\,Day quunh quan ilC he) ic .na\;; C,OI 101, c~a ~au n,gU',lYlal?h trai va dt1a em "U:I',', " n n~lal:. loan luan gll}a

" ' -t:'- ,CUd minh V'lket' -, "

oa~lt~;411 d6 ia npI&i ch(~ng..(cling In anh') ph;ii di{;:~tl'U~1 11:61 tinh v(f,a em g,li) chet hO'1 cH 'U- h" " " c .. " I~ xu va ngl1ai Q~~ .~Qn,g nLu6'c rna eh' 'l,!'I,V b', a',e " e," ~~).n, sltng s,frng gifra trai mav

;.. , t:'- '0 gH)' gta d )<. .I'

t,l"n, "h. kia r-.10h tf I " , ai, uqc n01 oan loan Juan ~

• '. c," "IP 1al anh em la h. t- , , .' va .

Mtl'an~1 fMn thoai H'M6ov th'r nth au. (a C() trong thrin thoai

kh6nb" hh " ,~, . an qaI Dao Nhirna ? d'"

ti''':/'~''!b£e pM? 111U l'ondugc ton l~~ thuy't,;' I ~/' CJ,? h9 , .. a.~,,~1;6ng thuy. Nhung tron tr A' "~, 0 /0 1 ngu<1I sau ~uan)1~h6nnhfinhuytt' th'" gh A UYt;1I Sv l~ch .r/a v9ng phu thl

P,-, , ah.k,Jchlie, t vi sir xuat hi A ong" on nhan noi t9c nay d5 bi phe

, ,;' ,." a c;n Cua q uan h ~ h A h ~ .

': 2,T9anph~n dun b6 "mo' e("ji la d~ ~"on n an ngoai 1ge.

t~ongtr~y~n c6 tfch than k' the .," taJ quan trong trong he eih;tly~nfu~n tWban vat cu y A gl;1i., E.M.MeI~chinxki trong mot c.'hucmg dA' kh' ,'.' (. u~ l~l'J'~l1 co tich than kjl' dil danh h:!

" ,,'-, e , ao sal vc kieutruye , , _' an

phongphu (1 cac chau luc kh" h .11, nay. Bang nhung nr lieu

du- t' ~ ,'. ac n au ona dil chtrn . h ,"

" <1.;" r~11l0 coi bat hanh diroc hinh th: c, A ., g min rang

tr()ng vanhoc dan gi~n (1 ca'c xa h ~. a_nh" ~9t each co quy luat

thLt,9S i)1au qu)'~n cua che' d6 " 91 ~a dien fa qua trinh tan l:il hlnhthanh gia dtnh ph _ ' ~,L:Ong ~a nguyen thuy nhl1ngchl1a

thi t9C• E.M.MeJ~ehin~k~u~~n n~t! la d<;tng th~c cao ella xii hoi ngbeo khd bi m6 c6,i ph \ e ,0 hrang t.~~y~n c6 tfeh ve du-a t;e

tU" ,', a.n an SU' bien dan ~. ,

O11g eua th~ lo~i· I.If su dan \ . , " .' ~ ve e¢,1 ngu6n tt!

xung dOt xii hoi phan anh m ",. g ~n t~OJ. ~g~Jyen thuy. D6 1ii SI1

. 01 quao hy gllta Ilguai v6i nguui thay

-~----'---

(I) T I" ..

·lr I¢U dJ(~1l da ei'w sinh v' ~ KI -

hqp HIt Ngi t<:ti xa Y rich huv'n Chl~111., lOa 11211 van Inrung f)ai hoc T6ng

. , . t; , , I ang,L~ng Scm 1971. '.

122

drosl,l' xung d<)t giiia ng\1(11 v0i thicn nhien II) ,

() Vi~t Nam ki011 truyen C(~ tich than kyv~ dtra InS rnA coi dl1t1C tIm thayer cac dan 1()C thi~u s(l nhi~u him (1 ngt!oi Viet. Theo tti li¢u cua ong Phan Dang Nhat thl ('f de dan ll)c thieu sf) cA ~4'lh h,)11 v~ truven dt1a Ire m(~ ce)l hal) gClm nhfrn£ alra Ire

~_.:_",.' ,..~ ", • .t. ", ~,,-,,''' __ -:'. ,.,.:.;:<-,', f2J .x : i'

rnOCO) cha. mo COl me va mo CO) ca ella Ian me " Trong cac

tl:uy~n v0 <.leta Ire m6 ce)i Ihtttilig c6 luc 1111.mg ehflng d6i. d{) la anh ca hav t)(1£ chu, one. hac. Nhtrnu kct cue clua 11'6 m(~ e6i' bao

..,i'" c, <-.

giading chien thang., nhirng ke ch6ng d6i t111tang bi trirng phat.

D6 la trt!ang hrrp Rai anh em m{i cdi ella ngiroi Tay va m<)t cau chuyen khac cungt6n cua ngl101 H'M6ng.: Cac dan t<)c deu co ten goi licng de d~1 cho nhan v~l nay nlur truyen Con coicua nguCti Muong, truyen COIl d6-i cua ngl1ai H' Mong. Di~n hlnhcho loai truy~n v~ dira tre 016 c6i 0 cac dan t<)c tren da'tnuoo Vi~t !'Jt1pl.,I.a truyen TAm cam cue ngl1(ri'Vi~t" Tue Cia,. Tus Nhi cua ngu(ri Tay, Y l1oi, Y N9ng cna nguOi Thai, Gall Na cua nguoi H1M6rlg, G(1 Liu, GO'Lat cua ng\1&i Xcre, (T Va Ow cua ~gU'Cri HCII"~~ Chiec giay yang euangl1crlChim .. "yn.Chu de chinhcua 19~rtrpy~n nay la SIf .xung d9t,giUa dl ghe va con chong, tuc Ut lo~j'xurig dOt gia dlnh, 'v6n chiern V! tri quan trong trong truyen cq.tich th~n kyo Thong qua ehu de naytruy~n mo ta than ph~n dua can rieng cua chong. po la Ioai nhan v~t ,m6 coi ciing kha ph6 bien trong di san e6 tich th~n ky ella nhieu dan t9c khac nhau. Trong h¢ thong A- T kieu truyen nay mang so 51, tuong tt! truy~n L9 Lem eua Phap, Duc, truy~n Nang Vaxilixa xinh dt;p

eua Nga.

I

I

1

I

(l)E.M.M~lechi~ki: NMn V?t truy¢n cd tfeh thin kY· NXB Khoa hQc.

M.1958 (Nga van) ,

(2, Phan Uang NMt: D~g cdlfeh ve ngllo'" m(jcoi v6i trllyen thtfng d:Jn

chu trang WID h9c diln gian cae dtln t¢c thie'll so. Trong sach: "BllOc diu tim hir!u vtfn win ngM Vi¢/ Bic". SO van hoa tMng tin Vi?t Hac x.u~t ban 1974, I'

tc. 159- 175 •

(3) Uinh Gia Khat1h; Su b¢ t1m hilu nhi1I1g VtllJ de (..'11a tmy¢n c6 tfeh qua

truy¢n Tom Cim. Nxb van hQc Ha N¢i 1968 !

\'e kct diU, truycn Tsm 01117 b Viet Narn va cac nU(l~' Phuong. DClllg da dang phirc t.~p h(11J ;'1 cac ruroc phuong Tay. Cac truyen L~) LL'Jl7 cua Phap, Dire, lruy~nNflnp Vuxllix» cua Ng~, chi kel thuc luc I..'() gai Ifty du,!'c hoang ur, Con e~ctruy¢nq plurong DCllIg sau khi lay dl((.1C hoang Ilr r0i co gai con ph,lilni.i qua nhicu kicI: tram 11I[m: bien thanh chim vang.anh,<cay xoan dan, city thi roi cuCli cling m{ri lrb' lai kiep nguai va ,Uii h6i V(S-I

nguai ch0ng Iy IU('lIlg. , ' '

V6 hrc hrqng. p!,u ln,f I..'h6 c6 gai b de mnrc phu(1ng Hly thuong la Ra tien, (j Nga la linhhon nguai mehoa .than trona con bup be. ('1 Trieu Ticn linh htin nguoi my ho~ than trongcoh bo den, (~ Viet Nam hrc luong phu trq I~t6ng But (dang toicao trong Phat giao nh~ng dJ diroc dan gran hoa). Truy~nadc nutk phirong Tay khong co chi,tiet c6 gai Ira thu me cong} ghe.>O Lao va b Viet Nam c6gai diiUlffi mamduacon euamuglghe n?i gtri den cho me an. Di~lI nay Oa gay n~nst,rtranh lu~rt trong stf danh gia phfim chat cua co gai nang dan hien lanh.duG d{} nhirngbi vui dap, cha dap den cling eire. " .

• Rieng b Viet Nam truyen con duqc diaphirong hoa vir lic,h SU hoa, NMn dan xii, Nam Sorihuyer, Que V5, HaBackh~ng dinh tren mii Darn co gieng B6ng, gan d6 co ao Phe IA Il{ric6 Tam rei giay, co bJi cay thi la noi co Tam hoa kiep lanfnguctiva

- 'I' h' (I) , '., ....

g';1P ';11 n a vua . """

PMn hai cua truY~n nhan dan d6ng hoa c6 Tani trong e.6 tfch tMn ky voi y Lan rh¥i phi. Trang chfnh Sft y UUlfh,H phila v~ Ly Thanh Tong, me cua Ly NMn Tong, que b lang Th6. t.:6i

.Bdc Ninh von la co gai thon que nhirng co sac, co dire vaco Uli.

Ba da tung nhiep chinh khi chong di dep giac, va tao d'!l1g co d6

cho LytJ"h<in Tong ke nghiep. Do cuoc doi co Tam va YLan thai phi co nhiing net nrong dong va do S,! ly tUC1Tlg hoa .eua nMn dan dOl yoi nhan v~t m6 e6i cho nen eoTamtu nhariv~t eua

~~). Tu .li~~ d~en d~ ella s~nl~_vien. kh?a ngi1 Vall twang [J~i h9C TOng hqp Ha N9i, l<;il Xa Nam S011 Que YO, lIa Bal: uam,1968.

124

,

truven C() tich lhfH\ ky dfi. bien thanh nhan vat lich slr. Con Y Lan th,{i 'phi la nhan v~t lich SLf h~~ dU\1ed~n gian h{~al;ml.- cho c~u chuyen vl!(\ manj; tinh chat c() t ich, vira ~,anS lJn~ e.~.at truyen, thuyet lich sir. t:X) la-net d~e lhll dan I()e cua ban ke kieu A-T so

)1 i'1 Vi¢l Nam.

3. Trong kho tang truyen e6 tich than ky Viet Nam l'Gn& nhu truycn cC) rich the gi(1i.lo~ti truyen n§lf(J'j (~(Jj l(j~, thl/I!t ph,6 bien. Do In truven So Dim. La), ,vcoc, Lay chong dc .... cua

IH!Lfai Viet, C'h!lI;g BAu Cu V;ich Oc sen, ella nguC1i Ml((1ng, C"h;/l1p C~ Die ella ngl1ai Thai, Sam Su, COI1 rtld villlf ella .ngu?i T~v, Chang Iin cua nguoi H'Mong, Cd gii iaj.' chong fran CUll,

ng~01 XDfmg" Cha,!g G5c cua ngiroi Ca Dong, C hang Ret, Coc va Hohiaphu cua nguoiBana .. .Nhirng truyen nay nrong nr truy~n Neng Nhsi cua Mien Di¢n!1" ChEwgnhtfi Kj Mil cua ngl10i M6ng c6, COTI nhli cua Pharo chang g§u clla Thuy D.i~n,.L(Y chong de cua ngl10i Ba TU ... Rieng truy~n COl1g chua ecb ciia. nguoi Nga co toj 23 di ban (2). Da~ la ki~~.truY~tlco?iJ1 d{~. nSnr than thoai kha r5. Cac nhan v*tnay ra.c1C1l tht1cmg la d? ket 'l~~, h6n ph6igiua nguai fit; tran. the: v(:ri m¢ll,!e luorig thie~nhi~ sieu hlnh.' ch~ng han 59 Dira (ella dan t¢e Vi¢t va Ch~m) ra d~l la do ba me u6ng mroc cua 11191 cai sodira rna co chua,_Chang C6e cua nguai C; Doni- la con cU!l D! D~y, co ?ai thu ba u6n~ nuoe trong tang da nen e? chira, (}c S~11 cua ng~ai ~uo~g ra, dill; do hai chi em gai ra suci tam an qua s\lng chin nen ,ve nha .co

chua rna sinh ra .. , , .:.

. Cae nhan v~t nay dau tien rat di.dang; &;> du~ til c,\lC t~n ~q mat. miii, mom, nhimg khong co chan tay. Suot ,~gay n? la_n long 16e then sau me nhu m9t cai S9 dira nen ngUC11 ta moi d~t

(l)Hiet1 nay Mien Di~n da dbi ten 111 Miama. , , .' " 121 Thea V.P.Anhikin: Truy~n c6 tfch than ky"Nang cong c~ua ech.

Trang sach: Van h(}c dan gian fa mOt Io:p' hinh ngh¢ thU?t ngon tlfM.l966:

tr. 19. Tieng Nga.

125

le~ cho no nhu the. Cu vach 6·,' ~ ,

gal n' t I ' , ' c sen mol loai I'

;; 19, \)~11 la .CD!) tic sen. NI . 'i . . c • A a con sau xanh co

C!:i<tl}g Rua .. L'h~Hl'2 Ran cha n r,\.'>.11C~. nhan vat dt')l 16t lhu nhu

C' ",,,, gLJ(; nang Nha

, ac ~lh:\l1 ,vllinay thl10ng ~hr~K: thu . " rar.; , .

daC,1c nhimu viec f1111' t111r'" ' , phep than huh nen (ta~ lam

I " (,n I' VL(01 •. ' , < ~

1(}.ll.~t (hn,K' nhirnu dieu Ll"-"'" " .. ' qua ,11ll.) I tlur thach.. cu6i cunz h _' L· ,'L muou: tr 1 th' h' r.. PiJC ehtlHg dep, tal. has(l!10 '11" '1' ,l a. n nglfoi dcp, I,Yv \'(1 chi.' , ' 'to L ()C (01 hunh Ill' " .; ... ,.cn nglfl.fl duoc tn'1 thanh I .,.. I' . '. •. lUC gmu co. tharn

vay l' ,,' ' . u loang HlU ph' ~ h . S

~ .. ' a nr Cl)1 ngw')n than II. ',' < '.' 0 rna oac vua. Nhu

'n ." ,L . c roai cac nhan ,·'t r d

c.4yen hoa thanh nhan vat cua tr ' \,~ (! ang. doi 16t thii

t~o<it khoi 161 thii cac [lhr' ,! uycn co tich than kv. Sau khi

,',n. . ac nhan vat nay tro than] J

C(l C~l dt;p h~1J hoa can d ,'- ,', _. ,( lal; 1 con ngiroi trfin· the

hlnh . 01 gllfd pharn chat ta' - "

• " 1 nang VO'I nuoai

N~iih~ k~ cMng d6i ho Ihu""· .,..... . ,.

t~1i h5 ([w! dua, Ufy cM"n{! de. 0/ b! trtrng ph~ 1 h"~ c c h61 vi thanh. nhiing .con-vat .... iJft .. tho' . ang trsn, Lay chong ran) bien

Ch#A $1\ h " n lU nhucori mot d h' , ' '

:.; .. "$£,"1, ay.con bo ,nic dam b' (' . ~c t oc (truyen

\~lJlM'l' ~y~n cd ,li"h!hilnkY ~~ tru:5'" ~tf Rd Un Yr). T6~, W~J.~~~)ru:an dan (ve sg MihaacK})c~'O anh q~an, m~~l tham 8~~"~~ 'h<in g ,I M c.~arjh iing con n ,~'11'P) ~a Iy luang dan -s ~m}~hgl cu. Pl1cii 8hang d'l' ginn. ~A'u xi, bi khinh rniet cJiHy~n d6i til ke qw51 M c/·, ~, a st!, d,g bao ~6'm cua qua lrlnh d.~i tl1mli true tiep VHI' tA a} ;,lYI cc:n vue rna sau nay nhan dan d· ;-

'. ,., v ang C1p thong ttit!) . . a a

t :.'I<i~u truyen khahap dan trong h~ th~' .,.'

.ruye r dung si. Trong bo "lich ., _ ~ ong c6 tich than ky la

qu6c Chan va Phan Dan'g Nh' sa ~a~"h9c Viet Nam" 6ng Nong SI tai b " T at goi la truye hf .

. ', ,.' ... a... rong g. iao trinh .; .: h ' n nang. ngiroidung

ngu' . , ? V' . . L . van oc da '

. . m .a .. let Nam " ph' '". '. an glan cac dan tA 't

t l' 0 glao sa Vo Q yc 1

V Ci1C chang traikhOe, Day}' h ' .4< ~ang Nhan g9i la. truyen

a al uUVf>n ph.:l b"? , , '

. . . .I ; 0 len a nhleu dan

(1) V' k"

e !eu t~y¢n nay, xem:

- Nguyen Thl Htsc!, Nh ' ,,' .

N .' an wp .tall xi mil .. h

am. NXB Khoa hgc Xii \\6, 1999 tat a trang truY¢/1 cd tiel! V"t

_ Chu X" 0' . . " ' U!

h _', uan len: Tro'lc"n So Dir. " " '

9C xa hQI. Ha N¢i 1%4 tf.- 302<303 '8. TII dJen vim /1(;)(:. T~p II. Nxb Khoa

'126

toe tren (Hlt 11lr{1C Viet NClJ11, ti \)01\£ Narn A va the gif1i, Do la

, ' ~ ,

Iruy~n TIt{lch Sanh cua ng1rai Vi9t,truY~flNiinp. Ide thom cua

ng.tri'rlThai (Tay BtlC), 711~Jch Sanh etta nguoiTay b Cao Bang (Vi~t Rae), Th~/ch SaJ/h chcm chen cua nguai Khc1111C (Na111 R9) d~c bi~t phA hien la (1 c{IC dan t(K vimg raii Trlfong Sou, Tay Nguven nhu uuvcn Voml'c)' lUI eua rt\!aoi CaTu, ChElnE! «« cua

_ • • ' L·-

!H?:lri1i Kor, Cnsn» Riic Xl'l Clta l1£lr('1i Bana c6t truven Dam xan

C~il ngucfi EM ... \oai truy¢n nay t~o'ng tv truY911 xil; xsy <'r Lao, X(/llxcnki RiC'm kt~;'1 Oltnpuchia, Rilma.vana a An DQ. Trong he thong A- T kieu truy~n nay lhr(Jcdanh so300A.

Trong S0 nhung truy~n nay, lrlly~n ()J gai ff)e .thom cua nguoi Th{li nrong doi don gWm: MQtcogai c6maitoc thorn. Chi6u nao cling v~y nhi~ll chang trai mang dan ,d~n gay tnr0c ngo nha co khien co b6i r6i khon£ biet chon ai. Mot hom c6 ra sin go t6c, b6ngc6 con dai bahg'- thftn qU~l bay qua, sa xu6ng cap co di, Tu tren may co keu CUu rham thiet. Trai Maong keo ra hang tram nguoi Ai cling gim1ng no ngu6ch~n .troi du6i bim con chimkh6ng 16 qua su6t mffy Muong, Nhtmg rieng keu crru cang

xi dftn. M9i ngu01 danhphiii dung lai. Olren may nang xe cai v~_t aocua mlnh nem xuong. Ncri vat ao (en xu6ng ngaynay con

mang ten la MltCmg Vat. ~\)

Truy~n D(1m to ritk~t. cffuphcrc t<).phcrn mQt it: con Ca lang

(di~uhau) bal vCJ A Dii la A Tang cung vm trai lang di cUll chi dau. Trong s6 trai lang chi co DM;.' 1<'1 rit treo len ng9n cay, gi~t

chet dieu hftuJcUu duoc vel A Du.

Tnty~ll A Dit cMnh dq,i bang cung cO cac tinh tiet tren day.

Ket thuc cau chuy~n chang dung sllfly co gai Hdbia lam vQ.

Truy¢n Th?ch Sanh clla nguai 'Vi~t c6 kC't cau ph(rc t,~p nhat. Ngoai chi tiel Th~ch Sanh gi~t yeu quai, ecru nguai dyp, cung nang k~t duyen con \.'0 them chi tiel k~tnghia anh em giflla Th~ch Sanh veri Ly Th6ng. - chang.. buon ruCJU, s\l' triio trCt eua my

(t) Xem: Nguy~n Bkh Ha: Th~lCh Sallil vd kilu truy~11 dUllg si trollg tnty~11 c6Vi~t Naill \'(1 D(jJ/g Nam k NXB Giao Dl,Ic, 1998,

------

\ 7

ron Ly Thong, cuQc phieu hru ella Thach Sanh xuong tlll~ eung, S\1.1ui quancac thai t11 alu hOuva cOOl cung Thach Sanh dl1QC lenngni ball.

Du ~au chuyeu don gi<ln hay phirc, tap ket ca'u cua no xoay quanh Ir~Jc 1 nhan vat: Dung SI. y~u quai, co gai. Trong dIU L'huy¢n ((111 dau vet cUClth{in thoai va Ie nghi c6cua nguai nguyen thll~ nhu cuoc chien d~\LJ gilt" ngl1i'ri vai yeu quai .. tuc bat ,:6c phunir. It hicn Ie .. , Dau sao (1<1) lil loai truyencd tich ra ooi 1110ng ll6i muont long h~ th6ng tru y¢n 1..:(; tich than ky, lrong d6 dl 16'p 11111'i dw.rc b6i (Hip lmngthai ky phong kien. Thu doan .boc l(lt nhan cong, chi tiet Hip cira hang M tranh ctmg ella Ly Th6ng maug Ifnh (h[ll pin gui voi truycn (6 tich sinh hoat, Tuy nhien no vftn nam trong khuon kh(~ cua truyen cCl tich than ky vl SI! d~111 d~\c cua yeu t6 hoang ul1al1g va kct thuc co hau,

V. TRUyC:N co rtcn SINH HOATXA HOI

. -.- ..

V(1i !.l<)i dung phan anh.va dac tnrng thi phap rieng bi~t. truyen.cotlch sinh hoar rei 0{1i muon hon.truyen eel tich than ky, chu yeu ta tron& xa hC)i phong kien, Neu nhir truyen c~ tich dorrg vat va lr4y~n c6 tich than kY,v6 dung si tim thily (j cac dan toc.1t ngiroi phong phu hon thi truyen C() tfeh sinh hoat, xa h¢i lC;li' tim Inay a nglI('li Vi9t phong phti hem. H¢ thong nay bao g6m cac truyen noi v~ sinh hoat gia dlnh nhu quan h¢ v9 chl1ng, h6 me w1i con cai, quan he x.ii hC)i nhu gitia chu va 16" nong dan v6i phil tlurong, tang W, .. , Bencanh d6 c6 mot sO' 1 ruyen v~ chang agoc

va ngl1Cri thong minh. .

1- Nhirng truyen cd tich ve sinh hoat gia dinh

Truyen Vv L'bang Truong hay Ng{f(ri Ihir..""ll phu Nam Xu011g . ca nt:01 lIgl1i'11 V9 thuy chung, nglrtri mt; het long lhl1(ing con. Nh:rng do st! I1ghi ky, ghentu6ng ella ngtriJi ehcing, chi V9 dau kh(j V~I tl! ILL Khac v(1i truy¢n CI~ l!ell than ky, nhung nguai hi6n tanh, (hie d{) han )!i()' cung dl1(,H: thl1(tng e(lng, dl1(;re song hC;lnh

12x

pluic. (j tl:uy¢n cei rich sinh hoat, xi'i h()i Ill)i tren ngU(TI phu nU' rill mire yell eheing tlurong con Ely L,li phai nhan ..:ai chet nan thillg, (j day chuug In khong Ihfty 16i kft tluic e6 h~lU d'.lI doan vien thurmg g~p Iron]; truyen e6 tich than k)'

Truycn Cia L'h() khuycl/ cllt;np. ALii duo d~/y l'\"n6i 10n dao 15'1am ngl10i; concai ph.ii hi6t ycu 411) be; 111~ (dt'!,l<'t.Ci'll de hay, con dau). Troug nhirng truy~n nay yeu t6 than ky hau nhu khong

d{ll1g k0. Logic d;'in Jal cau c11Uy~1l la 16gi( cuoc dOl. . ,

Truyen Gii ttgonn d{ly cf1(fnp phan anh c,l hai m/ii quem h¢.

N gL()i hel r,tl thuoug con nhung hat 11,(( trung vi~L day con danh, phai trao vice d~ chocon dail. C6 con dau. vira r{l1 phai dao V(lI b6 ch6ng vira bier each dira eh6ng lrer v0. v6i cuoc song hahh phuc gia\tlnh chan chfnh, tiI ho eu~c s6ngleu 10ng: cah~~va' vu phu. Cau chuyert ti6p e~1I vt'1iphl1tJng thue scin~ t<;l(1 truyeu ng~n

thCri' trung va can dai: .' ,

2 - Nhung truyen c6 tich ve quanhe xah<)i

Truyen S(f tich chim qutfc ea ngoi ttnh ban diroi goc d¢ kh~rig (t~nh'.Nhan va Qu(k Ta hai ngl1ai ban "s6ng chet, strong kh5 co nhau", Khibivo NMn khinh re, Q\.l6c bonha ban radi, Nhan bang qua chong gai, chui h6t bu! ram nay 06nb~i T~ll'l khac va luon mieng gqi "Quoc oi, Qu6c oi''. NMn gQi mai,gQi Inai den kiet suc rna cM'( va bien thanh eon chim de, quyen, luon luon ea't tieng keu "Qu6c, Quoc",

Cau chuyen ca ngoi con ngrroi t6t bung, th\1(1I1g yeu ban be.

Nhung ket thiic chang khong duoc thl1<1ng cong, khong tharrh trang nguyen hoacong vua rna chet, hoa.thanh chimQuoc. Ow chuyen co nhtmg net gicng truyen cotfchthan ky (st! bien hoa ky dieu ) nhung khac a ehe, khong ker thuc co hau.

, Truy~n Ba ngur'tl b/jln eo Ie ra dai mu¢n hem tlUy¢n tren.

Tnly~n bi~u dUl1ng anh b~n lam quan nhung thanh liem va thuy cnung v6i. bi;lll l}gheo ngay XUa, phe phan-anh b<;lTl giau sang rna

129

d6i xir t~ voi ban cii, Trong.truyennay hoan toan khong co yeu tt;lh~n kyo S\!' hien dien cua nhii'ng cau n6i chu If D~tl ba't.khil. sat Kt'f: chirng to co s\!' tham gia eua nhirng ong d6 binh dan vao trong qua trinh sang tac va hoan thien cau chuyen.

TruY9~ Niim trail sdu c(Jt noi len su xung dt)t giua chu va ta

trang xa hoi phong kien, Ciing nhir S{1 tich chim quoc, chuyen NiiITJ.Wtll sail C(il hay Bal cd troi q')l con in dong dau vet ella eel tfch th<'ln ky: Ong Hio di 6 khong th~ tim them diroc con trau thu saunen cHi chet va bien hoa thanh chirn.Tuon mieng keu len n8i o~n,~lla mlnh. Nhirng cai 15i. cua cau chuyen la t6 cao hanh vi boc l¢t, dgc ac ella bon nha giau. Do 13 ngi dung d~t fa trong xa h~LGP giai cap, Truyen Can mu ll1ang va Cii csn {hllY ngan t6 c~9 s\!'giangiao cjia bon phii thirong. Tinh chdt phe phan trong trUy~n Conmu Luong quye] li¢tqua nhieu tlnh tiet phtrc tap, Truy~n di can (huy ngfin ding la 101 nguyen rua cay dge d6i v6i bt;m buon gian, ban d6i. Nhirng thai dt) ciia ngiroi k~ chuyen b, day co phan thong cam, guong nhe d~ cho hai VQ' chong gian thirong no cai ta quy ehfnh.Nhii'ng truy~n naychac m6i sang tao vao khoang the ky XVI - XVII trb v~ sau, khikinh te hang hoa b

V~~t Nam da phat trien. .

;, /;.3. Nh6m truyen .veAnh chang ng6c va ngum thong mlnh, Day la nhirng truyen c6 tich sinh hoat xii hoi kha hap 9An4oi vC1i dqc giiL Mot s6 truyen trong nhom nay gan giii (\,(ritruy~n.eum bOi trong do coyeu to hai. Chang han truyen .Iuun.theo lai vq ddn hai luroc anh chong ngoc, ell may moe

lam thea lai vq dijn rna khong xem xet tlnh huong xay ra sl! vi~c;Vl v~y anh ta luon bi nhtrng tran don nhir tir va cu6i cung "tf;i' .. sat" bang hanh dong xong vao dam trau hue nhau d~ l<h~y~n cluing "thoi thoi, eli hoa vi quy", Viec lam do cua anh chang kh6n gl hem trau nen da bi mot con hue cho thung bung,

Tuy nhien 'cling co hie chang ngoc thanh dat trong mot so vi~ nao day. D6 la truy~n.('hang ngo(.' duac kien. Gan su6t ca cuoc dOi do ng6c nghech nen anh ta luon luon bi lira: sau mum nam di b coo troc phii thl nhan diroc 3 nen yang gia, sau do d6i

130

. Khi trtnhbay tirng ti~u loai c6 t1chtha..r;te~i tm;g truyen e6

tich eu th~ chung toi dii d~ e~p den nhurrg net d~\thu tron~ ngh,~ I thuat ~~u thanh no. 0 day cluing to~ trl~h ?3.?, nhil'ng net khai

mit nhat cua d~e diem ngh~ thuat the loai co h;:h. ....._

q 1. Thai gian.ngh~ thuat trong t~y~n ~6 h:h ba~ gio .. CU~g 18. thoi gian -qua khu. Di~u nay" the hi~n ~ n~trng cau ~C1 d~~ cua truyen: "Ngay xira ngay xua .... ho(;\c Ngay xua, vao th01

Huns VU\11li: Ihu' 1 x ... " Con trona ca dao, dan ca.thoi aian nche.

"-...... ~. . ... (,... ....

thH~\t bao gio L'iin& I~I thtl'i ~ian hicn t',li hoac qua kh(t kh(mt-,xa xoi. Ngay c,i k h.ii nicm "Ihtli Hung VU\1ng thu 18. "cling'd6 nham chi 1Il~1 Ihb'j uian xa xoi lam n~i chu trona iu duv 1I£.\('.,.i ke

• I.... . ~,. ",' '--

chuycn khang co y Ihtlc th(\i Hllllg VIMng thii 18 each d:\y rhfi)'

nghin nam.

2. Khoug gian nghe thuat trong truyen c6 tich (hLIang phicm dinh, LItre 1~.Trollg iruycn ci> tich ngLItl'i ta !bL!angk,~ rang chuycn da X~\y ra if m()t l~trlg no, my! vung fly ... .it khi noi

den mot dia danh cu th~. .,. '

3. 'Tr~Y9n eft t1ch bao gia ciing dLI9'ck~theo mOt luY~A th~ng hay con gt.)i ta -truc tuyen. Ngtroi ta thLIang k~ cuoc db-I

nhan v,~t l~, be ct~n 16n, sl! ki9~ xa~".I-,acr~~~,1i~n1 n~x .r6~ RH~; sang dia diem khac. Trong truyen c6 tlch-kh6ngco slf clang hl¢n

hay tai hien nhu trong truyen ngan hoac ti~uthuyet hien dai .. ,"/

4. Nhan vat cua truyen e6 tfch thlt®g'chi <frrngI~ibm~c, ditn hinh eho mOt loai ngiroi, mOt ki~u ngu(ri nha't dinh n~,! lao phii ong, anh eanh dien, eogai hi~hlahh, dua trc'Il16c¢i, ba't hanh.,; chii chua khac hoa duoc nhitng con ngLIai mang tfi1b

khai quat vira mang tinh ca th~ ro net. ,< •

5. Yeu t6 ky dieu, hoang dLIC1ngdong vai troqllah,trQIlg trong truyen e6 tich. Cang lui ve qua khu xaxira thl yeu t6ky dieu cang darn net. No vira In thu phap ngh~ tht1~t de xay'p~g cau chuyen, vira ia niem tin cua nhan dan, Cang tien g~nthaiKY hien dai th] yeu to k5' dieu cang nhat dan, no dong. vai tro la'tWll phap nghe thuat nhieu hem la niem tin. Yeu 16 ky dieu co ngu6n goc tir tin ngufing, phong tuc CC) nhu tin ngLIang t6 lien, v~t'linh luan, tuc hien te., .. v6 sau co su tham gia cua yeu to' ton giao nhir sl! xuat hien cua But (Phat giao), Tien (Dao giao) nhung diidLIgc dan gian hoa. Yeu to ky dieu the hien b loai v~t (chim, cathan ) sl! v~t (n6i cam than, cay dim than) va nhan v~t (tieh,bl!t. ... ). ,

KET LuAN vB TRUY~NC6TfcH

TI:uy¢n c6 tfeh ia 10<;1i sang lac dan gian ph6 bien, c6 ph~m

132

vi hru lruy0n n)ng 6ii nhat (tlr nong them den thanh thi, nr mien IIIIi dC'n m i6n x uoi ). Nt) I hu hut 1:11 c:i c,k dCli 1 l(()'IH! tr<;Ill! xi) h(lj Ill' .Ire C,HI dcn -npri'ri lrru. tll' 1I!:'ll('ri t11U L:hir d~'llc cac hoc e.i;i, Trons; di san ti\ tlch ,-"'lil m{)i{liin \()( ban !!ia CUIH! ch(r~ '<.llm" nhi1l1~ yell t6 H1<UH2 tinh d(IC lhud(\l~ t(K' \'~; eel Slf giao hru \'~l~ hOlt ~ilh C1led{nl H)c. Ch:lng han chi tiel d) g~lif0P lai ho,lngllf lhtlll,L Ylla vice nhan dicu miC;n,g tr,lll tern .. C<lllh phu\111g IH)(~IL' sl,r d(~llg Iwa e() Tam v6i Y Lan lh,~i phi. 111()1 nh .. i.n vat lich SII, la net

., d~e thll dfmtQc kieu tTuy~n A-Th N"-51f) (1 Vi&! Nun1. Nhtrnu troug' di san e(~ tich Vi¢tNamc,hullu tacull-!:lnh,hl thay c6 .{,ia~l fill d~~( van ht)a'r\n 'f)(},' van- mihh .:;f'n~rtg Hoa'-v£:('6c'ri6W van hoa <'1 [)(1ng Naill A, chang han nhfrng tnly~nt& W;h d9nfv~r(CrJn c/> vs txmcun; 'Ttuy¢nctm tha, ... ).truY~!1ditfch th~J1;KY (D§

{rang. Khong It;' (hie chuang .... ). '

Hi~l: nay truy~nc6tich khong 0011 drn;tctiep tlJc ~ tao them l~litng~t tru~~h lllai nhrtllgn6i v~n dl1<]ett~p t\fc'lairip4~llg v4u bang cach410 them nhitng bien th~ mai. Dac'plet rb,otS6'hlo'tip mQt sO hinh tl1Qug nhan v~t va thu phap, nil1e'timat.·cUa no ~ tai sinh, d6ng hoa trong sang tac mdi cua.cac liliav~ hiendai lli~l1 De' men phieulrru kj cua TO·HOOichu.·'~. 'htx:t. ")fHitJj\i$hq'zia c-ua

Ph ~ , . 'J,?'b 'J';'

am Hd.. "

TAl LIl';:lJ T111\M'KIIAOUfIINH

1. Dinh Gia Khanh: 5l-)'.b6 .tim hil/u nh[ftte vci17'· eN' cti« chuycn c6'tkHr Vi~~i ,'\';un Ql1U' f;'U.Y~l1 Terri Cam,Nxb Van hoc,

Ha N6i 1968, .

2.' Nguy~n D()ng Chi: Kho tangrfvy¢ri cdt/ch Vj¢t Netn.

Nxb Khoa hoc xa hoi. Ha N¢i, 1974-198,,2, 5 t~p,

3. Chu Xuan Dien, Le ChI Que': Tuyr.f'n t/jp Truyen cd rich Vi~ll Nam (ph an Iruy~n c6 tich ngLIai' Vi¢t). Nxb D~i h9C va

Trung h9C ehuyclI nghi¢p. Ha N0i, 1987, ,

4. Truy~1J1 ct'f tfch cat dan r¢c If npu/ri (f Vi~t Nam. T~p I (Vo Quang Nhull, Nguytn Dlnh Buu bien soan). Nxh Dai hoc va

Trung h9C ehuyen nghi~p, Ha N()i 1989.' .,

133

Trong cac giao trinh dai hQC 0 Lien Xo cil, truyen ciroi d\rqcnghien ciru nhir la mot bo phancua truyen c6 tfch sinh hoat (rihorn truyen cham biem), Tuy nhien, co hoc gia ciing th~ hien su ban khoan khong biet co nen tach .truyen cum

thanh mot th~ loai rieng khong? o mroc ta so lUQ11g truyen cum diroc siru Him va xuat ban tir tnroc va -sau each rnang thang Tam rat nhieu. Bencanh nhimg tap truyen cum don Ie con co hang Ioat tap truyen cum lien hoan nhtr Truyen Trang Quynh, Trang LQ11 (0 mien Bac), truyen oog ThuThi¢m 0 Quang Nam, Da Nang, truyen ongO (J BenTre.jruyen Ba Phi o Minh Hai. Hang loat chuoi cum cua cac dan toe thieu so ciing dff den voi ngiroi doc d mroc nhu tap "N,! cum cae dan t¢c thieit so" va hang chubi cum xoay quanh cac nhan v~t chfnh nhu Cuoi (ngiroi Muong), Y Pya (ngum Tay), Y Th6i (Nung), ThO' Menh Chay (KhO' Me) ... D~c biet gan day ngum ta eon phat hien ra ea lang cuai nlnr lang Vinh Hoang 0 Quang TrL lang Van Lang 0 Phil ThQ hoac 14 lang cum xu me. (B:ic Ninh, B:ic Giang), (nrong t1! lang Gabrovo 0 Bungari), Voi so hrcng ur lieu phong phti vada dang nhu vay va vai phuong thirc phan anh d~c thu ciia chung, trong giao trinh nay cluing toi gioi thieu truyen Cum nhir m¢t th~ loai I rieng biet cua he thong W su dan gian.

. l01Chu Xuan Djen: Truy¢n ~6 tich duo: mal cdc nhlJ khos h9!'·' Kho? n¥u vim TruOng da.i hoc T6ng hop thanhphd Hi) Chi Minh xuat ban 1989.

11- Tallg Ki.mNgan: •. c6 iich. .. ~ kY ngIIiii. V*. f)ij,c di£rn cf{u

.tt;w at tru~n. Nxh Khoa hQC xa hQL 1994. .

12- Nguy~n Bich Ha: Thaeh. Sank va Kiiu truy~n dung S1,

trongtru~n cdv* Naml)a DOng Nam A. Nxb Giao due, 1998.

. .

13-. Nguyen Thi Hue: nhan vat xau xf rna tai ba trong truy¢nc6tich Vi¢tNam.''Nxb Khoa hoc Xa hQi. 1999-

1. PA.C DIEM THE LO~I, PHAN LO~I TRUYI;:N cuor

14- Nguyen Tan D:ic:-Truy¢n kl bang type WI motip. NXB Khoa hC?C xs hoi, 200 1.

1. D~c d,i~m truyen cum I

Trong doi song hang ngay ngiroi ta cum voi nhtrng canh ngo khac nhau. Co loai cum sinh ly, ban nang hay do chiu mot su

134

135

\.;),-'11 thich d~I( bi~t n~H) d6, ChAn~ h~,1[1 de) hi ell ma cU,('1i, d,'1 IiI eii (tiCl'i ~'0 iinh ,'hSt sinh I), Ct) Il~liili Chl rtli In,,1Il iiuh than ma cH,\i, de) hj die'll 111:1 ~'lf\\i. (\1) b lJi ,:u.:fi 11~;lIh Iy', Thco bao "QU,Ul d0i nhan dan" sCi fa 11f.~ly t6-:"-1962 11\Hlg hfli"Nhunghi 111<)1 v0 quang tUYCll eX' th'iqllang IUYl,'n nay C(\ Ute d()Ogl11i)llh d~nHw) k inh LLW sinh \',It V;I f2i\\ i<1 licllt'. cui~i, NElf(:}~,hav (h)lw<\'~iU.;ao

• '-- _ '~_ L. _.' . ..,' • . ... ." • -,- ., .... ,~.- - ,.

<;~lP hi quall~ luycn Q kkh'lhkll Ih'i,kh{m~ th0 ,nhin l'U';;li,;~t6 la c.ii clf0i ,;0' pd'i. Nhuug thCmg. thlfi\ng lrong \5 h~)rthlr0Ill€-q,\y sinh {iC;l~' clflJi t.im If. Ch:lIlg h,',\11 ngl.fO'i \Cl. ,'\ri'ril\1.; vui 111lrl1f\,"

Con m:lilJi (6 micna cS moi ' . ,', ,

Liic h&6t1 t hy kh(~;c, '-tile vui'thl curti

Hay co nhirnp tnf011g h9'P ngl1<,rcli)i:' Khoc nhu nU tv vu guy hh~t Ti6u t \f\'an nhan'f</cd~~h'i:

Dang ChLiy hdnca"hlti~nWClr(Ji hai h!1(-;c,~v~yihch~{) In

ticng cuoihai h(!r-ie:

'-

Chane han ,r-not ng\toi di dlJotl£ tron£ thaYtilC1t vat ~ddo;va

....... •. "-- ..... L .. .. •... "-

cui xu6ng I1h~t len. D6 I~l me)l vi~c ,binh thuong tao Ch(),~lgaoi;ra

rhiU d~) Jduin,f(fillh. Hien ttfq'ng ,11,6 ,kh6nggay ra ;ticng. J;l{tJi. Truong IWp khac. mot ngtf~1i di dlrqng trong thay v~l(~ru{1'rm~t minh ma cCr tho (1 .bo di. D61a vi9c la111 khong hlnll,tha('rrm"3 tao ch.Hath§i (/~1 phd ujnh. Hien t,lJQ'ng d6 eung kh6ng,f,hn~n ticng cuoi, Nlurng trong C<IU truyeu " Nguoi 'f-1:1nh Ilia" 'thLg;},Y cho nguoi ta cam giac khac. M(Jt bon tre U-Hl1gia mot. g0i dL(i'';~g. ky thuc trong c10 roan la cat. Chung~i~t g()ii'1 ben, LillOHf ~Il,~ ,Ia cua ai do danh roi. Co m(lI nguoi eli nsangqua n~inth~~'_ dl~g IS. g6i duong that, Khi 111('r ra thi t()an la d,l, anh tavi.'h & Lfi Ire

con nap sau bui cay cuO'i ('\ lett. , .', "

Nhu vay trong trU0ng hop danh lira nay, ngiroi danh'ltta da' tao ra tlnh huong va doan (rune hoac gi<l dinh lil nglro-i pi ,lila se that VQl1g. H\) d(lt ra tlnh hu6'I1I1-' A va tin raflgse xay la tlnh hu6ng R. Thl!C te Xi1Y ra dum.: nhu 1~1 dl1 <.toan, The laho (Hi

thanh'- c6ng v~ dcl th<lng h!i v~ t;i tll¢.' '

Ti(:fl~ L'/f(';'i hji Jural' dtf(iCh{1t Ti:I khi kh§m phd dtf\fC m(H mfJ// IhwIIl \':! hi bic'u hi¢n ,w!lump f(tl V('i m~1 rrf lu¢,

136

'\I\)i CIt S\'1 l'lld tiell~ euoi la mau thuan, IIhl1ng kh6n,e phai 11l,il; thllEIIl nao cllll~ lam h[lt ru ti011e Cl.f11i, Ch~'l11~ hall mau thuan ~:i"i ",,'p ,:,'1 lh~ d;ll1< den cCli' hunu I"~\ ctii hi kicl~, Ti0nl2 cl!(\i chi II''; ra khi Ilpf(\i ta kh.im ph,; d;n1l ;11\11 lilli' 1l~~\\1 111lltu; d~lc hid, :\hi~'u ll~lfO'i d~ neu ra 1),111 eh;")t ,'I'W loai mau lhll{\lI dac l~i0t d'o. TI,,'\) Arixto: (k) I~ mau Ih\l[1I1 gitra,:{ti :.;,{1\I\'~ d,i ;lS-i'f 'Thl~o Kant (t,) It I mau Ihllan giCra di ,'1\U thtJ'\.tn~ \'~ nih) nhcn. Thco lkgkn ell) 1;1 11)~1ll thUilngiCra 1111111 llfong V~\ j' nicm. Thco H, RCCX(il1!! ttl) l;l mau thutllleilfa dl mu\ moe \il sinh d()nE. Tuy nhicn \~ bun chSt CLIa di ';:li k ich \';\ ,{Ic1i lien kcl cun f;6~v(11 SH mau thuan lEi dl(~.~C Scc-rur-scp-xk: d;.ll ra Sal! h.m " Cui hal ki(;I~ xay ra khihinh tlre1ne hina!(! niem". N6i erich khac "~ili hai kich l~lW lrting n)I~g ~na Ifnhho~U\'lOan vo nehia ('1 ben trona lai

du<!c che cl~y bbim.91 119i dungva y nghi~ql~~I" ~ ,

Then Boricp, nhaf\1y hoc n()i tienEc~;:l N~a thl e~.ihai: ki~b ctucye n[iy sinh eln mau thuan trona ban'-th:l~ hi6n thuc cai ctfCtila m9t hlnh thuc phe phan d~c bi¢t, e6 s~ctha{ cam', xU,S- la nl9t hinh thai ph~ phau co unhtham my, khfphciLhi~n ra mfmthu§:ri giUa I()gic dai s6ng va hO<;lt d9n~kh6llg phu ht,lp v(1i no.

_ Tom lai cai ciroi bat..ra khi nguai takhampharamau t~u~n ~iiia ban chfit va hien tugng,giU:~ nOi dung ~n trong va su bl~U hien ben ngoai. Tieng cum c6 y nghia bao gia n6 cung g~n v6:i nhi!TIg van d~ xa hoi. Vi v~y ti€ng cum, manh li~t nhfit-la danh de t6ng khY·giai cfip phandOJig ve chfnh ttl, 16! fhm ve tien h6a xa hOi.

Tron~ phamtru cai hai Ihl1'i'lJIg co hui dip "(): hai huoc ginn d~n (,b~(\O ,elr~i, vui vui) va hai huck phirc t",IP (mang n9~ dUll!! xa hoi). ~al ha~ kich In ,nguoi chi xinh dcp, duyen dang ella cai dang. huon circi (Boricp).

" C~i h~~ kich la ':19l tmO'ng h(,fP ri(~ng, Inyt tru(Jnght,1p d*c bl~l eua cal (lang buCm cUoi, Til (to khien chunE la nl!.hj den viec

phan ln~i truy~nl'uoi, ~ '- .

2. Phftn lo~i truy¢n cttcri

Trong ban lham lu0-n d9c t<}i D,~i h()i Viln ngh¢ loan qUelC I[in lhCr ha, nha van Nguy6n TU(in n{l! .. T() tit'n tn th~l la nhf'tng

, .

137

ilgum ngh~ si tao hinh cho tieng cUm Viet Nam, tao cho tieng cum ta bao nhieu la bong dang va co ca mot cai gl nhu la m¢t bi~n che day du thang b~c ve tieng ciroi'"!' .

V~y cluing ta thir tim hieu bong dang va thang bac fiy qua eae loai truyen cUm Viet Nam.

Trong giao trinh cua D1}.i hoc Sir pham (ban in lAn thli 3, riha xufit ban Giao due 1970, trang 153-206). Truyen CUm diroc chia lam 3 I01}.i: Truyen khoi hai, truyen trao phung va truyen ti~u lam,

Trong giao trinh vdnhocddn gian t~p hai (dung cho cac trucmg d1}.i h9C Su pham), PGS Hoang Tien Tuu chia truyen cum thanh hai 101}.i: loai kh6ng k€t chu51 va Ioai k€t chu5i (m5i I01}.i

c6cacti~u lo~ikhac nhau)(2). .

Trang giao trinh d1}.i h9C T6ng hop Ha N¢i tnroc day (in \~1l/dall .. 1972, Ian gall' IlhA't 1977»)giao Sl1 Dinh Gia Khanh chia truy¢n.cumlam hal' loai: truyen khoi hai va truyen trao phung itg6mtraophungb~n va trao plning thu)!" .

o. Theo chang 16i nghi each phan loai truyen cum de diroc

cl1A'phh~ nhfit co Ie Ia dira tren nhii'ng cap d¢ph6 bien coa cai h~i: Khoi hai (iAani( ), . traophiing ( fA, h'$tW ), dii kfch (satir). Til ba cap d¢ cua cai hai chting ta se co ba loai truyen cuoi: Truyen cu0i khoi hai, truyen CUm trao phiing, truyen CUm da'kfeh.

(]) ain cum. "Nhiing nhiem V(l mai ella van hoc", Nxb Van h<;JC, Hi! N¢i 1963,

(2) Hoang Tie"n TI!U: van h9c dAn gian Vi~t Nam l~p II, Nxb Giao dl.lc, 1990 trang 84-86

(JI Dinh Gia Khanh . Chu XuAn Dien . Vo QuangNhClI1: van hqc dlln gian Vj~t Nam, NXD, Giao dl,lc, 1997 trang 369-372,

138

II. NO .. J .. PUNG TRUY~N cirn

. ;. " ....

1. Truy~n khoi hai '. . . .'"

, .;.~ . "I >'\('. (\., F~m bflt.,.'a.t .. i.cl1£Clf<1il;l.lHl.11.I.h:: dlC.h.' . Truvcu "h\ll 1,11 ,I) \I~I..' ... ~'" ~ •. N·'" I .. ,

,-,,;' nii,'n·!.:'11Ilh ,:hr{1111U<l vui l\hi\~u h(111 Ifn~1 cha~xa h~.1L . l,lI~, \l.I~~

11\ilnl\~0n 11:\\' nr.rru; It! kh.i i nicm h;)ik/ch {)OIlF d~~:J trung 1 ~a~ .. -, -,' - 'I .. .» ·'t'I<1 R{lricp N() kholl£ d0 rn n11l9n1 vu C un 1 phanr tru 111 ~ 1(,ll l .~ ,L, ; '. " "'I', N'

. - I." l" I· ht'r' thict U d(j kh\111~ 1.1.hl('I.1 tinh tiIC. I), I o

11"1 xa ll,ll PII .1\1, I.. L,., .L._ 'I ..' 1')"

'''.;>.", .. ' ,(; kh'l nane ~Ia() du<:nhung 11111 c.111l1 \Ilc \UI llicll, S,ll. S,,11 l. .' 'c ... , ;'·.1'· . 'I ." he

~:tng t6t la:l~l, b\~i dlriJng tinh thall sang k WHI. mo 111t:111 s

(juan veu de)"], .,;i.' • v N l' riJi

.0 t~'U1' h",'l truven kl.16i hai la m61 thLf.t.he d\l~l." },Uy, ,1::1 .•

. It l..l', i : '.1> ,'.'h vui\~m, Co nhuJho,i,h9c

t/l1iJl "110 vui cua, vui nna, :lll dB" < J;:':', , ;:.

'l,~ flrt~ m0i hn ctroi n£.U,jj til keouai du(,1c them ) pl~ut)u~)l n. H f/f' , -< 'h..' / ')119) Do nlierl£. cu(ri batra khi ha lao tl1\:)( Bao lien p on£ SO"-_ ' .( . L. ' ~ , ha

'.,.. t" rmic kLc" 11'0'01 khiCI12. cit cho.n",.g .. b.ada,ng nam.ma. c

n~u S'~Y .. ~ en I ' ,,' r. "I. 'em ~lamearlhh~ ntu)) ch~ngrlhap", van ell' lam n lam 1101 m~ v 'A'"'' . ., 'h' d'

T' '" J 'u"'" bat to khi ke trorn hat de them. vac.): T. 0\ k~len~ a : ieng C m ". .' ',1 "if, 'Ul tham chi

·h'<·. ,:., .(" Thu.·· ra n. £.u.say chan£. C{.1 g..l (lang c. ( I, .

k ap mOl III I '. L: c L .' •• • •• ' <...., h .. -, k~ chuven

n6im~~ullg chAngc6 gl dang CU~l. .Then, u~g ~guo~ :,',',

l~ k; h{~;';(t:lt tlnh huona £fv vao h('neanh co ke Irqm den,,\ a ~lan,~ ( i\ \.A'" <.. .I , . '" ' - b' 1-· e:u m " V(11

bu6n' cucri' hem nita HI ''t:U(K hat doi dap gura . a ao n~ c

maythtl~g ~~ IrQn;: ,' .. 6 ranz hai vel ch6ng nha kia.icu t6~

Truyt;n . Til>', 111 lay, ell k :)"ai 1"<1 ;'()i d6 gili'a e:iui'mg. Hat

den lai rang, ft bnn.g ~go d~nghv,r \1' tay vao ~'a beic bong rna Vt1 chon g nam hal ben, He conS, 10 "')" V' ben 0'11 en d·ap:

. .... 'l'h"""T mtaval ()

nam phai tay v(.,r thl ai 01. ay " J ~'h"'- hoi' "Tay

"" ;- hai tav chong 1 I cung .'

"Tay em tav em ' He VI! nam p.. .I., L h" L" d' co

J . iu da "T v anh tav an uc 0 '

," t, at"')" Ch()ng lai niing I11tl t ap a. , " , . ~ or:

al ,lYe ( , ' '-, , ' ,. h~ den nua demma neng

A l« I' dune: nnh (1 naoai 11 a , ,

m61 ten e rc)m. '- .' ~h. '., h n1-a'l sc"l ru6t lam VI

: ~.,.~ I'm an V(11 dIl , . -) ,

hat vC1 chong eLi em \ (1\ e, , , ( 'l~n vao canh

, . ~ h t' dUel' gl ca, Sau CUll? \lrc qua, no c , ., ,

khong hem c qng ,'c, " b" . ,- l' N (J u(ri v(1 tho tay vao ra,

., h't v'a) I-a bono ng() oc ,u, ~ ,

gtUl'mg t 0 ay .. ( , 1:' :;"" , .'. • I ai')" DUtlIH!, bue

eh~m phai tay n6. h}i nam lay hOI TdY al ta) " <'-'

139

minh, 18n trom quat to "Tay 6ng tay eng!" r6i u te chayhut trong dern. Tieng cl1ai a day bat ra Ul a sir l~p di l~p lai may tieng c~p doi khi thi em va em, khi thl dnh va anh va saucungla 611g va 611g. Neu ngam ky thi cole cluing ta cling nguCt;. k~ ch,uy~n dua mot chiit, treu cot doi vq chong tre no dli to nnh, au yern nhau mot each hoi ky quae, Nhtrng truyen nhu the nay xuat hien tren co sa sinh hoat tanh manh, lac quan va h6m hinh (;ua

nhan dan lao dong. "

. Rien~ truyen "Ba anh me ngl;" c6 phan nao de cap den vftn

de thu~c ve nhan thtrc luan. ca ba anh chang deu mftt earn giac dung dan v~ hien thirc nhirrig vein cu nga la mlnh tinh-tao: Nglrm nay ngfra thi lai ngai sang diri nguai khac, den khi dui ngucnfty b~, chay .~au thl.l~i nga pl .. ng~m thu ba dai dAm·.uat ca''l\lAn minh. Tieng cum b~t r~ la d~ t6 cao mau thua.n Ay. Ngoai' ra n6 khong c6 muc dfc~t6 caogl xau xa .trong nhan each con nguaL

2. Truyen cham biem

KMc voi truyen khoi hai, truyen cham biem nham phe phap nhirng th6i hu t~t xau trong hang ngii nhan dan nhu: .tham an (Tao tudng, tao mung qua), n6i khoac (Con rdn vu6ng),.b.QC doi (Nhd: ben trong nhdt ben khinh), rom dm (Tililg Mnbdu), keo kiet (Ot(n ng6ng ma ve, COil ga co bay due), gan (Tamdai gan), Sau ,,~c nhftt trang cac truyen cham bien la nhirng truyen hirong VaG nhirng ke mu6n hoc doi thea bon th6ng tri hoac xu ninh cluing nhu: "Anh ke No; lam tha hue tinh", "MiYi. bac xai ngoc", "Tham roi lai film" ... Truyen "Con vit hai chan" k~r!ng c6 mot a~ tinh hay ninh quan, he co viec gl hoikhac la xum xoe, tan tinh. M¢t horn dang hie dung hAu quan, tr6ng ra san thay can vit dang ngu, co chan len, anh lien bam quan rang: fun quan 16'n, con vit.,;" dang n6i thi con vit thiic day, bu6ng chan xu6ng, Quan hoi "can v~t lam sao?". Anh ta lu6ng cu6ng dap"

140

"Bam con vir co hai chan a!" Quan nghi Ia anh ta c6 y treu tue minh lien rnang rang: "Con vit chang hai chan thi may chan?". Sau d6 quan sai llnh noc anh ta danh cho m¢t tran nhir tu. Truyen nay th~ hien thai d¢ cua nhan dan khinh bi nhimg ke mat nhan pham khong ximg dang dung trong hang ngii nhan dan. Chac hin tieng~um cua nhan dan d6i voi anh chang xu ninh con dau han ca tran don ba chuc roi cua quan.

N Jut v{7Y nhirng truyen cham biern kh6ng dit kieh vao nhan v~t va chi phe phan tfnh each, thai d¢ khong gay gat. Loai nay ra dm ph6 bien trong moi thai kyo N6 khong beu die}l' khong lam nhuc ai va ngum ta c6 th~ chiu dung duqc. N6 khong nhamtieu di~td6i nrong rna nhAm hoan thien d6i urong dep han 18n. Nhirng d6i urong a dAy tuy c6 .nhilng rn~t c~n phe phan, nhllI)g, deiu sao n6 vein la d6i urong 16t. N6 tien b¢ v~ phAm chAt noi chung tuy con m¢t s6 khuyet di~m, met s6 tan tfch.cu, ni¢t s6 bi~u hien da 16i thci. Trang khi kh~ng dinh ban ch"llt ciia d6i tuong, cai chu yeo va cai co ban cua n6, truyen cham biem nham t6ng khti nhitng rn~t da 15i thm cua d6i urong, g\>t sach n6 giiip b¢c l¢c tftt ca nhfrng gl tich c~c nhat cua n6. Nhung' khi cai x!u khong chi 1a m¢t net rieng biet, morvai khfa canh rna la him chftt ciia d6i nrong thl tieng cum tra nen gay gat, manh me. va quyet liet, De thay the cho truyen cham biem, m\>1 vii khf sac ben han diroc ra dm, d6 truyen d:i kich.

3. Truy~n dil kich

a. DOl tuang dii kich

- Vua quan trieu dlnh: neu nhu trong truyen c6 tich, nhan dan phe phan xa h¢i phong kien nhirng vAn d~ cao vua thl trong truyen cum nhan dAndfdanh gia lai, HQ da vang tieng cum vao mat vua chua. C6 th~ n6i chi trong truy¢n cum vuachua rn6'i tra

141

lh211lh nh.in \ (li [1h:'111 dicn. ('I ,- (l I ' "

.r » "V' _ ,1 ,\Il.=- l.lll ~ it L' 1 I 1I ve , "T. '

f.J1I.I, ,-l./IJ 17, ),1/1 L,IlI) m )/ (t· "T ' - I, 11, ilil them

,_ ~ icm , ruvcn "TI I ~ ." » ,

llt-I,! n!:'-()[) nhunu vc 'j h: I~ " -,' ."() tncm (llJa L'(l \' \'1

T. ,- u .11l a Ll) \ II ,1 h' 1,-' • ,

rLl),':' I I k<' 1:11HJ 111(11 C(l)1 I j I - I; - z- ILl uau tranh xa hoi.

.' , c, 4, n I] .1m thit )'11 I ' ' , '

II) cao \"l'i Diem \ 'll't 111 1 :_: .: , _' I, I ion xuonc urn phu

I' " ' t- ve Ill! a c c u a h,) t " .: ,.'

XII1]](1 khai I" d:'lll duoi [ , 'k]" ~ ',II [(l ic. DIem Vlrlrt1!.'

I I' , ' ,t,m 1<11 rail" hon (' "t·, '

I,m ',11, (k IH:IJ';, 1':1 'Ill: t' "I X t:,' II<-IMI uoc ClC d~ Ir6i

, ,I.. ',1 It . [)Ill.' rOI ho ]-' t-' ,

I11lJ1h 11111. call ](JII" 01' '. V ,_,.II ((J ruroc sl')i ]ell

• ' , c-: ",111 If(ill ,J 111 uon h - .... [ .', ,

dau nira, ) chlrll~ d~ quvet t']<-' rc le,)1 ac con eli xa den

L' ' c (In 1 111111 SlJ' Irv I '

JCt.m hen khai ti::rl:" "':'\0 sach I', ,~'. I' , ng P rat thich d;ll1e,

, " .Hl.. uno 101 1l) ,,' , '

ra lung 111,111h L'II'-I[ 1"1 t;.' ,.,t' , mo 101 ra, thit l()i ho xc

_ ',"" ,L. Lung mIen£: I' S, , " . "

mrr xao len ... n'li phi hanl _ 1'- n 10, oau do ho bac chao (il')

D', 1 mo c 10 thorn tra ms -

rem Vuoru; IH:.h~ 1l6i d,"'- l' b'!" _' . a mam 111U1)i \';1\1 .... "

_ c, ~ ~n ((1 t::11 noall lai: "Th -' ,"

mra.. .. tao th~m qua" The' F 0" z- .' 01, thoi dl1llg noi

nh- " - ' ' .1 lem Vl1o'ng nr lot » »

an. gra nahia cua minh 0'''1 V ,.... 9 Cal mat gi,;

'- , 1t:B1 l1(1ng Cf dav .hf h I'? . ~

m~t 6ng vua tren duoria the Y _ L ) "c 111 a an du cua don Ct chan d~ cuni cun~ t' .. , n&;:13 ,SaL! ~ac ella cau chuvcn

h.' - ire diu nor cua O' V J ,

t 011 Dirna n6i nu-'\ t.' tl' a Lnern u(mg: 'J Thoi

, ,'- c .. , an lcm qua" D1." d." ',' '

phat ra mQt each don "1';"1 TI'e", _,,', e~ ay tieng Cl1Cri rnoi

b' ' to ' . Ig ll(O'l CO 11'1' h-

oc tran b6 mal that ella b ,,' " ,cl Y ng ia: mgt mat n6

.hi 1 ' .. " 911 car In (1 lang h' h ' -

c In 1 la ke them khat su an th't':- / c op u cua xa hoi

/', , • 1 , uong mau da t '

no canh tinh cho nhan d" ,', an (en. Mat kha:

" <l dn xoa tan nhfr ,.' . " . \..

1191 trong che d6 phone kien <,' T~g ao (uang ve COIl~ IS' xfi

ton" ban an b6'duc c1~1l nh~' vetrvaIDlro/~all quy cua "ding chi

'T' h'" dll «111 lim vu' l~ h

long e e do phong kic' " a cl ()n quan lai

h ..' II suy \ong bon qu' I' , ' '

st! t 01 mit eua chung DF, I' h" ,dn f;ll cang hoc 10 ro

hUyt;-~n Thanh Li,,}m". 6ng'ia I~ )tn l!lc(:chat ,cua m¢t ong' "(juan

ong t. l' , . l U m tuon ra d" " ~

a a ng110'1 thanh licm vl va .' , aU mom rang

ong ta g<:1t phang di c,i. Dan Ian' y dl ,~l1a c~a ?ut 16t d€n dell bi thong qua ba huy' en S'lU kh" t g nhl,t1J nghl each phai bie'u ong

;c, , , ", I (I!O'c a h ' -h '.-

tum Ty dan laIlg da ~hic mot . ' h ' uY5n C 0 hlet ong huycn

h I· h . Ion c uol bang" d - ...... '

c 0 ~c SI!. goi la viii ki" h~", 0,. \an~ en bleu 6n~

h ' b'A" _0,.', ' fllym t 01 rna' Nhll' " ' t'

uyyn let ro VIce do li-l.n i' :1' ",' ng sau khl quan

...' ' t: (ung ( ung nOI . A e

ngoc the? Gili l11a oa l'U ba'() /(,)0,.1- t --!,o,.S' g!<:tn mang V(1 :"sao ba

, . / ' UOI In! dc h t'

co p" tn h(1O khl)nl1 "(';IU t- ' k' " , () (Ul" m6t con trim

• C' ,'< I U\, CII • < f' 1 '

, J. hll1i2. ldnl1 mol '-ha--l l' h"

L, • '" I Iy P u

}42

bien: "dfi Iii qua th] con nao cung den. eta Iii quan th] fen nao ciing tham nhiing". Ncu c6 hie nao d6 ong quan tc\ ra thanh hem thi chilasl! gia d6i d~ voi vinh mot m6n 10i to Ian hon rna thai,

T1'u.y~n "Thin bia tra nghia /I cia kich vao bon quan v6 bAt tai.

Ngay cai ten cua cau truyen cling da chua dung bier baa mau thuAn rna ngU'oi nghe can suy ngam de kham pM ra: Than bia U\ cai g17 Tai sao phai tnt nghia? Noidung cau truy~n da Ian Iirot

? " '

mo nut.

S6 13. sau nha quan vo c6 mot cai bia, H6m nao quan vo

cling t~p ban nhung ch~ng baa gio tningca. V 6i tai can nhu vay cho nen khi ra tr~n thl quan vo tift phai thua va bo mac quan If1ili de chay thao than. Giac du6i gifp qua. Ltic quan v5 sap bi gia,ebat thi e6 mOt V! than hien lencong quan chay theat, LAic hoan h6n roi quan m6i hoi duyencol~nn sao ma.c6.long.t6t cUu nhaunhU' v~y, V! than tdllm r~ng: "T6i taIhan bia crtrongvuOn quan 1&11, Nho quan 1&11 an due cho nen suotbao nhieu nam nay t6i khong bi thuong tich chut nao ca. Cam cai CIn nay cho nen hom nay toi cuu ngai ". Tie'ngeum n6 ra cr day dat duqc hai muc dich, ~ m¢t Ht vach ra ro s~ battai, hen nhat ella 1:5gn quan vo - nhirng vien quan chi huy luc luqngvli trangd~ baQ'v~ ngai vang "a m.~nh trl cua che d9 phong kien, Ma,t khac n6 d¢ng vien sdc mt;J.nh ella nong dan trong cae cu¢c khm nghla chong l~i tri~u dlnh vao the ki XVU-XVIII' giup h9 nh~n thuc dU0c rtmg l~c lU'(~ng quan s~ clla nha nU'Oc phongkii!n kh6ng e6 gl dang s0 dau, Ben ct;J.nh b9n quan 1<:1i ihl b9n hao trucrng, phu 6ng 130 nhU'ng nhan v~t tfl;lc tiep hang ngay quanh~ vm. dan chung, b6c 19t bon nit nhan dan de'n t~n xl1C1ng, t~n tuy. Truy~n "Giiin9' tien ki§p" la mOt trong nhung truy~n tieu bi~u nhat. Truy~n k~ rtmg c6 mOt ngU'm chet xu6ng am phil, Diem VUClng tra s6 thify c6ng n0 chua tra het mm. bat hoa kiep lam trau cay d~ tIi nq cha chil, Anh ta keu len r~ng : "Lam kie'p trau cling kh6ng xong, chi c6 lam b6 chung may ra mm tIii he't n0 eho chung d110e" , Diem VU'Clnf, khong hieu <; ngum d6 1'a sao, anh ta giang ,giai :"Lam trau thl cling ehi.law l~ng e6 h~n thai, Phai lam b6 chung th~

m(ri ~'6 dHl nuhlu cua \'LIII d0 lai cho Lh(ill~ duoc. La! con melt

L •• ........,.

lll;j khi chun.g hl')P h;1\1, bop h!.mg llpre)') 101 qua dang th) ngu()i ta

1:,Ii gl.li h6 chullg ra mil chiri ". Nghe dCIl diiy m(.linguirid6u kham phuc ui th,)lli-' minh ella npt0i k6 chuycn di'i dl)! ra 111(}t Il~hiL'h If: lam trau chua kho. chua nhuc h:\llt: lam h6 borrtroc

... . • L ••

phu.

- Chc d(l (llwng k ien !,)n fL,li (hn,1C kh()ng phai chi ni1(yvaci b,.'(l Iuc cua chinh qlly~n, s~r boc Icy!, h) thue' va chicm hiru rU(Jng (hIt cua bon t1id~'hll' rna con nha van C<.I m(H d~')i HIlU rc}ng Tni. nhirng ke tuycn truycn va b .. io v¢ y thuc chinh th6ng, do l~l' d()i ngii cac Ihil' bao g6111 thay d(\ rhang lang, th.iy bo], cac su sai ...',

. Phai thira nhan n\ng trona' mot uiar doau.Iichsir nao do Cat

• L "- • L ••

vj {luil' nay co dong vai tro nhat dinh doiv6i Itch Slr vai.h.rqc.

nhan dan kinh trong. Nhirng vao thai m~1 kycua ehedOphong' kien cac thfil' da b¢c 10 tilt cit sg xau xa. de tien cua mInh.Do la st,r d61 mit, tharn an cua thay d6 (ThcJcairhap chuolJg, Thai..qic . sinh IlfMg nghi. Thil} doIiem met. .. ), thay luang sO' b51 tai (Nha c() ut)ng), thay lang gi6t nguai (Phucthd'ng phl}c nhsn sam)nna

str pha giai (Dc; Fa su). Co Ie h¢ thongtieng ClIm v~ d~ tat nay phong phu va lam n6 ra nhfrng lieng clICYi gion gia, sang khoai hon tieng. cuoi da kich bon th6ng rrj v&ehfnh quyen,

- Trong h~ thO'ng truyen 'challl bie'm n6ilen mOthi~n

tl!(;1ng dac.tnrng la co mOt cau chuy~n goi tat ca cac Ioai quan va cac loai rhayvaomot b] dti ma danh: dl rna ctrci, do la truyen "Nam m6 boong ". Khong' biet g iira truyen nay va va wong d6 "Ngheu, So, 'oc, Ht~n" cO mOt mO'i lien h~ g1 khong? Nhung 1'0 rang v~ hai e6ttruy¢n h~ thO'ng nMn v~t va chu d~ tll luong gil1a hai tac pham ho~m toan trung h<;lp. Trung tam eua m9i m6iquan h9 va ngw'ri dth hl quan, hl thay phoi m~t ra twac dan chung Iii rn¢t ngltCYi dan ba th6ng minh, c6 nhan s~lc. Chi da l~p mU'U de bien Iy tfUbng "quan phl;! mAu chi dan'" thuang het ralLra thanh con eho chui xuO'ng gam gil1C1ng va cAt tieng sua gau gau, bien Ihay d6 rno ph~rn "chieu ttai khong lhfmg, .kh6ng ng<)i, Ihil thai khong vuong, khong an" phai.\~hui VaD dong yay <10 cUm b21 va nM sU dang fa phai qua,.d\je, liuh

144

tarn nlurng ciinj; phai nghc theo lenh ng.l1ai phu nl1 ng(~i Va~) e,~i ro d~ treo len xa nha. Cuoi cling cac vi quan va cac V1 thay ay d~u hj danh dau va phtli cui dciu ta t()i truae nlurng ngu?i "d~n den". Cau chuyen drr d51 cac nhan vat vao cac tinh huong day kich tlnh d~ tao 'nen su .d6iJ~p giira cai thirc vci cai gia va tieng e~ai gion dii dii 11<') ra ~t~ khang dinh sue manh cua nhan dan khi dii "dung tren ttciu thu".

b- Nhdn xet: Truyen da kich dii giang nhtmg don quyet li¢t vao tat ca nhirng gl khong phu hop voi nhfrng 19 nrong chinh tri, ,d<;l? . duc tien tien cua thai dai, No cuoi nhao rn91 each cam hem tat ca nhimg gl can tro viec thuc hien 19 nrong tien tien d6. Thai d9, dli kich la phu nhan hoan toan d6i nrong bi nhao va ~ip1 dl;!n~ 19 tU~f nam ngoai hi~n nrong nay dl dO'i l~p wli n6. ~1116p cho ran,g kh:0n~ ai thich nhan thay' ban than minh qua tac ;pham. Gontsasop thrl~ n6i rang truyen.da kfch la cay roi qu5t di~ng nguoi .', . ,

Phuong thirc da kich lY day Ia nhan dan It da kfch ban ch~t nhan vat "i nhir vay se gay cam thu hoac sq hiii rna thirong lilt kich vao tac phong sinh hoat n6i len blll1ch~t ciia tUng. l?~i nauoi lam cho nhan vat c6 tfnh Iichsir cu the; Nhu V~lY gura tI~y~n cham biem va truyen dil kich co, C0 sq nhu,l~h~u Iii ~hai ?9 phe phan dac biet bang cam xuc,lil cam quan haikich vatham

my dO'i vm hien thirc. . ,. . ?

Nlurng gifra cluing co sir khac nhau C0 ban. Loai truy~n ?a kich van dung sir phe phan bang cam xu~ phu <;1inh ~an cl:atcu~ d6i nrong. Loai truyen cham biem lai nham khang dinhban chat

eua d6i tl1qng d6.

4. Truy~n cltoi giai tho~i

.4. I. TRUY~N TR~NG QUYNH

a. Van de truy~n Tr<;lng Quynh, Thco truy0n thuyet, Trl!l'Ig Quynh Hi Il1t)t nh{ll1 v~t que (1

145

chi trongy nghi. Dieu nay phan anh tinh hien thuc ella h~ thong truyen Trang Quynh darn net hem c6 tich va yeu to ttrong wong,

th~n ky' nhat dan.

Lane RClI Thirrrns xf L-\ ~ -

. ' " . c. , ,I. I \1<\11& Nghw, huvcn HoC (T ."

Thanh H()~1. Tranu e\l IC'n that F N ." .' ~ (mc Hoa unh

L~ Hi0n T llllE . (kho<iI1E ~i 1-~iI [1~0 E~I:V~~?ILlYllh v~s(;n!! vat) l!ll)i I11l1lh. narn 16 lu'ii (t;"1 1 ~ I . '. I). ()u.) nh Ill.'C thollg

, . \, (0 1l(11!l" cone. \,'r' .~

C6ng Quynh. c ,I \".1) con dl{(.1l· W.)f la

Xet gia ph~1 cua ho Nzuven b I1nIJ B' .'

cone.u(ti ten I~l NClU\'.;ll· 'QL '. ".1 I c ",.91 Thlrc.1iIg.. Ih<'\ .. - dune.

1( ~ • E.V uvnn nrurnc N' ,'l.Q " " -,

d.o .. tranu. tvEI xct che (t(') 1'1' .' f"'. ,tllyLn ll. ynh khn.'.lg he

" L ' '. 1\ lll<l elf lim t (, l\h . II' ,- .',

hoc VI .. trans nuuven N' " '." .c.l 11 LlIIIE khonu c.n

• ••• c- E.l"'·. i!uycn Quynh khc ,I ~ l' , ~

\.'a~k'b(')n(.' .. h -\h' 'I .: T' ' .. h·. . (lng 1C ( I su Trung Q)U(\L'

e- I.: I C lUU nnn V I I" , '

T.' h }' -.' . .' danhthuocdoc. Trone ... -fi C·il·· Chii

1m t 11 cung khan 1 i " '. ' ,'.. r > .' '- • lin

NI~an vat Tranc QU),.,glllll,clllcuOnlllh?t c1~. ua,n.<w. chetvt thuoc d(lC d.

, . c- . . an xet cua' '., 1-1' - ' ,

mat nao do la co' .'1. ,,'. . gJan sL1 a Van Tan ve

, .... ( nguyen mall trong lith s' (II '. .' ,

Trang lai duqc dan aian hoa havnoi •• .h ukh " Nl hung mat khae

'" C' c, ynoicacn.xr ac a' ' h h

cau. hue Trang chi Bi.Olo't .d" "h .h'A '; "mang t.m u

h ' . ... an .. leu co tmh -hat dan ,

¢ thong truyen Trang Q~y' I '1'1 . , 1.:. 'an g.la. n va thoai. ~ ., n 1 a oa: truyen co lfnh chat giai

A' G~i truyen Trang Quynh 13 loai II' 1 e " ' ,". - , the nhirng truyen nay diroc ad' ,t y. n gl,al t~o<.tJ VI rill co

cua Nguyen Q " h I:>' . A X y. irng LIen co sr.' chat lieu. thuc te

uyn . ang BOt Thurm ( , ,~, ,. N', '.

Long). Nhun Q: v~ co h' " :.~ .' g ,va \e sau ra song c' Thana

... . an no uU<1C quan chti h' d . L

hehu cau. Trang b day' .. r.""f A • _. ' .. ung n an an cac the

, . a gan gm VNl nhan vat thi A ,

rninh trong tru ven eA. tf 'I h <..., . . ien va thong

J , ~J tc 1 n une. chi kha rk'"

kh6n.g !M ng6i vua.Ta thi( _ ," , ?~.c a et qIC Trang

.. • c . ay ro val tro cu' ." . h ' , . L

co. vai tro het sac q" uan t' . ••. a (juan e ungd(;ng thai

, . mng cuacac nh .;- binh d' ~

Quynh duoc xay dtmz hoi' h;i tfnh cha ,~) .. I, . m, an, Trang thien thuoc hang ng' U~L, I;' 'I' c at 10 ~et: do 13 nhan v~t

• . ...... q Ian L: rune dUC1e qua 'h' d '

ung h6 va henh VUe ~~a-t k' '. ..'. II C ung [l/I£tlllh

,. • Jl\'l ,lac quan t· h' ...

rat thong minh ta',: t;., " , d' . I <.mg nat, Tr'.lng QU)'llh

, uv~\van UI'<TsulhA • h ,.,

vii khl dau tl·a-1.. he"'t u' <' b' .'< . ong mm tat tv deS lam

,~ , ,In! S C sac cn.

Dleu dang chu y 13 Tran<> Qu '.nh Lu ,. , • .. '

nhL1ng cu6i dmg vAn eh' l'~ l::"T' Y . )' duqe nhan dan de eao

'l I" r'mg kh'" l ."

~ • t/ng lao gw lam v ua, do

D~c ditim v~ m~t k~t cau ella truyen Trang .Quynh khac biet so v& rruyen cum dan gian khac la n6 duqc t~p hop lai thanh h~ thOng xung quanh mot nhan v~t trung tam: Trang Quynh. Cling til nh!nv~t trung tarn ~y, r~t nhieu miii ten s~c nhon da ban r~t manh va r~t tning vao nhiing )ten dftu so cua xii h9i phong kien duoog, thOi: vua Le chua Trinh, quan Hoan, qU;:tntru'bng va ca

thanhooang, chua Lieu.

b.N~i dung truyen Tr~ngQuynh

,N6\l nlnr truy~n c6 tich chi f~P trung mlii nhon van bon nha giau,bqn quan lai bao 19 dia phuC!llg (tu quan huyen tro xuong) thltr\iy~n cubi n6i chung.da ti€n··cong vao t6~mb¢h~ th6ng'yua quan th6ng trio N¢idung nay con duqcth~ hien silusac hcn.nua

trong truyen Trang Quynh.

-Neu nhu nhiing 6ng vuaU'ong cac truyen cum don Ie n6i

chung con nap sau bong dang Diem VU<1Ilg thi trong truyen Trang Quynh .nhan dan ta ehir6d6 Ul,vual£ chua Trinh. Hen th€ hila Trang Quynh lu6n luon chu d¢ng bay rmru lap k€; 1~0 thm eodieu kien ·cte dua ke thuvao.hAy. Tieng cum n6,ragiOh

da nhu nhirng tieng reo ho mimg chien thang,

Ngay til be Trang Quynh da t~n cong va chien thang vua Le

(De dt;re chi'ra). Y nghia r¢ng hem ella truy~n nay la to' cao chinh I saeh c6ng n~p v6 19 hk b~y gib. Truy~n vua Le mat mea, Nhfft tlfvi Sl1 ban l1! vi sU', DEW truang th9.· .. ··dmg lam n6i r6 tfnh,uem hen nhu nhuqe ella nha vua. Nhung dfiy chi la thai de:> mit}t th!; khinh nhem ehu chua bao giq\!iing we dC'n nha vua, m~c du d6 la sa truang eua Tr~ng Quynh. Co th~ cat nghia dieu nay bang hai 19 do: mQt la tu tuemg t6n quan ella tfing 16p nho sl; nhiing nguOi tham g.ia xfiy dJ.!ng truy~n~ tha hai nfta III trong tht;rc tC'vua I

(\) X· " ,.

t:m Tr~1/Jg QUYlllJ"Nxb VillI hQc.:,IH N~li, IY8X,

147

146

ch~ yl bLl I,lhln, khtlllt' , co~h~c life, Tr;.IIlt' Quynh tap truIlg nhu·ng. mui ten sac nhon nhat lie ban vao ch~£\ Trinh. Chang han rreng

eric truyen: Nl!~NJ Son. S:1ch qui, TitYl ChUiJ rsu cdi. 6 do, Tram! QU)lJ1h da vach trfln su hoang dam, tham an, ng6e nghech C~.· Chua. Nhirng yeu t6 tuc cling diroc van dung mot each hop 1y vao day de Him vii khf quat nga ke thu, Truyen "Trsng chelOuia ciing bang hil ", vira c6 y nghia phe pharr t6 cao xff hoi m6tcach manh me, nhirng d6ng thoi cling lam l¢ r5 st! be tac' trong nh~1l:

thirc cua nhan dan hie bay gic v~ van d~ thay d6i m¢t che'd6:0

day cai hai va cai bi dan xen IAn nhau. 1

Sau bao nhieu tr~n t3'n cong tUng loi den phrit chot Quynh bi Chua Trinh danh thu6e doc. Nhirng tnrdckhi chet,Trang1ron dll thi gia keo Chua che] theo minh: "Trang chet Ch6a· cling bang ha. Dira gang do dft thl ca do tr6n!l:Ccr' so-lieh w;xa'!'h6i the ky XVIII da tao nen ket thtic nay. Nhan dan' muon tu gia thuc te xa~ xa thoi nat.cua ch€d¢ phong kie'n U, TrjnhI}hf1ng tru,ac mat chua co con duo-ng n ao sang sua hi~nra. Dieu kien lich sirclura cho phepthanh toan voi che docj,'Aen trong truyen Trang Quynh ho con chua tao fa diroc 'cai; cum.

thoai mai vui ve den tron ven I fl. '. _ .

- Ssu vue Le chua Trinh truyen Tr{lngQuynhda kfchmanh me vao quan [hi (quan hoan). Dayla bon sau mot, liingdoan'xa hC)i hie bay gia. MC)t mat.chting gay r6i loan ~a hoi, mot.miU cluing mit len dau nhan dan nhieu n6i 10, n3i kh6. Truyen "lChdi gil" la d5n da kich tnrc tiep vao luquan va dung ify. Lm'than th<r' cua Trang d6i voi con ga xau s6 chfnh Hi ~lii kim choc th~ng VaG ch6 dau cua quan hoan. "Tao da bao than phan may, khong co d<li, thi ~~h!u !rua,c di c~o thoat dm, lai con ngua nghe .lam gl cho den n01 khd the! Thoi may chet cling dang dm con aithuong nira .... ,,(2)

(1) X the H' "h'''-'''' h . •.• . '

em em: a ~_ au: 1 If n /in v?{ truy~n c6 rich thin kj dell nlJjn

I'{Jt tn/yen cuiri". T <;tp chi van hc;>c. SO 5, 1971.

,-, Tieng Clfm d/in gian Viet NalJ1- Nxb Khoa hoc xu h6i, Ha N6i 1988

11'23" ... '

148

- C;le (jllilll Irui'm,L.' tuy khllllt' 1~\I11 anl. Iltflmg. try": iicp den dai s()ng. quan chung lao dC)ng. nhirng gay nhieuphien toai den cac nho sinh ct~c biet lil cac inho sl binh dan .. Trong tho Tii Xuong cluing ta ida ciroi cot, khinh bi cai ()ng quan tnrong "mieng am 09 thet loa'.' thl chung La con cuai.to hO'11 tr.Q!Ig truyen "ong quyen", "ve voi". . ..'.1. ;;5

- Nhiing ten hii muc, kjhilO 0- bat eli thoi nao c,[jl)gd~c. .. 4q, gian giao. Chung eta bi vach mat, chi ten trong cactruy~nc:8 tich. Den day Trang Quynh lai 10i chung fa anh S~l1g~ ;rru,y~p

"Xem mieng quan " Ia dan chirng tieu bieu. - .' .~... .:

- Trang, xi h(Ji phong kith chinh qllyin . vk tb{i.P:"iqpX;~'ny;R,~, cau ke't v6i nhau de de dAu cuoi c6 dan chung. Cact~~,~~1}~~t~ thi vi trong than thoai, de'n xa hoi c6giai c~pq~c 9i;~t,~-'''·~ " ...

h¢i phong kien diroc keo v~ trieu dinhd~t yaqcaf.B~n?.,.,,\., lam me rnuoi qufin cluing, de bep kha nang ph an kfi~p,g~!U~:i2~. tang lap nhan dan lao dong, Trang Quynh da xe tan d.i'ffi&'11 than thanh de ciroi cot da kfch cit thanh hoang(Ifh(p...lfIi1nh ho~ng) va chua Lieu (Vay tie'n chua Lilli. ta CIJ7 chiiaiL4~Q.,;)c

T 6m lai .Trang Quynh la ch.u6i truyen ~6 gia. tr!.l*)F~Ri·,~ phan che dC) phong kien mot cachrnanh me va.sau t . ~~en.ll~~ trong cac truyen c6 dan gian Viet Nam. Co ngumyatngljjflfJi~ tuong d6 bang vai tro cua yeu to thi dan. " Trang Qllynhla~I)~Jl v~t cua thi dan". Tieng cuai cua Trang Quynh v~ can b4n la tieng cuoi cua thi dan Viet Nam the' ky XVIII. " .I(hol1gi¢6 y thtrc thi dan ily a duoi che d¢ phong kien khong th~ cqH~ald~ chong giai cap phong kien c6 M thong va urong d6iJri~tc.liIlh1t

hai tA T Q' h d " (I)

t ai (9 rang uynn. tree .

I}>,~"

Nhirng phai chang nhan vat Trang Quynh ta tieu biell 'cho tang lap tri thtrc binh dan, chiu anh lurong sau sac cll~"luan cluing nhan dan, .dirng han y~ phianhan dan chong I,!i ~~Jhu. chung la giai cap phong kien thong tri (2~

(1) Van Tall - Sa thao 1//.:11 sa van 11l}C Vi¢t Nam. Quyen lILt; . 14il' .. h 49' (2) Hoang Ti':l1i\lU, Gi;io In'nlJ I'all hr;c dall gi;w, Nxb Giao d1,lc Ha.:n¢i 1970, tr. 185

149

4.2. TRUYEN TRANG LON

. . .

,. S\''I di c6 cai ten Trang Lon la do nhan v~t chfnh cua truyen rnang tfnh chat giai thoai nay xuar than tir ngh~ lai 19'n. Anh ten th~t la DUO'ng Dinh.Chung hay con g9i Ia Chung Nhi, con ong

. Du'mig Dinh LUC1ng que (1ltmg Dira thuoc tinh Ha Nam Ninh.

Lric be Chung Nhi luOi 1I0c, chi ham choi, CAu ta thich lam trang tir.hom thay yang giaTr<;l.ng nguyen di qua Iang minh, Nhu v~y chiic trang a day khong phai do trieu dlnh va ciing khong phiii do nhan danphong cho rna do tu c~u ta vo lay.Do luoihoc ham choi nen cau ta phii thea cha lam nghe lai Ion. V~ sau tt! b~n than anh ta la m~t 100 len, chfnh con g .. Tr~ng len k€t than voi Trang ca, Trang ant T~g v~t...cfingc6 tfnh each nhir cau ta (va

thf~i~n qua cai ten h3i haac cuaminh). :

Trang Lonkhac Trang Quynh a ch6: Trang Quynh la nhan v~t chfnh dien, dut;rc nhan dan hoan to an d6ng tlnh voi long t~uO'ng men va trantrong d~ phe phan dii kfch che dQ phong kien. Trang lon cling phe phan che' do.phong kien, Nhimg nhan dan da kfch luon ca trang. Nhuvay trang Lon mang tinh chat la nhan v~t phan dien.

SCi di truyen TrangLon duqc xep vao loai truyen giai thoai Ii VI nhan vat chinh Cll3. truyen c6 ngu6n goc lai lich r5 rang. HO'n t~e nu~, nh,i~u str ki~n ke trong cau chuyen lai rat thuc trong lich sir, chang han vu loan N ghi Dan va viec ctru vua Ttr Th~. .

Va cling giong Trang Quynh, nhiing truyen trong h¢ thong tmyen Trang Lon cling duI.}C xau ehubi qua cai 15i la nhan vat Trang Lon. Noi dung chinh cua truyen Trang Lon la phan anh su roi ren d6 nat cua trieu dlnh phong kien hie bay gia; Vua bilt luc khi g~p binh bien, quan la bon Trang L9'n, Trang cO', Trang vat, Trang a!il. ... nrc la bon bat tai.

150

4.3. TRUY~N ONG 6

a mien Nam thuong nhirng chuyen vui- ctroi, cham biem, nguoi ta tlurong goi la truyen Ong 6. Cai ten ong6 dung de goi mot6ng gia lam nghe bliy chim 6 sinh song a x6m Dua, bay gia thtiQc lang H¢i Phuac,·t6ng Minh D<;1t tin~ B€~ Tre: Ngu~~n da~ xua la mot rirng vong, sau nhan dan khaithac trong nhieu thu nhu bau, br, dira, rmrop dang ... dan dfin n6 tra thanh mot x6m c6 dan cu d goi Iii x6m Dua, C6 hai vq chong o;Ot _ ong gia dgl1 d6 lam an. Rieng ngiroi chong c6 lam thernnghe My adem ra\cn:q ban nen nhieu nguai biet tieng . Ong gia nay lai c6.t~i ~~chuy§n tat dfdOm. N guOi ta goi ten nhirng truy~n. d61a tf\f~n~rig 6.

NtJi dung cua truven ona 6thuemg phan<a.nh nh.ungv!riM

. ......' , ... . '-

san day:

, _ N6i lam to su khinh thi d6i vai trieu dlnh Hue nftu

Chuy¢n.l~ a Hue;Phao,: ell vu~ tr6i1rmla; Vua msc tio nhu

phl1tYBg hath¢i. '.?,. . _.,"

Tru.y~n "N6i g?t cic qusn J611"ke ve D6ng . Cung dal yen cae:,

quan-trong trieu. Mucn bita yen them vui ngai cho moi 6ngO denk~ chuyen.Vira d€n ong 6 thai:, rei l~t d.~t c~~y d~~ da~ khong bier dap phai con gi r;ta n6 di~ lam, toi nhirc pho~ qua kho.ng the ke chuyen duoc: Cae quan xum den chay c~ua ~e ~n~) 6 ch6ng khoi. Ong lien n6i: toi gat cac quan cho VUl cho co bl

con gl can dau, .' . A ",. ~ ,

_ Noi gat quan huyen the. hien tron~. tru~~~. n~l I,ao ~o

sach". Von quan huyen ham chuyen 1<;1 mal thir tal noi lao cua

ong 6. Ong noi rang "Toi n6i lao c6 sach''. Huyen quan h~~ ~Qm: SaU phai mang .sach tai. Ong 6 thua: "Toi n6i lao nhu v~y

h' ., ich 'dA"

C 11 co sac gi au. ,

_ Choi kham nha giau, can buon; Truyen "Mlf9'll tn« kt

ra~gm9t ten nha giau Jam nhieu ruong rna thue it nguoi, 1~1

,

kh()n~ chiu thuc trau. ()Ii~ () hlfd l!ll) I11U\1l1, \'~ dUll 1l~lrl'1i nha ','11(1 1-:11 nhii gi~lU 1(1i ch(, huo« II au (khClIlg hi(;1 cua ,Ii; !;IV dav hu\>.: \;1" IlHyl l'\)1\ nghl;, Con nt-he \'lllif chay (\(1"1 c,l d;l\ Ng,l!;;i nll;'1 \,(' l:ly kh(ll\f V:I h;'lt) l,lll) chu hi01 di0u (11'). Horn sail' (lIlf chu gi.lp lai (lilt: \1 ".3:l"ach \'~ vi¢c chui kham vira r6i. ()IH! (1 tnt lai:

"TbQ' lil lau !lay lmg chua biet g I \'0 (1llg 6 na v il!". ..' ....••••.••. '

Truye» " Tluim {hi tluim " k(: ran~ e\l m01 nutroi ban thithco

chuyeu mua rc ban dttl. (lllg () yuycl dinh g~l~ Ilgul'rj·nil;~l¢~ phcn ~11l) ha gi~n. Mot l.in di chn {lIlg () lura se banrheir chn 1lgL(ai kia nhung hicm VI khong c6 xuong qua s6ng .. Ngu()i lai

h~6n v~,i v~ng dua, XU{)I~g Ch\'1 ()!lg o quasong. (Jng () Iicnqu.a)1 lai b:l<) Cam on ong da dua h11 gua s(mg, t6r khong e6 heo b~i!l

dflu", c,

Tir su phan tich tren day cluing ta co th~ rut ra nhan xefla:

Truyen Ong 6 moe mac chat phac hen truyen Trang Qu~nh(ng6n ngtt binh dan, ft van chuang chir nghia. Hall nhir khoneco diu doi, bai tho nao. O1i dang tiec in so luong s11U tam con It ;u£1, '

4.4 Tuon g tir nhu he thong tru yen Trang Quynh,' Trang :U,m,

Ong 6 cua nguoi Viet, 0 cac dan t9c thieu so ciing eo m6th~ thong truyen cuoi khong kern phan sac sao, df dom.[)o ia n~ thon.g truyen v6 Luc Pia (dan ll)C Tay), Y Thoi ((hllll(~I..' N ung). Cuoi (dan tc)c Muang), QU~lY (dan tOe Hre), 'I h.«( .rvl(>nh~~l1a~. (dan tl)e Khc Mc Nam B0) ... Tuy nhien do dac thu \'~ hinh.tha] kinAh Je. xa h0icu<,l cac d[~n tye thieu s,o ~en cac nh<l/l, Yc:JlI1~y khong diroc p'~ong trang va dOl urong da kich khong phai Iavua, q,uan tro~g t~,li~U etln~. Ti6~1~ ~lfai gion d5 rna nguoi MUi'mg bOc 195ua hy t!l~l:g t;'uYt;n .CUlTl lil vang vao mat bon lang <.t<,lll,chua daL Chu CU91 dong val nhan vat thaphen (Con <'1) nhunz luon luon t~~l moi ~ach, d~ nglr~1~' l~n ,cal' guan lang lam cho n10quan d~u dl~ng. M~e,~u I,a ngl!o'ldl lam thue nhtrngCuOi eta- l~p myo hat nha, lang phal ganh ni ch<;lY loanh quanhvat v:ih6ilc1u mm dl!CJC, ve nha . Khi lang rt'!-o h5t IlgLrai 0 phai lam men. lam cho de ,hau h~, gi~ cua_ ehoch!l~l~ t~1 CU0i da l~p muu giet meo, gict ,eho ngay trlIOC mC).t chu rna chu kh6ng sao ll"! H)i dl1qc CuOi. Va

152

wong tv nhu kilu trllven ,i Tr?W!! ('h,r{ Chlla ciin]: bAni! HJ"~ll'; Ilt.Lfi'fi Viet, r;~~f0i rVlut'01!2 d~ Silllf-t:lO nco lnl~¢n " fit'. birai ~J (1:i h," ri;[ chInt d~ kG1 I il:u CUI)C dm h(}11 1 h(lltg. Iq Ml

hI" ~ '" ~--.

. a111. tan ac va ngu ngnc.

Do linh.chiendriu call l'll" h~1 h()llg truyeu Cue?) uen h~)n

yuany~i,ct!a pl~l1Clllf.AI~£lt r: ell ~H1i ehllng/a 1~~lh ~{{m~lr~}ruY~.l::., 1-16 <11 ke uuven Cuql sc h! cluing ph',lt \,). Nell nhu ttU)IiD. ~Ul?~ cua I1l'uai ivltrc1!lg chi ,hi klch van h(.10 chua 'll:Hlang d~o(n Hen d[(; lh1 eh~\I1g Pja'- cua dan t(1C Tily eon chien \h~n& U<l cae tt~~id:hu

tren thuong gi6i nira, .. , , '. A"

Dfi.usao ciingpha! thira nhan r~lIlg 1Jcng qrcfJ tfP'P&?;r t~on~

truven CU~l cal' dim tQe It ng.uoi khCmg ctuqc da.dang, n.hlYl.l ~,\

nhi~~ vi: nhu trong cac truyen clio} cua nguoiyi~t.. £)~5Ei~;t

nghia dffu tranh xa hQi eua nocon nhi~u h<,lllcM: '" C",7£"::,

III. NGHt;, THUAT KE TRUYl;N cun

1. Thirc chfft cua ngh¢ thuat ke t~f~~ctt?il.a.n~~¢ thuat gay'cuO-i. De tieng eU(1i n5 ra 0191 each &1.9n gia.k~pal_tf~· ngu~i k~ chuy~n phai tao cho cau chuyen mOt mau thuan can~.

th&ng r6i giai quy6t mOt each bfft nga. . ~ ,

Thirong co hai xu htrCmg giai quyet mau thuan:

_ Xu huang tiem lien; toan ?¢ cau chu_y~n ~nhtr n:~t vb]~~c~ g6m nhieu "xen" nho. Nguai k~ chuyen dan d~t ng~m rrg.~eg~ timg "xen" mOL Sau khi gahet cac",xen" va k!c~ cun .. % vlI~ket, thuc. Chang han truyen "Chay'~. "Chang ~(~ c~~ nao be . L~ the cuacach ke nay la tao du~c nhG'ng tran circi dai,

_ Nhttng co xu hu611g~ nguqc ~'.li, t~~. la ng,trOl k~ttr !u'Htta mau thuftn d6n caO trao r6i 09t nhlen pal quyet mau ~~~a~ tnQ~ d.eh d9t ng9t. Do Hi xu htr6'ngoo.tl>ie~, ~~~ la~01 ~l~,.m? nhanh). Ch~ng h~n truy¢n "l'aolhem qua, TIeng dan bf1U~l,.Ql

k{ nay t<;10 dugc tieng ctrm don gia,

153

2. Bi~n p hap ph6ng dai, th6i phong, keo cang hi~n tligngJ slj. va,t qua cd binh thuong, tao nensu doi l~:p giiia cai hop ly va cai phi ly ('Anh keo kiet" "to bang' cai n6i nay") 3. Bien phap sit dung ngon ngu d~ gay cuoi.

_ "Danh ch~t nita ngiroi": gay S\! d6i l~p gif:la logic hinh

tll..?c.va logic bi~n chung.

_ "N6i co d~ u co duoi": d6i l~ p gitra thuc t~ sinh' dQng vci

. cachhanh dQng may moe.

. _ ~LQi dung mQt sO" hien tuong dQc dao cua ngfm ngtl dan tQc de lambien phap gay cuai nhu hien tuc;!ngd6ng am khac nghia (trong truyen "Quan thi va. quem va xo nhau;") . hay noi

lai (,Ngay deo") trong truyen trang QUYnh)~ .

,.., ~

VI - KET LU~N.

Truy~~. cuai hinh thanh tit trong long xli hQi phong kien nhung' ,nd rQ vao giai doan suy vong cua no. () m1dc ta do la VIlO khoang th~ ky XVII - XVIII. Truyen cuai . III hinh thttc ~~~ bi~t, ~ha.~, anh ~i$n thuc b&ng s~ ph~ph.an th&tg qua tieng cuoi. Tleng cUdi don gial1 nhat 1~ ti~ng cuoi nay. sinh tit sl1 phat hien nhftng mau thuan xli hQi. Xli hQi nao vg mat chinh tri Ia phan dQng -thi yg m~t my hoc laeai hai kich. "Ti~ng ciroila vii khi eua nguai manh"?'. Oil hi~u dudi g6~ do nao cung khong th~ chap nhan y kign cho r&ng "ti~ng cuai Ii vu khicua ke y~u nhung ke ygu d day chi la y~u vg th~ luc . v~~.c~at.;ho~ cl~it m~t tinh th~n lai rat khoe. Chfnh tighg cUdlla bieu lQ mQt sUe manh tinh th~n cua nhan dan(2).

------"C---------------------"--------

(I) T" At .' , h •

en IDQ cuon sac cua Gu ran nfch, Nxb van hQC Ha NQil962. H6 Sen dich

. (2) Nguy~n H6ng Phong. Truy~n tie'u lam Vi~t Nam. Nxb Van - Su - ilia He. N9i 1959, tr, 17

154

Ghectxel1 n6i: "trong cai CUd! co lllQt cai gi each mang". Bielinxki thi cho r&ng "cai cudi la nguoi trung gian IOn trong vi~c phan biet S\;1 that va di,~u d6i tra". BoRep nhan xet; lllQt eau't\l~: ngu phUdng Dong n6i r&ng lllQt khi nhan dan thd dai thi baa tap n5i len. C6 th~ van dung each noi hinh tuc;1ngnhu th~; mQt khi' nhan dan cuoi thi m~t dat rung chuyen va cai ac bi d~pnhao xu6ng. 6 Vi~t Nam giai capth6ng tri rat SQ ti~ng cuoi va tim each len an nhf:lngngl1aid:)t ra truy~n cudi. N6i chung truyen cuoi dan gian Ia mQt bi~u hi~nctta tinh lac quan, tri thong rninh s~c sao va tinhth~nd~utra..hcliong cai xau cua nhan dan laodQug. Song tr~)llg;truY"$ll·cudi dan gian cung thay bi~u .hi$n d tillh¥1l9Ptg tl1p;All.nh.at va nhf:lng han ch~ cua ttl tudng ngh~ thu~t cua· ngl1di: nougdan xua. Ben canh nhfmg truyen cudi cO ynghia tlchc~c,con co nhfmg truy~n mang tinh chat tu nhien chU nghiahliti;Ch~ 'gi~u nliuug khuy~t t~t cua con nguoi (Cligrig"di~c vQcam). S~l~m dli1llgy~u to" tuc nhieu khi lam giamgia tri,tli~.m my ciia mQt

,f~ d;!~-; -.' -, ,

so.truy~n.

TAl LI$U THAM KHAO CHiNH

1- Nguy~n Hang Phong. Truy~n tiiuUlrn Vi~t Nom, Nxb Van- Sit -Dia. Ha NQi 1959.

2- Truy~n cuiti dan gian Vi~t Nam- Nhieu soan gia Nxb

Van hoc Ha NQi 1964.

3- Tie'ng clidi dan gian Vi~t Nam (Truong Chtnh, Phong

, Chau). Nxb Khoa hoc Xli hQi. In liin thu 2. Ha NQi 1986.

4- Nu. clidi cdc dan tQc thilu sf;Vi~t Nam (Ha Van Thu tuy~n chon va bien dich). Nxb Van hoa dan tQc, Ha NQi 1987 5- Truy~n cd Mlidng. NxbVan hoa dan tQc, Ha NQi 1978 . 6- Truy~n cd aic dan tQc thie'u s5 Vi~t Nam(Hai tap).

Nxb Van hoa Ha NQi 1975.

7 Truycn Cirri"! Tl1l1 Thiem. S('j \'[111 hO;1 thflng tin QU;lflg Nam Va Nimg 19x7.

~- 7/"lf.1!~17 Tr{l/lcL' Vinh HI dllcL'. S(',- \,{W ho;i Ih(lll£ tin.B1nhrl'i'

Thicil 19x4. . ' : .

9- nlly~;JI 7i-{lfic~ Vi¢IN;un (Vu Ngl.)C Kh;inhchu birn):'Nxh

Thanh J-hxl 19xH.

10- Truy~111 ('/(IJi Nhfil Bnu. Nxb Mlii.\.,a ivlnu1984. 11- Tnl)'~1!l L'w"i Trung Quoc. NxhThill1hH()3 1988 12- N(l cWli RUIIgari. Nxb r\-lui Ca Ma~l 1984,

1 ~- Xi? Gsbr.) \ ( 1 I~? ('han!} Pie Lophin/) hili huric. Sb van hoa

thona tm Binh Tri Thien 198f1 •.•

(", . _ ..

14 - 7i61,!: ('If(Ji Ihc'p/(rj, Nxb Khoa hoc xa h6i Hil N6i 1988

. 1)- D~ng Thai Mai. Y ngh/a nhAn . sinh. iAYng fru;'~nClj;7i

tunic fa npay.YUH. TIi Tan so 81-82-8:3 (194:3): . .. .

, 16- D()ng chi Pham Vall Dl)ng noi veTr<,lng Quynh. Bao .

nhsn dim chtl nh{115<~-I989, tr.8

I? - J n. Boriep: Ofj hili trotu: sack Nhiingphf/111 IIU rnyhpc F(~ ban (GS ~oa~1,g X~an,Nh! dich tll' tiengf'Jga)l:[110ngU'.li,h9<.:

Fong hop Ha Noixuatban 1974. '

. 1 ~- ~~i C[{():' (Icrin:!, PU~ Paris 197:f 'Gi~o 'Sit Le'£jffifilKy. dich tit tH~ng Phap. Tu lieu danh may tntemg Dai hoc T6ttg··httTl Ha N¢i. .. :1'

19.:- Nguyen An Tiem: Ti€ngcltffl til' h6n nhien den trf tue,

Tnrong Cao dang Ha N¢i xuat ban. 1996. ' .

15&

VE

Trong cac sa~h Tttc np7: Cit dan dsn eii Vi¢/ Nam") ,.(/;11J cs Nsm TruDE R(j !lL nhiing ng.It(1i siru tam bien soan deu ghichcp C,\ \'c_ Ly giiii \'0 hicn ttr<,mg nay ('mg Vfi Ngoc Phan viet: " the vI:': la mot lh~ ur SLi " nlurnu d611£ thili ()n£ lai viet" ve la 1ll6t loai dan ca I:{lt ph6bidn('j B:k h6 \,~I'TrulH~ be)" 'Con ve.ca ciao dan ~a th] 6ngl~li gi.ii l\lfchrang:';hau het l~ nhiing bai do cam xuc rna co, I~ nhiing bai tlnh tu- fa khuon thl1<1cyho h1itbq,tf~tlnhclla ta" '". Nhl1 v~y v~ Iy.thuyel Qng.,Yfi.Ng9f;~haJ;l t.h~~rnh~nVe vira co <lac diem ella loai hinh tu SI1 vil'a co aac diel1lcu(t,iJ.vai hln,h Irii t1nh. Nhirng trong thuc ti Ih1.QfI~ .~ep v~, y~q,JtQn&.f!~J~

the cua loai hlnh trir tinh. .. ..' , , ,: .. ,; , x·,:.:Ly•

• -,-. - ..... ~ .- . c ,"0" . ,' .... : ....• "Y'." ... C"' ........•. , •.. : ... ~':c_

Qua th~t Ia giG'a ve va ca dao, danca.c6ilh.un~~'f1erit~(f11g dong. Tnroc hel, d hai deu la nhiing sang tac b~llg vaf)'van,.tbeo nhirng lu~t tho da dang: tll' 3, 4 chu den luc bat ya's()p~thatl",c bat. Ve ciing <111<;1C dien Xl1(1ng theo rn('>t Ian di¢u nhat dinh.qua cira mieng ella ngh~ nhauVa cluing ta cung khong lo<)i tril'm91

vai doan mane tfnh trG' tlnh trona ve. .

. "-. '-

Tuy nhien trong dan gian khong .ai noi la hal v2 rna chi noi

den kl n~. Dieu do chirng 10 Ian dieu am nhac va van lu~t trong ve chi 13 phuong tien b8 tro cho 16ike chuyen mot each sinh dong rna thoi.

Tom lai ve 13 th~ loai nr s\! dan gian bang van van, c6 co sa til' loi n6i vancua nhan dan. N6 nay sinh chi] yeu trong thai ky phong kien va phat trien manh b giai doan can dai,

II, T!JC.: Ilgil ca dna d:1n cs Vj~'l Nem. (Vii Ngoc Phan suu tlim bien SO<p1) Nxb Khoa hoc xii hoi, in Ian tlnr 8. Ha N6i, 1978

,2, Dan Ci1 mie~ Nsm. Trung B9 ( T~an Viet Ngft, Truong Dinh Quang, lIoa~~, C1~lwng suu I{un ); Nx~ V;m hoa Ha Nlii-1963

Vu Ngoc Phan, sach (ta dan.

157

.............. ------------------------------

Tir n()i d u 11& ph~1n anh ella vc c 11 ung ra eo Ih~ phan chi a thanh hai loai: ve sinh hoat x~h()j va ve Iich sir.

II. V[: SINH BOAT xA HQI

i.ve Ja mQt thu th6ng tin dai ehung bfing con dueing truyen mi~ng.Vl vay ve mang tfnh thai su n6ng hoi. Nhan v~tva su b¢n trorig ve thuorig la "nguci thuc, vice thuc". Ch~ngh~ntrong lang co gai kheng chOng rna chira thi lap nrc c6 ve cJJua hosng: '

Ve ve ve ve

Nghe t6i(1~t truy~n vc.congai ho,ang thai Ham choi hoa nguy¢ts9t s.ai~a:rh·th~n

, Ng6 len hon rnii phanvan

Ng6 v~ cai bung cang l~l)tai1g to. (1)

Ho~c co 1119t dam ma 16n:'

. Nhat vui Hi dam c6 Lon

Dftu baacu6ng IOn g~p can mua rao HcanIal' baa sau choJ[l'Yi quangbi~n lang

'Dfn gia dftn t~[lg sang .

Den gib mao .rang nEay thapden du6c vui thay.

Dira c6 v6 thien dien '

Nghe ba h6Ltr6ng tien

Lang xii ra ap don

Co. moi bay chau con

Khoc eng hoi ba h5'i

Tr6ng yang r6i ken thdi

VUl thiet da nen vui

Da co nha tho troi

Lai co nha thO' but

(l)Tu lieu cua Ton Tb:'(t Blnh: SUU ,tihn b Tim)' Lap, Quang lei, Sia (Thira thien , Hue).

158

.... ;,i::f

I

Minh tinh d i truoc Roi minh khi di S<lU Con mon Cl~ hon\!. cao

, L

Thi lai di chinh \!.ill<.l

. ~

Lai di vao chinh g iira

D~n den nira baa

M6i den n.lp truug d6 Ke ra v6i nguai vo Ke bang ha sa s6

. ':: I ' A'( I)

Thiet hang 1<1 sa so

• <.-

Nhu yay ve khong chi thong bao S\f viec ,1119t each khach quan Ianh lung math~ hien khuynh huring khen, chi? ra ret. dbai ve chua .hoang nguai ta mu6n thong bao m91 tin ;h&ng lanh, chang vui vaq.tra,d6 ngan ngira.nguei khac. Con b b~i VG Dam me co~ LOl1 thlnguoi ta ke vf mot vi¢~ vira binh thuong, vira kh6ng blnhthuarrg. Binh .thucng a noi dung viec dua tans mot: ong lad.(Co) • .;,~N.h:UIlg khong binh th;bng'o hinh thu<'-c t6·chuc.qmilinh dlhh.;Nh~.v~~ 0 day nhan dan l/ua thong btio vua biuh lu~n, trong ~al ,da~g khen co cai dangehe. Va net xuyen su6t trong Ioaive nay la c6yeu t6 hai.~ N g uCii nghe khong the khong bat cuoi khi nghe cau: "ng6 len han mii pharr van. N g6 =. cai bvn~ cang Ian cang to". N gay ca trong dam tang c6 Lon, khi

nghe'den cau: .

Kh6c ong hai ba h5'i Tr6ng vangtroi ken th6i Vui thiet da nen vui.

cling phtin nao 'gqi b nguoi nghe mQt it h~li huoc.

2. Trong ve sinh host xa h9i co m9t ,s~ bai ,n6i leAn n6i kh6 cua cac tftng l6p nhan dan. Day la ttnh canh m9t

em be di b chan trau:

(1) NOllvt'!n D611g Chi. Hat dam Ngb!) TTl1/J, Nx b Van hoa I-Ia

e • ~

Noi 1965.

159

-------------------------------- ...

,

L:1l11:. lane rna n ahc

..... . ~ ...

N !!hc \'C I:.ilf t rau

~ ~.

Ra dCrng ddu diu

Kh6c me van cha

Hai h~tn~ nU(1C mat rl) ra

Cach Sf);1g each hoi hiet nha chu dftu

Nha chu co mot con trau

Up nayll) no c'6 Hly dilu the nitta

Th[l11 toi eli sorn ve tnra

Vac cav vac bira 05. 1110i hai vai Chii th~c quan 11161 t6i doi quan ai. Toi b vrii chu oli ngoai hai nam Chii thim an r6i dat nhau di llam· Bat toi xay .hia t6i Uimtrong nha Cai nieu bang c:iitnmg ,gil

Bo v6 ba h91 tham lachu O'i

Bac len chua n6ng da sci

Chua canda chin chu ng6i chu 10 Th6cchu ba dun bay kho

Clui an chang h~t chang cho x6m gi~ng"

Trong bai ve nay chiing ta tha'yxen ke gifi'atlnh ~t1 ~V Ooi k~) va tinh trti' tinh (khai quat tam trang.dau kh6cua m6t em be nahec, di a chan trau ).

. '-

Tv b~i ve nay cluing ta lien wang oen tieng hat m6 coi (gilu tv giua) trong dan ca H'M6ng. Do Hl nh~ng 10i tIJ than cua nhirng dua tre beft hanh, cha me mill sam,

phai chiu bao n6i ca, C\1'c:. ?' ,.

Hoa gianh no, hoa glanh no day d61

M6 coi c6 theo nguoi lam het sire

Khi an ciing khong dugc cung'an Hoa gianh nC!, hoa £ianh nC! khapnul M6 c6i c6 thea ngu'-ai lam t~n luc

III up n~lY: tieng mien Trung co nghia Ia.non va ao toi ,

160

Khi mac CIIIlI:. khon c dU"t1C cun e mac

• L C • 1... ,. .. ,

56m ngaynguaig9i nhau cam sang Me) coi khonu C<1111 san e

Me) co i da da~u nuangc~6i viron i 1)

Hai ern be thuoc hal dan t.(lCCI mi~nx,tl'oi va nli6n mii k ha c nh au nhung co ,cungn19t canhng¢gi6ng nhau la canh co cue cua.cuoc dai d.iu.

Duoi chc 09 c6 ap brrcv bdc 1¢t,n6i kh6 khfing~(danh rieng cho m()t ai. Bai ve Cau ngai cho Lieu phanJanf((1C1i s6ng cua nhandan m()t dia phiroug thu0chuy~hNartflDan (Nghe An). Cfiu c6ng xay diiluu, bi hong, 'darldja'pht(8f!'g d i lai kho khan Ihlron{! bitai nan:' !\ •• ; s.>'

'" . ,,' 4.",,/' •

Ke dcm s~lY hfim

N gtraingay;say; h6v.';;

... Ganh d6g6ng,llghieng' UlI1g nU<J{:" x8ingi~ng Than Ian khc) so ..

Nhtrug .chinhquyer; dia phuc1ri den.

Chung chi biet: . [Uy nh6m h9i he Mai h9P lang xii Het tien bau elf '

Den bac tuan strong ...

... Ti~n cong thu vao

Lua c6ng gop lai

Nhuug dirong sa hu Chi la dan sua Nhfing cau gieng 16' Chi la dan xay

Vi~c chi n6 hay

Chi 10 cungte. Tranh gianh thit xoi.

,I, Doan Thanh:' Dtin CH M(~o. Nxb Van hoc Ha N0i 1967. t~. 7

161

Khong chi v~bh mat bon hao ly dia phirong+Tranh gianh thit xoi" rna :uhan dan con chiri th&ng bon vua quan t~ng lop chop bu eua xa hQi:

Bay gib hang tang d~p de.

Vua quan Iai v~ lam hai de'n dan Khca tren Ich lei nhieuphan

D~ cho dan su khc5 than the' nay.

Dfin.<ia.y naive da th~ hi~n tfnhchien dau cao cua met thu "kh~u haP"

Tb.~o\Nitih Viet Giao.thi d Ngh~An, tru&MY co mQt nh6meac},ai v~. noi v~cuQc dau tranhgifra hai phe hao va h9. DO la nhfrng' bai vekien.cao giua lang nay va lang khac, giila xa no vdi xa kia nhung nhi~u nha't vAn la giitaben hao (bQn eubng hao, ly trudng) voi ben. ;"9 (tuc dan cluing) trong m()t lang v~ cac van d~ tranh chiemoong di~n.cQng thc5, phu thu lam bc5, tharn 0 cong quy, uc.hiep dan tiuh. Thuo chat do la s1;i th~ hien ouoc dau tranh giai capmQt each b~n bi, quye't li~t. rQng kh~P giila ndng' dan.va dia chu cuabao dbi tren dat Ngh~An.

Sd quy yeu gin. giua dang kinh do".

Cuoc dau tranh giira "ho" va "hao" tuy O\lC b9, thieu tc5 clute h~ thong nhung d§.u sao no cling phan anh nh~ng ye'u to' dan chu, nhu caudoi quyen song,. quy~n binh dang ciia nhandan lao dQug trudc bon thong trio

Tli viec phan anh nhimg cuoc dau tranh cue h9 d dia phuong.nhu v~y, ve tjen den ph an anh cuoc dautranh,co quy rno ,:rQng IOn hen nhfmg cudc khdi nghla nong dan chong t~p <W~P/plwng kit$'n thong tri va nlnrng CU9C dau tranh gifia cac phe phc\i trong tri~u dinh mang bong dang cua nhimg cuoc khang chien chung s\i xam luoc cua de quoc ngoai bang. Do Ia l1Qi dung cua Ve lich sit.

, III.·vF; L1CHSIJ'

V~ 'Inqt' 'nlit MO do ve lidh ~~g~IJ,giong truyen thuye't lich'sit>tllC la' pIlan anh nhung'l3\;t ki~nnhan v~tlich sit thong qua s11 hucah "tho va rilQng" '(titd~~~~a'StfM T~u' tudng Phfilm Van D6ng).'Ve lich,s,itcl1£c,laAu9<; .. sa,Jt~,ta:s~,~ khi 5U kien lichsir da xay ra tttdng doila.u'va ttitilhg ngudl sangtac ~h~~ la nhirng.nguoi da tUng,chimgj~'nhung su kien lich sit do. Vi yay trong ve lich stt thuong hoa quyen hai yiu t6: su chan thuc lich stt va su hu cau thin kYo Ch~.c la

. phai co thoi gian d~ ngttdi sang tacngoanh nhin lai llch su va binh gia lich Stt. D6ng thoi ngiroi sang tac khong phai la nha viet stt theo quan di~m chfnh th6ng rna la ngh~ sl hoac trf thllc dan gian dung v~, phia nhan -dan, tiim minh trong ngudn su6i cua cac sang tac dan gian. Quave lich stt chung ta nhan dien bong dang cua hai loai anh hung lich stt: mdt Ia anh hung nong dan khdi nghia, hai la si phu chong Phap,

1. Hinh ttidng kha di€n hinh cua ngtioi nong dan khdi nghia chong che' d<) phong kie'n thoi mit Iii Chang Liai" Trang bai ve nguoi k€ khang' dinh la:

. "Truyen Lia nay k€ nhu y

Giiip vui co bac nhfing khi viec rai

"Ben anh ly trudng

Voi chii truong .hao

Ban ky thap muu cao Bao bai trudc d6ng sau Dern chia nhau cay sach May ti~n quan cong Ich Cling Ilia thanh doi thin Doi thuong ha ban dan Sira dell chi! Hot sach ... "

Vi v~y d nhieu lang 11 han dan da lap phe hQi, g6rn nhfing nguoi khong co vai ve'trong lang phai chiu phu phen tap dich, Ho phan cdng nhau rn6i l1!5.ly mQt viec, rn5i ke chay rnQt noi d~ quye't tam danh dc5 bon .hao ly. HQ kien d dia phuong chua danh duoc th~ng loi thi ho kien len de'n trigu

dinh. '

"Dan ta cling thuan tinh, Iuc cong' Lt;c. tung xuat trinh tc5ng q uan". "Nao hay tinh cling lam man

(1) TrAn Vi~t Ngtt, Truong Dinh Quang siru tAm. Dan ca mien. Nam Trung so. Nxb Vall hoc T?p II, Hi.! NOi 1963.

'162

163

Dau duoi co the ma thoi

Xin chao chu vi, que t oi , 16i trti vc.>

N guai ngh9 si dan: gian l11i~n Trung k6 ve', n6i ve th~t la don g ian. H9 khong dong dai ve yngh13 to tal eua truyen va do d6 lac dung khachquaI1CUa nol<;1icanghet siic.vi dai. No mach bao vai moi ngual ~ftngm91'9hangs6 nong nhu Lia cfing e6 th6 dung len cl16ngl~i tri~irdlnh duoc. Chang ai biet Li'a ho gL Lia 'sinh.ra, nhuTltnViM, nhu Thanh Dong, chi biet my .khorrg biel.cha: "Giam. chan ba tieng keu troi, than toi co my su6tdalk.'hong cha". Lia r3't thuorig my nhung kh6ngnu6i n6ilhy. .Lia phai di an trorn d~ v~ nuoi my. Sau khi 10 tay d.a.:nh;~h~Chguqi~ Lia phai b6 nha,. bo my tron len rung. Mt;I,Ja nghe tin sa rna chet. Tu d6 Lia khong can vuang b~n,~'f.tlui;\· ~~thp~ c,hf tu~g hoanh d~ tra 'thu "Iii cho". Va. e~6ic,ung (ia, kh6rtg ChI cuop cua nha giau chia cho ngl1aingh~oril~ ,can danh tan ca quan chua N guyen b Quy Nhon: ' ' .

"Lung danh chang Lia tai cao Thau duoc thanh no tieng hao d,6n ran V 6 ve chieu du tram dan.

Truce sau yen 6n muaip;h§:n.1am an"

. Nhung Lia cling nhu nhirng anh nong dan khoi nghia khac la thuong rrranh dong, d~khinhsuiftnencu6i cung bi ph an cong va that bai. Nhan dan da boc 1611nh cam vai

Ua: . . .

Chieu chieu en Iuon Truong ~1ilX

Cam thirong chii Lia bi vay trong thanh.

Nhung dien bien trong cuoc dOl chang Lia la sir thu nho hinh anh cua lich su xa hoi Viet N am the' ky XVIIXVIII. D6 Ia thai ky rna vii khi phe binh khong th~ thay

164

the cho sI! phe binh bt\l1g vii k.h i. Nhan dan val "nC,i nrc tran hong" cia dang len chong lai trieu dinh. Nhung ket cue deu bi that bai. Cau chuyen "duoc ke nhu Y" trong ve chang Lia phai chang HI. cuoc t~p dl19't chuan bi cho su lhtmg loi cua nguoi anh hung '\10 vai co dao" Quang Trung, Nguyen Hue sau nay.

Nell nhir vc chang Lfa rat ph6 bien 6 mien Na11l Trung BQ thi YC 1'9' bu Csi Vangcung Ian tea khap cac'Umg qu~,phc5 chg ngoai Bac, Cai Van g 1a lanh t\1 nongdankhai nghia vung Bac Ninh chong 14;\i trieu dlnh nha Nguyen duoi thai It!

Dire.

Cai Varig tcnth~t Ia Nguyen Van Th!nh,'ngl1.ai lang Phuong Nhfin, t§ng HoangVan (ten nom lat5ngVan,g,tinh Bac Ninh cu),Ong la,m .cai a tring Vang n~nc6 t~nIacai Vang. Cai Vang e6 3 vq. Khi g~p nguy IJflq.·h~ivgJtJ,nciJa Cai Vang d6u ban lui, chi co bavgha (qolt.~Qi~~(Z(} Quan) 1a quyet sc5ng mai vdi ke thu. TroI\gbai,v~.hlflh4u.H ' Cai.Vang bi rna dan sau tam gl1ang nrc Tg,cUa,ttguC1i:\I\1:~ " Khen cho tri lire dan ba. Bac Ninh.tajt\Iqng.,iv;·g'i.Pa~i

v ang " . De ca ngci nguoi phu nu anh hUJ;lg .tha..oll;tq~· ri~'YH'

',nhan dan ta dft 1y nrong hoa bang cachthemvaonljung; yeu t6 than ky nhir ba c6 vien ng9c ky d~n vami~u.ta: nhung- tran ac chien gifra ba voi quan gi~c th~t{ la+pni

thuong:

"Quan ph6 ngu tuong danh lao, Quan phu tiep dien keo vao tdi pai.

C6 Quan song thac cung choi.

Ph6 guorn bat mac xern trci bang vung"

Ben canh viec d~ cao hinh anh changUa,dua trem6 c oi tro thanh dung' si, viec ca ngoi co Quan nguaj vq be tra thanh dung wang HI. S,! tier n6i truyen thong nhan dao, dan chu .. lv tucnz hoa con nairoi bat hanh trenz van hoc dan

- '- (... . "- .

glan.

165

cho ho nhi1ne' net sreu pham. Chang h;:111 k.hac hoa wane 'Ton Th:)t Thuvet, nhan dan k0 :

~ ;' -. "'-'- -. - -

2. Narn gifra hai di a ban hru truycn vc chltng Lfa va vc V(f bs Csi Vitng Hl Hue, nrri ltru truy6n ve That thii k inhclo. NJt dac sac ella bai ve nuy ia th6ng qua L'U0C dari tranh nt')i 09 gii1a hai phai chu hoa va chu chien trongrrie» dinh Hue de noi len tinh than yen mr6'c,quyet HUn khaiig chien ch6ng phap cua nhan danra: hie M'ygio. H1r'lh fltqng' Jon That Thuyet, vua Bam Nghi va str ung h9 cua nhan d~n vung nui lU Quang Tri den Ngh9 Tinh labi~u tUQ'ng d~p de va .la "96tloi cua hili ve.

Theo l.ili li.¢u cU<lTs; T6n That Binh(1 ) thi bai ve dai t6'i 1850 cau. Ban hru uiir a Vien dai hoc Hue co 2243 cau ..

\,...- ~.. .' .~

Con then ban cua giao sir Dinh Xuan Lam va Trieu DI1O'ng

thico' 4900d\u. Tom lai Ve thAt thu killh do Ia bai ve dai nliit hi~nnay. Tuy g9i la "Vethat thu kinh d6"nhung tac ghl k~nhi1ng st! viec xay ra til nam that thiJ Thuan An (l885Jdenkhoang cac'nam190V ~ 1908.Dd~ncu6i ~aiv~ noi v6 thue l11a,suu dich hie la phan anh m9t giai doan lich iiI sau narn Thuan An tntt thu ttenduai 30 rram, giai d6;:tn' cophong trao chong thues6i n6i a Mien Trung. Nhu vay VeThal lhli kinhd6 phan anh 0191 giai doan lich-sir anh httbng sau saC den dCtis6ng'nhan dan. Dang chii ynhat la nhfrng btrc tranh sinh d9ng v6dai s6ng nhan dan, ve cu~c o[(u tranh cua nhan dan xeri ke vai viec rnieu ta nh.frng bien cO' va cac nhan vat lich sir, Bai ve ta canh nhari dan chay loan, canh nhan dan giup dO' vua Ham Nghi tren dU(t'ng bon ba. Bai ve dtfng lai hinh anh kha trung thuc ve 1116t . sO' nhan vat lich siI dac biet la v6 ten ban mroc d~u ha~g Nguyen Van'Tl1ong ';a nh~ ch( sl van vo kiern toan TonThat Thuyet,

C6 mot net chung trong khi xay dung hinh tuong nhjrng ngl1ai. anh hung trong ve nhan dan ban gia cling phii

"Nuoc ta quan tt1anganh hung. Bach quan van vo cling khong-aitay. N guoi c6 ngoc vet dll1tay

. Dan Yang ray ban ba ng ay khongnao Tai havvan vfi I1100c thao

Khf khai n"hftn dia fa ;ao rat thong B6n b6 cu chien giao cong

TAy phien noi: thuc anh hung nuoe Nam"

Bai ve nay co th~ do nhieu S1 phutrt;rc li€p thamgia, hoac i'tnhat da chring ki€nnhufl:g bi€nc6.,l~chsiIcu.a t~01 ky;d6;:sang tac.. Tuy. flhi~tlcu~~.·~2~":,~~ .?~i,yv~ J!:h'!!., !~, tr~,yeltt~~y~t Itch slJ'~ljas;:~~ol~l~~'~a?g}~~ ~al vt,p1ja~ cach:kha xath:ai, di~m\X'iy'ri:s~~f~rri NgU(llsang,' file. ceo

dieu ki?n nhin rih~n l~i::'(;1anh, gial~is~(l(i~n:vatullg~~JiAn vat lich sir, su cau thanhl~mlchocau·tru"~.,nly kybap! dAn; 'Rai ve nay cling duoc nhi6u nguai ti~p'n6i nha~siral chila b6 sung. V6 y nghia cua n6 co th~ noi nhttCao.,Huy' Dinh.' n con ;:6ng yang da chet tir khi 'vua Ham N.ghi" tha~ the, bay gio chi Hi 1119t thu r6ng tre dogi~e deo gqtra ma thoi", Va trong bO'i earth ay chiing ta guy trong 1119t gia dinh quy t9c con nghiakhf ]a Ton That Thuyet : I

Gi~n thay phien tac, gan thl xung gan

Quan nha binh ma san sang .. Quyet di giap chien keo quan Tay phien hai

minh

I

DAn sao thi hinh anh Ton That Thuyet cling chi la" tam vai Hem nr te cho 1119t giai dT> lui tan,,(l) . Do la gia tri con lai eu'a Ve thflt thu kinh do.

, ";;"30 Huy Dinh : mng gri ctiu mrac ctiu dan trong ve c~n "'~ TaP chi V.O hoc ,6 6, 1971, ".45 161

lI; . Tsron That Binh hien nay lit g iang vien Truong Dai hoc

Khoa hoc Hue', .

166

IV. NIIONG DJ\C TRUNG NGTI(:: TJ-IUAT CLlA VE,

1- Vc Ja the loai tu stf btmg Vall van .. Vi vay tinh ngh~ thuat cua ve bieu hien 0 hai khfa canh: m¢t la Hl?i dung thong bao (cau chuyenjphaihap dan, hai la hlnh thiic tho phai hay, trau chu6t. Trongthl!c t€hai y€u t6naytb~hi¢n chua that hai hoa trong 1119t bai ve. NhiIng baiveIich str thuong ~6 stf gia cong nhieuhon ca. trong xay dung cot truyen ca trong viec got giiia cau the. .Trong ve sinh hoat nhieu khi do cl,ap irng nhu cfil,l; thong baok!p thei J!l~n nghe thuat ngon tir chua dat o~n trlnh 09. that hap dfLn. V] vay c6 mot s6 nguai hieu sai v6 ve . H~ nnii'ng bai,Jh<1rca'dao chua that hay thi ho hachat lugng x\16ng rnucye. Nh~n thircnhutbe qua Ia.oan .cho v.e. .Cadao.cung, co,pai .h~Yf,

baidfr, ve ciinz c6 bai db bai hay. .'

2 - Ben canh. tirih 'tl! Sl! la chu dao, trongve c6.cay€u t~ trir t1nh. D6 13 nhiIng baive n6i v6 than phan nguoidi q kc di phu. Ciing c6 1119t vai doan tru tinh xen ke. trong mach W su, Chang han trongjve chsng Lfac6" nhung cau:j!,tLla ta tam tfnh Ia sao". Hoactrong Ve Ib!!.. thu kinh. do. e6 doan n6i Jen tam .trang b,an khoan .cQa,:rOn Th~t Thuytt.g.ifravi¢c nuoc va viec nha.:.

, . Cha aia dau bac nhir tC1

'-' . ,.',. -,

Ma nhan rang .rung chua nho d~ng chi

3 - V an d~ di~n hinh hoa nhan vat trong ve giln gi6ng trong truyen thuyet. N6i chung .ve thien v(k€.hanh dong nhan vat ma It m6xe n()i. tam, thieny~ke.sl! viec 111a it mieu ta phong each. Nhan vat trong ve, thl!.ang~6 nhung net khac thirong sieu pharn: C6 ngoc ky dan, c6 phep than thong bien hoa, xuarquy nhap than. C6 Ie doIa dau vet con lai cua nh[1I1 vat than thoai vac6 tich th~n ky chang?

Kt1.'f Iusn : Ve la th~ 10<;1i van hoc dan gian rat gan gui, vai nhieu 1h~ loai khac: gi6ng truyen than thoai C1 net sieu pham cua hanh d¢ng nhan vat, gi6ng tryen thuyet bCli su gab 06 VJi cac nhan v<:tL va sl;l' kieu licl. ~il, gi6ng lruy~n c6

168

rich (j ceil c.ich k~ chuyen , giCing ca dao , dan ca ('1 hln~ thrfe tho va phuong thuc di~n xuong ... Nhlfng ve 1';\1 khong Ian vao ca c the: loai khac b t inh "khat! han" manh va t inh chien dau cao ella no. Neu nhir cac th~ loai khac chi. c6 nhan v~l ih~ph dong va nhan vat Irll' tinh tht 0 ~c con hien len nhan v~t thu b~ (t6 Hi nglfdi i6 ve:

+ Ve ve ve ve

T6i c1~t chuyen ve con gai. hoang thai + Ai ci ng6i lai rna nghe

T6i ke chuyen ve xin gao vuaqua,

Vi vay ve cutin hut nguoi nghe khong chi a ~9i .·<litl.Il~. thong bao rna con ca 0 Ilgh9 thu~t va ph9ng c~ph cuap-,gUOl ke v~. Chung toi n1uqn c1o'<;I-n h6i ky sau day ciia nl'l~.t,h.o. Luong An de n6i len gia trj, su hap dan ella ,ve: "N?i thvc tinh cho maipen My gia, 16i v~n eotYJhfchb~i ve va ' .. trpng nhan dan ciirig c6 . nhi~unglfoi can tli~9~~~on mu6~nA~~ ke ... Cach day ba bon muoi'nam cOng'nbu:b~y giosxriIah] ihich cua nhan dan c6 luc nhu 'Ut sayfue:, quen' an qu~ri

., ,,( 1 ) : - -~'i" ",,;'( "~,:- ""::'\ U\ "]\ ':let .'~;::~,~-~\~ii:1.!f-'::;(~'

ngu

TAl LIl;U THAM KHAo OUI'NH

<;;-"k~~' \#

1. Ve Ngh¢ Tfnh (Nguyenp6~lg Chi, V6~an~!\,~c'~jghy8h Tat Thu) 2 tap. Nha xuat ban Van hQ~ Ha ~91, 1965.,

2. Ve tbar thu kinh do (Dinh xuan Lam va Trieu Duafl¥JNxb Van' su dia (1959).

3. Ve)'eu .nmic dh6ng dc' QU(1c Phap xaffJ Iuac (VO NgQc

Khanh H6 Nhu San). Nxb Van hoc H1t N9i 1970

4. Cao Huy Dinh: Tieng goi ctru nuoc CUll dan trong-veean

dai. TE}p chi Van hoc so 6-1971 . .., ."

5. Nirrh vier Giao: "firfng noi d;fu trsnh glal cap trong v,e haa

h6"C1 Nzhe An, Tap chi Van hoc s6 1-1974.

6. vu To Ha~: Ca v~ ve , tir dac trurrg d~n x€p loai T{l[J'chi

Van hoc stI9-1977.

7. Vii To' Hao: So d6 phac thao tien trtnh cua th~ loai ve. T~p

chi Van hoa dan gian s03-1987

!i) Luong An, Tap chi VaIl SuDj,!. S640.

169

TRUY~N THO

1. KHAI NI~M VE THE LO~I ~RUYt;:N THO

ella hau khap cac rurrrc ('1 k h u vue D()I1~ Nam i\ nir».

Ngay trorig long C{IC dan t oc II ngLf0i ('1 Viet Narn eta co nhii'ngtitnd6 l ich SLr, .xa h(li de: hlnh thanh nen th~ loai truyen tho. Do la dt)i ngu 11"1 t huc dan t¢c ban g6m dong

.dao nhiing nguoi thong hieu van the sach V(J C(~ (J nhii'ng mtrc d¢ nhat dinh va nhirng nguai vira Jam nghe me tin vira heat dong nghe thuat giln nhu chuycn nghiep tron g nhan dan cac dan t¢c & vung nguoi Tay, nguoi Nung, d6 la nhfi'ng thay d6 biet chir Han, nhii'ng ong tao, ong but, ong quan lang, vira lam nghe cung bai. chfi'ab~nheho dan gian, VlrR POI)C VI) van ngh9 trong, nOVl1g h¢ihe; nghi [e; vui choi giai.tr] 'cua nhan dan. o vimg nguai Thai, d6 la nhung eng mo, ong chang biet chft Thai (mot dang chir vay muon va cai bien til chfr Lao) phuc vu-cho cac nghi h~ cungte' cac Ianh SPUR phai tao va dan gian trong ci6 cq viec ghi chep bien mien su. va cac truyen thuy€t vecae dong h9 lanh chua. 0 vung nguoi Cham, d6 la cac ong PO Mduon (ngh~ si <ian gian) va caethily Pochang, Pobaxcb' (cac -tang 1fr dao Balarnon) phuc VI) ca hat trong hoi he; va truyen thu kinh sach trong cac tin d6. D¢i ngfi cac trf thuc dan toe d6 chinh la nhfrng nguai da sang tao nen dii ghi chep, luu jruyen cac von van hoa cua dan t¢c, trong d6 c6 cac truyen tho cac dan t ¢c . D6ng thai trong qua trinh giao luu vci cac trf -thiic va van hoa . .Yi¢t, van hoa Han, van hoa UlO, cac trf tfurc dan t¢e ay cling e6 tiepfhu va eai bien cac truyentho cua nguoi Viet, nguoi Trung Quae, va nguoi UIO nita .

3. Chfnh cac nguon goe tie'p thu va san~ tao khac nhau cua cac lap trf thiic dan t¢c khac nhau do eta t~1O nen b¢ mat phong phii va da dang cua th~ loai truyen tho t1 de dan t~c it nginri, Can ell' van nguon g6c tiep thu d~ sang tao va can cll' van phirong thirc dien xirong va chuc nang cua truyen tho, e6 th~. phan chia truyen tho de dan tOe thanh cac nh6m sau day:

1. Trong Iich str van hoc Viet Nam, tit trircc d€n nay khi n61 d€n the loai truyen tho, cac nha nghien ciru bien soan tlurongchi n6i d€n mang "truyen nom khuyet danh" (hoac "truyen tho binh dan") cira ngl1ai Vi~t chua may ai n6i den the loai truyen tho trong van hoc cac dan toe it ng(tai.

. I?~f ra, trong van dan gian truyen thang cac dan t¢e it ngU'ai:t6n t~ilt~ng .Ioat cac truyen tho dugcluu truyen rOngr*i trong nhan dan ..

·~afi·da.Ilt¢e. Tay Ntll1g e6 caE truy~n tho Nam Kim Thi Daf: TraIl C'!4Jf,,(JyangLam Ngf)cLl1ang, Kim qu&; VU9"t pi6n ... ,dan t¢,? Thai c6 cac truyen tho: Tiln d~nnguoi yeu,

Chang Ltj nang U a, Khuiim Panh v .. v ..

Dan t¢eMttahg cocac truyen tho: (; t .Iot ho Lieu; Nang Nga moi, Nang am chang Bong Huang v ... v ...

Dan t9.c H'M6ng c6 cac truyen tho: Tieflg hat lam ddu, dan t¢c cham c6 nhtmg truyen tho Hoang ttl Um Rup, Cham Ba Vi. Teva Muno v, .. V;. Dan t¢c Khome c6 cac truyen tho Xi Thaxh, Tum Ticu ... , Ngoai ra co. mot s6 .truyen tho eua ngl1ffi Viet, ngiroi Han, ngU'i'1i Lao, cling duoc hru truyen a vimg cac dan toe

fi~~ .

.. Nhfi'ng truyen tho ay tao nen b¢ mat da dang, phong phu tron,g kho tang van h9C dc dan t¢e it nguoi va eli trong nen van hoc Viet N am n6i chung.

, 2. SI! ra doi hang loat truyen tho & cac dan t¢c chac han kh.ong phai Ia nhirng hien nrong ngjiu nhien. Truce tien co the. n6i rang the loai truyen tho HI. mot th~ Ioai kha phd bien trong van hoc Viet Nam: cling nhu trong van hoc

170

171

- Nhom truycn th« phuc V~I nghi Ie dan g ian

- Nh6m truycn tho k6 thira truvcn thons ur su cfia

ven ct; dan e ian cac dan toe - to

.' • L •

- Nh6m truyen t ho ke thira truyen thong trii' tlnh cua

tho ea dan gian cac dan tge, ",:

- ~h6~1 truyen tho thien v6 khuynh huong thuy€tgl<lO dao due eua truyen thp Nom Viet.

II, NH6M TRUVI)N TIlO PHl)C vu NGHI LE DAN GIAN

, N oi ti.ep va pha t trien truyen th6ng tho ea dien xu6n~ than thoai trong nghi-Ie dan gian, (j 'nhieu dan tocanh tin' da hinh thanh hang IO'!t cac truyen tha,duac' cac nghe nhan (~~ng }hoi Ia nhirng nguoi ram nghe r6n gielo' fid then) dien ke trong cac nghi Ie dy. '

/ a vung nguo~ T~_ai, t~'ong dip Ie X~nCha,:X~jr!MciJ.n'g e~e 6n~_ chang eo ~Ien k~ truY¢,n tho Tay Pu X6c (ang cha d~nh g~,!c) man~ tmh e,~at tr/~ye.n thuyet lich sir, k~ l~iqlla tn~h ;ae tap doan nguCil ThaI di cu van Vi~t Nam.kheang the ky x, ~I. Truyen tho xac nhan rang cac eu dan ngu6n

goc ~~m ~ (du?c goi nguoi "xci") von la nhllng t¢cnguC1i

.eU tru a day truce. .' . .

Xa Ja nga 6 chuang nguon H9 W i?p rieng M

C6 tiec nrcu h9 khong moi chua Thit trsu, bo ho khong dang chua

. _ Sau d6 cac lanh chua Thai dftn 'ngltbi Thai di ctrvao, d~en ra cuoc tranh chap ac liet voi CU dan ban dia va cu6i cung c~c H'i~~ chua Thai, cai quan vung nay. '

Chua mot cho tao chien tao 10 .

X~ong ~~i q~4; ~lfang Om, Mlfang Ai ngoei voin tItJi , Va ,.~gltCl} Thai da x ay dung vung Tay Bac thanh nhung

vung grau co, thanh the: -

Ng~y ng:1Y trollg khua Yang

Lrong vang r(Jng lAng x6m

i72

Trone. do canh ~i~lu san a u v the cua cac lanh chua duoc

~. ~ ~. - .. ~

ton len vci loi tho co g iong cuong dieu khoa truong it

nhieu

Nb« eire hOfl giiJu Sling Chua dem vsng due gh~' Ngoi ghe'da.'u nga voi ...

Nhung ngay trong canh giau sang quyen quy d6,;qua nhtrng loi-tho chan thuc cGng n6i len kha 1'5 nhirng m~t tieu cue, lac hau gan lien vci che d9 phong kien cac catel! cua cac chua dat Thai.D6 la. tuc I¢c6ng n~p,pb1:1c dich nang n~ de lendfiu len c6 ngubi.nong n6 Cuong Nr46c thuoc lanh dia chua dat:

C6 lien xsch gi6. tning-d.tfn 1fi114~J ;a·rnIJ~9ng C6nglfaixach gi6. ca qehxJa dal;J4.p.Mpg··· {(,,)·.~ttd

Truyen tho con vach len .. ca.n~llap buc~.ph~n,·ttpi~f churig t¢c nghiet nga cua cac lanh chua Thai d6'i.yoi,p.h~nl dan cac t9c nguci thap hen yeu the han thuoc lanhdiayc,ira ho chiem doat, thong trio Dac bi~t la. nan tranh.chap quy~n binh ac li~t giua cac nganh tnrang, th(r trongcac t~p dean chua voi nhau, gay nen baa tai hoacho dan Ianh:

Trang nha Tsc QU{l vo cling Iuc 01!c Detn qusn chem giet/9.nnhau CheinngmYi nhu thl chemchudi LU9c dan nhu thlJu9c cu .. :

cam hirng hien thuc cua sir thi da Ian at tfnh.chat bfan'lirih thieng cua tho ca nghi Ie. ThO' ca nay sinhtumanh datcuacu¢c s6ng tdn tho, mang hoi tha ciia dbi song kh6 dau cua nban-dan, diroc khac hoa bang nhirng net tho sonhirng kha sac sao. thea quy Iuat cua sang tao nghe thuat, da pha va khuon kh5 go b6 cua tho ca nghi l~ thuong bi lt6c thiic thea quan niem than linh

173

chu nchia cua v,In hoa dan aian. Noi dune 111n thuat. me hoac eua th'0 ca nuhi 16 eta bi cac ~ghc nh~n tha\~ the mot 'c~ch kh()~g tt! giic, ngo~1 )1111u6n 'cua gi~i tfip thong "trLbtmg 1191 dungx'i h9i rnang tinh sang tao nghe thuat kha ro.

Neu nguoi Thai dien xuong truyen tho Tay PU X6c trong nghi l~ Xen ban, Xen Mm)ng d~ 6n lai va ca ngoi c6ng lao cua cac dong ho chua Mit TMi trong qua trinh thien di va xay dung cac MlfOng Thai a Tay Sac thl nguaj Dao dien xuong truyen tho' [)4ing Hank va bsn a!}i h¢i trong nghi l~ tet nhaynham on lai qua trinh thien di cua t6 tien ngum Dao tuphuC1ng B!c van vimg mi6n Baccua Vi~t Narn. Truyen thoPay PU Xoc du Hi ngoi ca c6ng lao khai pM mien taybac t6 quoc clIn' ngtrb-i Thainfnrng khong tranh khoi It nhieu mau sacbihung ve c,anh chinh ph at dffy mau lira va canh sat phat nha~. trong viec : xic. l~p quyen thong tri cfra cac chua dat Thai. COn truyen th()'D~ng 'Himh \!;J b!n cJ!}j h¢i cua nguCri Dao. chu yeu marrg mau<sac tum vui n6i len tamtrang h6 h?:Ji cuaU1l}t t~pdoan nguai moi den hoa hop hoa blnh va?~f gia dinhd~nt(Jc Vi~t Nam. Rorang day la cai nhln'l';lc quan va at hAn c6pha Ifin niem-vui suang truce canh "datlanh cHith d~u,j;

'" iDdinit6'cll1O'!d~pmlliJ gi6c1ieu haa Nairirng Vi¢tN'amnhjeu g6'quy G6 quy kluic ruio yang bsc kho ...

\'a.day la tam trang strong vui cua nhtrng con nguoi diroc an

cu lac nghiep tren T6 Quoc-moicua minh:

D€n noi rimg nuicJAt.yen vui Lsp nha dung cu-a c1l1C/c yen 6n . Th6i khen luan hat giij 10 Au ...

Neu c6 nhungtruyen the nghi l~ nhir Tsy Pii X6c, D~ng Himhva blm c1{1j h¢j dm;tc dien xu6ng trong nhimg nghi Ie 1011 lien quan d€n ca mot cong d6ng tl}c nguro Thai, ngtroi Dao thi lai c6 nhfrng truyen tho nghi Ie nho nhu truyen tho Khlm hii cua nguoiTay chu yeu phuc vu nghi Ie cau yen trong moi gia dlnh vao ffi9l dip thuan tien nao day thoi. Tuy nhien, m6itruang dien xu6ng truy~n tho du nho hyp nhung van d~ xii h9i ma

174

truy~~ tho chu-a dung va nell len het sire r9ng Ion va c6 y nzhia nhan 'van sau s~c. Cho ncn truyen tho Khtim haj diroc d6ne: <-dao noan diln Tay tiep nhan, giii gIn va luu truyen rong 'rai cho den ~ay.'i\l~Y van de rna Khtim h<ii neu len 13. vfin de gl? D6 13. van de cUa?fi.U'ngcon nguoi righeo kh6 co th~ n6i thuoc 16'pt~n cimg xa h¢i (J nongthon Tay Nimg:

Than toi kh6 cJ€n chel Dirdi bffi ching sri rom

Q'A ',1. • .'

ung vuon cIJang \'0 trsn ...

Nhiing con ngum ngheokh6 d6 b!cha dap, giet bo phil phangdu6iich cua che 09 gia d'inh ph1,l<:1uy~n giatrtfCmgkhac ngh~:

" "Hamhamanhvac dao cJinM;

''f'Ham ham anh vacgU'O"me4n ichem" "'Chem dAu em treo rlgrn'claNc9::E'; , Va d*c biet la bi day iii angoaj'xa h¢i;mgaycatfki€p'kM.c

lam nghe cheo thuyen cho quan di c6ngb*n:·· c.' Troi cJill oi, cha me hm!

Cay dang Jim, qrc nhl.Jc thay Ng(J chef cJj Ja cJiJicJzrC/c yen Lsi bi quan bat ve lam t6

Ngay ngay di cfteo thuye'n sang be' cho quan ...

Trong thirc te, dum thai phong kien va dequcc, nhan dan cacdan t¢c n6i chun& va nhan dan. Tay, Nung n6i rieng phai thu"ng xuyen chiu ganh nang cua nan phu phen tap dich ella b9 may phong kien dia phucng, ciing nhu phong kien trung irong va ganh nang bon thong tri thirc dan. Nan phu phen, nhat la phu tai da)am cho bao gia dlnh tan mit dau thuong, c6 di rna khong c6 v~,ho~c c6 v~ cilng kh6ng tranh khoi canh than tan rna dai, Nhung trong yang kim kep ella bon thong tri ho kh6ng e6 con dUO'ng nao thoat. Neu tron tranh thi bi tai va ngay:

. Quan fran gian cJu61 giei Kh6ng di cJot cd bjch canhlJ Kh6ng eli cJot cd V9' cd con

175

i

~ I

, i

t

I I'

,

,

Btmg nhlfllg nct sac, gl,lll truycn Ih!1 VlI'e1 bicil (Kham hai) da vl3 len than phan bi e1<1Y :ti cung eire, bi re rung nhir beo bOI cua ngL((fi phu thuyen tll\1ng trung cho ngU'ai ngheo kh6 cue nl:\lc nhat trong xa hC)i CLl 0 cac dan tc)c anh em. Truyen .tu)' n61 ve "the gi6i ben kia" nhuug r£ll thuc, thuc v6 ngoai canh, vethfin p~~n con ngiroi va d ve tarn trang sau kin ben trong nira. Co th~ de che day bot sir t6 do manh me (S(J bi bon thong. tri .ham hai) ma nguci ngh0 nhan dan gian eta khco dung plurong thtic mra hrr nira thuc, VI v~y ma cau truyen hi~n thucduoc hat len trong

huona khoi cua nahi 16 cunc bai .

c., oL-' L- •

Nhln chung loai hlnh truyen tho gan v6i nghi 1~ cua .cao dan

tOc co ke thira truyen th6ng tho ca nghi 1~ dan gian ve>binhthuc; dien xu6ng,v6 chrrc nang ton giao, Tuy nhien, noi dung cua ... nQ da co st! thay dbi r5 ret. Neu Ih(1 ca nghi 18chu yeu'n6ih~n m6i qu~n, h~ giira can nguai voi thien nhien thi truyen tho chu yeu the hien mci quan h¢ giii'a can nguai voi con ngttai chodu do Ja truyen v6 thanphan mot con nguol, hoac noi ve lich 5U eua ca

ban muong, hoac noi s6ph~n cua camot dan tOe.' ,

III.- NH6M TRUY$N THO KE THUA TRUYENTHONG TV

SU'CUA TRUYEN CO DAN GIAN' '

, .

Nhorn truyen tho nay co nhfrng' lac phrlm phd bien s cac dan tC)c nh1/: truyen Nilflg can coi cua nguai Muong khai tMcc1~ tai di ghe can chong theokieu truyen c6 Tam Cam, truyen Chim ~ao, .truy~n,~ang,l!im Q~e'c~a n~uai, Tay, truy~n KhunLdNang ua cua ngU01 Thai. .. Khai thac de t~ll truyen co thllnky v~ nMn v~t bat hanh n~hCo kh6. Truyen Chim sao ke v~ mqt.n~uc!i ncng dan ngheo kho ten la Tnrong Arih, nho nuoi m6t can chim sao diroc ;ao, ~~n ~n bang each VaG kho cua ten nha giau d~ l~yvan~ bac ve glUp da Tnrong Anh. Sau su viec hi 10, chim sao hI b~t . gi~i le~ kin~ d~ pho ma trang nguyen xet xu. NhC! rruru' tri', ' Chl?1 sao ChI bi vat long chtr khong bi giet va tr6n thmH duoc. Chang nhung the chim sao can l~p mUll bolo thu ten pho ~a tr~nf. ngnyen da hanh t()i sao, Truy¢n Chim sao the hi¢n khat

176

vons conu bfl1l~ xa l)(li cua nhan dan.

, ~Chll de \lay duoc truyen c6 the hien don gian, ~1QC mac con

truyen tho t6n len to darn sac net hon. v« thai dit"fm ,v~ ten nhan vat, truyentho dac\l the hoa va ca th~ hminhG'ng truy¢n phi~t11 chi 0 truyence, Trang truy~nth0, nhan v~t da co ten tu6i'; qcib quan If lich tUcJng d6i cu th~. Tinh each nhan v~t ciing dtt~clilia.c hoa saubon qua bienphap hanh dOng,ngon ngii' ... cua eao·nhfin v~t. Moi truongxf hqi truyen tho cungdU'qcmd rOngva dontO' co dieu kien khai thac sau han tfnh each nhan v~t (truy~ne6 chi han che trong lang ban, truyen tho 111(1 rong den ph,!lnvi'tri~tr

dmh .... ).

Truyen tho Nang Kim QueA.l) khai thac de taitruy~h c6thlln

ky; can ngum nha con v~t thfin ky (0 day la can khi) n1ad~t' dtroc giausang.va hanhphuc. Nhirng qua truyen thO' id~tfli.d6 duoc d~t trongmoi truang lichsir CO tht!c (cung rna, phv. ~mJ.li\j) do.do chathi~n thuc cua truy~ndl1qe tang cuang situ d~rri(;h~. Truyen tho vach ra va phe phan thai dC) thien lech cuavua;gnet

bo con trubng, yeu chuong.con thu, con tit: .

G?t phimgcon tnrang rs ngoiJi

Mil 10 Jang giiip can trsi cum hhng Gitip can moi dang

Lam die'u 16i d;,w cl1ong.rhl/fmg ngira nghi6ng

Dieu nay r~t phu hqp v6i rhuc te lich str lUc .\J~y gio truyen tho nom nO rO, vao khoang the ky XVII- XVIII, luc rna che dO phong kien <lang 0 giai doan suy thoai khung hoang, Nhimg tranh chap liell mien xay ra giii'a cac t~p dean phongkien I.rF, Trinh, Mac, Nguyen. Ngay trong m5i t~p doan, nhu trongnOi1?9 t~p doan ho Trinh ding lien mienxay fa nhirng vv tranhchap ngoi thir gay gat giii'a anh em. Trinh. C6i, Trinh lung, Trinh

Xuan, Trinh Trang, Trinh Tong, Trinh Cau...; . .

Nhirng nOi dung do' ciirig t\1ang ung vat ngon ngu truy¢n

tho:' .

I

I

(1) Truy¢n tha ray Nl'mg L?P J - Nxb Van ho<i H3. N(>i 1964,

177

Onja c3 cung vai chua Iwi

Ra eoi da thay hai nguai dang duyen

... N¥oa.i _d.c t~ Ch~il ~a,Chua hsi; trong ngon ngv truyen tho con co J!hung fU khae hen quan cung vua phu chua: nQi phi), e~ngphJ, t~f!}mf =. 'jutjn cong, {Iuii gism. Tat ca nhirng nr nay dc,u dugc. ~let bang tleng Vl~t trong nguyen van truyen tho Tay, Nung .. Dl~~ d? cang la co sa kha r6 rang d~ n6i len rang,hi¢n thVe lich su V l¢.l N am thai bay gio. trim vao khamanh me trong truy¢n tho Tay Nung. Dieu d6 cling n6i len kha r6 m6i ziao luu van hoa khaeh~tehe giija van hoc Viet va van hoe cac dAn toe it

nguoi .anhem, PI.} th~ la Tay Nung,' ...

Cac truyen tho Chim sao, Kim Que: .. r6 rang la khai thac de tai, nhan v~t a truyen c6 tMn;kY. Nhungtruye;tha dil lam eho cac de ·tai ay phat tli~n rong rai han .va duge khai tMe sau han, t~6ng ~ua hang, l~~t ca~ bien va nang eao. M6i tnreng hoat, dQng cua nhan vat, ly Iich hanh dong, tam ly cua nhan.vat, hien thirc cua lich sir, Nhfmg y€u t6 d6 lam eho truyen rho gi~u ch'at hi~n thirc ~a~ la truyen c~ thien ve h'ing man tMn ky va lam eho ~6 c~ the sinh dong hon Ja tinh chat phiem chi khai quat cua truyen co.

ella cadeau truven la de chang trai va cac e() gai, 11<.1-11 nhan cua ttlc'lehon nhin' ga ban, ep u6ng ngang trai duoi che d9 cu. Truy~n tho lich sa phan anh nhirng van d6 rong 16n lien quan d€n dm sonzvan menh cua mot cong d6ng nguai. Truyen tho khai thac d6 Hii' truyen c6 neu len van d6 eh6~g ap buc va bat cong trong xa hoi; con nhom tf\ly~nt~anaychir\y€u rreu len va~ de .hanh phuc h1a doi trong pham vi sinh hoar gia dlnh., P1Wm vi d~ tai (luang nhu hep so v6i cac nh6m truyen tho khac, nmrng vanae'do truyen tho neu len co fngrua ph6 '~i€n va c6 tinh ~han dao sau sac; d6 la tieng n6i dau tranh cho trnhyeu tt! do, m¢t dbihoichinh dang va cap thiet euath€ h~ tretrongxah¢i cu.

Ke! csu ma d:iu cua truyen tho ve de tai nay thuong la m6i

tinh em dep cua cac chang trai vac6gai ..

Trong Tjln d?n ngl1&; yeu euanguai Thai, m6i tlnh d6 c6

ngu6ng6c sau xa tirthuo tuoitho:

, D6i ts nhu.goc c;iixanb, nfiU'taudong mU't;J1<

.Cong ella trlf! llu6i }(mcimg thOi

Y~u nheu thua mm ra dai· . .

. , •. L- ,,·,·,··th.J(I)

Tieo duyenglflllglllatii ngay con 0., ..... _ '"

Dieu d6 co lien quan d€n vi~e khai tl1ae de tar. 0 nhirng bai

danca quen thu&: nhu Oil 6, k~ve cu¢cdmJ11¢t con ngum, tu luc sinh ra, eho' d€n luc 1611 len lay vq lay efi6rig va eb€t di.

. . Con trong truyen tho Muong nang am chl1ngB6 ... l1g.,!lf(Yn~ thi 1116i finh d6 tu trong cong cuoc lao dl/ne, ruong viron eua d61

trai gai:

Em cling chang Bong Hl10ng

Hei chung mot con Vl10n Deu non Jiim l(Jc,

Nim to B tsy em hai

Niitn nho cua chang Bong Huang. (Truy¢n tho MliOng-trang 228)

IV. NH6M TRUYl;.N THO KE THUA TRUYEN THONG TRUTINli CVA THO CA nAN GIAN

Tren co s~ n~n dan ca phong phu, v6i su phat trien cua hien thuc xii h¢i va nhu cdu sinh heat tinh than ella nhan dan cac dan toe, cac .ngh~ rilian dan gian da sang tao nhieu truyen tho mang phong \'1 tnr tinh dam da cua 1m tho, tieng hat quen thuoc cua nhan dan. D6 la hang 10~t cac truyen tho nhir Nam Kim Thi Dan

cua ngtroi Tay, Ti6n d?n nguOi yeu cua nguoi Thai, Nang am Challg B6ng Huang cua ngl1ai Muong, Tierur hat Ism' dfiu cua

.... H' t»

ngiroi Mong v .. v ...

De' t~; trung tsm ph6 bien cua nh6m truyen tho nay la cau truyen ve tinh yeu nam nfr duoi che d9 cu. Nhan v~t trung tam

178

(\) Tien d$J1 nglfOi yeu, Mac Phi dich va gioi thieu. Nxb Van hoa Ha N~i 1972, tr. 56.

179

,

Trang truyen tho Tic/IF h::it /;/111 deu cua ng110i H'M6ng, m6i ttnh g<ll1 bo duoc gi6i thieu vai nhU'ng. lai tho moe mac, tran.trui, khona can nguai dua c.tdv, VI von nao:

~ Ni1a~g Dp- kf:f;ghia trsi gai cung C11it Tang D(3i bsn tinh kh6ng 'phui kbong nhst NluingD9'qllY& long muon theo.

(D;in ca Mea, trang 90)

Tuy each di~n dat co khac nhau, nhung phan 1(1l1ll;UY~flthp' cac dan t9c mo dau bang nhtrngIoica llgqi m6itlnhd~p ,ae, xung doi. Nhung ciing co truy¢ntho'\no diiu ngvge l1~n l'),i,.gi ngay VaG bi kich cua cau truyen ttl nhirng dong dau tien nhu Nam Kim Dan cua ngum Tay:

Tiuyen tinh duyen 1hj Dan mic IFfY

'Nhu hoe khoug. 41.19'c no nga y xusn. ,

a day, duong nhu n6i niem.dau kh6 dotinh yeu oi tractra gay ra, chfft chua Ian ngaytrong .long nguaivie't;:.nendm' but dC'n la dong tinh cam dau xot bi nen Iai do battuonra ngay, khons c6 gl kim ham 1ai duoc..

v J..... • ~

DC'n doan kef csu chinh trong tinh tiet cua truy¢n tho' thi

mach trU tinh do cang ducc khai thac mgt cathth~t Ul.phong phu, dbi dao. Diem xuat phat gay ra U19l lchtS dau.cho.cacchang trai va co gai trong truyen la nan ep duyen. Co khi nan epduye.:r la do quan niern me tin, theo "56 menh'', "hqp tutSi"hgp d6i'; nhir nhieu diu ca dao cac dan t9c can ghi lai. PhtS bien han caJa6p duyen do cha n19 "tham vang bo nghia", theo tuc 1? ga ban, .coi nguoi con gai nhu m9t monhang. Va tfft nhien la meingang trai d6 du gay nen bao nhieu tam trang, tlnh canh hi ,.thUo'l1g rna truyen tho' dien dat 14;1i voi bao nhieu cung b~cphqng"phu, bao nhieu 1m tho chan chua tinh cam xucd9ng, nhieu khi nhu nghen t~l don dau, khien nguoi ta phai nghi den each giaiquyet the' nao cho thoat khoi canh be' uie do.

Cung c6 khi each gi.1i quyet dat den mot ket thiic vui ve nao dffy, nhu chang trai va co gai trong Titn dijn ngu(jj yeu g~p 14;1i nhau, trong m9t truang hqp mua ban ng~u nhi~n 0 chg; ho~c ll1i;lnh b~lO hO'n la Nhfmg D0 va ella Tang 1rong truy¢n th(JI}guai

180

H'Monu ru nhau bo tr6n d~ curie chunu Stlll[ ('1 mol noi xa xoi.

"- _ L- '--._ L ~

Nhung nhirng erich gi.1i quyet do TO rang la chua chac chan mot

chiit nao; hoac la co phffn gi,i tao gU'(!II& ep nhu trong lai tho' Ti<~n d{in cua nguai Thai, hoac la phieu luu may rui nhir trong truyen tho' Tie/Ig hiil lam dtiu ella nguai H'M6ng. Pha.Tl'Uirvdlc truyen tho khac giai quyet canh be tac bang 11191 ket thuccO·tinh chat bihung: d6i trai gal cling chC't va s611g chung thuyv6i nhau a the girriben kia, nhir Ut Lol H6' Lieu, Nang Nga Iflai M6i, Nil/1g om, ChEing Bong Huang cua nguai Muang ..... KC'tthucd6 · tuy mang mau sae bi kich, nhung no gan gui voi hi?ntht!c'cul;lt dai han va ciing phii hop v6'j tam trang thirc cua cactIha.n '''~t han va do d6 ciing phu hop vai tum ly.sang tao cuangl'i~!lhfin;' han. Trongrnot xa h9i be tac nhu vay, chi co dich~tftliJacac nan nhan moi nang cao thuc su gia tri t6 cao cua tat ·pha'n¥~i.(i()h do d~ cao y nghia nhan van sau sac ella cau chuy~n,hu<?~"~~~'; dOi phaisuy nghi, day dUt mai v~ m91 vand~ nghi6m/~"r,{;u~ xa h9i va phai tim-each giai quyet nghiem chinh, dungi';4~~v~tt d~ ffy: vffh d~tt! do yeu duong vahanhphuc lua d6i .. Cbt\Jl!~tvlIIaJ do, rna dong truyen tho trU tinh vira tiep thu truyen th6ttgi,'ttl<ycn\ dan cac dan toe, vira hoa nh~p VaG trao luu tu tU'emg chung va nen van hoa chung cua ca.dan tge: traoluu danehu v3Yihfin dao chu nghia dffy len manh me va duoc phan anh ,sausac·tiong

truyen nom nguoi Vi~t

V, NHOM TRUYEN THO TI-JIEN vf: KHUYNH HuONG THUYET GrAo DAO D(}C CUA LOA! TRUYI;:N N6M VII;:T

D6 1a loai truyen tho philn nhieu mang tinh chatlu~ir d~ thuyet giao dao due thea kieu nho giao (trung, hieu, tiC't, irghia ) 1iin dao due thea thuyet tu thien cua phat giao (tu nhan rich due, a hien g~p lanh, a ac bi trirng phat). D6 la cac ehuy¢n .thcrph6 bien a vung nguai Tay, ngam Nimg nhu Luu Dili Han Xusn, Tran Chall Qllytn Vuong, Quang Tan Ng~)c Lu(mg v .. :v::

Cae truy¢nthcf nay danh dffu bUL1c pMl tri~n mai t1'ong sang tac d~n giancac dfm tc)c:ft ngvai. Bt!~'1c phat tri~n nayti;lo nen sl,l'

,

181

dw~n tier ~iLi'a sang rae dan gian truyen tbong veti sang. tac.it

nlli~mang. linh chat bac h9C cua van h9C thanh van. ,

.' y~ nl~t me) tip de tai, thl loai truyen tho nay v<1n tiep tuc sir dYl}g,.fhai,th<lc loai tfuy¢n v~ nhan v~tm6 coi kha quen thu¢G: vaR~6 bien trong kho tang truyen c6 tfch (cac nhan vat chinh nhlf;r.f.r£(U Dll1~ Tran CiJau, Quang Tan, NgQcLmYng v. v .. ·. deu 11'1' ng1l'ro. m6 coi, Nhung ve phuong dien sang tao ngon ngir, truyen thq,q~ vuqt qua giai doan k6 mieng cua truyen c6, hoac ling tac cq~I9an ca. Cac truy¢n tho nayda diroc cac nghe si (khuye] d<.l,\lh) &ang tac va ghi chep thanh van (hoac bang chir 116m Tay, hQM.chii nom Dao, ho~c chir Thai ... )

Trong dan ca, clning ta tie'pxuc vai ngon ngii thuong thi m(}c.,m~c, binh d] gan gui. voi tieng n6.i thirong .ngay cua nhan daQ,,(Jon .trong J~ truyen tho nay, ,ben qmh ngon ngu blnh di cU~,.s:la11 gian, phan nhieu cactac gia da c.6 gia cong trau trudt lai v~ti,:t,hfch dung nhiingdi~nc6 trong kho van lieu van hoc cti di~n;rnJi1g Quae, nhiingdi¢n tich rrnron a tho van· thai Tan: thai PH'apg'nh u:

Ngu phLi say me Dlw d9ng.

l1{lch de'rhuyen VlfQ'1 song Giang Lang

(Tran Chau, uuyen tho Tay N ung, tap I, 1r.184-195)

Cau tren lay & di~n tich "ngir phu lac Dao Nguyen" trong bai phii "D~lO hoa nguyen ky " cua nha tho Dao TieIl1. Cau diroi d<1n y tir hai cau tho Duong:

Tri¢u titJB{lc.b De' fhi}" van gian

. Thien Lf Gisng Lang nhst nhs; holm

(co n~hia la: budi som gia ttt thanh Bach De trong mong dep, . trongmQt ngay v~ tai dat Giang Lang xangan dam) w ...

,Clmg vci nhan v~t trong tac pMm, nhan vat tac gia (tuy

kh6ng c6 tcn ) ctmg bal d~u xuat hi?n: .

CAIn but chep cau chuYfn truyen ve' Dfnh Quan ChUY~1l ngay Xlfa n/f(Yc S6:

(Dinh Quan lruY9n tho Tay Nung, t~p II)

Cac yeu t() ngon ngu, van 1t!, vai tro ngui1i I1gh~ si sang. tac

182

~'R t

~

~. t .~

di'i th~ hien kha ro tinh chut thanh van, tiep can voi tho phap cua van'h9coaC hoc cua cac truyen thodan gian cac dan t(lc.

CUflg vai ngh~ thuat, v~ m~t 11(l1 dung nrurongcac truyen tho tren cang lam cho sang tac dan gian nhich Mn van quy dao cua van [roc bac hoc, D6 la nhiing yeu to tir urong thuoc h~ nr tlrang 'chfnhthong duong thoi nhu cac quan di~m dao due cua nho giao va cac tin dieu tu thien ciia phat giao fran van manh me trong truyen tho. Di nhien Ia nhimg quan di~m nho giao va nhirng tin dieu phat giao da duoc cac tac gia khuyet danh uon nan di kha nhieu chophu hop' v6i quan Oi~m, tam Iy va nguyen v9ng cua nhan dan cac dan t¢c. Han nfra, hien thuc song deng cua cuoc song tran vao 'ciing lam cho eac quan di~m tu nrong chinh thong d6 giam b6t tinh chat thuyet giao cang nhac cua cac quy pham phong kienva tinh chat duy.tam than bi cua cac tin dieu ton giao.·

Chu d6 quen thu¢c cua truyen nem.khuyet danh cua nguai Viet la chinh nghia thang gian ta, thien thang ac, rna ta thirong g~p a hang.Ioat cac truyen tho Nhido Mei; Phsm Tsi.Ngoc Hos, T6ng Tran Cue Hoa .... Chu d~quen thuoc d6 ciing g~p lai trong cac truyen tho Tay Nung Luu Dai Hsn Xusn, Trdn Chsu v v ... Chu d~d6 toat len tir tinh tie'tcacdluchuy~n;nhi6u khi diroc tac gia diic ket lai ph at bi~u tf1;lC' tiepeac cau .chuy~n~nhieu khi dugc tac gia due ket lai.phat bi~u trgc tiepnhutrong T:rffn Chau:

Vi xui vua muu gi6t can lrOi Vi~c d6 qua beo dOi can chdu Ba bon dai phai chiu tai uang Tfch dtic dOi sau thuang g?P diic Tich Ac con g?P buac gian nan ...

(Truyen tho Tay Nung, T.1l, tr. 302)

Nhung hien thuc sau sac cua cuoc doi tran vao manh me trong truyen tho va lam lay dong, nhieu khi pha va nhiing di~u thuye't giao d6. Cho nen, du duqc sang tac du6i anh hUClng cua tu tuang chfnh thong, Hnh nMn dan cua lo~i truY9n tho nay v:1n kha m;,tnh me, sau sac, dap ang'duqc t~m 1y va nguy~n v9ng eua nhal1 dan, ncn h9 v<1n Ua thich va luu truy~n. R6 rangla mQt

183

,

trona nhom truven tho ma hai donu ILr 'Ittl']'ue chinh ;lb6m: va dan gian~ van t6nt~i lrong thedan dli~~\0 lihau: dau tranhl~n,nhau, va di nhicn "nr tl1l1ng chinh thong cua nho giao va. ph~wgia() khong th6 nao cl}c lflp dl1qe sue J11,!nh cua tieng noi di\.ngian· 0.6 1;\ Sl! tiep C~\11 va' su chuyen hoa litn nhau kha phoni!, phuph.l1c ~~p va bi911 chtrng giU'a [iai dcmg dan gian va MCiP9c1ropg otr\ly¢n thc.cac dan tc)cJl nguiJitrcl1.uuong di vao quX·d~oci;r,ul~n van hoc chung ca nl16c

TAl LIJ~U THAM KnAoCHTNH

1. Tien dtu: nglfo"i yeu - Mac Phi dich vagi6i thieu -Nxb Van hoc, Ha Noi 1971.

2. Khun Lli Nanl!Lla.Mac Phi suu t11nl:va dich - NxhVan

L--' _. • • .. :-

hoa, Ha N¢i 1964.

3. Dan ca Mea. Doan Thanh sU'U tam va di:ch.;.Nxh Van' hoc

HaNOi 1967. .'

4. Truy¢n tho Tay Niing (I.II) Nong Vi€tTo<;li, Ha Vu Khoanh ... dich, chii thich, gi6i thieu Nxb Van h9C,Ha NOi 1~64- 1965.

. ;;

5. Truyen tho Muone, Hoanz Anh Nhan va Minh Hieusuu'

tam, bien soan- Nxb Van hoc, H; NQi 1963. .

6. D£Inl! Hsnh Him Dai H6j - Trieu hiru Lv dich ~ Nxb Van

•. L ••• -,.

hoa Ha N ¢i 1982·

CONG TRiNH NGHrEN cOD, LY LUAN'

1. Truong Chinh-C1ni ni!hiaMac va van hoi VietNam Nxb

'-- . '- - .

Sl/ thrlf HiJ. N¢i 1974.

2. :h~m Van Dong-Sl/ nghiep Xf1y (fling ChlJn~hjaxJ'n¢j va van de vsn hoi de dan toe it nglfo"i "Nhsn dan "s6' 8734~26!

M9~ .

3. N6ng Qu6c ChaiH\1¢! vuim hos dfiy hlf(mg s:ic-Nxb Val1 hoa dan !¢e. Hii Noi J 977.

4. Phan Dang NMt - V.1n hoc de &In 16c thi~'u s(i'Viel Nafn';

..." . . ..

184

Nxb Van hoa Hii Noi 1081

,5. Vf Quang Nhon - Van hoc cic dan t¢c it ngtfai o' Vi~l N£Jm - Nxb D;ti h9C va Trung hoc chuyen nghiep Hf1 N¢i 1982.

·185

---------------------------------------- .....

Chuong Ba

la:'h;ot hinh thai "liri an tiena noi cua nhan dan ,,( i) . Tl'ol1e mot

.,. - - - -II;.... - - ._, :c... ''' •

s6chuyen luan khac rue ngfr duoc xep rieng thanh m0tio'.li hinh

vacfude coi btmg nhimz ten khac nhau nhir r» Van hoc due ke'i

kinh ftgij¢~n "(2~~"Stiy 19 dan gian" (3). . .'. • .. " .

, Ttbrtg nhtrng girio trinh g~n day bien so~n,cho cac Truong ~1'h9c T6ng hop va Sir pharn a Nga, cdc nha van hoc dan gian'kh6ng I~ thuoc lam van ranh girri cacIoa] hlnh l\fS1f, tru tlrth.:::ma sap xep theo lien trinh Ijchslt va g9ibang ten tung the IO<;l(1heo cluing tOi hi~u thlcach phanchiathanhtvs1f, hit tinh, 14Ccn 1a do de nha my hoc thai c6 can clfvao nhfrng thanh 11fU

eua'\i~n hoc thanh van. Con trong ' van h9c dangian ranh gioi gifi'a:; clic loai hlnh, tham chfla giUadc the! Ioai khong ranh m~¢hnhulatrong van hoc thanh van. VI V~y a day chiingtoi V~n d~t tuc ngfr va cau d6 a vi trf d¢c lap, khong l~ thuoc van 1119t tt~jftg ba 10<;1i hinh sangta« van h9(; c6 di€h.

TVC NGO CAU 00

Tl)C NGU

Neu can eu may moe theo ba 10<;1i hinh sang tao nghe thuat: nr sir, trli' tinh, kich thi tuc ngfr (va ca cau d6) kho co lh~ d~t van 6 nao cho thoa dang. M9t s6 nha khoa hoc Nga xep n6 vao nh6m cac thi/lap' Il]ho phi trti tinh hoac la th~ 10';1i dan gian nhat cua 10<;1i hinh 1l! s1f ( ) .

6 Viet Nam trong giao trinh cua tnrong Dai h9C Sir pham tuc ngfr diroc xep vaoo "Van van dan gian" ben canh cac th~ loai trfr tinh (ca dao dan ea) (2). Tuy nhien cling mot lrong s6 cac tac gia ay khi xay dt!ng chuyen luan rieng cua minh thi phan d6i viec "dira them bat eu loai nao .vao k€t cau kinh di~n cua ba 10<;1i nr sir, trir tlnh va kich ". Tac gia cho ding tuc ngir (va cau do) "vein c6 th6 nam yen trong 10<;\i tu sir, boi VI chting mang dac tnrng co ban cua loai tv sv la s1f dien hlnh hoa nhtrng sir kien thuc t€ khach quan" (3). Con trong ziao trinh cua truang D~i h~c T6ng hop (Vi€t lai Ian thri hai, 1972 ) thi t\IC ngfr du9'~ c~i nhu

f''NGlJON TVLI~U vA NIIUNdCONG TRiNH NGHIEN

'" ..... .... .:: ',~. ';'.j'", ',.,.' ,-;,.

cot; TIEU BlED VE Tl)C NOV.

Tuc ngfr dan gian Iun hanh ?c~~miy}l~!n~~'da(1;t1,,~s6In' Nhting van ban thl no mci inq<mK"a.? trgfU~'I1h.~gbaithpNpm ~ua·tjguY~n Trai, te TM:nh T ()Og. y~ ~a¢.~a'th<lthCtj J16ng Due (th~ ky XVI) trong Thi8n,Nam ng[j]~c, (th~ k:y XVII)v4 no 1'9 t'rang h~ng JO<;1t truyen nom th~ ky X"II, XVlII!lla dinh cao la Tfu~1tKieu cua Nguyen DU,LljC Vall ti8n G.ua Nguy~n Dinh

Chi~u (th€ ky XVIII, XIX) .

Ngu6n tu lieu danh rieng cho tuc ngfr dan gian ,(thuang S.l1U t~pchung vci ea dao) thuc su mai xuat hien tir the ky X~ (muon han de thu rich ghi chep v6 than thoai, truyen thuyet c6

(il V. E. Guxiep Mj hoc van h9C dan gian (chuong II). Leningrat, Nxb Khoa 119c 1987 (ti€ng Nga)

(21. Ljch Sir van hoc VitJ' Nam (tap I, Van h9C dan gian). Nxb Giao due, In hill tlnr ba In NOi 1970

(31 Db Binh Trir Nghicn ctiu li,~jl trinh Iicb Sir ctis van hoc dill gian Vi~1{ Nam. Truong Dai hoc Sir pham Hit Noi 1978 tr. 43-41

(1) Dinh Gia Khanh, Chu Xuan Dien: Van h9C dan gian, Nxb D'.Ii hQC va mCN Ha NOi 1972.

(2) Cao Huy £)111h, TJm hie'll tiea triab vsn hoc dan gi,an Vi¢t Nem, Nxb

Khoa hoc xa hoi Ha NOi 19670 .

(3) Hoang Ti€l1 T~nl. M.1Y van de'plllfOng pMpgiang d{Jy J1ghi~J1 ctiu van h9C d8IJ glan, Nxb Giao due Ha Noi 1983.

}86

187

,

tich ). Dtiu lien do la de ban ghi chcp bang chir Nom nhu Nal11 phong ngrt ng{w {hi ella Ng6 Dinh Thai (the ky XIX),Dai nsm quoc ruf ella Ng6 Giap Dau (the ky XIX) ... Nhirng b~ngl~i bang quoc ngfr d::1u tien HI. T~JC ngfJ. d/ ng[f, pi.t ngon ella Huynh Tjnh Cua (xua't ban narn 1897 ), Tuc ng[i each ngon ella HanTMi Duong (1920) ... Ben canh nhfrng bin ghi bang qu6c ngu,.eiing trorrg nhiing nam dftu cua the ky XX nay con, co mQt s6 bap,sWl tap, thich nghia va dich wcngfr Vi~t Nam sang tieng PMp ep~ nguai PMp hoac ella nguai Phap lam chung voi nguai Vi~t Nam nhu Tuc ngii An Nam djch sang tieng .Tay cua V. Barbier (l~y ten Viet Hi Trieu Hoang Hoa) g6m 3 t~p (xuat bin nam J909·-' 1920 - 1924), Dong TAy ngf}n ngrteaeh ng6n ella H. D€letieva Nguyen Xan (1931), Pluip Vi¢t ngf}n ngfi ella chi qua H6,Phll

(1942) .'

Cong trinh siru t~pj tuc -ngu cong: ph~nha't, GO n9i chlng phong phu nhat tnroc Cach mang thang Tam rna cho de'n - na~ sinh vien van con co t11'$ tim d9C duoc 1a T~c,ng{j phongda(} ) cua nha giao, nha van hoa Nguyen Van Ngoc (1. 3. 1890 - 26. 4. 1942) gorn han 6500 diu, v~ quan di~m bien soan nhu ong da viet b baitira la d~ cao tinh than dan toe, baa t6nvan.hoa/nuac nha, chong lai xu huang sung bai Tay h9C rna Joi'ichinh-qu6c h6n, qu6c tuy. v« phuong phap bien-soan eng chua.thQM ra khqi xu huang chung hie ba'y gio la xep tuc ngif theo frat.tu 86 ellfr trong m8i cau (3 chit, 4 chir, 10 chir .. ) hoac thea chii cai dati diu: ABC. Trong cu6n Tuc ngfi phongdao Nguy~n Van N gqc' aI? dung d6ng thai cii hai trat tu do, chang han a cac"ml:lC 3 <:;pil·", "muc 4 chii " g6m cac cau dune xep theo tr~tW ABCcta chfr _ cai dtlu cau. Vi v~y ben canh gia tr] lanv~ cong PP-\l siru tap cu6n sach khong tranh khoi nhirng han che v~ mat

khoahoc trong phuong phap phan loai. . .

111 N -

1 guycn Van Ng9C: TIJc ngif Phong dao, (2 tap). NXB Minh Due. 1957.

188

Sau Ca ch man g thang Tam ur li~u vC tuc ngu' duocsuu tap ngay carig nhieu, dadang va cac~ phan loai sap xep co

tinh khoa hoc han.

Di~u dang luu y la ngu6n tuc ngiX, cac dia phucrngva

cac dan t~c It Nguci ducc quan tam~n. Ch~ngh~ncac duo, ng?n ngii !la N~P~ , [~c ngfJ, c~,{iao, dA.ncali(a Tay(2) , Tuc ngll Tay Nunl-, Tuc ngll, (Jan caMlIirng Thanh Hoi (4), Tl}C ngi1 Thai (5). Nhirng .cong trtnhco tin~ t6ng hop di san tuc ngii' cac vung, mien cllangu~i Vi~t ciirrg nhu nhfrng,tinh hoacuatl:lc ngfrc~c dan t~c It ng\l'iJiu tren lanh th6 Vi~t N am la. b~ sUU t~p "tuc ngu ea daQ d~~" caVi~tNam1feua nha Vall qua c6 Vii Ng9c Phan" , 7\ 1901 -14 6-1987)d5. diroc lai ban 8 lAn vai'su. ,s· b6sung nghiem tuc.'fHy'nhi¢n x6tQuai ~6~ d.~ ~'f~i

thl cu6n roc ngu/ Vift }iam(f>.) do phogiaoJu Dien va cac nhanghien, cult 'Luang Y.~~pan~,r bien soan ph an loai va vie't tieu lu~n n "lll~t gaL

.(,.,,(7) - ' . "';".

mul .. .' • '. '. . .... ..;> .. /

Trang phan tieu Iu~~ ivai 180 trang~cacso~h~'

sau nhieu v~n de rna nhung nha nghieri cuuwc 11 day Juat qua nhUva'n de hlnh thanhv6hll:lCngU's,\;.", "'}, t~c Vi~t Narn, van de phan bi~t tl:lC ngU'vai th~n~ ~\h}a' quan tr9ng nhat, kh~ug dinh tucngu la, m~tdan¥l)cq~l?-~; bio co tinh nghe thuat. Nha giao Vii Dungda khR·~&'i%¥r'

(1) Ca dao, ngen nga Ha 'Ntji, Trieu 'Duong,Ph~m Hq3. •• Jiw '.

Trang, Chu Ha suu tam bien soan. H¢i van nghe Ha Noi xua':t iban,

1971.

(2) Tuc nga ca deo, deoee Hil TAy. Ty van hoa Ha n.y xua:t ban

1975_

(3) T1Jc ngfi ray, Nang, Nxb Viet Bac, 1972. ,

(4). T!/c ngadan ca Mllang Thanh Hoa (MinhHieu sU\lt~m) .. Ty.

van hoa Thanh Hoa xU~i'bin. 1970.

(5) Tuc nga Thai. N'xb Van hoa dan toe, Ha N¢i 1978-

(6)" T1JC nga Viet Nem. Chu Xuan Dien, Luong Van f)aJ;lg,

Phuong Tri bien soan: Nxb Khoa hoc xii heiHa N¢i 1975. .

_ (7) Vu Dung; Quanh phan sUU tap cudn Tuc ngir Viet - Nam: Tf;lP

chi van hoc. S6 3, 1976.

189

khi danh gia "phai lit nhung ngudi co -trinh ct~ hi~u bie't vtmg' chic vg tuc ngfi, cO lIhung tri tlnrc sau r9ng vg cae nganh su h9C, xa h9i hoc, dan tQc hoc, khao c6 hoc, ngon hgiihQc:inOidi sauho~c. dl$ KUelt ra dU«;1c nhfrng van dgnhu' tren"?'. Chung wi holm toan tan thanh each danh gia tren. Dieu dO: giai thlchJYdo.,chting owi.sit:dl,1ng h~ thong If Itl~n va tu li~u. tr(:)tlg mng trinh cua Ph6giao su.Chu Xuan Dien va d6ng ~b.i~pd&hlen c~p~n pMn giao truth nay.

!;;;Tr9ngpha~ suu t~pg6111 183 trang, cac soan gia daco n~y.suynghj:callllh~cd~ h~ thong 110a ca~Qt r-ung.tl,1c ngj .. v&c~ggiau,qp 'cuadan wc thanh 4 dai muc va hang tr~1:p ti~U.ll11<lc.Tuy. .nl1ien ph~Ils~p xe'Pllay chi d~ minh hoa , cqR'llh1lIlg lu~n di~~kho~LllQ<:m<l c~c t~c gia da trinh bayd tI~~nr Xf~~uoi gp~ d9UJ li~u.;1.14ikhon~ pb,ong ppu, da dang b~J].g •.. t9P tuc ngu, ca 1a0,.;dtinC(f.'Yi;(}t.tNam cua Vii NgQc Pll~n(2). (}~ll d.iY,tp9t s6 nb.a,. ngJajeIl' c;:(tutkhoIlgchuyen vg vi)p ~QC dan gi~B MUng duoig6c dq nay h~¥.g6c .49 khac ciilig da danli In9t s6 trang cho vi~ nghien cuu tuc llgii nhu gi~~·~lt Hoang Trinh trong dol, thofli van ho(P), Le Dinh, Bieh tr9R~·· ~,ngit Nga - Vi~t(4) Nguy~n Duc Da~ trong mgt s6bai bag~}loangyallHallh:"va 1I19t s6 can b9 Vi~n Ngon ngu trong

k~f'4uy~ thanhngit,t7}c n!iU!5)... .' . .

'1'f915O saeh,baoma chting' toi .da.d~Il tuy chUad~y du nlhnlg nhim 'dat dUdc muc di~h 1a ta~ ~ho' sinh vienmst cai nhm b'abq!J.at ~~ qti~ trm:h SUu t~m ~a nghien ctru tuc ~gu d Vi~t Nam, trong'do trong tam gioi thi~u nhftng sach, bao d~

timd cac thli vi~n hi~n nay. .

iI.,BA.N CHAT THE LO!).J eVA T{jC NGU

lJ.JTt.Ic ngfr la mothien tuqngn!?on ngfrd~c biet

(',DOnIa nhirng cau n6i ham xuc, ngiin ~<im d? nhan d~~ la~d¢ng sang tao va .luu truy~n qua n,h.ic!,l tAh~ h.~. ,Ngl!~ TlW~hg"i tuc ngfr la quam chien; ngUO"I Ed~ g91 ladue, agu?1hBana gei Ia nor pti, nguai Giarai g91 la pur .pdok;

n&~qi: fha-tIl goi la mnoi pdid... _, . , 1

j' LllHr; ngfr xet ve m~.t. ng60 ng!,! la" mOtcau true hoan ~;b;n~.~au,YGan rmro thi deng~ndentbl sa.~g" Ulll1~t cau hQan~Qbinh ye.ngfr phap vil:bitu.pJ,lt m¢till~l dung.~~ the. ~)l«\1~.d~t trongchu6i, 1~i,n6i th~.1;l:6c6 t~~!~.a~ ~61,.~b:e"o. ~gK(f~l1 tuY· theo .. Y ,dt>, sP'_ d~gg~ll~tng~alin~(eha~glh~t; ~1~~iJ.ttir.dt;logaatl ,t~e'ngU' d6 theQhtf(1ngk-~ang:d~~h ~thl n.~t~hv~,J:qAI1deIi;;thI§angt,t.Nhupg ,,,(11 dyng ;Y,p~e P~.~'1tt1i¢t hien tucng xa hOi nao do, nguoi ta co th~,nhan m~!v£. ".G~n mircth] den". . .~~, _..'

'i' 1')Hlll. vay tuc ... ngii Ja m~teau co Jl~h C?Attm~,kh~ng ?~ I th'ti'\ p~i nhu dan vi tir. N oco dinh ve tha~h ph~n c~u_t,ruc, v~ ggiirnghia. T~cngii' kh{)ng.th~¢edan V! e~ han nrc la ~~ baG'cua ngon ngfr nhu donvi tirhay cum tl1.NhU'ng ~~t kha~r lye ng(f ilfll..hanh trong chuoi iOin~i: n,6 dlf9'~ bl~n j1(J;1. trPlJg ,n.h(fng ngti" cenh. khec nhsu. va~ tlnh eh,at nay t ... c.,ngiir~vira gi.up vaovi~c.die~d.~;t m,Ot n?ldung ~aodAY I rAt bong bay d6ng thai l'.lICO gra tri, truong ng,hla trong phuong thirc dien dat. N6i nhu ~h~ th.?nu~~ Phap A. Da: I Muytx~ (1810 - 1875), tuc ngfr la nhung cal yen cho m91 . C~R ngtfa"

--------------------

(1) Vll Dung: Quanh pMn siru t~p cuO'n t1,lcng11 Vi~t Nam. Tap chi van h9c. SO' 3. 1976.

(2) Vll Ngoc Phan: T!fC ngil, ca dao, dan ca, &in ca Vi~t Nam. Nxb

KMa hoc xii hQi .. In Ian thU 7. Ha Noi 1971.

·(3) Hoang Trinh. DOl thoai van h9C. Nxb Ha NQi.1986.

(4) Le Dinh Bfch. Tue ngfl Nga . Vi~t. Nxb Khoa hoc xii hQi 1986.

(5) Hoang Van Hanh, Nguj'8n Nhu y ... ki chuy~n thanh. ngit, iuc ngit.

Nxb Khoa hoc xii Mi. HJ88

2. Tuc ngti 13. mot hien ,tugng y th~c xa h5H " . . Nhu tren da noi, tue ngfr la mot dan V! cau true co dinh chtr khong bien dong nhu dan vi tu bay. cum tu. Den ~ay ~e congUQi d~t van de: Vay gifra tuc ng,fr'va thanh ngu kha~ nhau the nao? Khoang nhfrng narn dau 1970 tren Tap ChI Ngon ngfr h9c co d~t vAn d~ nay ra d~ tranh lu~n.

191

,

a so 3-1962 trong Nli "Ranh g ioi gura rue ngfr va thanh ngir" on g Nguyen Van Menh c6 nhan xet rilng"'giiIa thanh ngfr va tuc ngii ... c6 th~ tim ra nhirng d~c diernkhu biet r5 rang d. hai phirong dien noi dung vahmh thuc". Tu nhan xet: "V~ noi dung thanh ngfr gioi thieu m¢t hlnh .aoh, mot hien tuong, mol trang thai, m¢t tinh each, n1~t'tbti d¢" con tuc ngfr v .. v .. di denmot nhan dinh cuth~ 'm6tf!}q~l

. . . . . , ..

luan chac chan, mot kinh nghiernsau sac, m¢t ICri':khuY~fIi ran, mot bai h9C v~ ur tl1cmg'va dao duc ... ". Taet,tni;k~t luan: "C6 th~ n6i n¢i dung cua thanh ngii' mang tffHLchtlt hien tucng con n¢i dung cua.ituc ngunoi chun'g'ltcmang tfnh chat quy luat. Til sl.l' khacnhau coban ven¢i'tlttht'fJtn d€n su khac nhau co ban v~ hinh thirc ngii' phap, 'v4L'ha.rtg l\tc heat dongtrong ch u6i lai noi ... V~hirih thuc Rili~~ap mOi,thanh ngu Ia ni¢t cum tu, chua phai la m()t c~u;li()Kn chinh. Tuc ng'uthl khac h~n.M6i:Wc ngif Hlrn-"t).,o~u!~ (tr.13).' rini':c:

Bai bao cua ong Nguyen Van Merih la· m¢t thf'ngn'l~fu di sauvao phan tich sukhac nhau giiIa thao"h ngil.",a't\]c ngfr. dua tren hai .tieu chi n¢i dung va hinh thuc' rnaT1mr~C day c6 nguci d5: noi. toi. Nhung bai baotren cung' cn\tng 'to 'dmg n~uap dung hai tieu chi dometeachco phdn,'Hchva

tren co so 19 giai nhirng hien nrong cu th~ thInhtlCdinh ~e lam nay sinh nhirrig yeu cau d6i voi viec xac dinh ban thfin nhfrng tieu chi tty mot each khoa hoc truoc khi duniriod~

, ly gi3.i cachien tuong khoa hoc. .

Tren tap chi Ng6n ngiJ hoc s6 1 - 1973 trong oaib§o "G6p 9 kien v~ Sl.l' phan biet thanh ngfi voi tuc ngu"6ngCii Dlnh Tu dii neu ra nhung yeu du nhu v~y va til d6 tIli tim each phan bit;t thanh ngu vai t1)c ngu. Theo ong Cli Dlnh ' Tu thl !'d6i chieu vai thl.l'c t€" va "Nhii'ng y ki~n Ii~rtg- ~ cua Nguy~n Van M~nh nham giai thfchst! khacnhauv~ hai m~t n¢i dung va hlnh thuc cua t\]C ngu va thanh ngu.;.chl1a' th~t xac dang vi: "thlfc ra, xet v6 n¢i dung tl;lc ngu 'ciing nhl1 thanh ngfr d~u Hl sl.l' duc rut kinh nghi~m, iakettinh

192

trf tu~ cua quan chun g dcu I~I sL,J' kha i quat hoa hien th~cd~ rut ra ban chfll quy IU~lt rna co" (tr. 39). Then ong eu Dinh Ttl sir c11U'a xac lhing trona V kicn cua (me. N guy~n Van Mtnh'la do eli "mu6~ dua ~a:) 119i dung 16gic d~ chi rava gilti thich s,! -khac nhau giua thanh ngfr va tl;lc' ng.u" (fr, 40). Do d6 thea ong eli .Dinh Tii .th]. dn phai co m()ttie~ chi khac de xac dinh ranh giaigifta h~ilQ~inay. 1lC\9~'a, viet "thanh ngu la mot hi¢ntuqng,ng;t)n rtgff Tuc O$~,>et v~ m(H mar nao do cling la mot hien tuqng ng6nn~w¥" quyct cac hien nrong ngon ngU can phai dua VaG nl~v~,

cu ngon ngfr hoc. M9t trong nhirng thanh t'!L1 cua I1g~n,., hoc 'hi¢n dai la chi ra sir khac nhau va m6i quanh~)

ket cau va chiic nang. Theo chi) chungtoi suy nghl'L khac nhau co him giua thanh ngfr va tuc ngfr. 1a sg.k~~c

, nhau v~ chiic nang. Thanh ngG' la don vi co saf) man,gRh,~~ nang dinh danh, n6i khac di, dung d~ goi ten sl.l',v~t,tfnh chat, hanh dong. V~ mat nay ma n6i, thanh ngu Hi I1hii'ng don vi tuong duong nhu tir. Tuc ngir dung v6 ngon ngu hoc c6 chirc nang khac han so vdi thanh ngu. Tuc n.guc~R"~ nhu cac sang tao khac cua dan gian nhu ca dao , truyeri .~o tich, deu HI cac thong bao. N6 thong bao m¢t nh~ndlnh, mot k€t luan v~ mot phuong dien nao d6 ciia th€ ' .• giqi khach quan. Do d6 m6i tuc ngirdoc len la mot cauhoan chinh, di~n dat tron ven mot y urorig" (tr. 41). Tren CO sa van dung tieu chi chu yeu la chuc nang cua thanh ngu~~ tuc ng ii voi tu each la nhiing hien nrcng rigon ngu, tacgta d·a neu ra hai tieu chi khac nhau ciing c6 iinh chfit 1a nhiing tieu chi v~ mat ngon ngfr lam co sa cho su ph~n hi¢t thanh ngu va tuc ngfr, d6 la slf khac nhau v~ dfu t~o ngii phap va v~ vt tr1 trang loi n,6i eua thanh ngfr va tl,lc ngu..

Cach ly giai cua 6ng Cli D'inh Tu la' m91 dong g6p mal trong qua trlnh nh~n thuc ngay cang sau sac v~ ban chfit cua thanh ngfr va tl,lC ngfr. Nhung d:iu sao tac gia v~n ?ung a !l6c do cua ne.anh ngon ngU h9c d~ giili quyet vfin de nen dt~h gi'ai quy~t d6 V~i1 chua th~t la tri~t. de. Oin phiti gi~i

193

quyer theo mol huang mo i he

Xu.an Dien th') dn ph~ai xet 11(~,n'l Th\.:~) p!lO gia(} str Chu

h • , • ,1 a n 1 n g ir V'I I u ' - k I A

P a) chi nhu hai hien nron a ,A ~_. ',' c ngtr r long

A' • n a nuon nuu k hac I ,.

yeu nhtr mot hie t ''-- ,L _ L n HIU ma chu

. ,n uang n(':on nov v~ A h"· .'

thtrc X3 h¢i. Cho nen tieu c1;r " ,C', ... a 11:.91 ien ttrqng y ra . suphan biet. gifra thanh . ~oc ,can phal_ dua V~\O de tim

.nh~n thiic lua~(l)"" 'Ya' t';,\ ,nl~u;,a tuc ngu la tieu chf v~ .~' . . '. 1 I.:;U C 11 do tuc ngii duoc xe ,

n19t hien Wang y .. ' ... t·.h'-'c X- I A' ,", .' qc xet nhu la

..•••• '.. u a 101 con tha h - hi ,

pi¢,n htqng ngori ngfr (Tu sJ'khac h.n n!11 t_ 1 c,..hu y,~u Ia

khac nhau v~ chtrc nan i. ':« . n au nay se dan den sir

.... , .;,' .cs : g va cau tao ngfr phap). .

, .... Ch.~ng ta cO,the .dua ra vai dAn clurn . d' . .

lu~n dIem nav.Trong b" "'J" .. '. » « g e rninh hoa cho

"tuc ngfr tac6tau:Xa~1 h;lOI~gthA~1 baA' hoa" Bac H6 viet:

b~nh noi chii do~ta lay ra{a~~f~ y:l:dd~l ha~ n6i chii. Cai

Nhir vay B' H~ , '. am. <,11 .,.: e.n. quan chung .0(2)

,llu . ac 0 xuat hat ti ...•. "-

xi h¢i 16c bay gia la'.·c pabA tv .... l11¢t th J!C te, 11191 din benh

. an v va nhan d At' "

nghia qua kern. Nhirns ·dA· '" _ .. _ an. a am hieu chfr

1..." '- e sua chua can be h d' ,

cnung ta dang Ie phai ho 1 A 1'" A ,n 0 can b¢

d~t, kha nang .... sa dun n' c ?~ (e, nang c~o kha nang dien chfr" Ca . '- .c g;r. gon ttr Iai thay bang viec "hay"

. u tuc ngir nOI tren rna Bac Ho'" :. d' ~01

'h~ .' su una nha

C ~ng minh cho nh~n xet ciia minh 6 A • '-' _ . m

COl nhu la nhan xet, phan doan k "t {A da!, ~l:IC ngir duoc da dU'qc xac nhan til truce. ,e uan ma tfnh chan thuc

Trong lac pham Baa bie"n cua Chu Y- •

khuyen.nhu mot nhan vat.kha "0 . an mot nhan vat gi! fl.f9t csu nhtn chin C§'u liJfl~c" ng bo oi [ Gi~n d6i la~l

• Qua cau noi nav nhan vat da sa d 'A

xu th~ cua nguai XU'} duo 'th" I '. l:Ing m9t phuang cham

, " . < uvc e. lIen tron t - ....

eho la hap ly' D'" ,. '..... ,.' . g l:IC ngu ma ho

. . 01 VeJJ ngLral nOl c' t - .

la nhilng tu tl1a?ng ~ '- .' au l:IC ngu tren r5 rang

... nam trong hi' th" '."

hay it nhat cling phu hop vai'--h~'h< O:lg quan'AnH::n~ cua h9 eu¢c s6ng. '. 1 \JIlt"- qualllllym cua h9 ve

3. T\lc ngu hi mc}t ddn vi thong bao co tinh ngh~

thu~t:: .

a cac phan tren chung ta da th6ng nhat vdi nhau d.ng

tvc' ujif. Ia mQt phan hien tl1<;1ng ngon ngu d~c bi~t trong chu9flCJi noi cua nhan dan, tuc ngu Ia mQt hinh thai y thuc xahQlphan anh su tOn tai khach quan (the' giai t\inhien, xa hQi.v4 tu. duy). D,e'n day cluing ta con nhan th~ytheln mQt d~c"ti~lll nita ciia tuc ngu Ia tinh chat thong bao b~ng hinh tl.1qng ri~~ thu~t,l1ay noi each ldla¢ chung ta nh~u thuc tuc ngUvoi tu each la ll1Qt sang tac ngh~ thu~t.

. Di.tUng co ngl.1di coi tuc ngU Ia dOl t1.1<;1ngcUa tIi.6t,~ xa hQi h9C. Di~u do chtmg to ho chua lili~n thac he't nhi1ng d~c

tr~i~h~ !hu~t eua tuc ngfi.

~g thuc te du mQt cau tuc ngu don gian nhat cling 06

tmh ehat nghe thuat cua no. Tuy nhien hinh .tl1<;1ng ngh~ th~t d day con tho so va co tfnh dQc dao cua no I.a'l1,~g v~ Iy tn ha.ynOi each khac, tuc ngU Ia mQt dang van hQed~c bi~tl "viiI hQc due ke't kinh nghiem" (Cao Huy Dinh). No phan anh nhUng kinh nghiem, tri thuc cua nhan dan duqc duc ke't qua nhi~u the' h~ va no duoc di~n dat bang nhitng cau ng~n gQn, hAm' sue, d~ nhd, co vffn nhip nhat dinh.

Noi nhu v~y chung ta se thay gifta tuc ngU: va ca dao

ph!ll U;?l0 do co m6i tuong quan nhat dinh,

_ co nhilng cau ca dao va nhimg cau tuc ngilcung' phal1

anh mQt van d~, co cung mQt chU de nhl1ng tinh chat cu1 chung hoan toan khong gi6ng nhau:

Cau 1: Co cong mai s~t co ngay nen kim. Cau 2: Ai di cho chong th1 chffy

Co cong mai s~ t co ngay nen kim

Cau 3: Tram nam ai cha bi) ai

Chi theu nen gam, s~t mai thanh kim

Trong 3 cau do th1 cau thli nhfl.1 co tinh chat duc rut kinh nghi~m qua th\ic re lao dQng san xuat va ddi s6ng. Do

Ia t\lC ngu. 195

(II

Tue ngii Viet N.~ill N b KI

1)1 li6 Cl . M' '1', ' ,,' A X lOa iH?C xii h9i IH Noi 197.5 lr 27

11 III L Ve cong f'f',. 1 A " •

N()i 1971, If. ).5 d. Idll lOa I'all "gIJt(, Nxb S,! til:).! lIa

194

f

1 -

1

C£lU thCt hal cung tlJ thuc ti0n ma rut ra guy luat nhung no can co tinh chat khuyeu ran. c) day chat triet Iy co phan nhat dan va chat Irii' tlnh g ia tang. Do ia ca dao.

Cau thir ba hoan loan la mot cau ca dao trii' tinh trong

do co sit dung chat lieu cua tuc ngu. o day cau tuc ngu khong can duoc giu nguyen ven madii bi rbien dang di (kh6ng phai "co cong mai sat, ccngay nen kim" ~ala"

chi theu nen gam, sat mai nen kim ") .

Thong thuong tuc ngfr ng~n hem, c6 donghen ca"dao.

M5i cau c~ dao. dli don giannhat cling la m\lt c~p lucbat:

Dat Quang Nam chua mira dii tham Ruou H6ngtt~d chua' nhani das-ay Can tuc ngu c6khi chi g6rn 4 ho~c 6 tit: Th~y boi, noi

dira. Mieng ba d6ng, 16ng chim khieu. ..... .• '

~ Cung co cau tuc ngu duoc di~n dat dirdi cau true rnOt . kho luc bat nhir cadao:

Chuon chuon bay thap thi mira Bay cao thi nang,bay vira thi ram

Tham chi c6 cau tuc ngfr dai hem ea dao: "Dua la, ca Lang, mrcc mam Bang, TUO'ng Ban, nude mam' Van Van'

~.. - . ,

ca r6 Dam set" (17 tir) .;L

. Tu~ nhien so tu, so chfi kh6ng phai Ht y~ut6quy€l dinh de phan ranh gi6i gura rue ngu va ca dao .. Tieu-chf c~u yeu la dac trung, chirc nang cua cluing. Tuc ngu thien

ve ly tri, ca dao thien ve. tinh .cam. .

, Nhu vay co th~ torn.tat rang.tuc ngu la nhimg cau noi n gan gon, co Y nghia ham sue do nhan dan .. lao dong sang tp.o va luu truyen qua nhieu the h~. No phan anh va. due. ket ~9i mat tri thiic, do-i song cua nhan dan th6ng qua nhung hmh tl1qng ngh~ thu~t dOc dao(!) •

(1) N • D' DA ' d d' h .

_ l guy~~ , lIC. an ~o . ua fa m nghia sau day:uT\lc ngii 'Ill

nhtmg cau no] on dinh v~ cau true, phan anh nhiing tri thirc v~ kinh nghiern va quan niem (dan g ian) cua mot dan t~c, v~ the gi6"i khach quan, tl! .nhien ding nlur xii h¢i". Tap chi Van hoc so 5 1987, tr. 58.

The' ,'l'u""' ['\1' 11"1'1-1 J;nll 1-- ,1,;" ; .. 1 . . I" ":1

" " .~'" ", b.' ":,'. '10","', n,\} uo: ng 1';,':1& ve goc l ¢ ng()n ngii

hoc va nhan thirc IU'.lI1 rna tt chu y cI~IC thu van h9C cuatuc ngtr. .'

196

Ill. DAC DII~M vA. CC)I NGlj()NCUA Tt)C NGCf

i .Dac diem cua tuc ngu .' ".'" Tuc ~gu bao gia ciin g c6 2 nghl~: N ghia den (haY,1a

ngh'ia goc) va nghia b6ng (truong nghla). , ",

N ghia dyn>l)ay"Ut n¥>hia g6c chi y nghia _ trv~ tl~V'} nghia ban dau khi mcri. hlnh thanh. cau .t\lc ngu., pO~nR,h(~ , 'h"'. 'd" '1'" t···· ').,rAng qua qua .trmh hm

bong la y ng ra uoc . an 9a,nlv Y ,c, "., 'if';\'\

," ..' .. . ... h ... · .. ' Ch- han cau tuc

truyen trong kh6ng &lan,va t .,01 glfl,1,', ... ~ng':'.d,,:'D~'

ngU: Lenh 6ngkh6ng bii~g c6ng ': luc dau .noi .y~;~Y.,~~l£t cua Ba Tri~u Thi Trinh va 6ng Tn~u ~uo,c D~t tlOI}g cg~9 khdi nghia chong quan Ng6 vao the ky t.hU ba. Thee tr~~~~ thuyet cua nha.nda.n Thanh Hoa th] khl lanh d~o..qU:a.."JY1 Trieu Trinh NU'O'ng cU'CJi voi. va sa. dung mot ch~€c •• c~ng .. Co~ Trieu Quoc D~t (anh Tn~u Tqnh NU'a~g) thi sU'd9-n& cal Jenh~ 'D6i vcri quan Iinh.uy tin Tri~u Tqn~ NU'ang cao han uy tin Tri~u Qu6c D~t.~l v~y. t,ieng l~fnh c~a 6n,g Q~6c Dat kh6ng co sue m~nh bang ueng cong cua Ea Tqnh

NU'a~I~n nay d huy~n N6np C~~g, ~Th,anh H~a), con,lUu hanh mot tro choi tre can gan vor bald6ng dao ..

Nay co nay diu ..

Nay d~u nay thirng

Lung sao canh ria

Nay lanay lao

. N ghe c6ng ba rao Nghe l~nh 6ng giong Nghev~bar6ng , Chong ch6ng chay ve

H~ h~, chay! (1) -. -

R5 rang trong bai d6ng dao nay Ienh 6ng cung d'.lt sau

cong bit.

,11 Tuli¢u trong sacb: Ky yell ve Bii Trieu. Nxb Thanh Hoa

\972. 197

D6 1ft righia g6c. ng hia ban d~lI cua tuc ngu. The nhung cfthden nay cau "Lenh ong kh6ng bang c6ng ba" ihirong dtrgcdung trong nhieu truong hop khac nhau, dac .bi·~t Hi I1gi}:evai t:ro, quyen l,!c cua nguai phu nU trong viec giai quyetcong viec gia dinh.

C6 tbi dfrn ra day m¢t diu tuc ngu khac: Be ai nay c~tlng. Theo Huynh Tinh Cua (\) thi cau nay d~u tien XlUft lii~h·o )rung Dong Nai(Nam B¢).Cach day khoang 300 namyimg dflt nay con hoang vu. Nhfrng nguoi den khai ph~, sinh co l~p nghiep Ct day thirong t~p hop s6ng thanh tul1g be. tren song nucc. M6i nguoi c6 th€ doc lap cheo ch611g be mang. eua minh. Nlnrng thong thuong ho nrrang t,~vao nhau rna s6ng. Hi¢n nay cau tuc ngu tren da thoat ra;l1goai moi truang rna n6 xuflt hien. Cau nay dung d~ n6i y~tT~ch nhiem cua tung nguai d6i vci cong viec cua mlnh.

,2. C~i ngudn cua tuc Ilgil

. a). D{li btl phsn tuc ngi1 dell xuli! hi¢n tren co sa dai ~oiJGjao dong, sanxuat, chien ddu ctis nhsn dan lung vung tung dan {()c. Vi vaykhong phai la khong c6 ly do rna chuyen gia cua cac nganh nghe khac nhau deu tim thay trong tuc ngfr nhtrng tri thtrc dan gian lien quan den cong viec eua minh. Ch~ng han ky SU Duong Hong Hien khai thac "ky thuat trong hia qua ca dao, tuc ngir" (bao Nhsn dan ngay 7 - 10 - 1967). Bac sy Tir Giffy "TIm hi€u each art clla dan toe qua ca dao tuc ngii (Bao Van nghe s6 355 va 356 nam 1970), tharn chi c6 ca quyen sach nghien cuu "Kinh nghiem lam chiern qua ca dao tuc ngii" (Nxb Khoa h9C, Ha Noi, 1961). Cling d~ hieu khi cling phan anh mot hien -tuoag nao do cua dai s6ng thio nhieu dan t¢c khac nhau cling co each dien dat tuong tu; Chang han d€ ph an

(l J Huynh Tinh Cua: Tuc ngtJ, co' ngtJ, gia ng6n. Sai Gon 1987.

Lr.7.

198

, .. . '.'.', 0·1 1 hi de

anh hien tl1C1IH! khi trong nha khong co ell trong ell I

con va; tha h6~ pha phach. 6 nguoi Vi¢t c6 cau:

. V~ng chu nha ga VQC nieu tom

Nguoi Tay:. " ... (I)

, ,M~ora cua chuot.mua ky IA.n

Nguai Campuchia: ,. (2)

Yang mea chuot len ngoi

N·guai Phap: . .

Le chat parti , les sour is dan sent

Ngrrai Anh: .. . . .. . !

. . When the cats way, the mice WIll play. .""

" b) ~()t s6' ~au 1(1: ~giJ duoc rut rs ho~c t1C.h, J" .. a ur cal.

sang tac dsn giettkluic: . ,. .. n . .i •. -

Trong bai Mao diu t~p "Truy~nc6 n,rrC1c N.aI11, N&uy~

V~nNgoc d5. chia fa 5 muc trong do muc thu2,g611} "Nhfrng truyen rna ket c.\lc da: thanh p,~uong ngon ly_ng>~ tt va: trong thuc te khiket thuc n1¢t val truyen ong da gOl ··6mn()i dung ~ua n6 vao trong mot cau c6 :fnh Sha't nh~

gt ·u:' Chang han ket thtic t1uy~n "chum vang bat ,duqc

uc ng . . ,... I 1 'on mat trao

la cau: "S\!, gi:iu mang d€n dung dung, _ 9 . ,a c ".~ At

».» ., "M6t s6 truyen duoc dat tieu de bang mo

trung mal gIau.. ., . . . ' '. h bo

cau tuc nz ir: " Con vq khon Iffy thang c~()n~ d~~, n, U A ~~ hoa Iii ctt<"'m bai cut trau", "to d~u rna dai, be dai rna khon ,

. " j

"NO'I' d6i nhucuo.l ... ' ... '

. } , . h ' d cua c c

c)-Qua, trinh dan gian hoa nhiJng CfJ ay Y,JP." .t

- h" " h' h t d6n a nOI tieng C4a

nh« tu tuong, van oa, cac n a os . E

cac'thCti dei: A·" . kh"at durrc

Nh .. - ... u the trong truyet: KIcu do ai qu,.. .

ung ca ., I' " 6 g n1n

nhiing quan niern v6 cuoc s6ng, v~ chan. y cU9C son .

da: ducc dan gian hoa thanh tuc ngU: .

(1) H9'P llIye'n tho Vall Vi¢£ Nsm (van IH?c dan toe It nguoi t~p 1.

Nxb Van hoc, Ha Noi , 1979. tr. 49. . _ 1 ' Ha N6i 1986

(1) TllJ;e'n Nip vall h9C campllchla. Nxb Van we, . ,

t1'.216.

199

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