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Sáng Tạo Bất Đẳng Thức - Phạm Kim Hùng

Sáng Tạo Bất Đẳng Thức - Phạm Kim Hùng

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05/15/2012

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v

Muc Iuc

• •

U1i n6i diu

C9ng tac vien

xi

1 BAt ding thuc ce sa

1.1 BAt dAng thtrc AM-GM .

1.1.1 BAt dAng tlnrc AM-GM va irng dung . 1.1.2 Ki thuat Cosi ngiroc dAu .....

1.2 BAt dAng thl1c Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder .

1.2.1 BAt dAng thl1c Cauchy-Schwarz va 11ng dung

1.2.2 BAt dAng thuc Holder .

1.3 BAt dAng thirc Chebyshev . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 BAt dAng thuc Chebyshev va irng dung . 1.3.2 Ki thuat phan tach Chebyshev

1.4 BAt dAng thtrc voi ham 16i . . . . . . .

1.4.1 Ham 16i vOi bAt dAng thrrc Jensen

1.4.2 Ham 16i vdi ki thuat xet phan tit CJ bien 1.5 Khai tri~n Abel va bAt dAng thrrc hoan vi

1.5.1 1.5.2

Khai trian Abel .... BAt dAng thuc hoan vi

3 4 4

13 18 18 27 34 34 39 44 44 49 53 53 59 61 62 66

1.6 BAt dAng thuc dOi xirng 3 bi~n

L6.1 BAt dAng thirc thuan nhat kh6ng co di~u kien ,.

1.6.2 BAt dAng thirc d6i xirng co di~u kien .

3 Cac phuong phap clnrng minh bfit diing thirc 3.1 Phuong phap don bien va dinh 11 don bien manh

211 212

Ml)C Iuc

11

1. 7 B§,t ding thuc va cac da thuc d6i ximg so dip . .

71

1.7.1 11 thuyet v~ cac eta thuc d6i xirng so cap 71

1.7.2 Da t.hitc d5i xung so cap va cac ling dung trong giiii toan bat

dAng t.lnrc . . . . . . . . . 72

1.8 Phuong phap din bang h~ s6

74

1.8.1 Bai toan mo d~u . . . 74

1.8.2 Can bang h~ s6 vdi b§,t d&ng thuc lien M trung bmh cong va

trung btnh nhan (AM - GM) , 75

1.8.3 Can bang hi: s6 vdi bat d&ng thuc Cauchy - Schwarz - Holder 80

1.9 Dao ham va ung dung .. 1.9.1 Ki~n thirc 11 thuyct

1.9.2 Khao sat ham so mot bien . 1.9.3 Khao sat ham nhieu bi~n .

1.9.4 Md rong mot bai thi toan quoc t6 2004

1.10 Bai t~p ap dung .... ..

1.11 MOt s6 bai toan dang chu Y

83

83 84 86 87 89

103

2.1

Cac bai toan chon loc

105 105 201 201 203 206 208

2 Sang tao bfit diing thuc

2.2 Ban v6 sang tao bftt d&ng thiic 2.2.1 B§,t d&ng thuc cu va moi

2.2.2 MOt each xay dung bilt d&ng thirc mrri 2.2.3 Tit chung minh - phan bien den k~t luan .

2.2.4 Sang tao bilt d&ng thuc .

3.1.1 Bai toan md d~u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

3.1.2 Phuong phap don bi~n.d6i voi cac b§,t diing-thltc 3'bihl 216

3.1.3 Dinh 11 don bien manh S.M.V . . . 222

3.1.4 Dinh 11 S.M.V va mot s6 ung dung 224

3.1.5 Phuong phap don bi6n toan mien . 230

Ml)C luc

III

3.2 Phuong phap phan tich binh phirong S.O.S

3.2.1 Bai toan rna dAu .

233 233

3.2.2 Dinh li v0 bien dien co sa cua phuong phap S.O.S va mot sf>

ki thuat phan tfch . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . ... . 239

3.2.3 Nhirng img dung quan trong cua phuong phap S.O.S. 244

3.2.4 Suy luan W mot bai toan 249

3.3 Phuong phap phan chang 3.3.1 Bai toan mo dAu .

254

254

3.3.2 Nhm nhan mot bat ding tlnrc duoi goc dO phan chimg . 255

3.3.3 Cac bai toan ap dung ..

3.4 Phuong phap quy nap t6ng quat 3.4.1 Bai toan me dau . . . . .

3.4.2 Phirong phap quy nap t6ng quat va dinh If I.G.I 3.4.3 Cac bai toan ap dung .. . . . . . . . .

3.4.4 Xay dung ham so va bai toan t6ng quat

3.5 Phuong phap S11 dung b<it ding thirc c6 di011 .

3.6 Nhin lai 5 phuong phap chirng minh b§.t d~ng thuc

257 262 262 26.'') 267 276 277

285

3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4

Phuong phap don bien . . . . . . . . . . . . Phuong phap phan tich binh phirong S.O.S Phuong phap phan chang . . . .

Phuong phap quy nap t6ng quat

Phuong phap sir dung b§.t ding thirc c6 di~n

285 287 288 289 290

3.6.5

4 MQt 86 v§.n d~ chon IQc v~ b§.t d~ng thuc 4.1 B§.t dang thtrc Schur suy rong .

4.2 Nlnrng b§.t diing tlnrc ki 1(;1.! . .

4,3 B§.t dAng thirc Nesbitt va mot s6 dang ma rong 4.4 Suy luan va phat tri~n . . . !

4.5 B§.t dAng thirc thuan nghich .

4.5.1 Phuong phap tich phan d6i voi b§.t dcing thirc .

4.5.2 B§.t dang thirc thuan nghich .

291 291 29~ 303 308 312 312 314

340 340 341 342 343 344 344 346 346 347 347 348

iv

Muc luc

4.6 .Di tlm loi giai so cap .....

4.7.1 4.7.2

Cac bo troi va mot s6 tinh chat lien quan Bat diing thirc Karamata

317 317 320 320 320 324 333 333

4.6.1 4.6.2

Tro lai van d~ c6 dii~n Them mot bai toan 4 bien .

4.7 Ly thuyet cac bo troi va bat d~ng thirc Karamata .

4.8 D6n bien khong xac dinh 4.8.1 a ~ b hay a ~ b ..

4.8.2 D6n bien khong xac dinh

4.9 Bat diing thirc va cac vAn d~ rna 4.9.1 Mot lCli giai hoan chinh? .

4.9.2 MOt biit ding thirc d6i ximg thu vi .

4.9.3 alb + bl c + cia ~ 3? .

4.9.4 Bat ding tlnrc hoan vi tOng quat 4.9.5 Chi la cac bat ding thirc bac nhat ? 4.9.6 Cac dang t6ng blnh phuong

4.10 Tim man vdi bat diing thirc . 4.10.1 Cac cap thuan nghich 4.10.2 Sang tao bAt dAng thtrc

4.10.3 Quan diem v~ mot bai toan bat dAng thirc hay

4.10.4 HQc toan tren mang .

335

Phu luc

Tac gia cac bai toan Tai lieu tham khao .

349 349 350

3

Chtrong 1

~ ?

Bat dang t.hirc Cd sa

D~ lam quen vdi bAt dAng tlntc thl viec nam virng cac bAt dAng thirc co ban la vo cung quan trong. Then the gioi c6 rAt nhieu cac bAt dAng thirc, rcit nhieu nhirng dinh li lien quan Wi bAt dAng tlnrc, rAt nhieu cac ki thuat nho chung minh bcit dAng tlnrc non tlO biet Mt diroc chung la tli0u khong thO, tli0u quan trong nhat la chung ta phai hiGu that r6 cac bcit cHing thuc co ban, d6 cung la yau t6 quan trong deiu tien d~ ban hoc t6t bcit dAng thuc, Tac gia se nhan manh toi nhung bcit diing thirc het sue cein thiet sau day: Bilt dAng thuc lien M giua trung blnh cQn~.trung blnh nhan (AM - GM), bAt diing tlnrc Cauchy - Schwarz va t6ng quat la bAt diing tlnrc

Holder, bilt dAng thtrc Chebyshev va bAt diing thirc Jensen. I

Day la 4 bilt diing thirc quen thuoc trong chirong trtnh ph6 thong, nhung d~ nam virng dU\1C chung cung khong phai la dieu don gian, de dang nhat la d6i voi cac ban moi biit tlelu lam quell voi beit tl[tng thirc. Chirong tlelu tien cua cuon sach cung ceip cho cac ban kha deiy du nhirng ki nang sit dung 4 bAt diing thirc d6, them mra la mot s6 bai toan lien quan toi cac bAt diing thirc d6i ximg 3 bien, bcit diing thirc hoan vi, phirong phap can bang h¢ s6 va ki thuat khai tri6n Abel. Day la chuong co ban va rAt hicu qua d6i voi Cl-le ban hoc sinh THCS, cac ban hoc sinh lop 10, 11 muon ren luyen ki nang chirng minh "bAt diing thirc cua minh.

D6i vdi moi bAt dAng thirc co ban d6, tac gia den chon mot ki thuat ap dung tl~c biet nMt d€ ban doc th§.y r6 hieu qua cua chnngvChang han voi bAt diing thltc AM - GM ta c6 kl thuat Cosi ng'l.t(lc, vdi bAt diing thirc Chebyshev ta c6 kl thuat phan tach Chebyshev va voi bAt diing thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta c6 Mt ddng mac Holder. Theo each nghi cua hoc sinh Vi~t N am thl bilt dAng thirc Holder c6 vo hoi xa l(Z va kh6 ap dung, ngay.ca voi cac ban hoc sinh gioi toan, nhirng cuon sach siS giup cac ban c6 mot each nhin khac hon d6i voi bat diing thirc quan trong hay, blnh tlnrong nhu chinh bat dAng tlnrc Cauchy - Schwarz vay. Phan sit dung dao ham cung la phan li thuyet quan trong rna cac ban cein phai nl1m r6.

s ala2···an-IS

=?s+-->nn. -----

n-1- n-1

=? s ~ (n - 1) n-Vala2 ... an-l.

Ti't 2 nhan xet tren ta co dieu phai chung minh. Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi tAt ca cac bien aI, a2, ... , an bang nhau. 0

4 Chuang 1. BAt d§.llg thlic co sd

1.1 Bfit dAng thirc AM-GM

1.1.1 BAt d~ng thuc AM-GM va tmg dung

Dinh ly 1.1 (B§.t diing thirc AM-GM). Wi moi s6 th'1/C dUdng aI, a2, ... , an ta co bilt dif:ng tMtc

al + a2 + ... + an \ --=-----=----~ ~ \!ala2 .. ·an' n

Ddng thuc xiiy tti khi va chi khi al = a2 = ... = an·

CHUNG MINH. Ru rang b§,t diing tlnrc voi n = 2. Ilt~u bat diing thuc dung vdi n 86 thl cung dung vdi 2n 86 vi

Do do bAt dAng thuc cung dung khi n bang mot luy thira cua 2. Ml),t khac neu bAt ding thtrc dung vOi n 86 tht cung dung vdi n - 1 86, that vay ta chi c§.n chon

an = sl(n - 1) , s = al + a2 + ... + an-l

BAt.diing tlntc AM - GM la bAt diing tlnrc quen thuoc va co img dung rong rib, la bAt ding thuc d§.u tien rna cac ban can phai ghi nho rAt ro va 8U dung mot each thanh thao. Khi su dung bAt ding thirc nay chung ta c§.n het site chu y Wi di~u kien ciia dAng thirc khi al = a2 = ... = an va c§.n tach cac M s6 cho phil hop.

Co nhicu each chimg minh bAt diing t.lnrc AM - GM, each chirng minh ha.y nhat co th~ la each chimg minh 811 dung phircng phap quy nap Cauchy (nhu chimg minh tren). Co Ie VI vay rna nhieu ngl1i'1i l§.m Ian r§,ng Cauchy phat hien ra bAt dAng

thire nay. Ong chi la ngl1i'1i'dl1a ra chung minh rAt hay cua mlnh chu khong pha; la ngl1i'1i phat hien ra d§.u tien, bAt ding thtrc rna chung ta quen goi la bAt ding thuc Bunhiacopxki thuc chAt la phat minh cua 3 nha toan hoc Schwarz, BunhiaCopxki va Cauchy. Thco each goi ten chung ciia tM gioi, bfit diing tJl(r~ BunhiaCopxki co ten la bAt ding thirc Cauchy - Schwarz., con bAt ding thuc Cosi (hay Cauchy) co ten la bAt ding thirc AM - GM (Arithmetic Means - Geometric Means). Day la mot su nham Ian kha kl la va dang ngac nhien trong mot thoi gian dai l?

Sau day la mot s6 bai toan d~c trung su dung bAt ding thirc AM - G M.

1.1. BAt dAng ttutc AM-GM

5

Vi du 1.1.1. Ghitng minh ding vdi moi 86 ihuc khOng am a, b, c ta co

1 1 1 9

-+-+-> .

a b c-a+b+c

Len GIAI. 8li dung bat dAng thuc AM - GM cho 3 s6

(1 1 1) 3~ 3

(a+b+c) -+-b+- ~3vabc3r;-=9.

a c v abc '.

B§.t dAng thirc t6ng quat han duocchirng minh holm toan tuong tl,t

1 1 1 n2

-+-+ ... +-> .0

a1 a2 an - a1 + a2 + ... + an

Vi du 1.1.2 (B§.t diing thuc Nesbitt). GMtng minh rdng vdi moi 86 thuc khOng am a, b, c ta co

abc 3

--+--+-- >-. b+c c+a a+b --;- 2

Len GIAI. Xot cac bi~u thirc sau

abc S= --+--+--, b+c c+a a+b

b c a

M=--+--+--, b+c c+a a+b

cab

N = -- + -' - + --. b+c c+a a+b

Ta c6 M + N = 3. MM khac theo hat dAng tlnrc AM - G M thl

M S a+b b+c c+a 3 + =--+--+--> b+c c+a a-s-b - ,

N 'S- a+c a+b b+c >3 + ---+--+-- . b+c c+a a+b-

V~y M + N + 2S ~ 3 suy ra 28 ~ 3. Day Ih di~ll phai chirng minh. 0

Vi du 1.1.3 (B§.t ding thrrc Nesbitt 4.bi~n). GMtng minh rdng vdi moi 86 thuc kh6ng am a, b, c ta. eo Mt ddng thsic

abc d

-- + -- + -- + -- > 2. b+c c+ d d+a a+b-

6

Ciiuaug 1. Bitt d§.ng th(IC co sO

Lot GIAJ. DM

abc d

S =-- + -- + -- + -b+c c+d d+a a+b'

b c d a

M=--+--+--+-b+c c+d d+a a+b'

c dab

N=--+--+--+-b+c c+d d s- a a+b'

Ta co M + N = 4. Theo bfit ding thuc AM - C M thi

M S a+b b+c c+d d+a

+ = b + c + c + d + d + a + a + b ~ 4,

N' S a+c b s- d a+c b= d

+ =b+c+c+d+d+a+a+b

a+c a+c b+d b+d

=--+--+---+--

b+c a+d ,c+'d a+b

> 4(a+c) + 4(b+d) =4.

- a + b + c + d a + b +c + d

Vf}.y M + N + 2S ~ 8 suy ra S ~ 2. D~ng thirc xay ra khi a = b = c = d. 0

Vi d\l1.1.4. Cia sit aI, a2, ... , an la cac s8 thuc d'ltdng sao cho al +a2 + ... +an = n. CMtng minh vai moi s8 nguyen ditdng k ta co bcit ddng tluic

a~ + a~ + ... + a~ ~ a~-l + a~-l + ... + a~-l.

LOI GIAI. 811 dung bfit diillg tlnrc AM - CM ta co

(k -l)ak + 1 = ak + ak + ... + ak + 1 ~ kVak(k~I) = kak-l.

Thay a bdi aI, a2, ... , an r6i cQng cac Mt diing thuc lai ta dircc

(k - l)(at + a~ + ... + a~) + n ~ k(a~-l + a~-l + ... + a~-l).

Vf}.y ta chi c§.n chang minh

k-l k-l k-l >

al + a2 + ... + an _ n.

811 dung bfit diing thirc AM - C M

ak-l + (k _ 2) = ak-l + 1 + 1 +: .. + 1 ~ (k - 1) k-~ak-l = (k - l)a.

Thaya bdi aI, a2, , an r61 cong cac bAt ~iing thdc dang tren lai

a~-l + a~-l +- + a~-l+ n(k - 2) ~ (k - l)(al + a2 + ... + an) = (k - l)n

1.1. B§,t d&ng thuc AM-GM

7

k-l k-l k-l >

:::} al + a2 + + an _ n.

Diing thirc xay ra khi va chi khi al = a2 = = an = 1. 0

Nhan xet, Tir cac chirng minh tren ta suy ra

Vdi moi s6 nguyen duong k. Ngoai ra ca 2 bat diing thirc nay d@u dung khi k 2 1 la mot s6 thirc. Neu xet k < 1 ta co bAt diing thirc

Val + a2 + ... + an yIal + y'(i2 + ... + ~

-------2 ,

n n

Vdi moi s6 thirc dirong m 2 1. Cac ban hay tl1 ki0m nghiem cac bat ding thire nay bang phirong phap c'1 tren, thirc cMt n6 chi la hequa true tiep,

Vi du 1.1.5 (B§.t dtlng thirc AM-GM suy r<.>ng). Vai cae s6 thuc d'l1C1ng ai, a2, ... , an Va Xl, X2, ... , Xn la cae s6 thuc kh6ng am c6 ttfng bdng 1 ta c6

LOI CIA!. Phuong phap chrrng minh sit dung quy nap Cauchy hoan toan tirong tu nhu voi bilt diing thuc AM - G M thong thuong. Tuy nhien trong trirong hop n = 2 chung ta can mot loi giai chi tiBt han. Ta phai chung minh neu X + y = 1 va a, b, x, y la cac s6 thuc khong am thi

ax + by 2 aXbY.

Cach lam don gian nhat d6i voi b§.t diing thirc nay Ill, xet voi s6 hiru ti r6i chuyen 'qua gidi han, Hi6n nhien neu x, y hiru ti thi bai toan dU<;1c clnrng minh theo bAt dAng thirc AM - G M c6 di~n

Trong do X = mj(m + n) va y = nj(m + n). Con neu x, y thuc thl se tan tai day cac s6 hiru ti Tn ---t X, s.; ---t y, Tn + 8n = 1 va nhir vay

Chuycn qua gioi han khi n ---t +00 ta dU<;1C ax + by 2 aXbY, Day chinh la di6u phai chirng minh. 0

Cach chung minh nay kha co ban, va nhl ban chua duoc hoc v~ gioi han thl hay tarn chAp nhan bAt diillg tlnrc vui cac s6 Xi hall ti. Lf do rAt don gian, VI de dinh nghia chfnh xac cho luy thua vdi s6 mii thuc, buoc phai CEl dinh nghia gioi han. Cac kien thirc co sa v@ gioi han va ham lien tuc se duoc dinh nghia trong chuang trinh toan ph6 thong ldp 11,12.

8

Cbuoug 1. Bht dAllg ttuic co sd

Vi du 1.1.6 (IMO Shortlist 1998). Wi x, y, z liL cac s8 thuc dl1dng c6 tich Mng 1, cMtng minli biit dang tMtc suss

x3 y3 z3 3

-:---..,..-:---,- + + > -

(l+y)(l+z) (l+z)(l+x) (l+x)(l+y) - 4'

LdI CIA!. Sit dung bfit ding thirc AM - CM cho 3 s6

x3 1 + y 1 + z 3x

(l+y)(I+z) +-8-+ -8- ~ 4'

TI1C1ng tv ta co 2 b§.t diing thirc vdi y, z r6i cong lai suy ra

x3 y3 z3 X + y + z 3

-----+ + > --

(I + y)(1 + z) (1 + z)(1 + x) (1 + x)(1 + y) - 2 4

Mat khac x + y + z ~ 3 ifXfii = 3 nen ta co dpcm. 0

Vi du 1.1. 7 (IMO Shortlist 1990). Cia sit a, b, c, d la cae s8 thuc khOng am thaa man ab + be + cd + da = 1. GMtng minh

a3 b3 c3 d3 1

---+ + + >-.

b+c+d c+d+a a+b+d a+b+c - 3

LdI CIA!. Sit dung bfit dAng thirc AM - CM cho 4 s6

a3 b + c + d a 1 2a

b + c + d + 18 + 6 + 12 ~ "3'

Roan toan tirong tu ta co. them 3 biit diing thirc voi b, c, d sau do cong lai diroc

a3 b3 c3 d3 a + b + c + d 1

---+ + + > --

b+c+d c+d+a a+b+d a+b+c - 3 3

Chu y r~ng ab + be + cd + da = (a + c)(b + d) nen

(a + b + c + d)2 ~ 4(ab + be + cd + da) = 4 =} a + b + c + d ~ 2.

Thay k~t qua nay vao bfit dAng thuc ,0 tren ta co dpem. Ding thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = d = 1/2. 0

Vi du 1.1.8 (Komal Magazine). GMing minh vdi moi a, b, c dl1dng

1 1 1 27

a(afb) + b(b+e) +c(e+a) ~ 2(a+b+c)2'

1.1. BM dii.ng ttntc AM-GM

9

Len GIAI. 811 dung true ti~p b~t dllng thirc AM - GM cho v~ trai

1 1 1 3

a(a+b) + b(b+e) + e(e+a) 2 ijabe(a+b)(b+e)(e+a)'

Do d6 ta chi can chang minh

36abe(a + b)(b + e)(e + a) S 8(a + b + c)", Theo Mt dllng thuc AM - G M

33abe S (a + b + e)3,

33(a + b)(b + e)(e + a) S (a + b + b + e + e + a)3 = 8(a + b + e)3.

Nhan thea vB 2 bat uimg tlnrc tren ta Ul1\;1C ui0u phai chang miuh, 0

Vi du 1.1.9. Cho cae s6 thuc a, b, e thad man a2 + b2 + e2 = 3. CMtng minh btit ddng tMte sau

lal + Ibl + lei - abc S 4.

Len GIAI. Ta cung ap dung true tit5p b~t dllng tlnrc AM - GM nhir sau

(Ial + Ibl + lel)2 s 3(a2 + b2 + e2) = 9 =* lal + Ibl + lei s 3.

Cong vB 2 b~t dAng thirc tren ta c6 dieu phai chang minh. DAng thirc xay ra khi va chi khi trong 3 s6 a, b, e c6 2 s6 bang 1 va 1 s6 bAng -1. 0

Nhan xet. Ban doc thl't lam bai toan tren neu ta bO di cac dau gia tri tuyet d6i, tim max cua a + b + e - abc. Day la mot bar toan r§.t thu vi va khong d~.

Vi d\l1.1.10 (Iran MO 1998). Cho cae s6 th'l!e dttdng a, b, e, d thad man abed = 1. Chitng minh rdng

( 1 1 1 1)

a3 + b3 + e3 + d3 2 max a + b + e + d, ;: + b + ~ + d .

Len G IAI. Ta phai chang minh 2 bat dllng thirc sau

(1)

a3 + b3 + e3 + d3 2 abc + bed + eda + dab (2)

10

Chuang 1. BAt dAng thl1c co si'l

B§.t d~ng thirc (1) duoc chung minh tuong t1;C nhu trong vi du 1.1.4. B§.t diing thirc (2) co Ul1Qe bAng tcing cac bat uiing tlnrc sau

a3 + b3 + e3 ~ 3abe b3 + e3 + d3 ~ 3bed

Chi c6 diing thirc khi a = b = c = d = 1. 0

Vi dt,11.1.11 (USA MO 1998). CMtng minh vdi moi sa tbuc duanq a,b,e

1 1 1 1

a3 + b3 + abc + b3 + c3 + abc + e3 + a3 + abc ::; abc'

LClI CIA!. Ta c6 nhan xet sau

a2 + b2 ~ 2ab =} a3 + b3 ~ ab( a + b)

a~ a~ e

=} <-----

a3 + b3 + e3 - ab( a + b) + abc a + b + e

Xay dung them 2 b§.t diing thtrc tuong tu rEii cong 19-i suy ra di6u phai chung minh

abc abc abc

----,,-_--,,--- __ + + < 1.

a3 + b3 + abc b3 + e3 + abc e3 + a3 + abc -

Diing thuc xay ra chi khi a = b = e. 0

Vi du 1.1.12 (France Pre - MO 2005). Cac sa ihntc duaiu; x, y, z thad man di~u ki~n x2 + y2 + z2 = 3. Hay chung minh

xy + yz + zx > 3.

z x y-

LClI CIA!. Blnh phirong 2 v~ cua bat diing thuc, ta phai chirng minh

x2y2 y2z2 z2x2

_'_ + z, _ + __ + 2(x2 + y2 + z2) ~ 3(x2 + y2 + z2).

z2 x2 y2

CM Y r~ng thea bat d~ng thuc AM - G M ta c6

(X2y2 y2z2 Z2X2) (X2y2 y2Z2) (y2Z2 z2x2) (x2y2 z2x2)

2 --+--+-- = --+- + -+-- + --+--

z2 x2 y2 z2 x2 x2 y2 z2 y2

~ 2.(x2 + y2 + z2).

Dang thirc xay ra chi khi x = y = z = 1. 0

Nhan xet, Cac ban hay kiem nghiem b~t diing thirc sau

~ • 3 3 3 ab be ea ()

Neu a b, e dudng thou man a + b + e = 3 thz -;; + ~ + b ~ 3 f

Van d~ t6ng quat se dUQC giai quyet CJ chuang sau cua cutin sach,

1.1. BEit a,,{ng thuc AM-GM

11

Vi du 1.1.13 (IMO Shortlist 1996). Ctic s6 dUdng x, y, z c6 tich bdng 1. Chitng minh bilt dang tlnZc

xy + yz + ZX

5 5 5 5 5 5<1.

x + xy + y y + yz + z z + zx + x -

Lot CIA!. Ta c6 nhan xet sau

1 z

1 + xy(x + y) x + y + z

Xay dung 2 bat dAng thirc tuong tv voi x, y r6i cong va ca 3 bdt dAng thirc ta c6 di~u phai chirng minh. DAng thirc xay ra chi khi x = Y = z = 1. 0

Vi du 1.1.14 (Vi~t Nam MO). Ctic s6 thstc dudng Xl, X2, ... , Xn thad man

1 1 1

--+--+ ... +--=1.

1 + Xl 1 + X2 1 + Xn

Hay ehitng minh ding

Lor CIA!. Tu gia thi~t bai toan ta co

1 1 1 Xn

--+--+ ... +---=

1 + Xl 1 + X2 1 + Xn-l 1 + Xn

Sir dung biit (Hing tlnrc AM - GM vdi cac s6 hang d va trai

Ta c6 n - 1 bdt dAng tlnrc tuong tv vdi moi s6 Xl, X2, ... , Xn-l, sau d6 nhan cac ve tirong irng cua n bdt dAng tlnrc tren lai suy ra dpcm. 0

Vi du 1.1.15 (APMO 1998). Chitng minh vdi moi x, y, z duano ta c6

(1 + :::) (1 + ~) (1 + .:.) ~ 2 + 2(x:- y + z).

y z. X ¥XYz

LdI CIA!. De dang nhan thdy bdt dAng thirc tren la h~ qua tir bdt d.ing thirc sau :::+~+.:.>x+y+z

y z x- ¥XYz

Len CIA!. 8tl dung bfit diing thirc AM - eM cho 3 s6

x3 y3

- + y + z ;:: 3x , - + x + z ;:: 3y ,

yz xz

3 Z

- + x + y ;:: 3z. xy

12

Clutoug 1. B§t dAllg th(te co Sd

Ta nh6m va S11 dung bfit ding thtrc AM - eM

(X Y z) (2X y) (2Y z) (2Z x) 3x 3y 3z

3 -+-+- = -+- + -+- + -+- >--+--+--

Y Z x Y Z Z x x y -~ ~ ~

x y Z x+y+z

:::} - + - + - > --=---

Y Z x- ~

Ding thirc xay ra khi va chi khi x = y = z: 0

Vi du 1.1.16 (Canada MO 2002). Wi moi x, y, Z duong, hiiy chUng minh

x3 y3 z3

- + -=----- + - ;:: x + y + z.

yz xz xy

Cong v5 3 bat tUing tlnr« tren ta co ui0u phai clnrng minh, 0

Vi du 1.1.17 (Macedonia MO 2000). ChUng minh voi moi x, y, z dUdng x2 + y2 + z2 ;:: J2(xy + xz).

Len CIA!. 811 dung Mt ding thirc AM - CM vdi 2 s6

(y+z)2 M

x2 + y2 + z2 ;:: x2 + . 2 ;:: y 2x(y + z). 0

Vi du 1.1.18. Chung minh vdi moi a, b, e, d duanq ta lu8n co

16(abe + bed + eda + dab) ~ (a + b + e + d)4.

Len CIA!. Sit dung Mt dRng tlurc AM - G'M cho 2 s6

16(abe + bed + eda + dab) = 16ab(e + d) + 16ed(a + b) :::; 4(a + b)2(c + d) + 4(c + d)2(a + b) ~ 4(a + b + c + d)(a + b)(c + d)

:::; (a + b + c + d) 3 .

Ding thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b == c = d. 0

Vi du 1.1.19. ChUng minh ding vdi cae s6 dUdng a, b, c co tang Mng 3 thi

a(a+c-2b) b(b+a-2e) e(c+b-2a) 0

---C.. --'-+ + > .

ab + 1 be + 1 ca + 1 -

1.1. BAt dAng thue AM-GM

13

Lor CIA!. Bitt dhg thirc tuong duong voi

a(1 - b) + 1 + b(1 - c) + 1+ e(1 - a) + 1 > 3

ab + 1 be + 1 ea + 1 -

a+1 b+1 c+ I

{::} -- + -- + -- > 3. ab + 1 be + 1 ea + 1 -

Sl'c dung blit dAng thrrc AM - G M cho 3 s6 hang i'J va trai

VT > 3 3 (a + 1) (b + 1) (e + 1) .

- (ab + 1)(bc + 1)(ca + 1)

Ta sc chirng minh (a + 1)(b + 1)(c + 1) ~ (ab + 1)(bc + 1)(ca + 1). That vay, blit dhg tlnrc tren tirong duong vdi

abc + ab + be + ca + a + b + c + 3 ~ a2b2c2 + abc(a + b + c) + ab + be + ca + 1 {::} 3 ~ a2b2e2 + 2abc.

Blit. d&ng thuc tren hi~n nhien ci"ung VI thea blit et~.ng tlnrc AM - G M thl abc ~ 1. Dling thuc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = 1. 0

Nhu eta n6i, chu y quan trong nhat khi sl'c dung blit etAng thirc AM - G M la phai chon dung h~ s6 khi ghep c~p d~ dAng thirc co t.h6 xay ra diroc. ChAng han, d

vi du 1.1.6 ta khong th~ s11 dung bfit etling thirc .

x3

(1 + y)(1 + z) + (y + 1) + (z + 1) ~ 3x.

Theo cam giac, etling thirc xay ra khi x = y = z = 1 nen ta chon diroc M s6 1/8 et~ cac s6 hang bang nhau

x3 Y + 1 z + 1 3x

..,.---:--:----:- + -' - + -- > -

(1+y)(1+z) 8 8 '- 4'

Vdi cac bai toan i'J dang chuan nhu tren, tire la c6 etling tlnrc khi tlit ca cac bien bang nhau thl viec ghep e~p nhu vay tuong d6i de, nhung voi mot s6 bai toan blit dAng thuc khong d6i xirng thl cong viec nay se kh6 khan han, ta phai dung phuong phap Ctu» Mng h~ sa va phiii gidi cdc phuanq trinh. Ban c6 th6 xcm trong phan sau, bai vi6t vB Phuatu; phdp can Mng M sa, trang 75.

1..1.2 KI thuat Cosi nguoc dAti

Bay gio chung ta so xcm xet bAt dling tlnrc AM - C M va mot ki that et~c bietkl thuat Cosi ngurjc ddu. Day la mot trong nhtrng kl thuat hay, kheo leo, moi me va lin tuong nhat cua blit dling thirc AM - CM. Hay xcm cac vi du cu th6 sau

14

Ctiuoug 1. Btu dAng th((c co sCi

Vi du 1.1.20. Ctic s8 duang a, b, c ihoii man di€u kien a + b + c = 3. ChUng minh Mt ddng tMtc

abc 3

--+--+-->- 1 + b2 1 + c2 1 + a2 - 2'

LOr GrAr. Ta kh6ng th~ dung true W}p bAt ding thirc AM - G'M voi mau s6 vi bAt ding thirc sau d6 se d6i chieu

abc abc 3

-- + -- + -- < - + - + - > - ?! 1 + b2 1 + c2 1 + a2 - 2b 2c 2a - 2

Tuy nhicn, rAt may miin. ta e6 th6 dung It;Li b§.t ding thirc d6 t.heo each khac

. a ab2 ab2 ab

-- =a- -- > a-- =a--.

1 + b2 1 + b2 - 2b 2

Ta oa sit dung b4t. dAng thirc AM - G'M cho 2 s6 1 + b2 :2 2b CJ diroi mau nhirng lai c6 diroc mot bfit d5.ng thirc thuan chien? Sir may mdn CJ day la mot each dung ngtroc bAt. diing thirc AM - eM, mot ki thuat r§.t §.n tirong va b§.t ngo. Nau khong sit dung phuong phap nay thi bAt diing thuc tren se rAt. kh6 va dai.

Til bAt d~ng thirc tren, xay dung 2 bAt d~ng tlnrc ttrong tt.! vdi b, c r6icQng ca 3 b§.t diing thue 11;\i suy ra

abc b ab + be + ca 3

--+--+-->a+ +c- >-

1 + b2 1 + c2 1 + a 2 - 2 - 2'

vi ta e6 ab + be + ca S; 3. DAng thirc chi xay ra khi a = b = c = 1. 0

Vdi each lam tren co t.he xay dung mot bAt dt\ng thuc tirong tu voi 4 s6

Vi du 1.1.21. ChUng minh ding vfJi a, b, c, d ld cac s8 thuc duang co t6ng bdng 4 ta co btit dd:ng tluic

abc d

--+--+--+-->2 1 + b2 1 + c2 1 + d2 1 + a2 - .

Va n6u khong dung neu khong dung ki thuat Cos! ngu(fc dau thl glin nhu bai toan nay khong th~ giai duoc thea each thong thuong duoc. Ki thuat nay thuc su hieu qua voi cac bai toan hAt ding thirc hoan vi

Vi du 1.1.22. ChUng mink vfJi moi s8 'duang a, b, c, d thoti man di€u kien a + b +

c + d = 4 ta co

1.1. BAt dAng thuc AM-GM

\

Len GIAI. Theo biit d~ng thirc AM - GM

a ab2c ab2c abJc

--"...-=a- >a---=a---

1 + b2c 1 + b2c - 2bJc 2

bva.ac b( a + ae)

>a- >a-~---':"

- 2 - 4

a 1

=} 1 + b2c ~ a - 4(ab + abc).

Roan toan tirong t1.1 ta co them 3 bAt diing thirc sau

b b bc+ bcd e cd s- cda

---> - >e----

1 + e2d - 4 1 + e2d - 4

d d da + dab

---::- > - ---

1+ d2a - 4'

Cong va ca 4 Mt d~ng tlnrc tren

abc d

-~-+ + + >

1 + b2e 1 + e2d 1 + d2a 1 + a2b -

1 .

~ a + b + e + d - "4 (ab + be + cd + da + abc + bed + eda + dab).

'I'ir bAt d!ng thirc AM - GM d~ dang suy ra cac bAt d!ng thtic

1

ab + be + cd + da ~ "4(a + b + c + d)2 = 4,

1 3

abc + bed + eda + dab ~ 16 (a + b + e + d) = 4.

Dodo

a b e d

1 + b2e + 1 + e2d + 1 + d2a + 1 + a2b ~ a + b + e + d - 2 = 2.

D~ng thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = e = d = 1. 0

Vi du 1.1.23. Chang minh vai moi s8 thuc dUdng a, b, c, d ta luon co

a3 b3 c3 d3 a + b + e + d

~+~+~+~+&+~+~+~~ 2

Le11 GIAI. Su dung Mt d!ng thirc AM - GM vdi 2 86

a3 ab2 ab2 b

-=--~ = a - > a - - = a - -.

a2 + b2 a2 + b2 - 2ab 2

Xay dung 3 bAt di\ng thirc tinmg tl,t vdi b, e, d r6i cong v5 cac bAt d!ng thuc l~i ta co di~u phai chimg minh. Diing thlic -xay ra khi tAt ca cac bien bAng nhau. 0

Mot Mt diing thirc cung dang tren la

a4 b4 e4 d4 a + b + e + d

a3 + 2b3 + b3 + 2& + e3 + 2d3 + d3 + 2a3 ~ 3 .

15

16

Chuang 1. Hiit dAng ttuic co sd

Vi du 1.1.24. Cho a, b, c ~ 0 va a + b + c = 3. ChUng minh

LOI C IAJ. Sa dung bien d5i va bat d5.ng thirc AM - G M cho 3 so

a2 2ab2 2ab2 2(ab)2/3

---::::=a- >a---=a-~"':"""-

a + 2b2 a + 2b2 - 3 ~ 3

Roan toan tirong tu ta cung c6 2 bat diing thrrc

c2 2

--~ > c - _(ca)2/3.

c + 2a2 - 3

Do d6 ta chi c§.n chirng minh

a+b+c- ~ ((ab)2/3+ (bc)2/3+ (ca)2/3) ~ 1 {:} (ab)2/3 + (bc)2/3 + (ca)2/3 'S 3.

Nhirng biit diing thirc nay hien nhien dung, vi theo bilt diing thuc AM - G M

"

a + M + b ~ 3(ab)2/3, b + be + c ~ 3(bc)2/3, C + ca + a ~ 3(ca)2/3,

ngoai ra de thiiy 3 ~ ab + be + ca nen ta c6 diGu phai clurng minh. Diing thttc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = 1. 0

Ket qua ella bai toan van dung khi thay gia thiet a+b+c = 3 bdi ab+bc+ca = 3 hoac Va + ,jb + JC = 3, truong hop sau kh6 hen mot chut. Ta e6 them mot biit ding thirc khac cung d?-ng tren

Vi du 1.1.25. Cha a, b, c ~ 0 va a + b + c = 3. Chung minh rlmg

a2 b2 c2

----;0+--+ >1.

a + 2b3 b + 2c3 C + 2a3 -

Lor CrA!. Chung minh tirong tu, dua biit ding tlnrc v8 b~ + cW + aVc2 'S 3.

San do ap dung bAt dAng t lntc AM - GM.

ba2/3 'S b(2a + 1), cb2/3 'S c(2b + 1), ac2/3 'S a(2c + 1).

Cong vB ca 3 biit ding thirc tren ta co dieu phai chung minh. 0

1.1. B§.t d~'Ilg thuc AM-GM

17

Vi du 1.1.26. CMtng minh vai moi s6 dUdng a, b, c co t6ng Mng 3 th'i

a+1 b+1 c+l

---+--+-->3 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 a2 + 1 - .

Len GIAI. Thea bitt dAng thirc AM - GM de tMy

a + 1 (a + 1) b2 b2 (a + 1) ab + b

b2 + 1 = a + 1 - b2 + 1 "? a + 1 - 2b = a + 1 - -2-'

Tirong tv ta c6 2 bitt Jiillg thuc nira voi b, c roi cong lai

a + 1 b + 1 c + 1 ( ab + b) ( be + c) ( ca + a)

--+--+--> a+1--- + b+l--- + c+1---

b2 + 1 c2 + 1 a2 + 1 - 2' 2. . 2

a + b + c - ab - be - ca

= 3 + 2 "? 3.

Dang thuc chi xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = 1. 0 Sau day la bai toan tuong tv vdi 4 bien s6

Vi du 1.1.27. Chitng minh ding vai moi a, b, c, d dUdng co t6ng Mng 4 thi

a+1 b+1 c+1 d+l

--+--+--+-->4 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 d2 + 1 a2 + 1 - .

Cimg b[ng phirong phap tirong tv ta c6 bcit diing thirc sau day

Vi du 1.1.28. ChUng minh rdng vai moi a, b, c, d d1fdng co t6ng Mng 4 thl,

1 1 1 1

--+--+--+-->2 a2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 d2 + 1 - .

LOI G IAI. Thi,it vay, ta co danh gia sau

1 a2 a2 a

-- = 1 - -- > 1 - - = 1 - -.

a2 + 1 a2 + 1 - 2a 2

Sau do chi c§.n lam tirong tl.t vdi b, c, d.roi cong 11;1.i. 0

Kl thuat Cosi ngu(Jc la mot ki thuat "moi giup giai quyet bai toan thea 16i suy nghi nhe nhang va trang sang, cac k~t qua diroc lam bang kl thuat nay noi chung cung rat kh6 c6 the lam dtroc thea each khac, hoac phai lam thea each kha dai.

18 Chuang 1, B§t dAng th(tc co sa

1.2 B§.t d5.ng thirc Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder

1.2.1 B§.t d:1ng t.lnrc Cauchy-Schwarz va tmg dung

Dinh ly 1.2 (BAt ding thirc Cauchy-Schwarz). Wi 2 day s8 th'l/e tuy y aI, a2, "" an Va bl, b2, .. " bn, ta lu6n co Mt ddng tinic

Ddng thnic xiiy ra khi va chi khi (aI, a2, .. " an) Va (bl, b2, .. " bn) la 2 b9 ti l~, tUe la t6n ioi s8 thuc k di ai = kb, Vi = 1, ti.

CHUNG MINH, C6 3 each don gian chung minh bat ding thirc tren.

Cach. 1. Day la cac chung minh quen thuoc Sl't dung plnrong phap tam thtrc bac 2, Xet tam thtrc sau day

Sau khi khai tri5n ta c6

M~t khac VI f(x) ~ 0 Vx E R nen thea dinh 11 v~ dilu cua tam thirc bac 2

D~ng thirc xay ra khi phirong trlnh f(x) = 0 c6 nghiem, n6i each khac (aI, a2, ... , an) va (bl, oz. ... , bn) la 2 hi;> ti I¢.

Ctich. 2. Mot each chirng minh khac cling rilt c§,n nho, VI ta sc Sl't dung lai trong 1 s6 bai t ap, d6 la phirong phap Stt dung dAng thirc. Ta co hang dAng thuc sau

n

(ai + a~ + ... + a;)(bi + b~ + ... + b;) - (albl + a2b2 + ... + anbn)2 = L (aibj - ajbi)2.

i,j=l

va do d6 hH~n nhien phai c6

Cach 9. Ngoai ra h1it diing thirc Cauchy - Schwarz cling co th~ chimg minh true

1.2. B§.t dling thl1c Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder '.

19

ti~p h~ng h§,t diing thirc AM - GM chi vdi 2 s6. day la mot chirng minh r§,t hay va dung ue: 1I10 rVug cho b§,t u[mg tlnrc Holder.

Cho i chay tU 1 d~n n roi cong v~ ca n Mt ding thirc 11;1.i ta c6 k~t qua. Day cung la mot chirng minh r§,t ngan gon. 0

B§,t diing thuc Cauchy - Schwarz cung la mot b§,t diing thirc r§,t quen thuoc voi cac ban hoc sinh ph6 thong va viec nam chac sit U\U1g thanh thao b§,t diing thuc nay la r§,t can thiet cho t5.t ca ban doc, khong chi vdi cac ban thi hoc sinh gioi, Olympic quoc gia, quoc t6 rna ngay ca voi cac ban on thi vao lop 10 va thi vao dai hoc.

Cac h(j qua sau day se Cling c6 them cac irng dung khac nhau cua b5.t dAng thuc quan trong nay.

Bat u[mg thirc trcn tlnrong duoc goi la bcit uiillg tilde Schwarz.

H~ qua 1.2. Vai 2 day 86 thuc aI, a2, ... , an va bl, b2, ... , b.; ta co

CHUNG MINH. Ts chi c§.n chirng minh trong tnrong hop ti = 2. Vdi cac gia tri khac, bAt diing thirc diroc suy ra tl\rc ti~p bang phuong phap quy nap, Tuy nhien voi n = 2 thi ta c6 Mt dAng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz

Ja~ + b~ + Ja~ + b~ ~ J(al + a2)2 + (bl + b2)2 <=> (a~ + a~)(b~ +. b~) ~ (albl + a2b2)2.

DAng tlnrc cung xay ra khi (aI, a2, ... , an) va (bl, b2, ... , br.) la 2 ho HIe. 0

H~ qua 1.3. Vai moi day 86 thuc aI, a2, ... , an ta CO

20

Chuang 1. BAt cUing thr'lc co sCi

CHUNG MINH. Sti dung b§,t ding thuc Cauchy - Schwarz vdi 2 bo s6

Trang do bo s6 thu 2 g8m n s6 1. 0

Sau day la nhimg ung dung thuong gap va tieu bi~u cua b§,t ding thuc CauchySchwarz. Ta xem xet qua cac vi du tit dun gian d~n phirc tap.

Vi du 1.2.1 (Math Changelles). Cho cae sa thuc dudng Xl, X2, ... , Xn co tang bdng 1. Hay tim gia tri nhO nMt ciia bi€u tMc

(Xl + :J 2 + (X2 + :J 2 + ... + (xn + :n Y

Len CIA!. Sa dung b§,t ding thuc Cauchy - Schwarz ta co

(Xl + :J 2 + (X2 + :J 2 + ... + (xn + :n Y

1 ( 1 1 1 )2

~ - Xl + X2 + ... + Xn + - + - + ... + - ,

n Xl X2 Xn

1 1 1 n2

_+_+ ... +_> =n2.

Xl X2 . Xn - Xl + X2 + ... + Xn

Tu 2 bAt dA.np; t.lnrc trcn ta suy ra

( 1)2 ( 1 )2 ( 1)2 (n2 + 1)2

Xl + - + X2 + - + ... + xn + - ~ "-----'--

Xl X2 Xn n

Ding thirc xay ra khi va chi khi Xl = X2 ~ ... = Xn = lin. 0

Vi du 1.2.2. Cia sit a, b, c to, cae sa thuc dudng, chung minh rang

abc 9

(b+c)2 + (c+a)2 + (a+b)2 ~ 4(a+b+c)'

Len CIA!. Sa dung b§.t ding thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta co

(a+b+c) ( a + b + c ) > (_a_+_b_+_C_)2

(b+c)2 (c+a)2 (a+b)2 - b+c c+a a+b

L9-i theu b§,t ding thuc Cauchy - Schwarz

abc a2 b2 c2 (a+b+c)2 3

-- + -- + -- = + + > > -.

b + c a + c a + b ab + ac ba + be ca + cb - 2 (ab + be + ca) - 2

Tli 2 b§.t dAng thirc tren ta c6 dpcm. Ding thtrc xay ra khi a = b = c. 0

1.2. BAt dAng ttusc Ceucby-Scbwetz-Hokier

21

Vi du 1.2.3. Cho cae s6 duotu; a, b, c co t6ngbdng 3. Chitng minh rdng

Len CIAI. Bai toan da diroc giai CJ phan trtroc bang ki thuat Cos: nquac dfiu, tuy nhien lai co th~ giai kha don gian bang bAt. dl1ng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz nlnr sau

a2 b2 c2 (a2 + b2 + c2)2

a + 2b2 + b + 2c2 + C + 2a2 ~ a3 + b3 + c3 + 2(a2b2 + b2c2 + c2a2)'

Do d6 ta chi can chirng minh

(a2 + b2 + c2)2 ~ a3 + b3 + c3 + 2(a2b2 + b2c2 + c2a2) {::} a4 + b4 + c4 ~ a3 + b3 + c3.

BAt ding tlnrc nay kha quen thuoc, ta c6 th~ dung chrmg minh hoan toan chi bang bAt. ding thtrc Cauchy - Schwarz

3(a3 + b3 + c3) = (a3 + b3 + c3)(a + b + c) ~ (a2 + b2 + c2)2 (a2 + b2 + c2)(1 + 1 + 1) ~ (a + b + c)2 = 9.

Do <.16 a2 + b2 + c2 ~ 3, suy ra a3 -+ b3 + c3 ~ a2 + b2 + c2.

(a4 + b4 + c4)(a2 + b2 + c2) ~ (a3 + b3 + c3)2 :::} a4 + b4 + c4 ~ a3 + b3 + c3.

Diing thirc chi xay ra khi a = b = c = 1. 0

BAt diing thirc tren diroc chimg minh d{\ dang bang each sit dung bAt dAng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz, tuy nhien vai Mt dAng thuc kha tirong tu khac

a2 b2 c2 3

--+--+-->-

a + b2 b + c2 C + a2 - 2'

Ta chi c6 th~ sit dung phirong phap Cosi ngu(1c, khong sti dung duoc true ti~p ducc bAt diing thirc Cauchy - Schwarz.

Vi du 1.2.4 (Vi~t Nam MO 1991). cu s'li x ~ y ~ z ~ O. GMtng minh

Len CIA!. Theo bAt dling thtrc Cauchy - Schwarz ta c6

Chuang 1. BAt d~I1g thuc co sO

Mat khac VI x ~ Y ~ z ncn

x2y y2z z2x x2z y2x z2y (xy+yz+zx)(x-y)(x-z)(y-z)

_+_+ = >0.

z x y y z x xyz -

Tit d6 ta c6 dieu phai chung minh. D~ng thtrc xay ra khi x = y = z. 0

Vi du 1.2.5 (Iran MO 1998). Cia sit x, y, z ~ 1 va ~ + ~ + ~ = 2. CMtng minh x y z

";x+y+z ~ ~+ ~ + JZ-1.

1 1 1 x-I y-l z-l

Len CIA!. VI - + - + - = 2 =? -- + -- + -- = 1.

x y z x y z

Thea b§.t ctiing th(:(c Cauchy - Schwarz ta c6

x + y + z = (x + y + z) (x - 1 + y- 1 + z - 1)

x y z

~ (~+~+vZ-1)2

=? ";x+y+z ~ ~+ ~+vZ-1.

D5.ng thirc xay ra khi va chi khi x = y = z = 3/2. 0

Vi du 1.2.6 (Greece MO 2002). Cho cdc s8 tliuc duanq a, b, c co tang bdng 1. CMtng minh Mt dilng uiac

abc r: r; 1':.2

4b2+l + 4c2+l + 4a2+l ~ (aya+byb+cyc).

CHUNG MINH. Sit dung true tit3p bilt d~ng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz

2: 4(a2b2 + b2c2 + c2a2) + a2 + b2 + c2' Phan con lai cua bai toan, ta chi dn clnrng minh

4(a2b2 + b2c2 + c2a2) + a2 + b2 + c2 S i = (a + b + c)2 ¢:> abel - 4ab),+ bc(1 - 4bc) + ca(l - 4ca) ~ O.

Bilt diing thuc nay hi8n nhien dung VI a + b + c S 1 =? ab, be, ca S 1/4. D~ng thirc xay ra khi trong 3 s6 a, b, c c6 1 s6 bang 1 va 2 s6 bang O. 0

1.2. BAt d~.Ilg tht~c Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder

23

Vi du 1.2.7 (Crux). Wi moi x, y, z ~ 0, chung minh

jx2 + 1 + Jy2 + 1 + Vz2+1 ~ J6(x + y + z).

LOr CIA!. Ap dung he qua (1.2) ta c6

Jx2+1 + JY2+l + Vz2+1 ~ J(x + y + z)2 + 32.

Theo biit dling thirc AM - G M ta c6

(x + y + z)2 + 32 ~ 6(x + y + z).

Dling tlurc xay ra chi khi x = y = z = 1. 0

Vi du 1.2.8. Xtic dinh. di€u kien. cdn va dii vai cae s6 thuc rl, r2, ... , rn sao cho

xi +x~ + ... + x~ ~ (rlXI + r2X2 + ... + rnxn)2 dung vai moi day Xl, X2, ... , Xn E R.

LOr CrA!. Cho Xi = ri ta suy ra day (ri) phai thoa man

2 2 2 1

rl + r2 + ... + r n::::: .

Day cung la dieu kien du, that vay, neu day (ri) thoa man di~u kien nay thl theo bat dang thuc Cauchy - Schsuarz ta c6

2 . 2 2 (2 2 2) (2 2 2) ( . )2

XI+X2+'''+Xn~ rl+r2+···+rn XI+X2+"'+Xn ~ rIXI+r2X2+···+rnXn .

Khang dinh diroc chung minh xong. 0

Vi du 1.2.9 (IMO Shortlist 1993). Chitng minh vai moi 86 dUdng a, b, c, d

abc d 2

:----::-----::-: + + + > -.

b + 2c + 3d c + 2d + 3a d + 2a + 3b a + 2b + 3c - 3

LOr CIA!. Thoo bAt ctling tl1l1c Cauchy - Schwarz ta c6

~ ~ ~ ~

VT == + + + ------,-

ab + 2ac + 3ad be + 2bd + 3ba cd + 2ca + 3cb da + 2db + 3dc

(a+b+c+d)2

> .

- 4( ab + be + cd + da + ac + bd)

M~t khac

(a + b + c + d)2 = 2(ab + be + cd t da + ac + bd) + a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 8

~ 3" (ab + be + cd + da + ac + bd).

Tu d6 ta c6 dpcm. DAng thirc xay ra chi khi a = b = c = d. 0

24

Cbuoug 1. B~t dAng thuc co sCi

Vi du 1.2.10. Ch(tng minh vai moi a, b, c dUdng

a3b b3c c3a abc(a + b + c)

--""7 + + > ---'----~

1 + ab2 1 + bc2 1 + ca2 - 1 + abc

Len GIAI. Voi moi 86 thirc dirong k, theo bfit diing thirc Cauchy - Schwarz

a2 b2 c2 (a+b+c)2 a+b+c

--+--+-->-,-,----'----:-:----:-'----:-

b + kc c + ka a + kb - (k + 1)( a + b + c) k + 1 '

Lay k = l/(abc) ta c6 di{)u phai chang minh. Diing thirc xay ra khi a = b = c. 0 Vi du 1.2.11 (BAt dAng thirc Nesbitt 6 bi~n). Chitng minh ding vai moi a, b, c, d, e, f la cac s8 thuc dudng

abc d e f

-- + -- + -- + -- + -- + -- > 3.

b+c c+d d+e e+f f+a a+b-

CHUNG MINH. Theo bfit diing thirc Cauchy - Schwarz

abc d e f

--+--+--+--+--+--

b+c c-s d d+e e+f f+a a+b

a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 p

= + + + + +---

ab+ac bc +bd cd+ce de+df ef+ea fa+fb

(a+b+c+d+e+f)2

>

~+~+~+~+~+~+~+a+ro+M+#+fi·

GQi S lit m§.u 86 cua phan thirc noi tren

2S = (a + b + c + d + e + f)2 - (a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + e2 + f2 + 2ad + 2bd + 2cf).

Theo bfit dimg thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta c6

a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + e2 + f2 + 2ad + 2bd + 2cf = (a + d)2 + (b + e)2 + (d + f)2 1

~ "3(a+b+c+f+e+f)2.

Do do 2S :::; 2/3(a + b + c + d + e + f)2, ta co dpcm. Ding thirc xay ra chi khi a = b = c = d = e = f. 0

Vi d1,l1.2.12 (Korea 2002). Hai day s8 th'(tc aI, a2, ... , an vii bl, b2, ... , bn thod man

2 2 2 b2 b2 b2 1

al + a2 + ... + an = I + 2 + ... + n = .

Ch·t1ng minh Mt ddng mac

(alb2 - a2bl)2 :::;2lalbl + a2b2 + ... + anbn - 1\.

1.2. BAt dAng thtrc Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder

LeH GIAI. Trong bai nay ta phai s11 dung d~ng thuc khai trien batd~ng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz, do la

(ai + ... + a;,)(bi + ... + b;,) - (albl + ... + anbn)2

n

= 2: (aibj - ajbi)2 ~ (alb2 - a2bd2.

i,j=l

Theo gia thiet ai + a~ + ... + a;' = bi + b~ + ... + b;, = 1 nen theo bat d~ng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta co 1 ~ albl + a2b2 + ... + anbn ~ -1. Do do

(1 - albl - a2b2 - ... - anbn)(1 + albl + a2b2 + ... + anbn) ~ (alb2 - a2bd2. ~ 21albl + a2b2 + ... + anbn - 11 ~ (alb2 - a2bl)2. 0

Vi du 1.2.13 (Crux). TIm gia try nhO nMt'c1La biiu thsic

3a 4b 5c

--+--+--.

b+c c+a a+b

Wi a, b, c la cac s8 thuc duonq tuy y.

LdI GIAI. S11 dung bat. d~ng Cauchy - Schwarz

3a 4b 5c· (3 4 5)

- + -- + -- +(3+4+5) = (a+b+c) - + --+-b+c c+a a+b b+c c+a a+b

1 (3 4 5) (J3 + J4 + J5)2

=-2(b+c+c+a+a+b) -b-+--+--b ~ 2 .

+c c+a a+

1

Suy ra gia tri nho nhat ella bi6u thirc bang 2( J3 + J4 + J5)2 - 12,

D . ~ . kh' hi khi b + c c + a a + b O·

ang blue xay ra 1 va ell J3 = -2- = vis'

Vi du 1.2.14. Chung minh rling n€u a, b, c ~ 0 va abc = 1 th'i

111 --+--+--<1.

2+a 2+b 2+c-

LdI alAI. Biit d~ng thirc tuong dirong voi

. 2 . 2 ·2

1---+1---+1--->1

2+a 2+b 2+c-

abc <=>--+--+-->1.

2+a 2+b 2+c-

25

ry b __ rz

a=- ,

x y ,

rt

c=- , z

d = rx. t

26

Cbuong 1. B&t dt1ng ttutc co sd

> • •

T6n tai cac s6 thirc x, y, z sao cho a = x/y, b = y/ z, c = z]», Ta phai chang minh x/y + y/z + z/x > I

2+x/y 2+y/z 2+z/x-

¢=> _x_ + _y_ + _z_ > 1.

x + 2y y + 2z z + 2x -

Theo bilt diing thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta co

x y z (x + y + z)2

__ + __ + __ > =1.

x+2y y+2z z+2x-x(x+2y)+y(y+2z)+z(z+2x)

Dang thuc xay ra khi va chi khi x = y = z hay a = b = c = 1. 0

Vi du 1.2.15. ChUng minh ding ooi moi a, b, c, d dsunu; co tich bdng I thi

I I I I

---,----.,. + + + > 2.

a(l+b) b(l+e) e(l+d) d(l+a)-

LCH GIAI. Do abcd = I nen t6n tai cac s6 thirc x, y, z, t sao cho

a = y/x, b = z/y, c = t] z, d = x/to

Thay a, b, e, d bdi x, y, z, t vao bilt diing thuc

I I 1 I

_____ + + + >2

y/x(l + z/y) z/y(1 + tjz) t/z(l + x/t) . x/tel + y/x) -

x y z t

¢=> -- + -. - + -- + -- > 2.

y+z z+t t+x x+y-

Day lit hilt diing thuc N esbiti 4 bien dft duoc chang minh (j tren, 0

Vi du 1.2.16. ChUng minh rdng n€u a, b, e, d lii cac 88 tliuc dUdng vii r4 = abed ~ I Mt dang thue sau lu6n dung

ab + I be + I ed + I da + 1 4( 1 + r2)

--+--+--+--> .

a+1 b+1 e+1 d+1 - l+r

LdI GIAI. Chu Y rang tU gia thi6t abed = r4 ~ 1 ta suy ra t6n tai cac s6 thirc dirong

x, y, z, t sao cho

Khi do bilt diing thuc diroc viet lai diroi dang

~ + 1 + ~ + 1 + ~ + 1 + 9 + 1 > 4(r2 + 1)

rY+1 8.+1 !!+1 l:if.+1 - r+1

x y z t

r2 z + x r2t + y r2x + z r2," + t 4(r2 + 1)

¢=> + . + + .. , > .

ry + x rz + y rt + z rx + t - r + 1

1.2. BAt dA.ng tbiic Caucby-Scbwarz-Holder

27

Xct 2 bieu thirc

A=x+Z + y+t + x+Z + y+t,

ry + x r Z + y rt + Z rx + t

z t x Y

B =-- + -- + -- + --.

ry+x rz+t rt+z rx+t

Ta phai chirng minh

A + (r2 _ l)B > 4(r2 + 1). -. r + 1

Theo bfit dAng thirc AM - GM de thfiy

4r(xy + yz + zt + tx) + 8(xz + yt)

= 4(r - l)(x + z)(y + t) + 4(x + z)(y + t) + 8xz + 8yt ~ (r - l)(x + y + z + t)2 + 2(x + y + z + t)2

~ (r+ 1)(x+y+z+t)2.

::iii dung bilt tIling thirc Cauchy - Schwarz, chu y rang r ~ 1 ta e6

A = (x + z) (_1_ + _1_) + (y+t) (_1_ + _1_)

ry + x rt + z . rx + y r z + t

4(x+z) + 4(y+t)

x+z+ry+rt y+t+rx+rz

> 4(x + y.+ z + t)2 > _8_

(x+z)2+(y+t)2+2r(x+z)(y+t) - r+1' (x + y + z + t)2

B~

z(ry + x) + t(rz + y) + x(rt + z) + y(rx + t)

> (x + y + z + t)2 > _4_

r(xy + yz + zt + tx) + 2(xz + yt) - r + 1 .

>

Ttl' 2 bat dAng thirc tren ta e6 dieu phai chirng minh. Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = d = r . 0

Sau day chung ta so nghien CI~U mot dang me rong thirong g~p va co nhieu rmg dung cua bfit d£ng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz, d6 la bfit dl1ng thirc Holder.

1.2.2 BAt d~ng thtrc Holder

Dinh ly 1.3 (B§.t ding thuc Holder). Wi m day s6 d'ltdng (al,l,a1,2, .... ,a1,,,),

(a2,1, a2,2, .... , a2,,,) ... (arn,l, arn,2, .... , arn,n) ta co

rn(n ) (n rn

II ~a' > ~mIIa·.

L ~,J - L v-s

i=l j=l j=l z=l

rn

28

Clntoug 1. B~.t dAng ttuic co sa

Diing ihnic xay ra khi m day do l'ltdngang ti If Bru diing tluic Cauchy - Schwarz Iii. he qua true ti€p ctui bilt dang th-ac Holder uoi m = 2.

HC1l qua 1.4. V(fi a, b, c, x, y, z, m, n,p lil cac s6 thuc dUdng ta c6

CHUNG MINH. Thirc ra day chi 180 hi;' qua true tiep cua bfi.t dAng thirc Holder vdi m = n = 3. Cach chirng minh sau e6 th€ lam 11;I.i hoan toan tuong tu voi d~ clnrng minh bfi.t dil.ng thirc Holder dang t6ng quat.

S11 dung bfi.t dil.ng thirc AM - G M ta e6

a3 x3 m3

a3 + b3 + c3 + x3 + y3 + z3 + m3 + m3 + p3

> 3axm

- {/(a3 + b3 + c3)(x3 + y3 + z3)(m3 + n3 + p3)

Xay dung tirong tl,t 2 bfi.t dAng thirc mra vui (b,y,n) va (c,z,p) r6i cong thea tirng ve ta co di6u phai clnmg minh. 0

MQt hi;' qua cua bfi.t diing thirc Holder thuong duoc ap dung la HC1l qua 1.5. V(fi day s6 duano al, a2, ... , an, chUng minh

CHUNG MINH. S11 dung bAt dAng tlnrc AM - GM ta c6

1 lIn

-- + --- + ... + -- > --;:;===::;=;:==:===;===::::;:: 1 + al 1 + a2 1 + an - y!(l + al)(l + a2) ... (1 + an)'

_a_l_ + ~ + ... + ~ > nytala2 ... an

l+al 1+a2 l+an - v'(1+al)(1+a2) ... (1+an)

Cong thea tirng va 2 b§.t diing thrrc tren ta e6 di~u phai chimg minh. 0

B§.t dAng thuc Holder la mot bfi.t dAng thuc manh va co nhieu irng dung, nhimg I'M t.h~e no khong diroc dung phiS bien C1 phiS thong hicn nay. Cac hQ qua ricng C1 tron d€ minh hoa eho bcit dAng thirc Holder ea vB each chtmg minh Ian each s11 dung. Viec lam quen va thuan thuc voi bfi.t dAng thirc nay cling I'fi.t d.n thiet, VI tuy I'1i.ng c6 mot phat bi€u hoi kh6 nhln, bat dang thirc Holder hoan toan de hieu va irng dung hieu qua voi nhieu bai toano Sau day la mot s6 vi du:

Vi du 1.2.17 (IMO 2001. Pro A2). V(fi m9i a, b, c dUdng ta co abc

-;=::;r:=;:::;;== + + > 1.

v' a2 + 8be v'b2 + 8ae v' e2 + 8ab -

1.2. BAt d~.I1g ttntc Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder

29

LCH CIA!. Xet cac bi6u thirc :

abc

A= + + ,

v' a2 + 8bc v'b2 + 8ac v' c2 + 8ab

B ~ a(0.2 + 8bc) + b(b2 + 8ac) + c(c2 + 8a:b) = a3 + b3 + c3 + 24abc.

Thco Llit J[mg thirc Holder vdi 3 day (he qua l.4} ta c6

3 A.A.B ~ (a + b + c) .

Ta bay gio ta chi c§.n clnrng minh (a + b + c)3 ~ B, hay

DAng tlnrc xay ra chi khi a = b = c. 0

Vi du 1.2.18. ChUng minh rdng ntu a, b, c La cdc s8 th1,lC dUdng co tich bdng 1 thZ ta co cdc Mt diing thslc sau day

abc

----r.::==:;=== + + > l,

v'7 + b + c v'7 + c + a v'7 + a + b -

abc

----r.::===::::;::;;==::;<= + + > 1.

v'7 + b2 + c2 '17 + c2 + a2 v'7 + a2 + b2 -

Btu diing thuc sau co dung hay kMng ?

Len CIA!. Vdi blit dAng thirc d§.u tien, dat

A=

abc

v'7 + b + c + v'7 + c + a + v'7 + a + b' a(7 + b + c) + b(7 + a + c) + c(7 + a + b).

B=

Theo b§,t J[Ulg thirc Holder ta c6

A2 B ~ (a + b + c)3.

Ta phai chirng minh (a + b + c)3 ~ B = Z(a + b + c) + 2(o.b + be + ce). Theo blit dAng thirc AM - GM, 0.+ b + c ~ 3~ = 3 nen

(a + b + c) 3 ~ 7 (a + b +c) + ~ (a + b + c) 2 ~ 7 (a + b + c) + 2 (ab + be + ca).

30

Chuang 1. BAt dAng thuc co sCi

Voi hfit ditng thirc thu 2, ta dM

C=

abc

J7 + b2 + c2 + J7 + a2 + c2 + )7 + a2 + b2 ' a(7 + b2 + c2) + b(7 + c2 + a2) + c(7 + a2 + b2).

D=

Theo bfit ding thirc Holder thl C2 D Z (a + b + c)3.

D = 7(a + b + c) + (a + b + c)(ab + be + ca) - 3, (a+b+c)3

.::; 7(a+b+c)+ 3 -3'::; (a+b+c)3.

Til d6 suy ra dieu phai chirng minh. Bat ding thuc thu 3 kh6ng dung. That vay, ta chi cAn cho a ~ 0 va b = c ~ +00, chang han a = 10-4, b = c = 100. 0

Vi du 1.2.19 (Junior Banlkan 2000). ChUng m.inh v{Ji moi a, b, c dUdng

a3 b3 c3 a2 b2 c2

b2 + -2 + -2 > -b + - +-.

c a - c a

LdI GIAI. 811 dung bftt ding thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta c6

(a2 b2 C2)

b+~+~ (b+a+c)z(a+b+cf,

(a3 b3 C3) (a2 b2 C2)2

b2 + c2 + a2 (.a + b + c) z b + ~ + ~

Til 2 bfit ding tlnrc tren ta co diau phai clnrng minh. 0 Ta co bai tOI3.n t6ng quat sau

Vi du 1.2.20. Wi a, b, c la cdc s6 thuc, k z 1, kEN ihi

ak+1 bk+1 ck+1 ak bk ck

~+~+~z bk-I + Ck-I + ak-I'

LdI GIAI. 811 dung bfit ding thirc Holder

( ak bk Ck)

bk-I + Ck-I + ak-I (b+a+c)k-I Z (a+b+c)k

ak bk ck

:::} bk-1 + Ck-1 + ak-1 Z a + b + c,

(ak+l bk+1 ck+1)k-1 ( ak bk ck)k

~+~+~ (a+b.+c)z bk-I + ck-I + ak-I

Til 2 bfit ding thirc trcn ta rut ra diau phai chung minh. K~t qua nay van dung neu k htru ti (chung minh tuong tu), va do d6 se dung vdi moi s6 thirc k z 1, khong nhat thict k la s6 nguyen. 0

1.2. BAt d~.Ilg tinic Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder

31

Vi du 1.2.21 (Singapore MO 2002). ChUng minh vdi moi s6 dUdng a, b, c 3(a3 + b3 + c3)2 ~ (a2 + b2 + c2)3.

Lot C IAI. Stt dung trirc tiep b&t Jiillg that: Holder

(a3 + b3 + c3)(a3 + b3 + c3)(1 + 1 + 1) ~ (a2 + b2 + c2)3. 0

Vi du 1.2.22 (Crux). Wi cdc s6 th'l!c dUdng al, a2, ... , an co t6ng bdng 1, hay tim gia try nh6 nMt cud, biiu thitc

LdI CIAI. X6t cac bicu thtrc

Theo b&t di\ng thirc Holder ta co

2 ~ 3

A .B ~ (al + a2 + ... + an) = 1.

N goai ra de th§.y

B· _ (2 2 2 ) 1 (a 1 + a2 + ... + an) 2 _ n - 1

- 1 - al + a2 + ... + an ~ - - --.

n n

Do et6 A ~ J n . Diing thric xiiy ra khi va chi khi ai = ~- Vi = 1, n. 0

n-1 n

VI du 1.2.23. Cho cdc s6 th'l,te kh6ng am a, b, c co t6ng bdng 1. ChUng minh ding abe

3~+ 3~+ 3~>1.

Y U T ~u Y b + 2c y c + 2a -

LdI C IAI. X6t cac bieu thirc

abc

S = ij a + 2b + ijb + 2c + ij c + 2a'

P = a(a + 2b) + b(b + 2c) + c(c + 2a) = (a + b + c)2 = 1.

Theo b§.t d~ng thirc Holder

S3.p 2:: (a + b + e)4 => S3 ~ (a + b + ef = 1 => S ~ 1.

DAng thrrc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = e = 1/3. 0

32

Cbuang 1. B~t dAng thl1c co sa

Vi du 1.2.24. Ch·(tng minh btit diing tlnic

abc In

--;=~===i'i"=:::;<= + + > v 3,

J2b2 + 2c2 - a2 J2c2 + 2a2 - b2 J2a2 + 2b2 - c2 -

Trang do a, b, c La cac s8 thuc dUdng sao cho cac can ihsic t6n iai.

LCH GrAr. Coi bi~u thirc va trai la P. Dat

S a(2b2 + 2c2 - a2) + b(2c2 + 2a2 - b2) + c(2a2 + 2b2 - c2) 2ab(a + b) + 2bc(b + c) + 2ca(c + a) - a3 - b3 - c3.

Theo Mt cling thirc H oLder ~a c6

P.P.S ~ (a + b + c)3.

Do do ta chi cAn clumg minh

(a+b+c)3~3S.

B§.t diing thirc tren tirong duong vdi

4(a3 + b3 + c3) + 6abc ~ 4 (ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a)).

Dc c6 bitt cliing thirc trcn, ta chi can cong vB 2 bitt cliing thirc qucn thuoc sau

3(a3 + b3 + e3 + 3abe) ~. 3 (ab(a + b) + be(b + e) + ea(e + a)), a3 + b3 + e3 ~ 3abc.

Ding thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = e. 0

Vi du 1.2.25. Chitng minh ding n€u p ~ 2 va a; b, e ~ 0 th'i

3 a3 + pabe 3 b3 + pabe 3 e3 + pabe b

+ + 1 < a + +e.

p+l p+l p+-

LOr GrAr. Goi P la bien tlnrc ve trai, ap dung b§.t cl1lng thltcH oLder ta c6

(a + b + e) (( a 2 + pbe) + (b2 + pea) + (e2 + pab)) (1 + 1 + 1) ~ (p + 1) p3 .

Do cl6 ta chi d.n chirng minh rang

(a2 + pbe) + (b2 + pea) + (e2 + pab) :=:; p; 1 (a + b + e)2.

B§.t ding thirc nay hii~n nhien VI

p-2

VT = (a + b + e)2 + (p - 2)(ab + be + ea) :=:; (a + b + e)2 + -3-(a + b + e)2 = V P.

Dang thirc xiiy ra khi a = b = e. 0

1.2. BAt d~.ng ttuic Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder

33

Vi d1;11.2.26 (Mo rQng IMO 2001 Pro. A2). Cho cdc 86 thnic dudng Xl, X2, ... , Xn· DM Yi = XlX2 ... Xi-lX·i+lXi+2",Xn· Ch'uny minh btit diiny th'uc

Xn

+ ... + ~1.

n-\/ X~:-l + (nn-l - l)Yn

LClI G IAI. Dat S Ill, v6 trai cua bat rliinp; tlnrc va

P = Xl (x~-l + (nn-l - l)Yd + X2 (x2-l + (n{t-l - 1)Y2) + + ... + Xn (X~-l + (nn-l - l)Yn)

_ n + n + + n + (n-,l )

- Xl X2 ... Xn n - n XlX2",Xn'

Theo bat, clAng thirc Holder ta c6

Ta phai chirng minh

Tuy nhicn bat ding thirc trcn hien nhien dung VI sau khi tach xf + x2 + ... + x~: ra khoi (Xl + X2 + .. , + Xn)" thi cac s6 hang con 19-i c6 thJ bi~u dien d6i xirng thanh cac t6ng ldn hon hoac bang XlX2",Xn' 0

Nht bat dAng thuc giai duoc b~ng Holder thl ding se giai dtroc bang bat dAng thrrc AM - G M, VI thirc t~, d~ chang minh bat dAng thtrc Holder ta cling chi dn dung bat dAng thirc AM - GM. Chang han voi vi du 1.2.26 ta e6 th~ dung true ti6p bat dAng thuc AM - G M thea each sau day

D~t M = al + a2 + ... + an, ap dung b§.t diing thuc AM - GM eho n s6

(n - l)xl + Xl (x~-l + (nn-l - l)Yd

n-\/x~-l + (nn-l ;- l)Yl u»

nXl >- M'

Lam tuong tl,! cac bat dling thuc vdi' X2, X3,'" Xn r6i cong lai ta duoc

34

Cbuoug 1. Bitt diing thuc co sa

Nhir vay ta chi phai chimg minh

K6t qua nay dii dl1(1C clnrng minh a trcn.

Ngoai ra s6 k = nn-l -1 cling Ill, hang 86 duong t6t nhat (nho nhat) d~ bAt dAng thirc sau dung vdi moi 86 thirc dirong Xl, X2, "., Xn

Vrii cac bai toan thong tlurong t hi bAt dA.ng tlurc Holder lai dung thuan ticn han biit dimg thirc AM - GM vi khong e§.n xet cac dieu kien diing thirc, con trong trircng hop t6ng quat ban chi c§.n ghi nhd chimg minh voi m = n = 3 la du. Xem them phan 811 dung b§.t diing thirc H older d~ can bang h~ 86, trang 74.

1.3 B§.t dklng thrrc Chebyshev

1.3.1 B§.t d~ng thtrc Chebyshev va img dung

Dinh ly 1.4 (Bfit dii.ng thuc Chebyshev). Wi 2 day 86 th'!lC don. di~u tang aI, a2, "" an va bl, b2, '''' b., ta co

CHUNG MINH, Bang phan tich true ti~p, ta c6 ditng thirc sau

n

= L (a'i - aj)(bi - bj) ~ 0.

i,j=l

Vi cac dayal, a2, "" an va bl, b2, ,." bn don dieu nen (ai - aj)(bi - bj) ~ 0,

N5u 2 day cr, a2, "" an va bl, b2, , .. , bn don dieu ngiroc chieu thl bAt diing thirc tren d6i chien. Chung minh dieu nay hoan toan tirong tu. 0

Thong tlnroug cac LAt Jiillg tlnrc J6i xirng vui cac Lien, nell viec sAp x8p lai cac bien luon c6 th6 thuc hi¢n dl1<;1C, Do d6 tnroc khi S11 dung bitt diing thirc nay ta phai c6 mot biroc s~p x5p lai cac bien rna khong lam mat tfnh t6ng quat cua bai toan. Liru y rang di~u nay chi dung khi va chi khi bAt diing thrrc c§,n clnrng minh hoan

1.3. B§,t dAng thue Chebyshev va U'ng dung

35

toan d6i xirng voi titt ca cac bien.

Bitt dang thirc Chebyshev c6 nhicu ling dung rlit hay, va n6i chung lam cho bai toan duoc giai quyet thea each don gian hon trong kha nhieu truong hop. Chung ta cung xem xet cac vi du sau d~ thity ro dieu nay ..

H~ qua 1.6. N€u aI, a2, ... , an la cae s6 thuc d'l1dng co t6ng'bdng n thi

CHUNG MINH. S11 dung bat dl1ng thirc Chebyshev cho 2 hi) don dicu aI, a2, ... , an va a]', a2, ... , a~ ta c6 ngay dieu phai chung minh. 0

Vi dl,11.3.1 (Balkan MO). Cho cac s6 th1/e duaru; al,a2, ... ,an thoa ttuitia; + a2 + .:. + an = 1. ChUng minh

al a2 an n

--+--+ ... +-->--.

2 - a 1 2 - a2 2 - an - 2n - 1

LeI! G IAI. Vi bitt dang thirc d6i xirng voi titt ca cac bien nen ta c6 the gia sli dU<jc al ~ a2 ~ ... ~ an. Khi d6

1 1 1

-->--> ... >--.

2 - al - 2 - a2 - - 2 - an

Theo bitt diing thirc Chebyshev thl

1 (1 1 1 )

VT~ -(al+a2+ ... +an) --+--+ ... +--

n 2 - al 2 - a2 2 - an

Diing thirc xay ra chi khi al = a2 = ... = an = lin. 0

Vi du 1.3.2. Cac s6 duanq a, b, e, d co t6ng binh. ph'ltdng bdng 4. ChUng minh

a2. b2 c2 d2 4

---+ + + >-.

b+c+d c+d+a d+a+b a+b+c - 3

LCH GIA!. Khong mat tinh t6~ quat ta gia 811 a ~ b ~ c ~ d, khi d6 ;'2 > b2 > c2 > d2

- - - ,

1 1 1 1

---> > >---

b+c+d-c+d+a-d+a+b-a+b+c

36

Clutaug 1. Bilt d&ng thuc co sd

S11 dung b§,t diing thirc Chebyshev ta c6

( 1 1 1 1)

4. VT > a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + + +

- ( ) b+c+d c+d+a d+a+b a+b+c

16(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2) 4J4(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2)

> > .

- 3(a + b + c + d) - 3 .

Suy ra dieu phai chirng minh. Diing thirc xay fa chi khi a = b = c = d = 1. 0

Vi du 1.3.3 (China MO 1996). Ctu: 86 th'l!C duotu; al, a2, ... , an c6 t6ng bdng 1. Ch·ltng minh Mt d6.ng th:IIC

LOI GIAI. Khong mat tinh t6ng quat ta gia S11 al ~ a2 ~ ... ~ an· Khi d6

1 1 1

11----::- > ~ > ... > ~.

V.l - Ul - V 1 - a2 - - V 1 - an

S11 dung b§,t d~ng thirc Chebyshev cho 2 bQ don dieu tren

"( 1 1 1 )

n.VT ~ (al + a2 + ... + an) ",----;:;-:- + ~ + ... + ~ .

V 1 - al V 1 - a2 V 1 - an

Theo b§,t diing'thdc Cauchy - Schwarz thi

n = n( al + a2 + + an) ~ (ylal + y'(i2 + ... + ·/a.;;Y

~ yIal + y'(i2 ~ + Fn :::; Vn·

~--------------~

~ + ~ + ... +'y'1-an:::; In(n- al-a2 - ... - an)

:::; In(n - 1).

Do d6

1 1 1 n2 n2

. 11----::- + ~ + ... + ~ > 11----::- ~ > .

V.l - Ul V 1 - a2 V 1 - an - V 1 - al + ... + V 1 - an - In(n - 1)

'I'ir 2 b§,t ditng thuc tren ta suy fa

1 n2

VT > -. ----;====

- n In(n - 1)

yfal + ..fii2 + ... + .;a;;

> ~--~~==~~--

- In=l

Diing thirc chi xay fa khi t§,t ca. cac bien d~u bang nhau. 0

ChUng minh r?ing

1.3. B§,t dif.ng thuc Chebyshev va (tng clung

Vi du 1.3.4 (Crux). Cia sU cdc s8 ihntc a, b, c > 1 thad man

1 1 1

a2 - 1 + b2 - 1 + c2 _ 1 = 1.

111 --+--+--<1. a+1 b+1 c+1-

LdI GIAI. Ta s11 dung b§,t doing thirc Chebyshev k@t hop vdi phirong phap chimg minh bftng phan chirng (ban hay xem d chtrong IV). N6i each khac, ta se chimg minh rang, neu cac so thtrc a, b, c > 1 thea man

111

a + 1 + b + 1 + c + I = 1,

Thl b§,t doing thirc sau luon dung

III

a2 - I + b2 - 1 + c2 _ 1 ~ 1.

That vay, tt.t gia thiet suy ra

a-2 b-2 c-2 a+l+b+l+c+I=O (*)

B§,t doing thirc can chimg minh tirong dirong vdi

4 - a2 4 - b2 4 - c2

a2 - I + b2 - I + c2 _ I ~ 0 a-2 a+2 b-2 b+2 c-2 c+2

¢:} --.-- + --.-- + --.-- < O. a+1 a-I b+1 b-I c+l c-I-

\

Chu Y rftng n6u ta c6 a ~ b ~ c thl

a-2. b-2 c-2 -->-->-a+l-b+l-c+I'

a+2 b+2 c+2 --<--<--. a-I-b-l-c-I'

Do d6 ta chi can ap dung b§,t diing thuc Chebyshev cho 2 b(i ngiroc chieu n6i tren va chu y dicu kien (*) ta c6 dieu phai chimg minh. Doing thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = 2. 0

Vi du 1.3.5 (CWMO 2005). Cho cac s8 th'(tc dttdng a, b, c, d, e thad man

I I .1 1 I

4+a+4+b+4+c+4+d+4+e=1.

ChUng minh rling

a b. c d e

--+--'+--+--+--<1 4 + a2 4 + b2 4 + c2 4 + d2 4 + e2 - .

38

Cbuaug 1. BAt dAng tiuic co sd

LOI CIA!. Theo gia thi6t ta c6

I-a I-b l-c I-d l-e

-- + ~ + -- + -- + -- = O.

4+a 4+b 4+c 4+d 4+e

Ta phai chirng minh

1 1 1 1 1

--+--+--+--+--

4+a 4+b 4+c 4+d 4+e

abc d e

>--+--+--+--+--

- 4 + a2 4 + b2 4 + c2 4 + (12 4 + e2

I-a I-b l-c I-d .

¢:? + + + > O.

(4 + a)(4 + a2) (4 + b)(4 + b2) (4 + c)(4 + c2) (4 + d)(4 + d2) -

Cia sit r~ng a ~ b ~ c ~ d ~ e, khi d6 de thay

I-a I-b l-c I-d l-e --<--<--<--<--. 4+a-4+b-4+c-4+d-4+e

1 1 1 1 1

--<--<--<--<-- 4 + a2 - 4 + b2 - 4 + c2 - 4 + d2 - 4 + e2 .

Do du ta chi dm ap dung bttt d~ug tlntc Chebyshev cho 2 bodon diou giarn trcn ~0 c6 di€u phai chimg minh. Dii.ng thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = d = e = 1. 0

Vi du 1.3.6. Gia s'll cae s6 th'l,tc duang a, b, c thoa man a + b + c + d = 4. CMlng

minh bilt ddng thuc .

1 1 1 1 1

---+ + + <-.

11+a2 11+b2 1~+c2 11+d2 - 3

LOI CIAl. Bfit d~ng tlnrc co the vi~t lai dttoi dang tirong duong

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

11 + a2 - 12 + 11 + b2 - 12 + 11 + c2 - 12 + 11 + d2 - 12 5 0

a2 - 1 b2 - 1 c2 - 1 d2 - 1

11 + a2 + 11 + b2 + 11 + c2 + 11 + d2 ~ 0

a+l b+l c+l d+l

{:} (a - 1). a 2 + 11 + (b ~ 1). b2 + 11 + (c - 1). c2 + 11 + (d - 1). d2 + 11 ~ O.

CM Y r~ng nau a ~ Q ~ c ~ d tht ta luon co

a+1 b+1 c+1 d+1

a2 + 11 ~ b2 + 11 ~ c2 + 11 ~ d2 + 11 .

Nen ap dung bAt d~ng thirc Chebyshev cho b(> s6 tren va b(> (a -1, b-1, c -1, d -1) ta co di~u phai ehung minh. D~ng thirc xay ra khi va chikhi a = b = c = d = 1. 0

Tac gia se khong de c~p nhieu den nhtmg bai toau ap dung tn,tc tiep ba.t diillg thuc Chebyshev rna se di sau hon d6n mot ki thuat rAt hay lien quan d6n bat dAng thirc nay, ki thuat phan tach Chebyshev. Cac ban con gap lai nhirng trng dung dl;ic biet hen cua ki thuat nay trong phan sau cua t{ip sach, phan Coc bai ioui sang tao.

1.3. BAt dAng thuc Chebyshev va ung dung

39

1.3.2 KI thuat phan tach Chebyshev

D~ cac ban de hmh dung v€ phuong phap nay, hay xem mot vi du sau day Vi du 1.3.7. Cho cae 86 tlvuc dUdng a, b, e, d thou man di€u ki~n

a + b + c + d = 11a + lib + lie + lid.

Ch'ung minh bilt ddng tMc

2( a + b + c + d) 2 j a2 + 3 + jb2 + 3 + j c2 + 3 + j d2 + 3.

LCII GIAI. Neu nhin thoang qua ve u0 bai, cac ban se earn thay kh6 khan VI gia thiet cua bai toan kh6ng tM,t tuong minh. Neu ban ·da bi~t nhieu ki thuat chirng minh b~t diing th((e thl lai csng de bi nham khi di theo nhimg phuong phap manh vi du nhu don bien chang han. TM.t b~t ngo, bai toan tren duoc giai hoan toan don gian bang bAt. diing thirc Chebyshev, tAt nhien voi mot ki thuat lip dung kha di;ic bict ...

Ta tru tirong ((ng tirng s6 hang cua 2 v~ va chu y diing thirc

2a _ j a2 + 3 = . 3( a2 - 1) ( * )

2a + Ja2 + 3

Khong thii ap dung h~t dAng thirc Chebyshev ngay diroc VI ca tii s6 va mdu s6 cua bifll thrrc d611 1a cae ham don di0n tang. Tny nhien hay chu y giR thi~t

·1 1 1 1

- + - + - + - = a + b + c+d abc d

* (a-~)+(b-~)+(C-~)+(d-~) =0

a2 - 1 b2 - 1 c2 - 1 d2 - 1

{::} -- + -- + -- + -- = O.

abc d

Tu tliillg thuc nay ban doc c6 thC thay mot moi lien hO vdi (*), tl6 18. chung tii s6 a2 - 1. Day chinh 18. chia khoa d6 giai bai toano B~t diing thirc ttrong dirong voi

3(a2-1) + 3(b2-1) + 3(c2-1) + 3(d2-1) >0

2a + J a2 + 3 2b + Jb2 + 3 2c + J c2 + 3 2d + J d2 + 3 -

a2-1 b2-1 c2-1 cP-l

{::} -a- + -b- + -c- + -d- > O.

2 + VI +:. 2 + VI + ~ 2 + VI + ~ 2 + VI + ~ -

Liru y Lcit uiing. t.lnrc ua cho hoan toan u6i ximg voi 4 bien a, b, c, d va cac ham s6

i2 -1 1

f(x) = -'- = x - -,

x x

1

g(x) =. h,3'. 2+y1+~

40

Chuang 1. Bllt diing tbuc co sa

D~u la cac ham tang tren R+ nen theo b&t diing thirc Chebyshev

f(a)g(a) + f(b)g(b) + f(c)g(c) + f(d)g(d) ~

1 -

"4(f(a) + f(b) + f(c) + f(d))(g(a) + g(b) + g(c) + g(d)) = O.

VI ta c6 f(a) + f(b) + f(c) + f(d) = O. Diing thirc xay ra khi a = b = c = d = 1. 0

Dieu dac biet nhat ij lai giai naychinh la viec chia ca tU va mau moi phan s6 tirong tmg cac s6 a, b, c, d tirong irng, sau do moi dung b&t diing tlnro Chebyshev. N6u ta dung true tiep thi kh6ng mang lai hieu qua. C6 th6 khai quat phirong phap tren thanh dang t6ng quat vdi n bien

D~ chung minh X1Yl + X2Y2 + ... + XnYn ~ 0 ta c6 th~ chtrng minh

Yl . (xlal) + Y2 . (X2a2) + ... + Yn . (xnan) ~ 0,

al a2 an

,

Trong do al, a2, ... , an la cac s6 thuc rna ta phai tim sao cho

La cac b(> don dieu cimg chieu d~ di~u kien b&t diing thuc Chebyshev diroc thoa man. Khi do vice clnrng rninh b§.t ding tlnrc ban dclu se dl1<;1C quy v~ clnrng minh 2

b§.t diing thirc don gian hen la .

Yl + Y2 + ... + Yn ~ 0,

al a2 an

xlal + X2a2 + ... + Xnan ~ O.

M¢t dang thirong s11 dung cua ki thuat nay la ap dung vdi dang phan thirc. Gia S11 ta phai clnrng minh bllt dl1ng thirc dang

Xl + X2 + ... + Xn > O.

Yl Y2 Yn -

ve if thuyet thi ta luon co the dua b&t diing tlnrc ve dang nay, tham. chi co the chon Yl, Y2, ... , Y2 ~ O. Khi d6 ta di tim cac s6 thuc al, a2, ... , an sao cho

la cac be> don dieu nguoc chieu, khi do bfit diing thirc se diroc chimg minh neu 2 dieu kien sau 911<;1C thea man

alXl + a2X2 + ... + anXn ~ 0,

1 1 1

- + - + ... + -- ~ O.

alYl a2Y2 anYn

1.3. BAt dii.ng tht~e Chebyshev va (tng clung

41

Thong thuong d6i voi cac h§.t dllng tlnrc, trong 2 day s6 (Xl, x2, ... , Xn) va (YI, Y2, .. , Yn) SC c6 mot day dirong non khi chon day (aI, a2, ... , an) dirong thi chi can chirng minh mot trong 2 bat dl1ng thrrc cuoi. Trong nhieu trirong hop ta e6 dU<;1C dllng thirc alXI + a2X2 + ... + anXn = 0 nhir trong bai toan tren.

Tuy nhien viec chon diroc bo s6 nhan tit (al, a2, ... , an) kh6ng th~ may m6c va vi the, plnroug phap nay JOi khi cftn doi hoi su kheo leo va tinh y. Vi du sau Jay rninh hOI:1 kha ro ki thuat chtrng minh nay

Vi du 1.3.8 (Crux). Cho cdc s6 dUdng a, b, e eo ttf~g bdng 3. Ch·ung minh btit ddng

thue sau

1 1 1 3

--+--+--<-.

9 - ab 9 - be 9 - ea - 8

LOI CIA!. Di;tt X = be, Y = ca, z = abo Ta phai chirng minh

1 1 1 3

--+--+--<- 9-x 9-y 9-z - 8

{:} 1 - X + 1 - Y + 1 - z > O.

9-x 9-y 9-z-

Den day ta phai tim cac s6 ax, ay, az tuong irng d~ nhan voi ca ttt va mau cac phan s6 tren. Ta Illy aC" = 6 + x, ay = 6 + Y, az = 6 + z

(1 - x)(6 + x) + (1 - y)(6 + yj + (1 - z)(6 + z) >" O.

(9 - x)(6 + x) (9 - y)(6 + y) (9 - z)(6 + z) -

Kh6ng mllt tfnh t6ng quat ta gia sl"t a ~ b ~ c::::} z ~ Y ~ x. Vi a + b + c = 3 ncn z +y = a(b+ c) ~ 9/4,z+ x ~ 9/4,x+y ~ 9/4. Ngoai ra, de th§,y

(1 - x)(6 + x) ~ (1 - y)(6 + y) ~ (1 - z)(6 + z),

(9 - x)(6 + x) ~ (1 - y)(6 + y) ~ (9 - z)(6 + z).

Vay thea bAt dAng t.lnrc Chebyshev ta c6

(1 - x)(6 + x) + (1- y)(6 + y) + (1 - z)(6 + z) (9-x)(6+x) (9-y)(6+y) (9-z)(6+z)

"" (~(1- X)(6+X») (~(9-X)\6+X»)

Cuei cung, ta chi clin chimg minh bilt diing thirc sau

L (1- x)(6 + x) = 18 - 5(;z: + y + z)- (x2 + y2 + z2) ~ 0

X,Y,Z

{:} 5(ab + be + ca) + (a2b2 + b2c2 + c2a2) ~ 18

{:} 5(ab + be + ca) + (ab + be + ca)2 ~ 18 + 6abc.

1 1

.c2 - C + 3 3

c(1 - c) 3(c2 - C + 3)'

42

Chuang 1. Bitt d~ng ttuic ca sCi

Sl'( dung bfit dAng thirc quen thuoc

(a+ b - c)(b+ c - a)(c+ a - b):::; abc {:} (3 - 2a)(3 - 2b)(3- 2c):::; xyz {:} 9 + 3abc :::: 4(ab + bc + ca).

Thay ~abc :::: 4(ab + be + ca) - 9 vao b§,t dAng thirc tren, ta phai chang minh

5(ab + bc + ca) + (ab + be + ca)2 :::; 8(ab + be + ca)

{:} ab + be + ca :::; 3.

Bfit dAng thirc tren hien nhien dung VI a + b + c = 3. Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi' khi a = b = c = 1. 0

Vi du 1.3.9. Chung minh btit diing tMtc 111

----+ +. < 1,

c2 + a + b a2 + b + c b2 + a + c -

Wi cac 86 th'l,tc kh6ng am a, b, c tui; 11 co tang bdng 3.

LCH CIA!. Hay chu y phan tfch sau

Bfit diing thuc cfin chimg minh

a(a - 1) + b(b - 1) + c(c - 1) > 0

a2 - a + 3 b2 - b + 3 c2 - C + 3 -

a-I b-l c-l

{:} 3 + 3 3 :::: O.

a-l+- b-l+-c-l+-

abc

Cia s11 a ~ b ~ c =} a-I ~ b - 1 ~ c - 1 .Vl a + b + c = 3 non ab, be, ca :::; 3. Do do

1 1 1

---=-3~ 3:::: 3'

a-l+- b-l+- c-l+-

abc

Ap dung bat dAng thirc Chebyshev cho 2 day tren ta co di~u phai chang minh. Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = ~. 0

Vi du 1.3.10. Cluau; minh btit dd:ng tMtc sau udi a, b, c la cac 86 thuc kMng am

cho truac

1.3. BAt d~.Ilg tM(c Chebyshev va ung dung

43

L<JI GIAI. Ta se chirng minh hilt dang thirc tcing quat hun vai moi k:::; 2

~-~ ~-w 2-~

-----+ + >0.

b2 + c2 + ka2 c2 + a2 + kb2 a2 + b2 + kc2 --

That vay, nhan them cac he s6 tirong ling vao moi phan 86

(a2 - bc)(b + c) (b2 - ca)(e + a) (e2 - ab)(a + b)

..,..---;:'~---=-----.:.....:..,,------'~ + + > O.

(b2 + e2 + ka2)(b + e) (e2 + a2 + kb2)(e + a) (a2 + b2 + ke2)(a + b) -

Khong milt tinh tcing quat, giasu a 2: b, khi d6

(a2 - be)(b + e) - (b2 - ca)(c + a) = (ab + c2)(a - b) + c(a2 - b2) 2: 0 (b2 +'c2 + ka2)(b + c) - (e2 + a2 + kb2)(c + a)

= (b - a) (a2 + b2 + c2 - (k - 1) (ab + be + ca)) :::; O.

V~y 2 b(> s6 sau don dieu ngiroc chieu

( a 2 - bc)( b + c) , (b2 - ca) (c + a) , (c2 - ab)( a + b)

(b2 + c2 + ka2)(b + c) , (c2 + a2 + kb2)(c + a) , (a2 + b2 + kc2)(a + b).

Chu y rang

(a2 - bc)(b + c) + (b2. - ca)(c + a) + (c2 - ab)(a + b) = O.

Nen tU bilt diing thirc Chebyshev ta c6 di~u phai chirng minh. Ngoai ra k = 2 cung la hang s6 t6t nhat d~ bilt dAng thuc tren dung, 0

Nhan xet, C6 mot each chirng minh khac cho bat dang thirc tren bang each sir dung bAt diing tlnrc Cauchy - Schwarz

a2 b2 (a+b)2

-:0---'" + -- > -:o-~-=--'~-=-

a2 + c2 b2 + c2 - a2 + b2 + 2c2'

b2 c2 (b+ cf

b2 + a2 + c2 + a2 2: b2 + c2 + 2a2 '

e2 a2 (c+a)2

--+ > .

e'l. + b2 a2 + b2 - c2 + a2 + 2b2

Chi c§,n cong thea tUng v~ cac bilt diing thirc tren ta c6 dieu phai chirng minh. 0

Day la mot chimg minh rilt hay va doc dao, tuy nhien chi sl! dung duoc trong tnrong hop k = 2. Ta cung c6 th~ dung phirong phap phan tich btnh phirong S.O.S.

Vi du 1.3.11. GMtng minh vai m9i a, b, c kh6ng am

J a 2 + 8be + J b2 + 8ca + J c2 + 8ab :::; 3 (a + b + c).

44

Clutoug 1. BAt diing ituic co sd

HUONG DAN. Ta co bien d6i sau day

3a - vi a2 + 8bc = -:::-8_(,-a,2 ::::;;-;=b=c)~ 3a + Va2 + 8bc

8(a2 - bc)(b + c)

(3a + va2 + 8bc)(b + c)

Sau do sli dung b§.t ding thirc Chebyshev, chu y r~ng t6ng cac tv -s6 bang O. 0 K~t thuc cho bai viet cac ban hay thu chimg minh mot b§.t dAng thuc manh hen ding tlnrc Chebyshev thirong gap. Chung minh chi tic§t se co a bai sau, trong phan khai tri6n Abel.

Vi du 1.3.12. Cia sit cae s6 th1/c a], a2, ... , an thad man dieu ki~n

a] + a2 a] + a2 + ... + an

a] :::> 2 :::> ... :::> 71, '

b b: + bz h + bz + ... + b.,

1:::>--2-:::>"':::> n

ChUng minh ri'ing

1.4 Ba.t d:1ng thuc vdi ham 15i

Ham 16i la mot khai niem quan trong trong toan hoc, Li thuyet ham 16i d6i voi cac b§.t ding thirc la mot If thuyet r§.t sau va rong, mang nang tinh giiii ttch, nen tac gia cung chi c6 gfing neu ra nlnrng van d~ can thiet, quan trong nhat d6i voi bat dAng thuc. VCli cac ban THCS, ham 16i van con la mot khai niem kha xa 19-, nhung cac ban Sl~ khong phai lo lallg VI <lay Ut mOt khai nicin tuong <lui de hicu Vtt ban hay blit dftu thu ap dung no tir bay gio. Trong phan nay se co 2 muc nho : Bat <litng thirc Jensen va b§,t dAng thirc ham 16i voi viec xet cac phan tva bien.

1.4.1 Ham 16i vdi bAt diing thiro Jensen

Dinh ly 1.5 (B§.t d~ng thirc Jensen). Neu 1 la ham l8i tren khoosiq I thi v{Ji moi Xl, X2, ... , X.,. E I ta deu co

() () ( )• (Xl + X2 + ... + xn)

1 Xl + 1 X2 + .. -, + 1 x.,. :::> 71,1 71, .

Ddng tMtc xiiy ra khi va chi khi Xl = X2 = ... = X.,..

, 1.4. BAt aBng th(tc v{jj bem J6j

45

Chung ta van quen voi vice coi ham 16i f : 1 --> R la ham lien tuc, kha vi clip 2 va f"(x) ~ 0 \Ix E [1]. Thy nhien voi kien thirc THCS thl dinh If Jensen c6 th6 phat bieu diroi dang dan gian va de ap dung han.

~~ qua 1.7. Cha f: 1 C R+ --> R thad man f(x) + f(y) ~ 2f (x ;y) \lx,y E 1. Khi do vdi moi :1:1, X2, ... , x., E 1 ta co Mt ddng tMtc

( ) (Xl + X2 + ... + Xn)

f xd + f(X2) + ... + f(xn ~ nf 71. .

CmJNG MINH. Chung minh dinh 11 tren ta dung phirong phap quy nap Cauchy. Dinh 11 tren giup cho vice ki0Ill tra bat ding tlnrc Jensen thuan tien han neu ban kh6ng bict v6 dao ham. Sau day la mot chirng minh ngiin gon cho dinh li .

De thciy, bcit d5,ng thirc tren hien nhien dung neu n la mot luy thira cua 2 va n6u bfit dling thirc dung vdi 71. = k + 1, ta lfiy x = Xl + X2 + ... + Xk va Xk+l = I tht

(X) (x+!f) (X)

f(xd + f(X2) + ... + f(xd + f k ~ (k + l)f k + ~ = (k + 1)1 k

Do d6 ta c6 dieu phai chung minh. 0

Hien nhien neu thay dieu kien f(x) + f(y) ~ 2f (X; y) boi f(x) + f(y) < f ( X; y) thl bfit d5,ng thuc t6ng quat cung d6i chieu

() () f() f (Xl + X2 + ... + Xn)

f Xl + f X2 + ... + Xn:::; 71. 71. •

Bfit dAng thirc Jensen khong phai la mot bfit dAng thirc qua chat, nhung xet mot each t6ng quat, n6 la c6ng cu rfit c§,n thiet va rlit de ap dung. Day la bfit dAng tlnrc rna khi ban moi lam quen v6 bAt dAng thirc thi rlit crtn phai ghi nho. T5ng quat han, ta c6 bat dling thirc Jensen vdi trong 86

Dinh 1:5' 1.6 (BAt diing thtrc Jensen suy rQng). Ntu al, a2, ... , an la cdc 86 thuc khOng iim co t6ng bdng 1 va Xl, X2, ... , X" la cac 86 th'l/c tU,fj y thi vdi moi ham 16i f tre« U)p 86 thuc ta luon co

Va nhu th6 biit dling thirc Jensen diroc trtnh bay (j tren la mot truong hop rieng vdi al = a2 = ... = an = 1/71.. Cung tirong tu nhu trirdc, n6u ban chua biet nhieu v6 cac kien thirc ella ham 16i hay dao ham, thl hay ghi nhc tinh chat sau day

46

Chuang 1. BAt dAng tbuc co sd

H~ qua 1.8. Wi cac s6 ai, Xi (i = 1, n) thoa uuui di€u kien tren; f La m9t ham xac dinh. tren itip s6 thuc. Xet bilt diing th'ac

Brit dd.ng thsic d7i.ng uai n tufj y, '<lxi, a; khi vii chi khi no d7i:ng 7J(~i n = 2.

Nhir vay de kiern tra tfnh i6i cua f ta chi can kicm tra trong truong hop n = 2.

H~ qua 1.9. Cia sit f : 1--; R. x« bilt ddng iluic

Ch'ang tniuh. nlng bcit dting. iluic iren dung '/lui moi n va vui moi s6 th'ljC duong Xl, X2, ... , Xn E I khi ua chi khi no dung vrJi n = 2 va vui tnoi Xl, X2 E I.

CHUNG MINH. Day c6 the coi la mot dang phat bieu khac cua b§.t diing thirc Jensen. Ta cung Stt dung phuong phap chang minh tirong tu, d6 la phuong phap quy nap Cauchy, each clnrng minh sau nay cling holm toan giong clnrng minh bAt. dAn!!; tlnrc AM - C M (j phan truck.

Dieu kien c§,n la hi en nhien, vi bAt ding thuc neu dung voi n tuy y, vdi moi Xl,X2, "',Xn E I thi cung dung voi n = 2va voi IDQi Xl,X2 E I.

Dieu kicn du phai chang rninh kho han, ta sit dung quy nap.

Giii su bAt dAng thirc da dung voi n, nhu tM hien nhien n6 se dung vdi 2n so hang, ta chi cAn ap dung giii. thi(~t quy nap va giii. thi6t bAt. (iitng thirc dung v<'Ji n = 2. Nhir vay bilt etitng thirc dung voi moi so n c6 dang 2k, kEN.

Giii Stt b:it diing thirc dung voi moi n + 1 so Xl, X2, ... , Xn+l. ta c6

f(xd + f(X2) + ... + f(xn) + f(x) ~ (n + 1)f(x) => f(Xl) + f(X2) + ... + f(xn) ~ nf(x).

Diau kicn du diroc chang minh xong thco plnrong phap quy nap, Bai toan eta diroc hoan thanh. 0

H~ qua 1.10.

a, Khiing dinh a h~ qua J. 7 van dung neu ta thay lYieu mac trung bmli nhrin Mng mot biiu thitc trung buih. btit ki giila cae bien Xl, X2, ... , Xn chang luu: rdvu trung binh c(jng, trung binh. di€u hoa, trung birdi nhO:n ...

1.4. B§.t dif.ng thue vc1i ham J6i

47

b, N€u Mt ddng thite vc1i 2 s6 d6i chi€u thi Mt ddng thsic vc1i n s6 d6i chieu:

CHUNG MINH. Chirng minh hoan toan tirong ttt nhu M qua 1.9. Voi cau (b) thuc ra ta da xet voi ham - f(x). 0

Hii\ qua 1.11 (Bfit dl1ng thirc AM-GM). Wi moi s6 tlvuc duanq aI, a2, ... , an ta lu6n co Mt ddng tinic

CHUNG MINH. Xet f(x) = x, hien nhien b§.t d&ng thirc dung voi n = 2 nen thea h0 quit 1.9, no cung MUlP; voi TIlQi s6 tv nhicn n va vdi moi day s6 tlnrc dirong aI, a2, ... , an· 0

Hii\ qua 1.12. Chitng minh vai moi s6 d'ltdng Xl, X2, ... , Xn thi

1 1 1 n2

-+-+ ... +->------Xl X2 Xn - Xl + X2 + ... + Xn

CHUNG MINH. Dat f(x) = llx, de th§.y ham f(x) thoa man f(x) + f(y) ~ 2f (x;y).

Theo h~ qua 1.7, bat dAng thirc dung vdi "In va moi day s6 dirong XI,X2, "',Xn' 0 Hii\ qua 1.13. Ch'ling minh rling vai moi day s6 d'ltdng Xl, X2, ... , Xn thi

Xl + X2 + ... + Xn ~ In(XI + X~ + ... + x~).

CHUNG MINH. Sit dung he qua. 1.10, chi dn xct vdi ham f(x) = JX. 0

San day 1ft mot s6 vi du don gian cua bAt. diinp; t.I11~C Jensen. Thong thtrong cac bai toan dang nay khong qua kh6, nhimg c§.n thiet cho cac ban cling c6 li thuyet.

VI d\l1.4.1 (IMO Shortlist). ChUng minh rdngvai moi day sa thuc Xl, X2, ... , Xn ~ 1 ta c6 Mt diing tMtc

1 lIn

-- + -- + ... + -- < -;-:-;=== 1 + Xl 1 + X2 1 + Xn - 1 + y'XlX2",Xn

Lot GIAI. Thea M qua 1.9, bAt diing thirc se dung n6ll ta.clnrng minh diroc voi 2 s6

1 1· 2

-- + -- < -- Va b> 1.

1 + a2 1 + b2 - 1 + ab ,-

Thy nhien bat dAng thirc tren tirong duong vdi (a - b)2(1 - ab) .-::; 0 , hi~n nhien dung, Diing thirc xay ra khi va chi khi al = a2 = ... = an. 0

48

Cliuang 1. Bitt dAng tuiic co sa

Vi du 1.4.2. Chung minh di.ng uai tnoi aI, a2, ... , an la Cae s8 ttiuc trong khoang (1/2,1] ta luon co

LCH GIAr. X6t ham s6 sau voi x E (1/2,1].

f(x) = Inx - In(l - x)

I 1 1

=} f (x) = - + -x 1 - X

/I -1 1

=} f (x) = ~ + (1 _ x)2 20 (x E (1/2,1]).

V~y f la ham 16i va theo b5.t diing tlnrc Jensen ta c6 di~u phai chung minh

) ( al + a2 + ... + an)

f(al + f(a2) + ... + f(an) 2 nf n . 0

Vi du 1.4.3 (India 1995). Cia sit cae s8 th7,tc duanq Xl, X2, ... , Xn co tang bling 1. Chung minh

Xl Xl Xn {!;n

-y'--:::===== + ~ + ... + ~ > --.

1 - Xl V 1 - X2 V 1 - Xn - n - 1

Len GIAr. Khong may kho khan ta chirng minh diroc f(x) 180 ham 16i voi

f(x) = X XE(O,l).

vT=X

Va do d6 ap dung b5.t diing thirc Jensen ta c6 di~u phai clnrng minh, 0

Sau day Is mot tinh chat r5.t dep cua ham 16i, han doc hay thit chimg minh tnroc khi xcm ti5p phan sau.

Vi du 1.4.4 (B§.t diing t htrc Popoviciu). ChUng minh di.ng ntv, f la ham s8 l6i tren I th'i vdi moi a, b, c E I

f(a) + f(b) + f(c) + f (a + ~ +c) 2 ~ (f (a; b) + f (b; c) + f (c; a) ) .

Sau img dung cua ham 16i d6 chimg minh bat diing tlnrc dang chuan (tUc la diing thirc xay ra khi t5.t ca n bien bang nhau) ta cung c6 mot irng dung r5.t quan trong khac cua ham 16i. D6 la viec xit if b5.t diing thirc vdi cac phan tit a bien.

1.4. BAt d~.I1g thuc vai ham Jc5i

49

1.4.2 Ham 16i vdi ki thuat xet phan tit d bien

Hay bilt d§.u bang bai toan san day

Vi d\l1.4.5 (T~p chi Toan hoc va Tubi tre). Cho cac s6 tlvuc a.b,c E [1,2]. Chung minh bilt ddng tluic

LOr G rAr. Tnroc khi si't dung tinh chfit manh cua ham 16i, ta se di tim mot l<'1i giai th~t so cilp cho 'hilt u~ng tlnrc tren. Dau tien ta phai giii S11 a ~ b ~ c. Vi a, b, c E [1,2] non de thay

a3 + 2 :S 5a {:> (a - 2)(a2 + 2a - 1) :S 0 (1)

5a + b3 :S 5ab + 1 {:> (b - 1)(b2 + b + 1 - 5a) :S 0 (2)

5ab + c3 :S 5abc + 1 {:> (c - 1) (c2 + c + 1 - 5ab) :S 0 (3)

Cac khiinp; dinh trcn hi6n nhion dung vi

b2 + b + 1 :S a2 + a + 1 :S 2a + a + 1 :S 5a, c2 + c + 1 :S a2 + a + 1 :S 5a :S 5ab.

Cong v6 3 bilt d~ng thuc (1), (2) ~a (3) ta c6 dieu phai chung minh. DAng thuc xay ra khi va chi khi a = 2, b = c = 1. 0

TiBp thoo cfing la mot vi du rAt tlni vi trong vice danh p;ia trung gian - ki t.huat quen thuoc cua cac bilt d5.ng thirc so clip.

Vi du 1.4.6 (Olympiad 30-4). ChUng minh ding vai cac s6 thstc a, b, c E [1,2] ta c6 Mt diing mac

LOr G rAr. Bitt cUing thuc tuong duong vdi

abc b c a

- + - + - + - + - + - < 7. b c a a b c-

Kh6ng milt tinh tbng quat ta gia. sfr a ~ b ~ c. Khi d6

2 a a b

(a - b) (b - c) ~ 0 {:> ab + be ~ b + ac {:> - + 1 ~ -b + -

c c

c c b

ab + be > b2 + ac {:> - + 1 > - + -.

- a - b a

50

Cbuong 1. BAt cUing th(lc co sa

Do d6

a/b + bl c + ctb + bt a ~ a/c + cl a + 2,

a b cb c d (a C)

~ - + - + - + - + - + - < 2 + 2 .~ + -

b c a a b c- C a

Dat x = a/c, ta c6 2 ~ x ~ 1 nen (x - 2)(x - 1) ~ 0 ~ x + 1/x ~ 5/2.

Til d6 ta c6 dpcm. Diing thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = 2, c = 1 hoac a = 2, b = c = 1 hoac cac hoan vi tirong img cua chung, [J

Ca 2 loi giai duoc trinh hay a tren d~u kha kheo leo trong cac danh gia trung gian. CI111n?; minh hoan toan phu hop voi trrnh dQ THCS va hoan toan co th~ t6ng quat duoc. Chang han voi danh gia tuong tv vi du 1.4.6 ta c6 the t6ng quat thanh

Vi du 1.4.7. Cho cac s6 thuc aI, a2, ... , an E [p, q] (p, q ~ 0). CMtng minh

Tronq do kn = n2 n€u n chlin va n2 - 1 n€u n te.

Cach danh gia trung gian nhu tren hoan toan tv nhien va don gian, ban hay Slr dung each nay cl~ chirng rninh b§.t diing thirc 1.4.7, clay la each so c§.p va hay nhat.

Nhimg lieu phuong phap d6 con sl1 dunglai diroc trong bai toan sau hay khong?

Vi du 1.4.8. Cia SU Xl, X2, ... , x2005 to, cae s6 th'l,tc trong [-1, 1J. Hay tun. gia try nhd nMt va tan nMt cua bi€u thsic

Len G IAI. Khi nhin vao b§.t (diing thirc nay, ta cung c6 "cam giac" la hi~u thirc se dat eire dai khi co 2005 s6 bang 1 (de), bieu thirc sc dat eire tieu khi cac s6 -1 va 1 xcn ke nhau trong day Xl, X2, ... , x2005 va c6 ve day la mot dieu kha hien nhien. Tuy nhien, chirng rninh duoc nhan xet hien nhien §.y lai khong don gian nhu ve ngoai cua bai toano Se r§.t kh6 chirng minh neu ban khong c6 mot dinh huang til trudc, Hay chu y cac bi6u th* bac nMt f(x) = ax+b hoac bi6u thirc bac hai f(x) = x2 +ax+b vdi X E [p, q] co mot tfnh chat r§.t quan trong la

max f(x) =.max{f(p), f(q)}.

xElp,qj .

Voi ham bac nh§.t no con c6 them tinh ch§.t

min f(x) = min{f(p), f(q)}. xElp,qj

1.4. BAt dAng thuc voi biun J6i

51

Su dung tinh chat tren vao bai toan ban d§.u, chi c§.n mot nhan xet don gian la coi nlnr bai toan da dircc giai quyet xong : Neu ta e6 #nh tat eel cae bien X2, X3, 00., X2005 va cho Xl bien thien trong [-1,1] thi P = P(xd la mot ham bQ,c nMt d6i voi Xl nen

max P(xd = max{P( -1), P(1)}, min P(Xl) = min{P( -1), P(l)}.

xJE[-l,l] xJE[-l,l]

Va do d6 P dat max hoac min khi vdi mot s6 Xk bAt ki ta deu c6 Xk E {-I, I}. N6i t6m lai, PlAy gia tri nho nhat hoac ldn nhat khi Xk E {-I, I} Vk = 1,2005. 0

Tt:t each chirng minh nay ta c6 th~ thay th~ bi~u thirc P b~ng rAt nhieu bi~u thirc tirong W khac nhir

Vi d\l1.4.9. Cia S'llXl,X2,oo',Xn la cac s6 thuc trong [-1,1]. Hay tim gia try nhO nMt va Ion nMt ciu» biiu thiic

Ta c6 tM khai quat phucng phap vira Slt dung thanh mot dinh li t6ng quat la B6 d~ 1 (Bai toan v~ ph§.n hi' cue bien).

(i). Cho cac s6 thuc Xl, X2, 00., Xn E I = [a, b] va f : 1'1 -> RIO, ham thuc thoa man voi moi i = 1, n, n€71 cr] dinh. n-1 bien Xj(j i= i) thi f dQ.t gia, try zan nhiit khi xi E {a, b}. Khi do f(xl, X2, 00., xn) se lay gia tri zan nMt khi va chi khi Xi E {a, b} Vi = 1, n.

(ii). x« qua tuonq t'(£ n€71 ta thay gia try Ion nhiit thanh gia try nhO n,Mt.

Cau hoi u~t ra la nlnrng ham s6 HaO thl c6 tiuh cMt cl,tc bien nhu vay? Tiit nhien la kh6ng phai moi ham s6, chi ham bac nhAt moi c6 ca tfnh chat chan trcn Ian chan dirdi. Dieu d:;ic biet la hoa ra ldp cac ham nhir v~y lai chfnh la lop cac ham 16i, cu th~ la lop cac ham kha vi c§.p 2 va c6 dao ham kh6ng am

B6 d~ 2. N€u f(x) la ham 16i tren [a, bj (f"(x) ~ OVx E [a, bj) thZ Vx E [a, b] , f(x) ~ max{J(a), f(b)}.

N€u f(x) la ham lorn thi ta thay max bai min.

o

TAt nhien plnrong phap tren van dV<;Ic sit dung trjrc ti~p nhu bAt diing tlnrc Jensen rna khong c§.n dung Wi dao ham. SU dung dinh If v~ phan ham 16i va cac phan tu eire bien thi cac vi du vira trlnh 'b~y CJ phan truce trCJ nen r§.t don gian.

Chang han CJ vi du 1.4.7 ta c6 bi~u thirc

52

Chuang 1. B{U d&ng thI1c cC1 sCi

D~ th§.y vdi moi .ai thl f Ill. mot ham 16i nen bieu thirc se dat gili tri Ion nh~t neu va chi neu a; E {p, q} Vi = 1, n.

Cong vice cuoi cung dn Ib.ITl Ill. dat r la s6 cac s6 a; bang p r6i dung tam thirc bac 2. Dieu nay khong kh6 nen ban c6 thE tt,I' lam. Tiit nhien, phuong phap nay se giup ta giai nhirng bai toan cong kcnh han, chang han.

Vi du 1.4.10 (T5ng quat). Tim gia try lrm nhttt csia biiu thnic sau uoi Xi E [a,b] Vi = l,n tronq d6 b ~ a ~ 0

Trang d6 a, b, O:i, f3i Vi = 1, n liL cae hiing s8 dUdng eho truac.

va If thuyet, bai toan trcn luon giai duoc vi ta chi phai xet trong trirong hop hiru han Xi E {a, b} (Xi chi lii.y 1 trong 2 gia tri a, bvoi moi i = 1, n).

Vi du 1.4.11 (Tap chi Toan hoc va Tu5i tre). Cho cae s8 thnic Xl, X2, ... , Xn E [a, oj. Tim girl try ldn nMt ciia

Thong bai toan trcn, vi x2 la mot ham 16i non ta chi d.n tim gia tr] ldn nh~t cua bicu thirc khi Xi E {a, b}.

Sau day la mot vi du khac dira thea tu tttartg ham 16i

Vi du 1.4.12. Tim gia tri nh6 nMt eua biiu ihsic sau voi n E N

f(x)=ll+xl+12+xl+ ... +ln+xl, xER

UH GrAI. DM h = [-k, -k + I]Vk ~ 2'/,,+1 = (-vc, -n], Ls = [-1, +00). Chu Y r{ing vdi moi X E h ta c6 th~ bo di cac dau gia tri t uyet d6i cua f (x) va f (x) trd thanh mot ham bac nhat vdi X non de thay

min f(x) = min{J( -k), f( -k + I)}

xE1k .

Voi h va 1,,+1 ro rang ta khong phai xct vdi cac can vo cung vi hi6n nhicn khi d6 f khong dat gia tr] nho nhat. Vay f chi dat gia tri nho nhat khi va chi khi X E {-I, -2, ... , -n}. Phjlri con lai cua bai toan la vice tinh toan vdi moi X -k (k = 1, n) sau d6 so sanh nen se gianh cho ban doc tu hoan chinh. 0

1.5. Khai trMn Abel va bAt diing ttnic ha{m vj

53

1.5 Khai tri~n Abel va b§.t d~ng t.huc hoan vi

1.5.1 Khai tri~n Abel

Khai tri6n Abel la cong thirc khai trien sau day

Dinh ly 1.1 (Khai tritin Abel). Ciil s'li Xl, X2, ... , Xn va YI, Y2, ... , Yn La cac sa th'l,tc tuy y. DiJ,t Ck = YI + Y2 + ... + Yk Vk = 1, n. Khi do

XIYI + X2Y2 + ... + XnYn = (Xl - X2)CI + (X2 - X3)c2 + ... + (Xn-l - Xn)Cn-1 + XnCn.

Cong thirc tren la kha hi6n nhicn, vice chang minh kh6ng c6 gl kh6 khan vi no chi don thuan lit dA-ng thirc. That ki 11;1 la cong thuc khai triep. nay 11;1i d.t thirong xuyen diroc dung trong toan hoc, dae biet 13. trong dai s6 Va bAt dang thirc. Cong thirc khai tri~n tren gfin lien voi bAt d&ng thirc Abel nhir sau

Vi du 1.5.1. Cho 2 day sa tnuc Xl, X2, ... , Xn va YI 2 Y2 2 ... 2 Yn. Ta d(i.t Sk = Xl + X2 + ... + Xk,

M = max Sk , m = min Sk.

k=l,n k=l,n

ChUng minh Mt diing th(tc

my I ::; XIYI + X2Y2 + ... + XnYn ::; MYI.

LdI CIA!. Ta sit dung khai tri6n Abel nhu da trlnh bay fJ tren XIYI + X2Y2 + ... + XnYn = (YI - Y2)SI + (Y2 - Y3)S2 + ... +

+ (Yn-I - Yn)Sn-l + YnSn > (YI - Y2)m + (Y2 - Y3)m + ... +

+ (Yn-l - Yn)m + Ynm

>

Chung minh hoan toan tirong tv d6i vdi bAt diing thuc ben phai. 0

Sau day la mot s6 bAt cliing thitc tieu bieu sit dung khai trien quan trong nay Vi du 1.5.2. Cho 2 day sa d1tdng aI, a2, .. , an va b1, bz, ... , bn ihoti man di€u kien

aI, a2, ... , an 20 lh 2 b2 2 : .. 2 bn al 2 b1

aIa2 2 bIb2

54

Cbuoug 1. BAt dAng thuc co sd

ChUng minh bat ddng thsic

LdI GIAI. Sit dung khai tri5n Abel ta co

al + a2 + ... + an 2:: bI + b2 + ... + bit

<=? bI (~~ - 1) + b2 (~~ - 1) + ... + bn (~: - 1) 2:: 0

<=? (bl - b2) (al _ 1) + (b2 - b3) (al + a2 - 2) + ... +

bl bl b2

( ) (al a2 an-l ) (al a2 an )

bn-l - bn b; + b2 + bn-l - n + 1 + bn b; + b2 + bn - n 2:: O.

Theo bAt diing tlnrc AM - G M thl

Ngoai ra tU gia thi6t bl 2:: b2 2:: ... 2:: bn nen moi s6 hang a t6ng tren d~u khong am. Vay bAt diing thuc duoc chimg minh. Diing thirc xay ra chi khi ai = bNi = 1, n. 0

Vi du 1.5.3 (USA MO 1994): Cho cae s6 thuc dudng Xl, X2, .. , Xn thad, man

'Vk ~ n, Xl + X2 + ... + Xk 2:: Yk.

ChUng minh Mt ddng thitc sau

2 2 2 1 ( 1 1 1)

xl + X2 + ... + Xn 2:: '4 1 + '2 + '3 + ... +;;: .

LdI GIAI. Ta co th5 sAp x6p lai day vdi Xl 2:: X2 2:: ... 2:: Xn· Dat bk = Jk. Sir duug phep Ui~Il uOi Abel

xi + x~ + ... + x;, = (Xl - X2)Xl + (X2 - X3)(Xl + X2) + +

+ (Xn-l - Xn)(Xl + X2 + + Xn-l) + Xn(Xl + X2 + + xn)

2:: (Xl - X2) + b2(X2 - X3) + + b3(xn-l - xn) + bnXn

2:: blXl + (b2 - bl)X2 + (b3 - b2)X3 + ... + (bn - bn-dxn 2:: (2bl - b2)Xl + (2b2 - bl - b3)(Xl + X2) + ... +

+ (2bn-l - bn-2 - bn)(Xl+ X2 + .;. + xn-d + (bn-l - bn)(Xl + ... + xn) 2:: (2bl - b2) + b2(2b2 - bl - b3) +'.' .. +

+ bn-l(2bn-l - bn-2 ., bn) + bn(bn-l - bn).

1.5. Khai tri~n Abel'va bAt dAng thuc botu: vj

55

(Vk + v'k=i)(Vk + Jk+1)'

( 1_

Do d6 bk 2bk - bk-l - bk+l) ~ 4k' Tir do de dang 8Uy ra dpcm. 0

Vi du 1.5.4 (Lam manh bfit dAng thirc Chebyshev). Cia su cdc s6 th'l,tc aI, a2, ... , an, bl, bz, ... , bn thoi man di€u ki~n

a > al + a2 > > al '+ a2 + ... + an

1_ 2 - - n '

b bl + b2 bl + b2 + ... + bn

l~ 2 ~ ... ~ n

ChUng minh ding

1

albl + a2b2 + ... + anbn ~ -Cal + a2 + ... + an)(bl + b2 + ... + bn)· n

LCII GIAI. Do bi6u thirc

n(albl + a2b2 + ... + anbn). - (al + a2 + ... + an)(bl + oz + ... + bn)

Luon bieu Jien duoc qua cac s6 hang (ai - aj) (bh - 61) nen ta co the cung oat di iJ day (ai) va (b,J mot hrong tirong ling la (al + a2 + ... + an)/n va (bl + b2 + ... + bn)/n, dieu d6 c6 nghia 1a ta c6 the the gia 811 duoc

al + a2 + ... + an = bi + b2 + ... + bn = O.

D~t 8k = al + a2 + ... + ak, theo cong thirc khai tri6n Abel ta co P = albl + a2b2 + ... + anbn

= (bl - b2)8l + (b2 - b3)82 + ... + (bn-l - bn)8n-l + bn8n

( . ( ) 82 ( ) 871-1 s;

= bl-b2)8l+2 b2-b3 -2 + ... + n-1)(bn-l-bn --+nbn-.

n -1 n

Chu y di6u kien gia thiet {8k/ k} la day giam nen ta 811 dung tiep khai tri6n Abei cho bi6u thirc trcn

P = (81 - ~2) (bl _ b2):- (~2 - ~3) (bl +b2 - 2b3) + ...

( 8n-l Sn) (b b' ()b)'

+ -- - - 1 + 2 + ... + bn-l - n - 1 n +

n - 1 n

+ ('; ) (bi + b2 + ... + bn).

56

Clntong 1. B!it dAng tbiic co sa

Theo gia thiet ta c6

Ma di~u kien tren hoan toan tirong dirong voi

Yf).y p ~ O. Ta c6 dieu phai chimg minh. 0

Vi du 1.5.5 (Romania MO, Singapore MO). Cia 8'li Xl ~ X2 ~ ... ~ Xn ~ Xn+1 = 0 La day 86 d'udng cho truoc. CMtng minh Mt ddng ihsic

n

VXI + X2 + ... + Xn :::; L Ji(.,fXi - VXi+l).

i=l

LOI CIA]. D~t Ci = Vi - vr=-r va ai = y'Xi. Bat d&ng thirc tirong dirong

( + + + )2 > 2 + 2 + + 2

aici a2C2 ... anCn _ al a2 ... an'

Chon cac s6 dirong b1, b2, ... , bn sao cho b~ + b~ + ... + b; = 1 va

Ta phai chirng minh

alCI + a2C2 + ... + anCn ~ albl + a2b2 + ... + anbn

¢:} al(CI - bl) + a2(C2 - b2) + ... + an(Cn - bn) ~ 0

¢:} (al - a2)(cl - bl) + (a2 - a3)(cl + C2 - bl - b2) + .... +

+ (an-l - an)(ci + C2 + ... + Cn-l - bl - b2 - ... - bn-l)+ + an (Cl + C2 + ... + Cn - bl - b2 - ... - bn) ~ O .

.

CM Y r~ng al ~ a2 ~ ... ~ an va

Bdi VI theo bat d&ng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta c6

Bat d&ng thirc dB. dU<;1C chimg minh xong. 0

1.5. Khai triJn Abel va bAt dt1.ng th(tc tiotui vj

57

Chung minh rdng

Lot GIAI. Ta s11 dung chirng minh bang quy nap, hien nhien bfit diing thirc dung vdi n = 1. Gift S11 bfit diing thitc da dung vdi n, ta chimg minh no van dung vdi n + 1 s6. That v~y, theo bfit dAng tlnrc Cauchy - Schwarz ta co

Til gia thi~t suy ra

bi + b~ + ... + b;+l ~ albl + a2b2 + ... + an+lbn+1

{:} bl(b1 - ad + b2(b2 - a2) + ... + bn+1(bn+1 - an+l) ~ 0

{:} (b1 - b2)(b1 -:- ad + (b2 - b3)(b1 + bz - a2 - a2) + ...

+(bn - bn+l)(bl + b2 + + bn - al - a2 - ... - an)+

+bn+1(bl + bz + + bn+1 - al - a2 - ... - an+1) ~ O.

Chu y r~ng trong t6ng tren tfit ca cac s6 hang tril s6 hang cu6i cung lit khong dirong, do do ta phai co

bl + b2 + ... + bn+l - al - a2 - ... - an+l ~ 0 {:} bl + b2 + ... + bn+l ~ al + a2 + ... + an+l·

Bfit dAng thirc dime chung minh xong. 0

Vi du 1.5.7. Cid s'l? 0 :s x :s y :s z va a, b, c ~ 0 thad man M di€u ki~n

ChUng minh rdng

58

Cbuasig 1. Bitt dAng thuc'CC1 Sd

LdI CIA!. Ta co

Fa + ,jb + Vc - (.;x + vY + v'z)

IX(f; -I) +vy(fy -I) +IX(If-I)

( IX - VYl ( f; - I) + (VY - IX) ( f; + fy - 2)

+ IX ( f;"; fy + If - 3) $ 0

Vi thee bfi.t d~ng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta co

fa :::; 1, ~ + ff:::; 2, ~ + ff + ~:::; 3. y; y; Vy y; Vy y~

Diing thuc xay ra khi va chi khi a = x, b = y, c = z: 0

Hi vong qua cac vi du tren cac ban th§,y ro diroc y nghia cua ki thuat d~c biet nay. D~ k~t thuc, cac ban hay t\t. chimg minh cac bfi.t d~ng thirc sau

Vi du 1.5.8 (D~ thi HSG T6ng Hop), Cho cac s8 th'(tc dudng a, b, c, x, Y, z thoi man di€u ki~n

{

x ~ y ~ z,a:::; x a 2 + b2 :::; x2 + y2

a3 + b3 + c3 :::; x3 + y3 + Z3

Chitng minh riing

HudNG DAN. Hay chimg minh tnroc a3 + b3 :::; x3 + y3. 0

Vi du 1.5.9 (Russia 2000). Cho -1 < Xl < X2 < ... < Xn < 1 va Y1 < Y2 < ... < Yn sao' cho

- 13 13 13

Xl + X2 + ... + Xn = Xl + x2 + ... + xn .

Chitng minh Mt dii,ng ,thitc

13 13 13

Xl Y1 + X2 Y2 + ... + Xn Yn < X1Y1 + X2Y2 + ... + XnYn'

1.5. Khai trMn Abel va Mt d~.ng thuc hoan vi

59

1.5.2 B§.t dAng t.huc hoan V!

Djnh ly 1.8 (BAt d~ng thuc Hoan vj). Cho 2 day 86 dan aifu tang aI, a2, ... , an

va bl, b2, ... , bn' Cia 8'1i: (iI, i2, , in) la m{)t hoen vi biit ki cua (1,2, ... , n), ta lu6n c6

al bl + a2b2 + + anbn ~ al bil + a2bi2 + ... + anbin

Ngoai ra n~u 2 dayal, a2, ... , an va bl, b2, ... , bn dan dieu nquac chi€u thi b6.t ddng thsic tren d6i chieu:

CHUNG MINH. Xet truong hQP cac day d§u la dun dieu tang. B§.t d~ng thuc tuong d irong voi

al (bl - bil) + a2(b2 - b·i2) + ... + an(bn - biJ ~ 0

{::} (al - a2)(bl - b·il) + (a2 - a3)(bl + b: - b'il - bi2) + ... +(an-l - an)(bl + b2 + ... + bn-l - bil - bi2 - ... - bin_J+ +an(bl + b2 + ... + b« - bil - bi2 - ... - bin) ~ O.

VI bl ~ bz ~ ... ~ b.; nen vdi moi k = 1, n thl bl + b2 + ... + bk ~ bil + bi2 + ... + bik· V~y m6i s6 hang cua t6ng tren d~u kh6ng am. Ta c6 dpcm. 0

N6u 2 day don dieu nguoc chieu thl b§.t d~ng thuc d6i dau va ciing clurng minh hoan toan tirong tu.

Clnrng minh bAt diing tlnrc hoan vi bltng khai tri6n Abel r§.t ngan gon, c6 nhieu each chirng minh khac cho b§.t diing thirc nay nhimg n6i chung d~u mang nhieu tfnh s6 hoc hoac dai dong han nhieu. B§.t d~ng thirc hoan vi 180 mot b§.t ditng thirc r§.t 1111;\nh, chang han no co thO suy ra true tiep bat <ling tlnrc AM - G M nhir sau

Vi du 1.5.10 (BAt d~ng thtrc AM-GM). CMtng minh vai moi 86 thuc kh6ng am aI, a2,", an ta c6

LdI GIAI. Ru rang bat <lang tlnrc treu hoan toan tuong dirong voi

Xl X2 Xn-l Xn

- + -+ ... +-- +- > n.

X2 X3 Xn Xl-

Xet bat ding thuc hoan vi voi 2 day don dieu ngircc chieu sau

.{

Xl, X2, ... , Xn,

111

--:--,-, ... ,

Xl X2 Xn

Khi d6

Xl X2 Xn-l Xn Xl X2 Xn

- + - + ... + -- + - > - + - + ... + - =n.

X2 X3 Xn Xl - Xl X2 Xl

B§.t dl1ng thuc diroc chirng minh. 0

60

Chuang 1. BAt cUing tluic co s¢

Vi du 1.5.11. CMtng minh uoi moi a, b, c kh6ng am ta luoti co

Lot GIAI. Ta ap dung b§,t diing thuc hoan vi voi 2 bo don dieu sau day (a, b, c) , (a4, b4, c4). 0

Vi du 1.5.12 (IMO 1984 Pro. 3). Gia s'li a, b, c la d9 ddi 3 cordi mot tam giac, hay chitng minh

Lor GIAI. Liru y r~ng nBu a, b, c 18. do dai 3 canh mot tam giac thi

a ~ b ¢:> a2 + be ~ b2 + ca.

Vf),y 2 bo s6 sau day la 2 bo dan dieu ngiroc chieu

a2 + be , b2 + ca , c2 + ab, 1 1 1

a ' b' c'

Theo b§.t dAng thirc hoan vi ta co

~+~ ~+oo ~+~ ~+~ ~+oo ~+~

a + b + c ~ c + a + b

be ea ab a2 b2 e2

¢:>-+-+-<-+-+-

a b e-e a b

¢:> a2b2 + b2e2 + e2a2 ~ a3b + b3e + e3a.

Day 18. dieu pliai clnrng minh. Liru y rAng neu khoug co giA thiet a, b, c la dO dai 3 canh dIU tam gli\C thl bfit diing tlurc khong dung. 0

Vi d\l1.5.13 (IMO 1975). Cho 2 day s6 thuc Xl, X2, , Xn va Yl, Y2, ... , Yn thoa

man Xl ~ X2 ~ ... ~ Xn, Yl ~ Y2 ~ ... ~ Yn· G9i Zl, Z2, , Zn la mot hocn vi ciia

Yl, Y2, ... , Yn· Chitng minh .rl1ng

Lor GIAI. Day thuc cMt chi 18. b§,t diing thirc hoan vi thong tlnrong. 0

Vi d\l1.5.14 (IMO 1978). Cho day s6 ~guyen dUdng phan bi~t ai, a2,", an. Chitng minh rl1ng

al a2 an 1 1 1

2' + 2' + ... + 2' ~ - + -2 + ... +-.

1 2 n 1 n

1.6. BAt d~.I1g thuc d6i xung 3 bi@I1

61

LCH GIAI. Slip x6p day cj , a2, ... , an thanh day dun dieu tang Xl, X2, ... , Xn. Theo blit diing tlnrc hoan vi ta co

Xl X2 Xn 1 1 1

-12 + 22 + ... + 2" ~ - + - + ... +-.

n 1 2 n

Ta c6 di~u phai chung minh. 0

Vi du 1.5.15. Chung minh vai moi s8 d?tdng a, b, c th"i

a2 + be b2 + ea e2 + ab. b

b + + b > a + + e.

+e e+a a+ -

Lor G IAI. Do 2 day a2, b2, e2 va b~c' c~a ' a~b luon Ill, 2 day don dieu cung chieu nen theo blit diing thirc hoan vi ta co

a2 b2 e2 + ab b2 e2 a2

--+--+ >--+--+--.

b+e e+a a+b - b+e e+a a+b

Do do

a2 + be b2 + ca c2 + ab b2 + be e2 + ca a2 + ab _ b

+ + > -- + + b - a + + c.

b+e e+a a+b - b+c c+a a+

DAng thirc xay ra chi khi a = b = e. 0

/

1.6 B~t ding thtrc d6i ximg 3 bien

Blit diing thirc dbi ximg Ill, mot trong cat phan quan trong nhat cua blit diing thirc so clip, cung Ill, dang bai quen thuoc trong cac kl thi hoc sinh gioi quoc gia va qu6c teo Day la dang bfit dAng thuc rfit diroc yeu thich khong chi vdi cac ban da thanh thao rna con hlip diin voi nhtrng ban rnoi bat dau. C6 Ie If do don gian Ill, cac bilt dAng thirc dang nay d~u rilt dep va chuan v~ mat hinh tlnrc. Tuy nhien khong phai mot bai toan vdi hmh thirc phat bieu don gian cung co th6 giai duoc thea each don gian, tham chi rfit nhieu bai toari nhu v~y nhung lei giai rlit lai kh6.

N6i chung, cac blit. dA-ng tlnrc dbi xirng 3 bien d dang t6ng quat luon c6 bi6u dicn dirdi dang sau

f(a,b,e) ~ 0

1.6. B§,t d~.ng tht'lc d6i xung 3 bi@n

61

LdI GIAI. Slip xep dayal, a2, ... , an thanh day dun dieu tang Xl, X2, ... , Xn. Theo b~t diing tlnrc hoan vi ta co

al a2 an Xl X2 Xn

2" + 2" + ... + 2:::: 2" + 2" + ... + 2'

1 2 n 1 2 n

Xl X2 Xn 1 1 1

2 + 2 + ... + 2" > - + - + ... +-.

12 n-12 n

Ta co di~u phai chrmg minh. 0

Vi du 1.5.15. ChUng minh vai moi s6 dttdng a, b, e thi

.

a2 + be b2 + ea e2 + ab . b

b + + b > a + +e.

+e e+a a+ -

LdI G IAI. Do 2 day a2, b2, e2 va b!c' c!a' a!b luon la 2 day don dieu cung chieu nen theo b~t <lAng thrrc hoan vi ta c6

a2 b2 e2 + ab b2 e2 a2

--+--+ >--+--+--.

b+e e+a a+b - b+e e+a a+b

Do do

a2 + be b2 + ea e2 + ab b2 + be e2 + ea a2 + ab b

---+ + >--+ + =a+ +e.

b+e e+a a+b - b+e e+a a+b

Dang thuc xay ra chi khi a = b = e. 0

/

1.6 B~t ditng thuc d5i ximg 3 bi~n

B§.t dAng thirc d6i ximg la mot trong cac phan quan trong nh§.t cua b§.t dllng thirc so c~p, cling la dang bai quen thuoc trong cac kl thi hoc sinh gioi quoc gia va quoc t~. Day la dang blit dAng thirc rlit diroc yeu thfch kh6ng chi vdi cac ban dii thanh thao rna con hap dan voi nhftng ban moi bat d§,u.Co Ie If do don gian la cac blit dAng thirc dang nay d~u rlit dep va chuan v~ mat hlnh thirc. Tuy nhien khong phai mot bai toan vdi hinh t hrrc phat bien don gian ciing co th6 giiU duoc thea each don gian, tham chi rlit nhieu bai toari nhu vay nhirng lei giai r§.t lai kh6.

N6i chung, cac bat cti\ng thtrc ct6i xirng 3 bien (j dang t6ng quat luon c6 bi~u dicn diroi dang sau

f(a,b,e):::: 0

62

Chuang 1. BAt ct~ng thrle co sa

trong d6 f(a, b, c) la ham d6i xirng cua 3 bien a, b, e, hay n6i each khac

f(a, b, c) = fee, b, a) = feb, a, c).

Chang han f(a, b, c) = 0.2 + b2 + e2 + 3ab + 3be + 3ea + 5abe + a2b2e2.

Tinh chat quan trong nhat cua cac bi~u thirc d6i ximg la vai tro blnh diing giua cac bien, va do d6 ta c6 th~ xap xep lai thea mot tr~t tu tuy Y gia tri cac bien s6 do t.rung clnrng minh, Day la mot chu y se duoc sa dung r§.t nhieu.

Cac tinh chAt va dinh nghia nay diroc mo rong tirong t.l.! voi cac bien thrrc ella n bien Xl, X2, ... , Xn· Trong phan nay chung ta se tim hieu khai quat v~ cac Mt dAng thirc d6i xirng 3 bien va mot s6 kl thuat lien quan. Ta phan chia cac b§.t ding thirc d6i xirng thanh 2 dang chinh la cac b§.t dAng thirc c6 dieu kien va kh6ng c6 dieu kicn. Dliu Win t.a sc xern xct cac bAt. diing thrrc vrri cac bien tu do.

1.6.1 B§.t d~ng thirc thuan nhat kh6ng co di~u kien

Tnrdc h@t ta cAn dinh nghia cho mot ham s6 thuan nhat. Ham f(a, b, c) diroc goi la thuan nhat vdi cac biBn tren mien I neu n6 thoa man diau kien

f(ta, tb, tc) = tk f(a, b, c)

vdi moi t, a, b, c E I va k la mot hang s6 kh6ng phu thuoc vao a, b, c, t rna chi phu thuoc vao ban than ham f. Trong pham vi cua da thirc thl mot da thirc la thuan nhat n@u n6 la t6ng cua cac don thirc dang bac, Chang han ta c6 da tlnrc thuan llh~t (khong d6i xirng) sau day

f(a, b, e) = a5be3 + a2b3e4 + ab6e2.

Vi du mot ham s6 thuan nhat kh6ng la da thirc

e X

f(x) = +-.

ve2 + x2 X + e

Dinh nghia tren c6 th~ md rong eho ham s6 cua n bien Xl, X2, ... , Xn.

Lop cac ham thuan nhat trong bitt ding thirc eilng la mot phan ritt rong cua b§.t diing thirc, va se duoc nhac lai r§.t nhieu I§.n trong cuon sach VI tfnh quan trong cua n6. Do d6 ban doc nen xem ki cac tinh chat ella loai ham nay, trong d6 tinh chat dltc;lc Sl't dung tlnrong xuycn nhat Ih tfnh chAt chsuin luia d'it(je. Tlnh chat nay cilng se duc;lc ban lai ki hon ngay trong phan -sau,

M{j dAu va bAt dAng tlnrc dbi xrrng 3 bien thuan nhAt la mot bAt dAng tlnrc eire kl n6i ti~ng va c6 nhieu img dung, d6 la b~t diing thtrc d6i ximg Schur

0.(0. - b)(a - c) + b(b - a)(b - e) + e(e - a)(c - b) ~ O.

1.6. BAt dii.ng thuc d6i xung 3 bi@n

63

B§,t di\ng thirc tren thuong diroc phat bieu duui dang quen thuoc hun nhu sau Dinh ly 1.9 (BAt ding t htrc Schur). Wi moi s8 thuc kh6ng am a, b, C ta lui5n co bfu dii,ng thnic

a3 + b3 + c3 + 3abc ;::: ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a).

CHUNG MINH. Co rfit nhieu each clnrng minh bfit dAng tlnrc trcn, f1 day tac gia sf gidi thicu mot each chang minh rna se con them nhieu irng dung sau nay. Ngoai ra, day cung la mot each clnrng minh r§,t don gian va ngan gon. Do tinh d6i xirng ella b§,t diing thuc ta c6 th~ gia s11 a ;::: b ;::: c. DM x = a - b, y = b - c, b§,t diing thirc

diroc vi6t lai thanh

c(x + y)y - (c + y)xy + (c + x + y)x(x + y) ;::: 0

,

¢:} c(x2 + xy + y2) + x2(x + 2y) ;::: O.

B§,t dAng tlnrc tren hiOn nhien dung vi cac bi011 C, X, y uGu khong am. DAng tlnrc xay ra khi va chi khi x = y = 0 hoac x = c = 0 hay a = b = c hoac a = b, c = O. Do gia sli a ;::: b ;::: c a d§,u bai toan nen cac truong hop x = 0, y = z va y = 0, x = z cung c6 dAng thirc. V~ sau ta chi n6i gon la a = b, c = 0 hoac cac hoan vi. Bai toan cia diroc clnrng minh. 0

Mot each tu nhicn, ta muon xem xet mot md rong tirong tl,t

Vi du 1.6.1. Khdng d1nh hoQ,c ph'll d1nh btit dang tMtc

a6 + 06 + c6 + 3a2b2c2 ;::: a5(b + c) + b5(c + a) + c5(a + b).

Len GIAI. R§,t ti6c, b§,t diing thuc tren khong phai luon dung. Cho b = c = x a6 + 2x6 + 3a2x4 ;::: 3a5x + 2x5(a + x)

¢:} a6 + 3a2x4 ;::: 2a5x + 2x5a

¢:} a5 + 3ax4 ;::: 2a4x + 2x5.

Tuy nhien bfit dhng tl1l1e tron khong dung n61l ta cho a = o. DiS ro hon, co th6 cho a = 1 va b = c = 4. 0

Mot v§,n d~ khac diroc dat ra la

Vi du 1.6.2. Lieu co t8n t(J,i m(jt hdng s6 k sao cho Mt .ddng thiic sau hum dung

Va n€u co, hay tun hdng s6 t6t nMt (nho nMt) co th€ duoc.

64

Chuang 1. B§t d§ng thl'lc co Sd

Lo: GIAI. Dang ti~c la kh6ng t6n tai mot hang s6 k nao nhu vay ca, va do d6 cung khong c6 h~ng s6 t6t nhat. That kh6ng may min la 2 kat qua thir nghicm moi cua chung ta deu dan den mot ket qua phu dinh. Nlnrng cac ban dang vi the rna e ngai viec tu sang tao cac bAt diing thuc, vi nhirng sir kh6ng may min nhu vay la dieu khong th~ tranh khoi, tharn chi la rAt nhieu. D6i voi mot bat diing thirc, se kh6 hun rAt nhieu Tl('\u diu hoi di;i.t. ra la khiing dinh hoiic pMi. dinh, chir chua phai la chitng minh btit diing t~·uc. Tharn chi trong khi chirng minh mot bAt diing thirc kh6ng dung ta hoan toan c6 th~ lam dung n6 d~ diroc mot bAt dAng thrrc t6t hon. 0

Chung ta hay ti6p tuc trd lai qua vdi mot k6t qua kha hi~n nhien 2(a6 + b6 + c6) ;::: a5(b + c) + b5(c + a) + c5(a + b).

Muc dich bay gio la ta se them dai hrong chua a2b2c2 vao bieu thirc va trai, va giam hQ s6 2 d~n mire nho nhat c6 th~ dH<,1C d~ c6 mot bat dang thuc dung. Theo cac suy luan CI trcn ta khong th~ giam hQ s6 2 tdi 1. C6 mot kat qua kha dQP m1it

Vi du 1.6.3. ChUng minh vai moi a, b, c th1jC

a6 + b6 + c6 + a2b2c2 ;::: ~ (a5(b + c) + b5(c + a) + c5(a + b)) .

Lor GIAI. Chung minh bAt dAng thtrc tren kh6ng qua kh6, nhirng viec tim ra n6 lai la mot cung viec kha vAt vii. Sit dung bAt dAng thirc Schur ta c6

a6 + b6 + c6 + 3a2b2c2 ;::: a4(b2 + c2) + b4(c2 + a2) + c4(a2 + b2).

Theo bAt diing thirc AM - G M thi

(a6 + a4b2) + (a6 + a4c2) ;::: 2a5(b + c), (b6 + b4c2) + (b6 + b4a2) ;::: 2b5(c + a), (c6 + c4a2) + (c6 + c4b2) ;::: 2c5(a + b).

Cu6i cung, cong ca 4 bAt <liing tlnrc trsn lai ta co <lieu phai chirng minh. 0

MCI rong bAt diing tllll'c Schur vdi bac nhat d tren t.a co bAt diing thu Schur vdi bac 2 sau day

Vi du 1.6.4. Chitng minh rting vai moi s6 th1jC khOng am a, b, c ta co

a4 + b4 + c4 + abc(a + b + c) ;::: a3(b + c) + b3(c + a) + c3(a + b).

Lor GIAI. Cac ban hay xem lai each chirng -minh cho bAt diing tlnrc Schur CI dang co ban (bee nhat), ca 2 clnrng minh deu hoan toan giong nhau. Mot dieu dang chu y la blit diing thirc Schur bac 2 dung vdi moi a, b, c thuc, 0

Tir kat qua tren ta suy ra

100

Chuang 1. BAt d§,ng thuc co sa

Bai toan 1.51 (Russia MO, Crux). Cho cac s8 thuc aI, a2, .. , an. Xet cac biiu thuc sau

b al + a2 + ... + ak

k = k Vk = 1,n.

C = (al - b1f + (a2 - b2f + + (an - bn)2,

D = (al - bn)2 + (a2 - bn)2 + +(an - bn)2.

Ch'(mg tninli bitt ddng thUc

C < D ~ 2C.

Bai toan 1.52 (Vi~t Nam MO 2002). Cho cdc s8 thuc x, y, z thad man di€u ki~n x2 + y2 + z2 = 9. ChUng minh. ding

2(x + y + z) - xyz ~ 10.

Bai toan 1.53. ChUng minh rdng vai cac s8 dUdng a, b, c, d ta lu6n co ~+~+~ ~+~+& 2+&+~ &+~+~

____ + + . + > a2 + b2 + c2 + d2.

b+c+d c+d+a d+a+b a+b+c-

Bai toan 1.54 (IndianMO 2003). ChUng minh ding x3y3(x3 + y3) ~ 2 vai cac 88 th'l,tc kh6ng am x, y co t6ng biing 2.

Bai toan 1.55. Cho x, y, z la caC; 86 th'l,tc thod man di€u ki~n x + y + z = 5 va x2 + y2 + z2 = 9. TIm gia tri l{Jn nMt va gia try nhO nMt cua biiu thuc

A=x2y+y2z+z2x.

B8.i toan 1.56 (Mongolia MO 1991). Cho cdc 86 thuc a, b, ceo t6ng hZnh phudng bdng 2. ChUng minh rang

B8.i toan 1.57. Chung minh bitt ddng tMc 8au vai moi a, b, c kh6ng am

a(b+c) b(c+a) c(a+b) >2

~+~+~+~+ro+~~~+~+~- .

BAi toan 1.58. Cho cae 86 thuc duanq al, a2, ... , an co lich biing 1. Chung mink

2 2 2

al +a2-r .. ·+an > -- + -- + ... + --.

- l+al 1+a2 l+an

BAi toan 1.59. Gid 8U a, b, c la d(1 dai 3 conli cua mQt tam giac. ChUng minh ding

a3 + b3 b3 + c3 c3 + a3

-=-----=- + + > 2(a + b + c).

~-~+~·~~ro+~ ~-~+~-

98

ChttC1I1g 1. Biit d§.ng thue co sa

Bai toan 1.38. ChUng minh rdng vdi moi a, b, e kh6ng am to e6 Mt ddng tluic

a(b+e) b(a+e) e(a+b)

~--:::-+ + >2.

b2 + e2 a2 + e2 a2 + b2 -

HuClNG DAN. Kh6ng m§.t tfnh t6ng quat, gia 811 a Z b Z e, xet

DAng tlnrc xay fa khi va chi khi a = b, e = 0 hoac cac hoan vi. D

Bai toan 1.39 (Crux). Tim eh(in tren ian nhiit cho bdu thnic sau

Trang d6 Xl, X2; ... , Xn ta cae s6 thuc tronq [0,1].

HuClNG DAN. Sl1 dung phuong phap ham 16i, tim dU<;IC chan tren la n - 1 voi n Z 3. D

Bai toan 1.40 (Crux). Chung minh rdng v(Ji moi a, b, e Z 0 thi

(a + b)2(b + c)2(e + a)2 Z abc(a + b + 2c)(b + c + 2a)(c + a + 2b).

Bai .toan 1.41 (Tap chi Toan h9C va Tu6i tre). Cia sit a, b, e ta cdc s6 thuc kh6ng am c6 t6ng bdng 1. Chitng minh rdng

ab + be + ea 2 2 2

2b2 b2 2 2 2 Z 8(a + b + e ).

a + c + c a

Bai toan 1.42. Cho cdc s6 th7,te kh6ng am aI, a2, ... , an thaa man al +a2+ ... +an = 1. Chitng minh rdng

Bai toan 1.43 (Poland 1998). Cho cae s6 ihuc kh6ng am a, b, e, d, e, f co t6ng Mng 1 va ace + bdf Z 1/108. CMtng tninh' Mt ddng thuc

1 abc + bed + cde + def + efa + fba ~ 36'

96

Cbuong L, Blit d§,ng tbiic co so

Bai toan 1.29. Cid sit a, b, c La cac s8 thuc duang thoii man

111 --+--+--=2 l+a l+b l+c '

Chftng minh rdng

1 1 1

- + - + - 2 4(a + b + c). abc

HVONG DAN. Gic'i thi6t cua bai toan t irong dirong voi t6n tai x, y, z a6

x y z

a = --,b = --,c = --.

y+z z+x x+y

Phan CUll lai <.ht!)e chiing minh tuong dbi ue dang. 0

Bai toan 1.30. Cho cac s8 thv:c kh6ng am a, b, c thod man a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. CMtng

minh ding

9

a + b + c ~ J2 + 4abc.

Ba! toan 1.31 (Russia MO). Cid sit x, y, z La cae s8 duang c6 t6ng Mng 3. Chftng minh rang

Vx + VY + viz 2 xy + yz + zx.

Bai toan 1.32 (Romania TST 1993). TIm s8 ihuc duanq alan nhtit di brit dang th'uc su:u a'ung voi moi x, y, z E R+

x + y + z > a.

y'y2 + z2 ";z2 + x2 y'x2 + y2 -

HVClNG DAN. Ghi tri t8t nh§.t ciia a 18. 2. Sti dung bdt dAng thirc AM - OM, 0 Bal toan 1.33 (Crux). Ch'Ung minh Mt diing thstc sau vai moi s6 th(lC dUdng X,y,z

x + y + z <1.

x+ y'(x+y)(x+z) y+ y'(y+x)(y+z) z+ y'(z+x)(z+y) -

HVONG DAN. Ta co hai each chang minh nhir sau

Cach: 1. Thea bat ding thirc Cauchy - Schwarz thl (x + y)(x + z) 2 (x + ,jYi)2

x x

=> < .

x + J(x + y){x + z) - 2x +,jYi

Do do ta pha! chang minh n~u abc = 1 thl. 111 --+--+--<1.

2+a 2+b 2+c-

94

Chuang 1. Blit d§,ng ttutc co sd

HVdNG DAN. B§,t d.1ng thirc tirong dirong

SU dung khai tri6n Abel ta c6

n n b2 n-1 ( 1 1) ( k k)

"'" ""'i "'" . "'" 2 "'" 2

~a'i-~-=~ ---- ~ai-~bi '

i=1 i=1 ai i=1 ai ai+1 i=1 i=1

Diing thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a; = b, 'Vi = 1, n. 0

Bai toan 1.19 (Crux). Cia s'li n ~ m ~ 1 va x ~ y ~ 0 thaa man xn+1 + yn+1 ::; xrn - yrn. CMtng minh rdng z" + yn ::; 1.

Bai toan 1.20. Chung minh vai moi x, y, z E [0,1J thi x2y + y2z + z2x ~ 3/4.

LdI GIAI. Su dung b§,t d~ng thirc xY ~ x/(x + y - xy), dira b§,t dl1ng thirc v~

(x : y) 2 + (y ~ z r +. (z ~ x r ~ ~. 0

Bai toan 1.21. Chung minh rdng'vai moi a, b, c ~ 0 ta co

a 2 + be b2 + ca c2 + ab 3

-,---""" + + > -.

(b+c)2 (c+a)2 (a+b)2 - 2

HVdNG DAN. Su dung bfit dl1ng thirc Chebyshev. 0

Bai toan 1.22 (TIilP chi Toan hoc va Tut3i tre). Cho cac s6 th'l/C kh6ng am x, y, z thoti miin di€1l l.#n x + y + z = 1. Chung minh rdng

x2 + 1 y2 + 1 z2 + 1 7

--+--+--<-. y2 + 1 z2 + 1 x2 + 1 - 2

Ba! toan 1.23 (IMO Shortlist 2004). Cia s'li a, b, c la cac s6 th'l/C dttdng sao cho ab + be + ca = 1. ChUng minh rdng

iff ~I 1 r::;al 1 1

+ 6b + . -- +- 6c + ' - + 60. ::; -. -. b c abc

Bai toan 1.24 (IMO 1995). Cho a, b, c ~ ° va abc = 1. ChUng minh

1 1 1 3

a3(b + c) + b3(c + a) + c3(a + b} ~ 2'

92

Chuang 1. B~t dAng thuc ca Sd

HVClNG DAN. Ta phai clnrng minh vdi a, b, c E [0, kJ thl

a(k-b)+b(k-c)+c(k-a):s: k2.

Thy nhien vfj trai la ham 16i vdi moi bien a, b, c nen ta chi dn .xet khi a.b, c6 {O, k}. Khi d6 bat diing thirc hien nhien dung.

Ngoai ra ta co th6 chimg minh true ti6p kh6ng dung ham 16i nhu sau

(k-a)(k-b)+(k-b)(k-c)+(k-c)(k-a) ~ 0 =} 2k(a+b+c)-(ab+bc+~a):S: 3k2.

Do do nGu a + b + c ~ k ta co ngay dpcm. Tnrong hop ngiroc lai, de thay k(a + b + e) - (ab + be + ea) :s: k(a + b + e) :s: k2. 0

Bai toan 1.11 (APMO 2001). Cho cac s8 thuc duang a, b, e thoa man 1/a+1/b+ 1/ e = 1. CMtng minh

va + be + Vb + ea +ve + ~b ~ ~ + va + Vb + vic . '

HVClNG DAN. Su dung blit dAng thirc

ve + ab ~ vic + [¥.

Ch6 Y rang theo gia thii3t ta co

Sau do ap dung b§.t d11ng thuc AM - G M eho 2 s6. 0

Bai toan 1.12 (Math. Chanlleges). Gia sit aI, a~, ... , an la Cae s6 thuc thui)c tloon. [-2,2J. Tim gia try nh6 nMt ciu: bdu thite

HVClNG DAN. Sit dung phtrong phap ham 16i. 0

Bai toan 1.13. Tim Mng s8 k = k(n) ltm nhflt sao eho Mt ddng tMtc sau dung vai moi day s8 khotu; am aI, a2, ... , an

HVClNG DAN. Dc dang tim diroc k(3) = 3 va k(4) = 4. Vdi n ~ 4 thl k(n) = 4. That vay, cho al = a2 = 1 va aj = 0 Vj :f:. 1,2 ta suy ra k(n) :s: 4. D~ clnrng minh k(n) = 4 thoa man ta dung chirng minh bang quy nap, 0

90

Cbuaug 1. Btu dt1ng thuc co sd

Bai toan 1.1 (Balkan MO). Clio 3 88 thuc dUdng a, b, c co tich bdng 1. ChUng tninli Mt dang thue

a-s b b+c e+a ( 1 1 1)

--+--+--+6>2 a+b+c+-+-+- .

cab - abc

HVClNG DAN. T6n tai cac 86 duong x,y,zsao cho a = x/y,b = y/z,c = z]« Bfit dllng thirc tro thanh

x3 + y3 + z3 + 3xyz ~ xy(x + y) + yz(y + z) + zx(z + x). 0

Bai toan 1.2 (Russia MO 1999). Cho cdc 88 th"(tc dUdng x, y, z co tich bdng 1. ChUng minh rdng n€u

111

- + - + - ~ x + y + z, x y z

Thi vdi moi s8 nguyen dudng k ta co

HVClNG DAN. Dieu kien cua bai toan tirong dirong vdi

(x -.I)(y - 1)(z - 1) ~ 0

Suy ra vdi moi 86 nguyen dirong k thi

(xk - l)(yk - l)(zk - 1) ~ O. 0

Bai toan 1.3. Cha cac s6 thuc x, y, z thu9c (-1,1). Chitng minh ding

1 1

--------,----,... + . > 2.

(1 - x)(1 - y)(1 - z) (1 + x)(1 + y)(1 + z) -

HVClNG DAN.. Sit dung t nrc ti6p bat dAng tlnrc AM - G M cho 2 86 hang i'1 vB trai ta cQ (Mu phai chimg minh, 111u y I"iiri.g

. (1 - x)(1 - y)(1 - z)(1 + x)(1 + y)(1 + z) = (1 - x2)(1 - y2)(1 - z2) ~ 1. 0

Bai toan 1.4. Chitng minh ding vdi moi s6 dUdng a, b, c ta lu6n co

4 + b4 + 4 3abc 2

a c + > _(a2 + b2 + c2),

ab + be + ca a + b'+ c - 3

Bai toan 1.5 (USA MO 2002). Wi a, b, c la cdc s6 th'l,tc dudng, chUng minh

(a5 _ a2 + 3)(b5 - b2 + 3)(c5 - c2 + 3) ~ (a + b + c)3,

1.9. D~o ham va Ullg dung

87

. Yo. Luc d6 g(yo) = g(~) = 125.

Til J6 ket IHJP vdi (3) suy ra P(x, y, z) ~ g(y) ~ g(yo) = 125, Jiing thuc xay ra voi

5 2

Y = - x = 3 Z = - hay a = 1/3 b = 4/5 c = 3/2. 0

4' '3 "

T6ng quat cua bai toan nay da diroc giai bang phirong phap can bang h(j s6 i'1 muc truce. Nhung neu xet thea mot each nao d6, chung minh sl't dung dao ham van la dun gian nhat v~ mat y tinmg, N6 ciing la mot vi du tieu bi~u eho phirong phap giam bien - mot ki thuat quan trong trong viec dung dao ham d~ p;iiU bai toan eire tri ham s6 nhieu bien, Ta hay xem b§,t dllng tlnrc Schur e6 th6 clnrng minh bang phuong phap nay nhir tM nao don gian tM nao?

Vi du 1.9.6 (BAt ding thirc Schur). CMtng minh Va, b, c ~ 0 ta co a3 + b3 + c3 + 3abc ~ ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a).

LCH GIAI. Kh6ng m§,t tinh t6ng quat, gia sit rang a ~ b ~ c. X6t ham s6 f(a) = a3 + b3 + c3 + 3abc - ab(a + b) - bc(b + c) - ca(c + a) J'(a) = 3a2 + 3bc - 2ab - b2 - 2ac - c2.

Dc th§,y 3a2 ~ b2 + 2ac va 3bc ~ c~ nen f'(a) ~ 0 vdi a ~ b ~ c. V~y f(a) ~ f(b) = c3 + 3a2c - 2ac(a + c) = c(a - c)2 ~ O.

B§,t ditng thirc diroc clumg minh' xong. Dllng thirc xay fa chi' khi a = b = c ho~c a = b, c = 0 hoac cac hoan vi. 0

1.9.4 Ma rQng mQt bal thi toan quAe t~ 2004

Mfii bai toan co m¢t d~c thu rieng. Co nhirng bai toan rna dl.\c thu ciia n6 chinh la co si'1 d~ cac chung minh mang tinh ky thuat (chllng han phirong phap can bang hi;' s6) tri'1 nen hUH dung, Thuong la cac chirng minh d6 r§,t hap dan, e6 Ie bi'1i vi tinh dun gian etta n6. Tuy nhien viec tim ra cac chirng minh dep de thea nghia nhu vay trong da s6 cac truong hop la r§,t mo hb. Trai lai plurong phap sit dung dao ham e6 ve cbng k~nh nang v~ tinh toan c6 th~ lai la con duong de thuc hien nhat. Xin cam on ban Nguyen Qu6e Khanh da giup do hoan thanh bai viet nay.

Vi du 1.9.7 (IMO 2004 Pro.2). CUi 8'li n la mi)t 86 t'l! nhieti lati han 2 va n 86 th'l!C dV:dng Xl, X2, ... , Xn thod man

(1 1 1) 2

(Xl + X2 + ... + xn) - + - + ... + - < n + 1.

Xl X2 Xn

Chitng minh ding moi bi) ba trong 86 n 86 do la dq ddi 3 canli cua mqt tam quic.

88

Chuang 1. Btu dAng thuc co sCi

Vi du 1.9.8 (T6ng quat). Cia sit n vtl k ltl hai s6 t'lj nhien. thoa man n ~ k > 2." Tim s6 thuc um nMt g( n, k) co tinh cMt : bat kif k trong n s6 th'ljC dttdng Xl, X2, ... , Xn se ltl d(j dtli k CI;Lnh eua mot da giac l6i n€u

( 1 1 1 )

(Xl + X2 + ... + Xn) - + - + ... + - < g(n, k).

Xl X2 Xn

Len CIA!. Chung ta biet rang ak ~ ak-l ~ ........ ~ al la do dai k canh cua mot k giac 16i khi va chi khi al + a2 + ... + ak-l > ak. Do d6 bai toan sau c6 th~ dien dat lai la: vdi di~u kien Xn ~ Xl + X2 + ... + Xk-l va Xn ~ Xn-l ~ ... ~ Xl, tim gia tri nho nh§.t cua ham s6

( 1 1 1 )

(XI+X2+ ... +Xn) -+-+ ... +- =g(n,k).

Xl X2 Xn

D~ lam dieu d6 ta se thiet lap M thirc lien hE;' g(n + 1, k) va g(n, k).

Gi4 sit rAng gia tri g(n, k) da xac dinh va diillg thtrc co xay ra tai (Xl, X2, ... , Xn) vdi Xn ~ Xn-l ~ ... ~ Xl· Xet di~u kien

D~t

A = Xl + X2 + ... + Xn-l + Xn,

1 1 1 1

B = - + - + ... + -- +-.

Xl X2 Xn-l Xn

Xet ham s6 f (x) = (x + A) (~ + B) vdi X > 0

, 1 x+A A

f (x) = ;; + B - ---;;2 = B - x2'

, fA

f (x) = 0 ¢:} X = V Ii = Xo > O.

Do A ~ nXn+1, B 2: n/xn+1 => Xo ~ Xn+l. 'Iai Xo, ham f dat eire ti~u vi v~y

f(x) " f(xo) ~ ( r: + A)(~ + B) ~ (vAll + I)'.

Theo gia thi6t AB ~ g(n, k) va dimg tlnrc xay ra duoc ucn

Le.H GIAI. DM x = 11a, y = 2/b, z = 3/e bai toan chuycn thanh :

Xet cae s6 th1,le dUdng x, y, z thad man 12xyz ~ 2x + 8y + 21z. TZm gia try nhO nMt eua bdu thue P(x, y, z) = x + 2y + 3z.

'I'ir gia ~hi6t z(12xy - 21) ~ 2x + 8y > 0 tit d6 z ~ 1~:y+_8~1 vdi x > :'IJ (1), Suy ra 2x+8y

P(x, y, z),~ x + 2y + 4xy _ 7 (2)

X h' ' f( ) 2x + 8y 4x2y - 5x + 8y ,. bi 7, l' h '

et am 56 x = x + . = . VOl icn x > - va y a t am so

4xy - 7 4xy - 7 4y .

thuc duong

f'( ) = 16x2y2 - 56xy - 32y2 + 35

=} x (4xy-7)2

7 7 ' -/32y2 + 14 , ,

Trcn (-, +00) thl f'(x) = 0 ¢:} x = Xo = - + . va qua Xo thl f'(x)

4y 4y 4y

d5i dau tu am sang duong nen f(x) dat eire tieu tai Xo· Suy ra f(x) ~ f(xo) = 5

2xo - 4" =} P(x, y, z) ~ f(x) + 2y ~ f(xo) + 2y = g(y) (3)

y .

Xet ham s6 g(y) = 2y + ~ + ~ J32y2 + 14. Sau khi tfnh g'(y) ta e6

4y 2y

g'(y) = 0 ¢:} (8y2 -: 9)V32y2 + 14 - 28 = O.

Di;tt t = V32y2 + 14 vdi t > 0 thl phuong trinh tren trd thanh t3 - 50t - 112 = O. Phuong trinh nay c/J duy nhilt mot nghiem duong t = 8 ¢:} y = Yo = ~. Vf},y g' (~) = O. Voi v > 0 va qua Yo thl g'(y) d6i dilu tit am sang duong nen g(y) dat cue ti~u tai

86 Chuang 1. BAt d&ng thue co sCi

1.9.3 Khao sat ham nhieu bien

Cac bai toan mot bien h§.u nhu luon e6 the giai duoc bang dao ham thea each nay hay each khac, nhung c6ng viec tuong tu d6i voi cac bai toan nhieu bien s6 han thi khoug con ue dang nhu truce. D6iyoi cac ham nhieu bien, each lam thong thirong la thay th~ cac bien tU dieu kien bai toan d~ e6 mot bieu thirc moi rna cac bien kh6ng con dieu kien rang buoc voi nhau sau d6 tim cue tri theo tung bien. Ban doc e6 th~ th§.y r6 tu tuong nay trong chirng minh bai toan sau day.

Vi du 1.9.5 (Vi(Jt Nam TST 2001). Xet cdc s6 thuc duonq a, b, e thoti man di€u ki~n 12 ~ 21ab + 2be + 8ea. TZm gia try nh6 nMt eua bdu thiic

123 P(a,b,e) = - + -b +-.

a e

84

Cliucug 1. B§t dAng thuc co sd

Them chi tiBt, cac ban non xcm trong Uti lieu sach giao khoa lop 11 va gidi han va 12 vC dao ham. Cac kicu tlnrc va diuh li eo ban lien quan toi dao ham ham sO khong chi r§.t quan trong d6i voi b§.t dling thirc rna hau nhu luon c6 anh uang ldn d~n nhieu nganh khac nhau ella toan hoc. N6 cung quan trong voi chinh cac ban, nh§.t la khi ban phai trai qua cac ki thi toan quan trong.

1.9.2 Khao sat ham s6 mot bien

Dinh ly Fermat (hay con goi la nguyen ly eire tri) la dieu kien can, thuong diroc ap dung trong cac bai toan tim eire trio Ta lam quen vdi phuong phap chirng rninh nay qua vi du don gian sau.

Vi du 1.9.1. Tim gici try Lan nMt va nhO nMt cua biiu ihsic

x2 + 2 f(x) = (x + 1)2 + i

LdI GIAI. Ta c6

f'(x) = 2x ((x + 1)2 + 1J - 2(x + 1)(x2+ 2) ((x + 1)2 + 1)2

f' (x) = 0 {:} x (x + 1) 2 + X = 2x + 2 + x2 (x + 1) {:} 2x2 + 2x = 2 + 2x + x2

{:} x2 = 2 {:} x = J2 v - J2.

Tu d6 suy ra gia tri nho nhAt cua ham s6 la (l+~)2+1' con gia tri ldn nhAt cua ham

.. l' 4 0

so a (1-\12)2+1'

Vi du 1.9.2. Tim gici try nhO nMt cua biiu thUc xx, vai x La m(5t s6 thuc dUdng.

LdI GIAI. X6t ham

f() x x In x

X = X = e

f'~x) = eXlnX(lnx + 1)

f'(x) = 0 {:} lnx = -1 {:} x = lie,

Lap bllng biBn thicn ta suy ra

1

f(x) ~ f(l/e) = I' 0

ee

82

Cbuoug 1. Bat diing tbucca sd

Vi du 1.8.14. Cht1ng minh btit diing thite 8au vdi moi day 86 thuc xl, X2, , .. , Xn

( )2 ( )2

2 Xl + X2 Xl + X2 + ... + Xn 2 22

Xl + 2 + ... + n S 4(Xl + X2 + ... + XrJ·

Do d6

(Xl+X2; ... +Xk)2S 0:1+0:2+ ... +nk 2 nl+n2+ .. ·+O:k 2

k2 Xl + k2 X2 + ... +

0:1 0:2

nl + 0:2 + ... + O:k 2

+ k2 Xk'

O:k

Cho k chay tU 1 toi n r6i cong va n b§.t diing thirc dang tren lai ta diroc

2 (Xl+X2)2 (Xl+X2+ ... +xn)2 2 2 2

Xl + 2 + ... + . n S I'lXl + I'2X2 + ... + I'nXn-

Trong do eric he s6 I'k diroc xac dinh boi

(Xl + (X2 + ... + Uk Ul + U2 + ... + (Xk+l (Xl + (X2 + ... + Un

I'k = k20:k + (k + 1)20:k + , .. + n20:k

Ta chon

Suy ra

1 ( 1 1 1 )

I'k = - k3/2 + (k )3/2 + ' .. + 3/2 .

O:k ' + 1 n

Chli Y r~ng

1

1

jk+1-R

V(k- ~)(k+~)

1

Khi d6 gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thirc IlL nam-l, xay ra vdi

a a

Xl =1;;;:-' X2 =1;;:;;:-' "" Xn =

m-~al m-~a2

o

m-~'

a

80 Cbuoug 1, BAt diing ttuic co sd

1.8.3 Can bAng h~ 56 vdi b~t di~.ng thirc Cauchy - Schwarz - Holder

Vi du 1.8.11. Cia sit X, y, Z ;::: 0 va X + y + z = 3, hiiy tim gia try nhd nMt ciui x4 + 2y4 + 3z4,

LClI G IAI. Chon cac s6 a, b, c dirong va a + b + c = 3, theo bfit dAng thirc Holder (X4 + 2y4 + 3z4)(a4 + 2b4 + 3e4)3 ;::: (a3x + 2b3y + 3e3z)4,

Chon a, b, e sao cho a3 = 2b3 = 3e3 = k3, khi d6

Xet dieu kien ding thrrc thi ::=!!..=~=x+y+z=l.

abe a+b+e

Do vay ta c6

a + b + e = 3, a3 = 2b3 = 3e3 = k3

3in 3;;:; 3

=*a=k,b= v~k,c= v3k=*k= ~ {Y3'

1+ 2+ 3

Tu d6 d~ dang suy ra k~t qua bai toan. 0

Vi d\l1.8.12. Cia sit Xl, X2, .. " Xn la eae s6 th1/c duano co t6ng bdng n., aI, a2, .. " an la cae Mng s6 dUdng eho truac. Tim qui tri nhd nMt ciia bdu thue

Trong do m > 1 la m¢t s6 nguyen dUdng eho truce.

LClI GIAI. Bai toan t6ng quat trong trucng hop nay cung duoc chimg minh hoan toan trrong tl.t nho bAt ctiinp; tlnrc Holder, Ta chon

n

a= I I, I'

m V<il+ m Va2+"'+ m VUl

Bay gio chung ta hay xet d~n mot vi du kh6 hon

78

Cbuong 1. BAt c1iing th(lc co sd

Len CIA!. Su dung bitt dAng thirc AM - G'M ta co

x2 + a2 ~ 2ax y2 + a2 ~ 2ay z3 + b3 + b3 ~ 3b2 Z

Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi

{ ~{

x = y = a, Z = b 2a = 3b2 x+y+z=3

x = y = a, Z = 2b 2a = 3b2, 2a + b = 3

Do d6

3b2 - b = 3 ~ b = -1 + v'37, 6

3 - b 19 - v'37

a=--=----

• 2 12

Sau day lit mot bilt dling thire trong d0 thi VMEO. lit bilt ditng thirc dang t6ng quat cua kl thi chon doi tuyen toan Viet N am nam 2002.

Vi du 1.8.9. Cho a, b, c la cac s8 th'l/C duanq va x, y, Z ~ 0 la cac bi€n s8 thod man ax + by + cz = xyz. Ch1?ng minh rdng tan tai duy nMt s8 th'l/C duanq d sao cho

2 1 1 1

-=--+--+--

d a+d b w d c s- d'

Va khi do hiiy chung minh gia tri nh6 nMt ciui bi€u tMtc x + y + z biing

Jd(d + a)(d + b)(d + c).

LdI CIA!. Y tirong chinh trong chang minh bai toan tren Ill. dira vao 110C 111<;Jng

(ax + by + cz) (x + y + z) 2 xyz

bang bfit ding tlnrc AM - G'M; tuy nhicn phai la bitt d5.ng tlnrc AM - eM suy rong voi 85 mil thuc, Khi d6 neu gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thirc tren bang C thi gia tri nho nhat cua x + y + z trong mien xac dinh cua bai toan cung bang C.

Khi d6 gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thirc 13. nam-l, xay ra vdi

a a

Xl = ux:: X2 =ltn:' "" Xn =

m-~al m-~a2

o m-.ya;;'

a

80 Chuang 1, Bat dAng th(tc co sCi

1.8.3 Can bang ht; 86 vdi b~t diing thrrc Cauchy - Schwarz - Holder

Vi du 1.8.11. Cia stl X, y, Z ::::: 0 va X + y + Z = 3, hiiy tim gia try nhd nMt ciu:

Len GIAI. Chon cac s6 a, b, c dirong va a + b + c = 3, theo b§,t d~ng thirc Holder (x4 + 2y4 + 3z4)(a4 + 2b4 + 3c4)3 ::::: (a3x + 2b3y + 3c3z)4,

Chon a, b, c sao cho a3 = 2b3 = 3c3 = k3, khi d6

(a4 + 2b4 + 3c4)3'

Xet dieu kien ding thirc thl .:.='!!.=:.=x+y+z=l.

abc a+b+c

Do v~y ta c6

a + b + c = 3, a3 = 2b3 = 3c3 = k3

3in 3;;:;' 3

=*a=k,b= v~k,c= v3k=*k= {Y2 {YJ'

1+ 2+ 3

Tli d6 de dang suy ra k~t qua bai toan. 0

Vi d1;l1.8.12. Cia 8U Xl, X2, .. " Xn La cdc 86 thuc duano co tang Mng ti, aI, a2, .. " an La cdc Mng 86 dudng cho truac. TIm qui try nhd nMt ciia bilu thsic

Trong do m > 1 La m(jt 86 nguyen dUdng cho iruoc.

Lor GIAI. Bai toan tcing quat trong trirong hop nay cung duuc chang minh hoan toan tuong tlJ nho bAt diing tlnrc HoLder, Ta chon

n

a= I I. I'

m Va1+ m Va2+'"+ m Vcil

Bay gio chung ta hay xet d~n mot vi du kh6 hon

78

Chuong 1. B§.t dAng th(te co sCI

LCH GIAI. Sl't dung bat diing tlnrc AM - G'M ta co

x2 + a2 ;::: 2ax y2 + a2 ;::: 2ay Z3 + b3 + b3 ;::: 3b2 Z

Diing thrrc xay fa khi va chi khi

{ ~{

x = y = a,z = b 2a = 3b2 x+y+z=3

x = y = a, Z = 2b 2a = 3b2,2a+b = 3

Do do

3b2 - b = 3 ~ b = -1 + v'37, 6

3 - b 19 - v'37

a=--=----

, 2 12

Sail day la mot bAt. dAng tlnrc trong d{' thi VMEO. Iii bat. dAng thirc dang tiing quat cua kt thi chon doi tuycn toan Vi~t Narn nam 2002.

Vi du 1.8.9. Cho a, b, e to, cae s8 ilvuc dUdng va x, y, Z ;::: 0 to, cae bi€n s8 thoc man ax + by + cz = xyz. CMtng minh r6:n.g t6n tai duy nMt s8 th'l/C dUdng d sao cho

2 1 1 1

-=--+--+--

d a s- d b+d c+d'

Va khi do hay ch,ftng minh gia tri nhd nMt ciia biiu tMtc x + y + z Mng

Jd(d + a)(d + b)(d+ c).

LClI G IAI. Y tirdng chinh trong chirng minh bai toan trcn la dua vao 110e 111<;1ng

(ax + by + cz) (x + y + z) 2 xy,z

bang bAt diing tlnrc AM - G'M; tuy nhicn phai 18. b5.t diing tlnrc AM - eM suy rong voi s6 mu thirc, Khi do n~u gia tri nho nhat ella bieu tlnrc tren bang C thl gia tri nho nhat cua x + y + z trong mien xac dinh cua bai toan cung bang C.

1.6. BAt d~.ng th(lc d6i xang 3 bi@n

65

Vi du 1.6.5. CMtng minh rdng v{Ji moi 86 thuc kh6ng am a, b, c

Chung ta hay xem xet them mot dang bat diing thuc d6i xirng 3 bien khac, Bai toan sau day kha c6 di~n va c6 nhieu irng dung

Vi du 1.6.6. Chung minh v{Ji moi a, b, c kh6ng am ta lu6n c6

abc ~ (a + b - c) (b + c - a) (c + a - b).

LdI CIA!. Day 1£1. mot bat ditng thirc rat quen thuoc va don gian VI clnrng minh chi c§.n dua vao bat diing thirc AM - CM. Ri~n nhien bat diing thirc dung n~u mot thira s6 nao do (j ve trai am. Ta xet khi ca 3 s6 hang d6 deu duong. Dii th§.y hat dling tlnrc tren diroc suy ra bltng each nhan ca 3 bAt ding thiro sau thea tung va

(a + b - c)(b + c - a) ~ b2 (b + c - a) (c + a - b) ~ c2 (c + a - b)(a + b - c) ~ a2

C6 th~ n6i vi du i.6.6 kha don gian so vdi b§.t diing thirc Schur, nhirng that kill). la 2 b§.t dAug tlnrc nay hoa ra lai la mot khi ta chuan h6a hoac khai tri6n chung ?l 0

Cac bAt diing thirc thuan nh§.t la d6i tirong chu y~u cua b§.t diing thirc, h§.u h~t esc bai thi toan Olympiad deu xu§.t hien dmii dang nay. Phan con lai la cac b§.t dling t}l\:'le khong thuan nhAt (d6i xirng hoac khong) tirong d6i it va cling diroc it chu y han. Tham chi nhieu ngtroi con tin rling d~ mot b§.t diing thirc dung thl cluing buoc phai thuan nhat (d6ng bac). Cac b§.t diing thirc khong thuan nhat luon r§.t d~c bi~t va dep mat. Hai vi du sau day se lam ro di~u nay

Vi du 1.6.7. ChUng minh viJi moi a, b, e th'(te

a2 + b2 + e2 + 2abe + 1 ~ 2(ab + be + ea).

Vi du 1.6.8. ChUng minh viJi moi a, b, e thuc

San day chung ta se xem xet cac b§.t diing thirc d6i ximg c6 di~u kien, va mot ki thuat quan trong de chirng minh b§.t di\ng t hrrc : ki thuat ehuan h6a.

a2(b + c) + b2(c + a) + c2(a + b) ~ (fLb + be + ca) V(a + b)(b + c)(c + a).

66 Chuang 1. Bitt diing thue co sa

1.6.2 B~t ditng thuc d6i xtmg co di€u kien

Cac bfit dAng thirc d6i ximg c6 di~u kien va khong c6 dieu kien la 2 d6i tirong rieng re t6n tai doc lap nhung that ra lai c6 moi quan hE: chat che voi nhau. Chinh m6i quan h(' nay lam nay sinh mot ki thuat moi chang minh bdt diing tlnrc : d6 la ki thuat ehuan hod vdi bfit ding thirc thuan nhat dbi ximg, Sau day la mot sb vi du

Vi du 1.6.9. CMtng minh ding vdi moi a, b, c kh6ng am th'i

Jab+bc+ca 3 (a+b)(b+c)(c+a)

3:::; 8 .

LCH GIAI. Vi du tren la mot bftt dAng thirc rftt n6i ti@ng va khong M d~. Cach thong thirong la luy thira mu 6 ca 2 va r6i khai tricn, nhirng each nay rAt dai va khong nhicu y nghia, tharn chi rAt de nham Ian. Ban hay ki xcm chang minh sau

Gia Slt ab + be + ca = 3, khi d6 a + b + c ~ 3 va abc:::; 1.

(a + b) (b + c)( c + a) = (a + b + c) (ab + be + ca) - abc = 3 (a + b + c) - abc ~ 8

Jab + be + ca i·(a + b)(b + e)(c + a)

~ =1< .

3 - 8

Bfit diillg tlnrc duoc clnrng minh. Dang tlnrc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c. 0

Di~m dang chu y trong loi giiii tren la viec gia sit ab + be + ca = 3. Ta giii sit diroc nlnr v~y VI b§.t diing thirc tren la thuan nMt. That v~y, lfiya' = aft, b' = bit, c' = cit

r6i chon t de a'b' + b'c' + c'a' = 3. Ta tlrn diroc t = Jabtb~±ca. Bfit dAng thirc dung vdi a', b', c' nen hi en nhien n6 cung dung vdi a, b, c sau khi nhan a', b', c' vdi t.

C6 the each if luan tren khong hoan toan d~ hieu d6i vdi ban doc chua quen vdi phirong phap nay, nhung thirc ra day la mot van d~ rfit don gian va cac ban dn phai nam ro, Ta hoan toan c6 th6 gia Slt bftt kl mot bi6u tlnrc nao khac, chang han a + b + c = 3 hoac a + b + c = 1 'hoac abc = 1... Dieu doc dao va cung la dicu kh6 nhat cua ki thuat nay la viec chuan hoa bieu thirc nao cho hop If nhat de c6 chang minh don gian nhat. Chang han trong vi du tren, ta hoan toan c6 th~ gia sit a + b + c = 3 hoac abc = 1 hoac (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = 8 nhirng cac each chujln hoa nay, hoac khong the ra diroc, hoac phai chang minh rftt dai.

Vi du 1.6.10. Ch'l1ng minh ding vdi moi a, b, c kh6ng am ta luonc6

LCH GIAI. Y tudng tu nhien khi giai bai to an nay la tim each 10~i bo dftu can bac 3 n~u c6 th~. BAng each do, ta thay d6i bftt ding thirc tren thanh mot bftt dAng thirc

1.6. BAt dii.ng thl(e d6i xUllg 3 bi~I1

67

c6 di~u kien nhu sau :

Gia sit (a + b)(b + e)(e + a) = 8, hay chUng minh .

a2(b + c) + b2(c + a) + e2(a + b) ~ 2(ab + be + ea).

Cong vice con lai trCl nen don gian han, d6 Iii. clnmg minh 2 b§.t dl1ng thirc

ab + be + ea ~ 3,

a2(b + c) + b2(e + a) + e2(a + b) ~ 6.

That vay, vdi b§.t dl1ng thirc thu nMt hay chu y r~ng

8+ abc

8 = (a + b + c) (ab + be + ca) - abc => ab + be + ea = b

a+ +e

Theo bAt dl1ug that: AM - G M thl

Do do

8 = (a + b) (b + c) (c + a) ~ 8abc => abc ~ 1,

(2(a + b + C).)3

8=(a+b)(b+c)(c+a)~ 3 =>a+b+e~3.

ab + be + ca ~ (8 + abc) / 3 ~ 3 ,

a2(b + c) + b2(e + a) + e2(a + b) = (a + b)(b + e)(e + a) - 2abe = 8 - 2abe ~ 6,

BAt dl1ng thirc da diroc chimg minh xong. 0

Vi du 1.6.11 (USA MO 2003). Ch'ung minh Mt ddng thsic (2a+b+c)2 (2b+c+a)2 (2c+a+b)2 8 2a2 + (b + c)2 + 2b2 + (c + a)2 + 2c2 + (a + b)2 ~ .

Trong d6 a, b, c lil, eac s6 th'l,tc khOng am.

LCH CIAI. Ta chuan hoa a +b + c = 3 d6 rut gon cac 86 hang v~ trai trCl thanh cac bi~u that: don gian han cl6i vci 1 bien cua a, b, c. Bfit dl1ng thirc tirong duong voi

CM Y vdi dieu kien a +- b + c = 3, ta se tim mot s6 thirc k sao eho

(3+a)2 8

2 ( )2 s -3+k(a-l).

2a + 3 - a

68

C1U((1ng 1. B~t dAng ttutc co sCi

Khi do h§.t dAng thuc se diroc chang minh VI

VT::; 8 + k(a + b + c - 3) = 8.

Ta co

3(3+a)2 a2+6a+9 8a+6 ---- = 1 + ----

2a2+(3-a)2 a2-2a+3 (a-l)2+2

8a + 6

::; 1 + -2- = 4a + 4.

V~y k = 4/3 va bat d5.ng thirc diroc chung minh. 0

Vi du 1.6.12 (Japan MO 2002). Chitng minh ding vai moi a, b, c kh6ng am ta co M.t dii.ng mac

Len GIAI. Ta chuan hoa a + b + c = 3 va xet rieng tU s6 hang cua bi6u thirc

(b+c-a)2 (3-2a)2 9-12a+4a2

(b+c)2+a2 (3-a)2+a2 9-6a+2a2

-2- 9

- 2a2 - 6a + 9·

Ta phai chirng minh

1 1 1 3

----,--- + + < -.

2a2 - 6a + 9 2b2 - 6b + 9 2c2 - 6c + 9 - 5

Ta cung lam thea phtrong phap tirong tI;t la tlm s6 thuc k sao cho

Trang bai nay, s6 k khong de dang Urn nhu tnroc. Hay de y each ttnh sau day

5 _ L _ 2a2 - 6a + 4 _ 2(a - l)(a -: 2)

2a2 - 6a + 9 - 2a2 -.6a + 9 - 2a2 - 6a + 9 '

Khi a = 1 thl bi6u thirc (a - 2)/(2a2 - 6a + 9) c6 gia tri bang -1/5, v~y ta s6 du do an r~ng

2(a - 1)(a - 2) -2(a - 1)

2 > .

2a - 6a + 9 - 5

126

Chuang 2. Sang' t~o Mt dAng thuc

V~y bilt dAng thirc duoc chrmg minh xong.

each 2. DM k = a + b + c. Sli dung bilt diing H~((c quen thuoc abc > (a + b - c)(b + c - a)(c + a - b) :::} abc;::: (k - 2a)(k - 2b)(k - 2c).

Rut gon lai du(,1c

9 4(ab+be+ea)-k2:::;'kabe (*)

Bilt dang thirc cua bai toan tirong dirong vdi

(a + b + e)2 + 2abe + 1 2: 4(ab + be + ea) ~ 4(ab + be + ea) - k2 :::; 1 + 2abe.

811 dung (*) , ta chi cfin chimg minh bilt dAng thirc sau

(~-2)aoc:::;1.

Theo Mt tiling tlnrc AM - G M ta co

(~-2)abe< (~-2) k3 = (9-2k)k2 < 1.

k - k 27 27 -

V~y ta co di~u phai chimg minh. DAng thtrc xay ra khi va chi khi a == b = e = 1. 0 Nhan xet, Mot bai toan S11 dung phirong phap tirong nr nhu tren cua cac tac gia. Marian Tctiva, Mireca Lascu, Gabriel Dospincscu

a2 + b2 + e2 +2abe + 3 ;::: (1 + a)( 1 + b) (1 + e).

Bai toan 2.30' (Pham Kim Hung). Wi a, b, e liL cae 86 th'l,te duonq d'ltdng tuy y, cMtng minh Mt dii:ng thuc

a + 2b + b + 2e + e + 2a > 3.

c + 2b a + 2e b + 2a -

L(1I G IAI. Quy d6ng m~u s6 r6i rut gon cho ta bilt dAng thtrc 2(a3 + b3 + e3) + 3abe ;::: 3(a2b + b2e + e2a).

Khong mAt tlnh tang quat, gia. S11 c = min(a, b, c). Dl;tt a = c + p, b = c + q(p, q ;::: 0). Thay vao bilt dAng thuc tren ta dtt<;:lC -

VT = 9x3 + 9(p + q)x2 + (6p2 + 6q2 + 3pq)x + 2(p3 + q3), V P = 9x3 + 9(p + q)x2 + 3{p + q)2x + 3p2q,

VT - V P = (p2 + q2 - pq)x + (2p3 + 2q3 - 3p2q) ;::: 0 vi p, o > 0, x;::: O.

124

Chuang 2. Sang tao bElt dAIlg thuc

N~u xy ~ 0 thl ta c6 ngay di~u phai chung minh thea M.t dAng thirc AM - eM

N5u xy ~ 0 ta cling clnrng minh tuong ht, khi d6

x4 + y4 + 2x3y _ 2xy3 ~ x4 + 21xy31 - 21x3YI ~ o.

V~y Mt dAng thrrc tren da duoc chirng minh, til d6 suy ra k~t qua cua bai toano D Nhan xet, BAt dAng thrrc sau vAn dung, vdi 1m giro hoan toan tirong tit

a(a + b)5 + b(b + c)5 + c(c + a)5 ~ 0 Va, b, c E R.

Ngoai ra n = 3, 5 la 2 s6 nguyen duy nhAt c6 tinh chAt

a(a + bY' + b(b + c)" + c(c + c)" ~ 0 Va, b, c E R.

B1;I.n doc hay tit chimg minh 2 tfnh chAt nay.

Ba! toan 2.27 (Mathlinks Contests). ChUng minh rdng ntu a, b, c La cdc s6 thuc

dttdng co tich bli.ng 1 th1. .

/fff+ c {fiJc + a 3

+ --+ --> .

b+1 c+1-

LOI GIAI. Sit dung trl,tc ti~p bAt dAng thuc AM - eM cho 3 s6 hang tren, ta se chirng minh

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ~ (a + l)(b + l)(c + 1).

Th~t ~y, cung vai di~u kien abc = 1, bAt dAng thrrc tren tuong duong vai

ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a) ~ a + b + c + ab + be + ca.

Sit dung bAt dAng thirc AM - eM vdi nh6m 5 s6

a2b + a2b + a2c + a2c + be ~ 5a, b2a + b2a + b2c + b2c + ac ~ 5b, c2b + c2b + ~2a. + c2a + ab ~ 5c.

Cong 3 M.t dAng tlnrc tren lai

2.VT~5(a+b+c)-(ab+bc+ca) (1)

2.1. Cac bai toan chon IQc

123

Sl1 dung cac kct qua tren, ta c6

1 1 1 1 1 1

(1 + a)2 + (1 + b)2 + (1 + c)2 + (1 + d)2 ;:::: 1 + m" + 1 + n = 1.

D6 la dieu phai chung minh. Dkg thtrc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = d = 1. 0 Bal toan 2.25 (IMO Shortlist). Wi a, b, c, x, y, z la cdc s6 thuc kh6ng am thoa man a + b + c = x + y + z. Ch·(tng minh Mt ddng thuc

ax2 + by2 + cz2 + xyz ;:::: 4abc.

Lor GIAI. Tn1aC ticn ta s6 chirng minh r~ng

Bfi d~. N€u ax2 + by2 + cz2 + xyz = 4abc th1. x + y + z ~ a + b + c. That ~y, vci dS.ng thuc tren ta c6

x2 y2 z2 xyz

4bc + 4ca + 4ab + 4abc = 1.

V~y t6n tai mot tam giac ABC thoa man

x y z

cos A = fL:,cosB = 2 r,;;:'cosC = CL'

2vbc vca 2.yab

U.y al = Va, bi = Vb, CI = .;c. Ba.t dil.ng tlnrc dua v€ dang quen thuoc

a~ + b~ + c~ 2:: 2(albl cosC + blCI cos A + cial cos B).

D·, l' ., khi x I" khi x + y b y + z z + X BX' , b d>'

ang t nrc xay ra 11 V<1 C 11 11 a = -2-' = -2-' c = -2-' <11 toan an au

la M qua true tiep ella ba.t dAng thirc tren. 0

Bai toan 2.26 (L. Panaitopol, Micea Lascu, V. Bandila). ChUng minh rdng

vai moi a, b, c E R ta luin: co .

a(a + b)3 + b(b + c)3 + c(c + a)3 ;:::: O.

Len G IAI. Di:\t x = a + b, y = a + c, z = b + c, ta phai chimg minh x3(x + y - z) + y3(y + z - x) + z3(z + X - y) 2:: 0

<=? x4 + y4 + z4 + x3y +_y3z + z3x - xy3 - yz3 - zx3 ;:::: O.

Ta tim each nh6m thanh cac t6ng nho hdn ella 3 s6 hang. CI,1 th~, ta s6 chimg minh ba.t ding thuc

1.6. B§,t d~.I1g th(tc d6i XUllg 3 bi~ll

69

B§.t ding thuc tren diroc chirng minh nhir sau

(a - 1) (5(a - 2) + 2a2 - 6a + 9) ~ 0 ¢:} (a - 1)(2a2 - a-I) ~ 0

¢:} (a - 1)2(2a + 1) ~ 0 (dungl).

Tit d6 suy ra

1 1 2

2a2 - 6a + 9 :::; 5 - 25 (a - 1).

Thaya bdi b, c r6i cong va cac b§.t dAng thirc ta diroc dpcm. 0

Cac vi du tren 18. cac vi du di~n hinh cua ki thuat chuan hoa giup chung ta co diroc l<'1i gihi ngAn gon va don gian. Trong hAil Mt cac trirong hop khac t hi cac di~1l kien mang tinh hinh thuc nhieu hon, tUc la di;it dieu kien trudc d~ c6 mot b§.t ding thtrc dl nhim. hen.

Vi dl,11.6.13. Gid 8'1l cac 88 th'/,tc a, b, e thod man a2 +b2 +c2 = 3. Hay chUng minh

LeH CIA!. Ta dira b§.t ding thuc v5 dang thudn nMt la

a3(b + c) + b3(c + a) + c3(a + b) :::; ~(a2 + b2 + c2)2 ¢:} 2(a4 + b4 + c4) + 4(a2b2 + b2c2 + c2a2) ~ 3ab(a2 + b2)+

+ 3bc(b2 + e2) + 3ea(c2 + a2).

Vci b§.t d~ng thirc tren ta chi dn tach ra chrrng minh don gian theo 2 bien

a4 + b4 + 4a2b2 ~ 3ab(a2 + b2) ¢:} (a - b)4+ab(a - bf ~ O.

B§.t ding thirc da duoc chtmg minh xong. Ding thirc xay ra chi khi a = b = c. 0

Vi du 1.6.14. ChUng minh vai cac 88 th'/,tc d'ltdng a, b, c thod man ab + be + ca = 3 ta co Mt diing thuc

a2(b + c) + b2(c + a) + c2(a +'b) ~ 3 V(a + b)(b + c){c + a).

Len CIA!. Ban doc de dang nhan ra day chfnh la la vi du 1.6.10 va viec them dH~u kien ab + be + ca = 3 chi mang tinh hlnh thtrc. Rieng vdi b§,t ding thuc tren con c6

70

Chuang 1. Biit dAng thuc co Sd

them mot each chung minh ces diiin mra bang each su dung h§.t ditng thirc Holder. ChU y rang 3 bi~u thirc sau hoan toan nhir nhau

a2(b + c) + b2(c + a) + c2(a + b), b2(c + a) + c2(a + b) + a2(b + c), ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a).

Chi c§.n ap dung b§.t diing thuc Holder cho 3 bo s6 tren ta c6 dpcm. 0

Vi du 1.6.15. Chitng minh rdng n€u a, b, c liL cac s6 thuc kh6ng am co t6ng Mng 2

ta lui5n co

Lor GIAI. Theo bfit ding thirc Schur bac 2 ta e6

a4 + b4 + c4 + abc(a + b + c) ~ a3(b + c) + b3(c + a) + c3(a + b) <=> 2(a4 + b4 + c4) + abc(a + b + c) ~ (a3 + b3 + c3)(a + b + c).

Thay a + b + c = 2 vao bAt diing tln1c cuM ta suy fa k6t. qua bai toano CM y rang diing thire co xay ra a bai toan tren khi a = b = 1, c = 0 hoac cac hoan vi (ngoai tnrong hop t§.m thirong a = b = c = 2/3). 0

Vi du 1.6.16. CMtng minh rdng vlJi cac s6 khi5ng am a, b, c co t6ng Mng 2 thi a3 + b3 + c3 + 15abc/4 ~ 2.

Len GIAI. Thirc ch§.t, ta e§.n phai chirng minh bai toan

3 b3 3 15abc (a+b+c)3'

a + + c + -4- ~ 4 .

D6i voi b§.t diing thirc tren, khai triiin ea 2 v~ r6i rut gon ta diroc bat diing thirc Schur quen thuoc, 0

Tuy nhien d6i vdi r§.t nhieu bai toan ban g~p trong cuon sach nay thl di~u kien khong chi lit di~u kien rang buoc voi cac bien, rna viec dua v~ dang thuan nhAt khong phai luon giup bAt diing tlnrc tro nen don gian hon. Vi du nlnr

Vi d1:l1.6.17. Wi cae s6 khi5ng am a,b,c co t6ng Mng 2, hiiy chUng minh (a2 + ab + b2)(b2 + be + c2)(c2 + ca + a2) :::; 3.

Vi du 1.6.18. VlJi cac s6 thuc khi5ng am a, b, c co t6ng Mng 2, chitng minh rdng 28

(a2 - ab + b2)(b2 - be -i- c.2)(c2 - ca + a2) :::; 35.

Trong ca 2 vi du tren, vice thuan nhat 2 vB khong e6 y nghla, chung ta c§.n sti dung cac phircng phap khac, d6 la d6n bien va phuong phap ces diiin. Cac phirong phap nay se diroc xern xet ki luang trong chuong IV.

1.7. Bfit d~"Ilg tht~C va cac d« thuc d6i Xt~Ilg sa cfip

71

1. 7 Ba.t d~ng thirc va cac da thtrc d5i ximg so ca.p

1.7.1 Li thuyet v~ cac da thirc d6i ximg sd d.p

Khi noi Wi nlnrng bien tlurc ri6i xirng ngltbi ta tlnrong hay xcm xct Wi cac ria thirc d6i ximg sa cap. Do la cac da thirc cua cac bien Xl, X2, ... , Xn co dang sau

Sl = Xl + X2 + ... + Xn

S2 = X1X2 + X1X3 +" ... + X1Xn + X2X3 + ... + X2Xn

N6i each khac, chung la ht;' s6 trong khai trien cua cac da thirc

f(x) = (x - xd(x - X2} (X - xn)

= z" - SlXn-l + + (-l)kSkxn-k + ... + (-l)nSn.

g(x) = (x + Xl)(X + X2)"'(X + xn)

n S n-l + S n=k + + ·S

= x + lX ... + kX ... n-

Vit;'e nghien ciru cac bien thirc d6i xirng e6 the diroc quy ve bang viec nghien ciru cac da thitc d6i xirng duoc chung minh qua dinh If sau day

Dinh ly 1.10 (Dinh H co ban cua dal 86). Moi da thssc d6i xitng lu6n c6 tht bi€u dien qua cac da th·uc d6i x'ung sa cap.

Dinh If tren kh6ng chi eo nhieu irng dung trong Mt ding thirc rna no Con eo rdt nhieu irng dung trong dai s6 n6i ehung. Tdt nhien, dinh Ii co the chung minh voi kien tlnrc so dip nhung khong thuoc ve bdt ding tlnrc nen tac gia khOng nell len (j day, eoi d6 nhu mot bai t1),p dai s6 eho cac ban. Til dinh if nay, ta e6 the xem viec chimg minh mot bAt ding thuc d6i ximg v~ viec danh gia gitra cac da thirc d6i ximg sa cAp. Rieng vdi cac da thirc nay ta e6 mot s6 chu y quan trong.

Vi d1,11.7.1 (BAt ding thuc Newton). Wi moi Xl, X2, ... , Xn khOng lim ta c6

dk+ldk-l :::; d~

Trang do dk = Sk/C~) Sk La da thuc d6i x'ung sa cap duoc x/ic dinh nhu treti.

72

Chuang 1. BAt dAng thuc co sd

Vi du 1.7.2 (BAt dAng thirc ~aclaurin). Wi moi Xl, X2, ... , Xn khi5ng am ta co dl ~ Vd; ~ ... ~ Vd;. ~ ... ~ \/dn.

CHUNG MINH. Chang minh ca 2 bAt diing tlnrc trcn bang cimg mot plnrong phap nhu nhau, do la phirong phap giam bien dua vao dinh li Roll.

Xet da thirc

g(X) = (x + XI)(X + X2)"'(X + xn)

71 + S 71-1 S n-k S

= X IX + ... + kX + ... + 71,

g'(x) = nxn-l + (n - 1)SlXn-2 + ... + (n - k)SkXn-k-l + ... + Sn-l

= n(xn-l + s~xn-2 + ... + s~xn-k-l + .. + S~_l)' nS~ = (n - k)Sk'

Theo dinh li Roll thl phirong thlg(x) = 0 co dii n-1 nghiem thirc -x~, -x~, ... , -X~_l va do do

g'(X) = n(x + x~)(x + x;) ... (x + x~J.

V~y 3S~ Vk = 1, n - 11ft elk da tlnrc ct5i x\mg so cAp efta x~, x;, ... , X~_l' N6i each khac, t8n tai dk sao cho dk = dk-l. Sau mot s6 hiru han l§.n giam bitSn nhu vay, ta chi c§.n xet 2 b§.t diing thirc tren trong tnrong hop c6 3 s6. Nhimg tnrong hop nay r§.t don gian vi ta c6 ngay

3abe(a+b+e)::; (ab+be+ea)2, a + b + e Jab + be +.ca 3r-.-b

___ > > vaoe.

3 - 3 -

Ca 2 b§.t d~ng thuc tren da diroc chirng minh xong. 0

Tu phirong phap chang minh b§.t diing thirc tren ta rut ra M qua sau

BB d~. Xet Mt iJdng thUe f(dl, d2, ... , dk) 2: 0 tmng do n 2: k va di la cae tla thUc d6i X"lmg c71a cae bi€n 8(] d'/idng Xl, X2, ... , Xn. Khi do ntu btu ddng thuc d7lng vdi moi (Xl, X2, ... , xn), Xi 2: 0 th'i cung dung vdi moi (Xl, X2, ... , Xn+l), Xi ~ O.

1.7.2 Da thirc d6i ximg set cAp va cac Ung dung trong giai toan bAt dling thirc

Chung ta hay bAt d§.u voi vi du sau day

Vi du 1.7.3 (Bulgari MO 1998). Cha a, b, e ~ 0 va abc = 1. Ch7Zng minh rdng

1 1 1 1 1 1

---+ + < --+--+--.

l+a+b l+b+e l+c+a - 2+a 2+b 2+e

1.7. Bilt dAng thuc va cae da ituic d6i xung so cilp

73

LCH G IAI. D~ cho gon, ta dat S = a + b + c, P = ab + be + ca, Q = abc. Ta co

VT=

1 1 1 (11

---+ + =-

S + 1 - a S + 1 - b S + 1 - C (12

L (1 + a + b)( 1 + a + c) = S2 + 4S + 3 + P

sym

(12 = (S + 1 - a)(S + 1 - b)(S + 1 - c) S2+2S+PS+P

VP=

~ 1 12+4S+P Z:: 2 + a = 9 + 43 + 2P

sym

Ta phai chirng minh

S2 + 43 + 3 + P < 12 + 4S + P 32 + 23 + P S + P - 9 + 4S + 2p

P- 3 P3 - 2S - 3

<=> <--:------

9 + 4S + 2P - S2 + 23 + P S + P

<=> (P - 3)(S2 + 2S + PS + P) :::; (PS - 23 - 3)(9 + 4S + 2P)

<=> (3P - 5)32 + (3 - 1)p2 + 6PS 2: 24S + 3P + 27.

Vi abc = 1 nen S, P 2: 3, do do

VT 2: 4S2 + 2p2 + 6PS 2: 12S + 6(P - 1)S + 6S + 2p2 2: 24S + 3P + (P2 + 6S) 2: VP.

Diing thtrc xay ra chi khi S = P = 3 hay a = b = c = 1. 0

VI d1J. 1. 7.4 (Vi~t Nam MO 1996). Gid 8'li a, b, c, d la cdc 86 th'l,te d'l.tdng thod man di~1L kifn

2(ab + be + cd + da + ae + bd) + abe + bed + cda + dab = 16.

Ch:(tng minh M.t diing thiic

2

a + b + c + d 2: "3 (ab + be + cd + da + ae + bd).

LdI GIAI. Theo dinh If Roll, tbn tai cac 86 x, y, z d~

ab + be + cd + da + w; + bd = 2(xy + yz + zx) abc + bed + eda + dab = 4xyz

. 4

a+b+c+d= "3(x+y+z)

74

Cbucmg 1. BAt d~Ilg tiuic co sd

B§,t ding thirc tr0 thanh : Ntu xy + yz + zx + xyz = 4 thi

x + y + z ;::: xy + yz + zx.

C6 nhieu each chang minh bat ding thirc tren, Sau day la mot chang minh dung cac da tlnrc d6i ximg so cap.

Vdi kf hicu d1, d2, d3 nhir trirdc ta c6 3d2 + d3 = 4. Theo bAt ding thirc Schur de thay rang

3

3d1 + d3 ;::: 4d1d2

=> 3dId~ + d3df ;::: 3dId~ + d~d3/dl ;::: 4d~ => (d1 - d2)3 + 3(df - d~) ;::: 0 => d1 ;::: d2.

B§.t diing tlnro dU'<,1C chang minh xong. Dang tlnic xay fa khi a = b = c = d = 1. 0

S11 dung cac da thirc d6i xirng trong chang minh bAt ding thirc c6 iru diem la khong tOu uhieu thoi gian de nght IIlOt each clnrug minh di;ic biet uao do, khong doi hoi nhieu ki nang nhirng cilng c6 nhiroc di@m la de nham Ian va neu 86 cac bien c6 86 mil cao, tit bac 2 tro len thi chang minh se r§,t phirc tap. Tuy nhien, du sao day van la mot kl thuat din thict va de 811 dung, Cac ban hay thirc hanh ki nang cua mlnh qua b§,t dAng tlnrc kha quen thuoc dft diroc clnrng minh CI muc trrroc.

Vi du 1.7.5. CMtng minh vdi cac s8 thuc dttdng a, b, c ta lu6n co

lab + bc + ca < 3 (a + b) (b + c) (c + a)

V 3 - 8

1.8 Phuong phap can b~ng h~ s6

1.8.1 Bai toan md d§.u

Trong nhieu bai toan bfit diing thuc va cue tri, doi khi viec ghep va 811 dung cac bfit diing thirc c6 dien kh6ng diroc thuan loi va de dang. Khi 811 dung lien ti~p nhieu bAt dAng thiro ta luon phai chu y toi diau kien d~ bAt diing tlnrc xay ra, d6 diCu kii)n nay luon diroc thoa man suet qua trinh ta 811 dung cac biit diing thirc trung gian. Trong nhieu trirong hop thi h~ 86 cac bat diing thirc rAt lech, kh6ng d6i xirng nen cong vii:,c tren tr0 nen ria kh6 khan. Vi the de c1111c ch11n c6 mOt lui giai chi;it che ve mat toan hoc, chung ta buoc phai dua them cac bien trung gian r6i giiii hi) plnrong trinh cua cac ding thirc.

Vi du Lx.L. Cia sit cac s8 thuc kh6ng am x, y, z thoii miin die7/, ki~n xy+yz+zx = 1,

chang minh Mt ddng ttnic .

10x2 + 10y2 + z2 ;::: 4.

1.8. Phuong pha,p can Mng h(! sa

75

LOI G IAI. V6 mat hinh thirc, ta c6 th~ trinh bay ngan gon 1di giai cho bai toan trcn bang bitt ding tlnrc AM - G M nhu sau

2x2 + 2y2 ~ 4xy 8x2 + 1/2z2 ~ 4xz 8y2 + 1/2z2 ~ 4yz

Cong v6 ca 3 bAt ding thtrc tren lai dan den

10x2 + lOy2 + z2 ~ 4(xy + yz + zx) = 4.

DAng thirc xay ra khi va chi khi

{

x=y 4x = z 4y = z

{

x = y = 1/3 z = 4/3

BAt dAng thuc diroc chirng minh xong. 0

Day la mot Idi giai dep, ngdn gon nhirng c6 ve hoi thieu t\1 nhien. Cac ban se thilc mac tai sao lai tach 10 = 2 + 8, day la mot su ngau nhien hay may man? Va n~u tach theo each khac, chAng han 10 = 3 + 7 lieu c6 giai duoc khong? TAt nhien, moi each t.ach khac (Mu khong dan rl6n k6t. qua, va tach 10 = 2 + 8 cling khong phai 180 sir may man ...

Vi du 1.8.2. Cia sit cdc s6 thuc x, y, z thoii man 2:ryz = 3x2 + 4y2 + 5z2. Tim qia try nM nhtit ciia

P = 3x + 2y + z.

LOI G IAI. Day cung 130 mot bili toan kha ki la, cac h~ s6 lech nhau nhung gia tri nho nhat lai dat duoc khi x = y = z = 6!? 0

Kl thuat can bang hQ s6 la mot ki thuat rAt can thict, thirong sl't dung mac du doi hie ta c6 cac.phirong trinh kha phirc tap. Nhung voi each bai toan khong a dang chuan, vdi cac bi~u thirc loch nhau thl cong vice nay dirong nhu bilt buoc, Trong ki thuat can bang h¢ s6, ta c6 th~ phan chia lam 2 nh6m trong thirc hanh, d6 la Call biillg hi;' 80 voi bAt dAng thuc AM - G M va Call bang hi;' 80 voi bAt dAng tlnro Cauchy - Schwarz.

1.8.2 Can b~ng h~ 86 vdi b~t dl1ng thirc lien h~ trung binh cqng va trung binh nhan (AM - GM)

Vdi mot s6 ban, ki thuat nay con kha xa la nhirng n6 cung rAt qucn thuoc voi nhieu ban doc khac, Tuy vay hau nhu cac bai toan sir dung phirong phap flay d~u

76

Chuang 1. Bitt dAng tintc co sd

khong dun gian vui h§.t ki ai. Tr0 lai bai toan 1.8.1. chung ta sc li giai cho chang minh d 06, va hay xet them mot vi du khat: tirong tu

Vi du 1.8.3. Chung minh rting n€u xy + yz + zx = 5 th'i 3x2 + 3y2 + z2 ~ 10.

LOI CIA!. Loi giiii don gian va ngan gQn cho vi du tren la 4x2 + z2 ~ 4xz

4y2 + z2 ~ 4yz

2x2 + 2y2 ~ 4xy

Do do 2(3x2 + 3y2 + z2) ~ 4(xy + yz + zx), ta co di0u phai clnrng minh. DAng thuc xay ra khi x = y = 1, z = 2. 0

Bay gio ta sc tim 11 do cua vi¢c tach 10 = 2 + 8 a bai toan rna d§.u va 6 = 4 + 2 a VI du tren. Ta dn xem xct bai toan dang t6ng quat

Vi du 1.8.4. Tuti gia try nh6 nMt eua

k(x2 + y2) + z2

Trang do cae 86 thuc x, y, z thou man xy + yz + zx = 1 va k la m{)t hdng 86 dudng.

LOI CIA!. Ta hay tach k = 1+ ('k - l) (voi 0 ~ l ~ k) va ap dung b§.t dang thirc AM - GM thea phirong phap tirong tu nhu tren

lx2 + ly2 ~ 2lxy

(k - l)x2 + 1/2z2 ~ yf2(k -l)xz (k - l)y2 + 1/2z2 ~ yf2(k -l)yz

Do d6 k(x2 + y2) + z2 ~ 2lxy + j2(k - l)(xz + yz).

Trong tnrong hop nay, ta khong phai can bang di01l kicn dAng tlnrc ma ta phai can bang di~u kien gia thiet, tUc la tim 1 s6 dirong 1 sao cho 21 = yf2(k - I). Khi d6

k(x2 + y2) + z2 ~ 2l(xy + yz + zx) = 21. 86 1 dtr<;1c chon a tren thoa man phtrong trmh

2z2 = k - l <=> 212 + 1 = k

1 '- -1 + VI+8k

<=>.- 4 .

Va ta suy ra k6t qua.

k( 2 2) 2 -1 + VI+8k 0

x +y +z ~ 2 .

1.10. Bai t?,p tip dung

101

Bal toan 1.60. Cho cac s6 dUdng a, b, c thod man ab + be + ca = 1 va x, y, z to, dO dai 3 canh. ciia mOt tam quic. TIm gia tri nh6 nhtit cua bi€u thue sau day

Bai toan 1.61. ChUng minh rdng uoi moi a, b, c kh6ng am thi

aJ a2 + 2be + bJb2 + 2ea + eJe2 + 2ab 2: v'3(ab + be 7: ea).

Biti toan 1.62. ChUng minh vai moi s6 thuc kh6ng am a, b, e ta tuon co

a2 b2 e2

. + + > 2.

~-k+~ ~-oo+a2 ~_~+~-

Ba! toan 1.63 (India 2004). Ctic s6 thuc dUdng xl, X2, ... , Xn thoti man IXi _ Xi+ll <1 va Xi 2: Wi = 1, n, Xn+l = Xl. ChUng minh Mt dd:ng thuc

Xl X2 Xn

- + - + ... + - < 2n - l.

X2 X3 Xl

Bai toan 1.64. Cho cac s6 th'l,tc dUdng a, b, e E [-1,1] thod miin ab + be + ca = l. ChUng minh rdng

~+~ ~+~ ~+~ 9

---,;:----,- +. + > -.

(1 - a2)(1 - b2) (1 - b2)(1 - e2) (1 - e2)(1 - a2) - 2

Ba! toan 1.65 (Poland 1991). Gid su cdc S6 thuc X, y, z thod miisi x2+y2+z2 = 2. ChUng minh

X + y + z ~ 2 + xyz.

Bai toan 1.66. ChUng minh ding ntu a, b, c ::::: 0 va a + b + e =2 thi

a2b2 + b2e2+ e2a2 + abc ~ 2.

B8.i toan 1.67 (Poland 1997). Oac S6 th'l,te a, b, e thod miin a, b, e ::::: -3/4 va a + b + e = 1. ChUng minh r1Lng

abc 9

1 + a2 + 1 + 62 + 1 + c2 ~ 10·

Bai toan 1.68. ChUng- mink vai moi a, b, e kh6ng am thi

1 1 1 a+b .. b+c e+a

-+-+-> +. + .

abc - e2 + ab a2 + be b2 + ae

Ba! toan 1.69 (Math. Changelles). ChUng minh vai moi a, b, e::::: 0 3 ~ + [c. - bl + Ib - el + [c - al ::::: a + b+ e.

Chttdng 1. B~t d&ng thuc co sO

102

Bai toan 1.70 (IMO 1986). Cha Xl,X2;::=: 0 va Yl,Y2,Zl,Z2 E R sao cho X1Yl ;::=: z? , X2Y2 ;::=: z~. Chitng ininh bat diing th{tc

Bai toan 1. 71. Chitng minh vdi moi a, b, c khOng tim th'i

abe abc 5

--+--+--+ >-.

b + c a + c a + b 2{a3 + b3 + c3) - 3

Bai roan 1.72 (Balkan 2005 Pro. 3). Ch'ung minh bat diing th'uc sau vdi moi a, b, c dttdng

Bai toan 1.73. Chitng minh rdng vdi moi a, b, c ;::=: 0 thi

Ba! toan 1.74 (A, IMO Shortlist). Chitng minh vdi moi a,b,c;::=: 0 th'i

1 1 1 3

-----+ + >-.

a3(b + e)(e + a) b3(e + a)(a + b) e3(a + b)(b + c) - 4

Bai toan 1.75. Chitng minh vdi a, b, e ;::=: 0 va a + b + e = 2 thi

ab be ea 1

-- +--+-- <-.

e+2 a+2 b+2 - 2

HUClNG DAN. Quy d6ng mall s6 va bien d6i bfi.t diing thuc tro thanh

2(ab + be + ea)2 + 14(ab + be + ea) 5 16 + 21abe {:} 2(ab + be + ea - 1)(ab + be + ea + 8) S21abe.

Si1 dung bfi.t (liing thiic co Mn

abc;::=: (a + b _ e)(b + e - a)(e + a - b) => 8(ab + be + ea - 1) S9abe.

Thay b~t d~ng thitc trsn vao (*) va'c~u Y rAng ab + be+ ea 5 ~ ta e6 dpem. a Bai toan 1.76 (Math Camp. 2000). Giel s~ a, b, e la d(J dai 3 e{Lnh eua m(Jt tam gi6.c nhon- Chitng minh bat diing thue sau

(a + b + e)(a2.+ b2 + e2)(a3 + b3 + e3) ;::=: 4(a6 + b6 + e6).

1.11. MOt s6 bai toan dang eM.Y

103

. Bai toan 1.77. Cho a, b, e la cae 86 thuc dUdng thoa man abc = 1. CMtng minh rdng

3 a(3a + 1) b(3b + 1) e(3e + 1) b

< + + < a + + e.

- (a+ 1)2 (b+ 1)2 (c+ 1)2 -

Bai toan 1.78. Ch·ltng minh Mt diing uiac 8au vdi moi a, b, e > 0

Bai toan 1.79. Cho cae 86 th'l,te kh6ng am a, b, c, d thoa man a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 4. ChUng minh rdng

a3 + bJ + c3 + d3 + abc + bed + cda + dab::; 8.

Bai toan 1.80. ChUng minh rdng vdi moi 86 th'l,tc kh6ng am a, b, c ta co

b+c c+a a+b 6

2a2 + be + 2b2 + ca + 2c2 + ab ~ a + b + c'

Bai toan 1.81 (IMO 2005 Pro.2). Cho n E N· va Xl, X2, ... , Xn to, cac 86 th'l,tc. 1. ChUng minh rdng

2. Ch,ltng niinli ding ddng thssc :riiy ra khi va chi khi Xl, X2, ... , Xn la ml)t cap 86 cl)ng.

1.11 MQt 86 bai to an dang chu y

Tnroc khi xem ti~p chuong II, cac ban hay thii s(ic voi cac bai toan cho san day.

Chung diroc chon ra tU cac bai toan iJ cac clnrong sau va mieu til kha ul\y uti uOi dung cua cac bftt di\ng thirc fJ do. van la cac bai toan co hlnh thirc rftt don gian: nhung kh6ng c6 bai nao don gian nhu ve ngoai cua n6, m6i bai toan d~u d~c trung cho mot phuong phap rieng. C6 mot s6 bai con duoc chimg minh thea r§,t nhieu each khac nhau. Chac ehiin chung se r§.t co y nghia eho cac ban nam diroc n<)i dung cua cuon each nay. Nao, bay gio moi cac ban hay thl1 sue !!

Problem 1 (Romania TST IMO 1998). Vdi cac 86 thuc dudng ai, a2, ... , an c6

tich bdng 1, hiiy chUng minh .

111

----+ + ... + ::;1.

n - 1 + al n - 1 + a2 n - 1 + an

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