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De Cuong Lich Su Dang

De Cuong Lich Su Dang

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Cau 1.

Trinh bay boi canh lich SU' va nhli'ng ehinh sach thong tr] cua thuc dan Phap doi vai miae ta euoi the ki 19 dau the ki 20?

A) Boi cimh lieh sU':

1) Tinh hinh the qiui:

- Cuoi the kl 19 dau the kl 20 cac nuoc TU ban nhanh chong chuyen tir TU ban tu do canh tranh sang TU ban doc quyen nha nuoc (chu nghTa De quoc). Mot nhu cau birc bach d~t ra cho cac nuoc de quoc la phai chay dua tim kiern th] tnronq va thuoc dia.

- Ve ban chat chu nghTa De quoc van la con de cua chu nghTa TU ban nhirnq phat trien han, quy rno Ian han va boc lot tinh vi han. Ban dau str dunq each thirc rno rong buon ban, truyen giao de Ian dan ve chinh trio Ve sau thi xuat khau tu ban khai thac kinh te, lam cho quan he trong xa hoi cO bien doi can ban.

- Hang loat cac quoc gia a chau A, Phi, My Latin deu Ian luot tro thanh thuoc dia cua de quoc Jay Au, Bik My (Anh, Nga, Phap, My, Nhat chiern duoc 65 trieu km2 trong khi dien tich chinh quoc la 16 trieu krn". Phap chiern duoc thuoc dia la 10,6 trieu krrr', dan so 55 trieu: trong khi do chinh quoc cua Phap ch i co 0,5 trieu km2 va dan so la 39,6 trieu).

- Chu nghTa De quoc da lam bien doi mot each can ban cac quan he xa hoi a thuoc dia, mat khac gay ra su phan ung gay gat tal thuoc dia, phong trao giai phonq dan toe bung phat.

2) Tinh hinh Viet Nom:

- Dau the kl 19, de quoc Phap chu yeu la str dunq bien phap du do trieu dinh, day rnanh cac ho at dong buon ban va truyen qiao.

- Viet Nam vao giai do an nay van la mot nuoc phong kien, co nen kinh te nang nqhiep tri tre va I<;lC hau. Sau khi I~t do trieu dai Jay San, chinh quyen nha Nguyen lien tuc tien hanh nhieu chinh sach doi noi va doi nqoai bao thu, phan dong:

• D6i nc3i:

- Do co tam Iy 10 so' sire rnanh cua nhan dan trong viec dau tranh voi trieu dinh nr the kl triroc, trieu Nguyen nhanh chong cung co the luc cua rnlnh bang each thang tay tra thu Jay San, boc lot dan ap nhan dan, vo vet cua cai va cang sire cua nhan dan de xay dl/ng nhO'ng cang trinh lang tam cho rieng rnlnh. Thai gian dau trieu dinh da ceu ket voi quan Phap de dan ap cac cuoc dau tranh cua nhan dan Viet Nam chong lai trieu dinh.

- Ve sau trieu dinh phong kien khiroc tir nhO'ng de an cai each nen kinh te va chinh tr] (de an cal each cua Nguyen Truonq TO, Nguyen Lo Trach) lam cho dat nuoc mat co' hoi phat trien.

• D6i ngooi:

- Trieu dinh dua vao the luc ben nqoa] de dan ap nhan dan, song hanh dong bac nhuoc do da rno duang cho Phap danh chi ern nuoc ta de dang. SLt dunq bien phap "be quan tea canq" dan den viec lien quan Phap - Jay Ban Nha quyet djnh no sung xarn luoc nuoc ta vao 01/9/1858.

- Trieu dinh tltng buoc nhan nhuonq, cau hoa cuoi cunq la cam chlu dau hang bang cac van ban (1862, 1867, 1883, 1884) day nhan dan den tlnh the chong ca trieu dinh Ian Jay.

- Tom lai, vao thai diem de quoc phuonq Jay tien hanh am rnuu xarn chi ern thuoc dia thi tlnh hlnh Viet Nam co nhieu bien dong: che dO phong kien voi duang loi loi thai, lac hau, phan dong (dung ve phia the luc ben nqoai chong lai nhan dan). Mau thu an giO'a nhan dan voi dia chu phong kien, dac biet la voi trieu dinh nqay canq tang cao.

B) Chinh saeh thong tri: 1) Kinh te:

- Phap bien nuoc ta thanh thuoc dia khai thac kinh te la chu yeu.

- Cho duy tri hai phironq thirc san xuat phong kien song song voi phuonq thirc san xuat tu ban de

vo vet nhanh chong cua cai va giam ham nen kinh te thuoc dia von da rat lac hau, I~p ra cac thir thue va Iyva va nhan dao de boc lot nhan dan tao

- Phap khai thac doc quyen kinh te, thi hanh nhO'ng chinh sach kinh te han hep: narn doc quyen cac nqanh khai thac mo. giao thong, tai chinh ngan hang, ru ou, thuoc phien. NhO'ng mat hang nao chinh quoc da co thi thuoc dia chi dung a nguyen vat lieu. Nen cong nqhiep tu ban chu nghTa phat trien que quat. chua tao ra nhO'ng thay doi co ban ve quan he san xuat, kinh te phong kien co b] pha va nhUng khonq triet de.

2) Chinh tri:

- Phap thiet I~p a Viet Nam mot che dO chinh tr] chuyen che dien hlnh, mol quyen hanh narn trong tay nguai Phap (nguai Anh cai tri 300 trieu dan An D9, can 4300 vien ctusc nguai Anh trong b9 may ehinh quyen thuge dia; ae cai tri 15 trieu dan Vi~t Nom nguai Phap duo vco ehinh quyen thuge dia 4800 vien cnuc nguai Phap). Nha Nguyen chi la bu nhln, mol hoat dong deu b] Phap qiarn sat, nhan dan mat het quyen tu do.

- So do cai tri theo lai ehuyen eh€ til tren xuang (Hoan toan nguili Phop)

[

Toan quysn [)6ng Dl(dng

Thong sa

Kham su

- Bo may nha nuoc hoan toan la cong ch uc nguai Phap, nguai Viet Nam co dam nhan mot va] chirc nho a dia phuonq nhunq chi la bu nhln.

- Tharn doc hen, Phap da thuc thi chinh sach "chia de tri", lam qiarn yeu to lien ket toan dan toe, lam tang su ky th] giO'a cac vunq, va tharn doc nhat la xoa ten nuoc ta tren ban do the gioi. l.ap ra mot xu Dong DUong thuoc Phap.

- Phop chia ban doo Dong Duong thanh 5 ky (5 quae gio) nhu sou:

• TONKIN (Bac ky).

• COCHINCHINE (Nam ky).

• ANNAM (Trung ky).

• AILAOS (Lao).

• CAMPOGS (Campuchia).

- Thuang xuyen loi dunq rnoi bat hoa giO'a cac dan toe, ton giao de chia re, kich dong gay bat on trong nhan dan. Tren thuc te moi ky duoc coi la mot quoc gia bol di lai phat xuat trinh giay thong hanh va can cucc, Chinh tr] nuoc ta b] Ie thuoc hoan toan vao nguai Phap.

3) Van h60:

- Thi hanh chinh sach ngu dan tri et de, giam ham, dau doc nhan dan ta trong vang tam tol.

- Xay dl/ng nha tu nhieu hon tnronq hoe. Trong cac truonq hoc cua nha nucc, Phap deu day tieng

Phap nharn dao tao dOi ngO tay sai a thuoc dia. Cam tieng Han-Nom (ve sau han che ca tieng

Phap). Buoc phai truyen ba chir qu6c ngO' nhunq chi cho tang lap quy toe phong kien, tay sai, tu ban gi~lU co, con em nha nqheo khonq duoc den truonq hoe.

- Nqan chan anh huang cua nen van hoa tien bo tren the giai vao Viet Nam bang each bung bit thong tin, tich thu tai lieu, sach bao nuoc nqoai.

- Dau doc thu6c phien va ruou con, d~t ra thue ruou (2 lit/thanq) vira thu lei nhuan vua dau doc tri tue (trong Ban an ehe 09 thuc dan Phap, Bac Ho co viet: CtJ 1000 lang thi co oen 1500 doi Ii ban ruou va thuoc phi~n).

Ket qua: 90% dan so mil chCl, t~ nan xa h(ji hoonh honh. Tri thuc bi giam ham.

Cau 2. Trinh bay phong trao yeu n u'oe cua dan tQe ta cuol the ky 19 dau the ky 20? Neu nhli'ng nguyen nhan co ban dan toi sl! that bal cua phong trao?

1) Phong troo yeu mlC1c thea he ttl' ttl'ung phong kien:

- Phong trao yeu nuoc xuat hien rat sam, tieu bieu la khoi nghTa cua Truonq Dinh, Nguyen Trung True, Thu Khoa Huan ... NhUng cac cuoc khoi nghTa nhanh chong that bal.

- Khai xuang phong trao la vua Ham Nghi va Thu onq thu bO binh Ton That Thuyet, nqay 13/7/1885 nha vua xu6ng chieu can VUong, keu qoi nhan dan dau tranh ch6ng Phap. Day la phong trao "pho vua cuu nuoc" cho nen nhanh chong Ian ra a nhieu dia phuonq, HUang ung phong trao co Dinh Conq Trang, Phan Dlnh Phung, Hoang Hoa Tharn, T6ng Duy Tan, ...

- 01/01/1888 vua Ham Nghi b i bat, thu ITnh cac cuoc kho] nghTa cOng b] bat va b] hanh hlnh.

- Phong trao that bal do khonq thay duoc tinh chat tharn doc cua chu nghTa thuc dan, su cau ket

cua cac giai cap th6ng trio Chua co luc IUQ'ng tien phong cua thai dai de du sire lanh dao each manq. Thieu duang 16i dung dan, hrc IUQ'ng tuonq d6i rai rae, khonq thu hut dong d ao quan chunq.

2) Phong troo V th{(c he nang dan (khui nghla Yen The):

- Do Hoang Hoa Tharn va cac th u ITnh nang dan a vunq Yen The - Bac Giang kho] xuang. Ban dau la de huang ung phong trao Can VUong, ve sau tach thanh mot phong trao nang dan keo da] den 1913 mai b] dap tat.

- Phong trao phat tri en rnanh me a nu] rung Yen The, nghTa quan vira lao dong san xuat vira luyen tap quan su, triet ha rat nhieu don Phap va cac cuoc hanh quan cua gi~e.

- Narn 1908, nghTa quan da xay dl/ng ke hcach tong bao dong danh vao thanh Ha N Oi, sau do se tien vao Phu Xuan va Gia D [nh. NhUng cuoc bao dong da b] that bal tal Ha NOi. Phap thang tay dan ap phong trao. Narn 1913 Hoang Hoa Tharn b i sat hal, phong trao ket thuc sau 30 narn ben bi dau tranh. Phong trao th at bal cOng do han che cua giai cap lanh dao ve duang 16i va phuonq phap, tuy v~y phong trao da gay tieng yang trong nhan dan va gay ton that cho thuc dan Phap.

3) Phong troo yeu ntl'C1c thea he ttl'ttl'ung dan chu ttl'san:

- Do khonq tim thay 16i ra cho con duang ciru nuoc thea y thirc he phong kien, cac sl phu Viet Nam huang ra nuoc nqoa] de tim kiern con duang rno] de giai phonq dan toe.

- Phong trao Dong Du: do Phan BOi Chau khoi xuang (1906 - 1908) la phong trao m a dau cuoc van dong giai phonq dan toe thea khuynh huang dan chu tu san, phuonq thirc chu yeu la van dong

dua thanh nien di du hoc nharn thuc hien bao dong vO trang. Cu Phan BOi Chau dua nguai sang Nhat va sang Trung Hoa tim con duang each manq Tan HQ'i, nhUng cu6i cunq phong trao b i that bal. S6 thanh nien du hoc va ca Phan Boi Chau deu b] Nhat true xuat va b] Phap truy na.

- Phong trao Dong kinh nghla thuc (1917): dien ra kha sol nai, vai muc dich tuyen truyen cal each van hoa, bal tnr Ie thoi phong kien, van dong hoc chu qu6c ngO' ... Thuc dan Phap dan ap phong trao, dong cira truonq hoc va bat cac sl phu.

- Phong trao Duy Tan: do Phan Chu Trinh, Tr an Quy Cap, Huynh Thuc Khanq khc: xuang (1906 - 1908), phong trao huang thea con duang nqh] vien tu san cua cac nuoc phuonq Tay. PhUo'ng thtrc van dong cal each van hoa xa hoi, dong vien long yeu nuoc, da kich phong kien, bai xich vo trang, bao dong. V~n dong rno truonq hoc, rno mang dan tri bang cac huyet thu, Phong trao cOng b] dap tat. Cu Phan Chu Trinh b i quan thuc tai Phap.

- Vi~t Nam quang phuc hi)i: do cu Phan BOi Chau van dong narn 1912. HOi chu trUo'ng ho at dong vO trang bao dong nhunq do thi eu co' so' quan chunq, each thtrc heat dong am sat ca nhan rat mao hiern, cu6i cunq b] Phap dan ap.

Cac phong trao tuy (leu that bo! nhllng do gay dll(/c tieng vong trong nhan dan. NhClng tanh tl! cua phong trao chilo hieu ro ban chat cua chu nghlo Til ban, chilo thay dll(/c vai tro cua quon chung nhan dan. Chilo n am dll(/c xu the thili dqi vo chilo dua ra dllilng toi dung dan.

4) Phong troo yeu nllac V thuc he til san:

- Giai cap tu san dan ti)c b] Phap kim ham vi the da to chirc phong trao dau tranh ch6ng doc quyen, phong trao duoc dong dao tu san va tieu tu san cac thanh th] va mot s6 noi ung ho. Dang l.ap Hien do Bui Quang Chieu dung dau dua ra noi dung cal each dan chu, che do tu tri, nhunq phong trao cOng b] that bal.

- Nqoai ra con co phong trao cua tieu tu san: Viet Nam Nghla dean 1925, Dang thanh nien, Viet Nam Qu6c dan dang. Tieu bieu nhat la phong trao cua Viet Nam Qu6c dan dang cua Nguyen Thai Hoc, vai muc tieu danh Phap qianh doc I~p. Phong trao tap hop nhieu tri thirc tu san, tieu tu san nhunq b] dap tat, nguyen nhan that bal la do chua co duang 16i dung dan, chua dap ung doi hoi khach quan cua su nqhiep giai phonq dan toe, khonq du sire dUo'ng dau vai de qu6e.

Phong trao yeu nllac Vi~t Nom chung to sl/ quijt khili cua dan t(k, co dan t(k khao khat d9C tijp, tl/ do. Song ciing cho thay dan t9c dong dung truac CU9C khung hoang ve con dllilng cuu nllac.

Cau 3. Trinh bay vai tro c ua dong chi Nguyen Ai Quoc trong qua trlnh chu an b] ve chinh tr], tu tu'ong va to chirc de tien toi thanh I~p E>ang CQng San Vi~t Nam?

1) Nguyen Ai Quoc tim con dllilng giai ph6ng dan tac thea khuynh hllang va san:

- Sam tham gia dau tranh bieu tlnh ch6ng Phap, co dieu kien tim hieu va tiep thu co chon loc thanh qua cua cac vi tien b6i. Quyet djnh sang phuonq Tay (Pha p) tim hieu ban chat xa hoi Phap, tim kiern mot phuonq each mai ve giup dong bao danh dudi gi~c Phap.

- Narn 1910 vao day hoc tal truonq Due Thanh (Phan Thiet), dau narn 1911 den Sai Gon ghi danh hoc truonq cong nhan ky nghe Ba Son.

- Nqay 05/06/1911 xu6ng tau Amirall Latouch Treville de sang Phap, bat dau chuyen bon ba ha] nqoai tim chan Iy cuu niroc giai phonq dan toe. Trong chuyen ha] trinh nay Nguai kharn pha ra rang khonq phai tat ca nguai Phap den Dong DUo'ng deu xau.

- Thanq 07/1911 NgLfai toi Marseille (Phap), n hln they thuc te bat eong eon ton tal a Phap. NgLfai quyet dinh tiep tuc cuoc hanh trinh tim hieu kinh nqhiern each rnanq cua the giOi. NgLfai tham gia vao cac hoat dong cua tang lap lao khd the giOi.

- Narn 1912 den My de tim hieu kinh nqhiern cua each rnanq My, Ian dau tien duoc doe tuyen nqon doe I~p cua nuoc My. Tai cac thanh pho Ian noi NgLfai d~t chan toi eon nhieu ngLfai khc cue, b] phan biet chunq toe (a khu pho Harlem). NgLfai quyet dinh khao sat thuc tien chau Au.

- 1914 - 1916 NgLfai song a Anh, noi tam diem cua chien tranh the gioi Ian I. Narn 1917 tro lai Phap giO'a luc Cach manq thanq MLfai Nga thanh conq. Tin We ve Cach rnanq thanq MLfai Nga chua nhieu nhunq NgLfai da chu tam tim hieu ve cuoc each rnanq nay. Narn 1918 NgLfai tham gia vao Dang xa hoi Phap, Dang duy nhat luc bay gia a Phap benh vue eong nong Phap. Narn 1919 voi ten Nguyen Ai Quae, NgLfai da gai den Hoi nqh] Versaille ban yeu sach cua nhan dan An Nam gam tam diem lien quan den quyen song, quyen tu do. Ban yeu sach khang all(/c aap (lng, song ao gay tieng vang tqi chinh quiic va thu9c ala.

- Thanq 07/1920 NgLfai doe so' thao Ian I "ae cuanq van ae dan tQc va thut): dia" cua Lenin dang tren bao Nhan Dao, Ban de eLfo'ng da chl ra eon dLfang tu giai ph6ng eho dan toe Viet Nam. Thanq 12/1920 NgLfai quyet djnh gia nhap Quae te III (Quae te Cong san) va la mot trong nhO'ng ngLfai sang I~p Dang Cong San Phap. Den thai diem nay NgLfai quyet dinh eon dLfang giai ph6ng dan toe Viet Nam la tien hanh each rnanq Vo San. Day La tnrac ngo¢t quan tronq trong cuoc aai hoot aQng each manq cua Nguai. Tu chv nghla yeu nUac chiin chinh Nguai ao tim aen vai chv nqhia Mac-Lenin.

2) Qua trinh chuan bi tien t6'i thanh tap Dang Cang San Viet Nam: a) Chuan bi ve chinh tri til tllO'ng:

- a Phap nr narn 1921 - 1923, thong qua cac bai vi et tren cac sach, bao va cac ba i phat bieu tal cac dien dan a Phap nhu cac bao: Nhan Dao (L' hurnanite) 1920, NgLfai cunq khd (Le paria) 1921, Dai song eong nhan, voi noi dung to cao toi ac cua thuc dan de quae, khoi day long yeu niroc cua nhan dan tao

- a Nga nr thanq 06/1923 den cuoi narn 1924 NgLfai tham du Dai hoi Quae te nong dan, Dai hoi Ian thir V Quae te Cong San, NgLfai viet nhieu bai tham luan va nhieu bai dang tren cac bao Nga. Day la dip NgLfai di sau nqhien cuu kinh nqhiern Cach manq thanq Muoi, tltng buoc hlnh thanh tir tLfang giai ph6ng dan toe.

- a Trung Quae tir narn 1924 - 1927 NgLfai tham gia sang I~p to bao Thanh nien (1925) va xu at ban cac tac pharn: Ban an ehe do thuc dan Phap 1925, DLfang each rnenh 1927. Trong cac tac ph am ay da the hien he thong quan diem Iy luan ve each rnanq giai ph6ng dan toe a thuoc dia cua NgLfai:

Do La nQi dung tu tuang each manq gi6i phong dan tQc thea chv nghla Mac - Lenin duoc Nguai phat trien sang too cho phu hao vai hoan c6nh Vi~t Nam:

• Trll6'c het to nhijn th(lc miii lien h~ giua Cach mqng thu9c ala va Cach mqng Va San the gi6'i:

• Chu nghTa thuc dan la ke thu ehung cua cac dan toe thuoc dia va nhan dan lao kh6 tren toan the giOi.

• Cach rnanq giai ph6ng dan toe a thuoc dia la mot bO phan cua each rnanq vo san the gioi, vi v~y phai co mol lien he khanq khit nhu hai canh cua each manq the giOi. Khonq he phu thuoc vao each rnanq the giOi.

• Gia] ph6ng dan toe phai dl doi voi giai ph6ng eon ngLfai, We la tien len lam each m anq Xa Hoi Chu NghTa.

• N9i dung co ban ve h~ thong quan diem cua Nguyen Ai Quoc ve cach mqng giai ph6ng dan t9C:

• Tinh chat each manq thuoc dla: each rnanq giai phonq dan toe.

• Nhiern vu: do ke thu chu yeu la chu nghTa De quae nen nhiern vu chu yeu danh do de quae de qianh lai doc I~p, tu do. Phat trien thea phuonq huang di len Chu nghTa Xa hoi.

• Ve hrc IUQ'ng each manq: Nguai khang djnh each rnanq la viec chung cua ca dan chunq chir khonq phai viec cua mot hai nguai. Phai biet tap hop toan dan toe, trong do eong nang la goe cua each rnanq.

• Cach manq thuoc dia muon thanq loi phai co Dang Cong San lanh dao, Dang co vO'ng each rnanq rno] thanh conq.

• Cach rnanq giai phonq dan toe thuoc dia phai lien ket chat che vai each rnanq the giai.

NhUng phai biet chu dong sang tao. Qua trinh truyen ba he thong Iy luan ay vao Viet Nam ehinh la qua trinh chu an b] ehinh tr] tu tuang dan den viec ra dai Dang Cong San Viet Nam. Day la eong viec quan tronq nhat.

b) Chuan bi to ch{(c:

- Cuoi narn 1924 Nguai ve den Quang Chau, tim g~p cac thanh nien Viet Nam dang ho at dong bi mat tal Trung Quae. Cunq vai cac nha each manq cua cac nuoc chau A thanh I~p Hi)i Lien Hi~p Cac Dan Ti)c Bi Ap Buc A Dong.

- Thanh I~p Vi~t Nom Thanh Nien Cach fvlQng Dong Chi Hi)i (06/1925), to chirc tien than cua Dang Cong San Viet Nam sau nay. TLt 1925 - 1927 hoi da dao tao duoc hang tram thanh nien yeu nu oc Viet Nam, giang vien ehinh la dong chi Nguyen Ai Quae, cac bai giang co noi dung thirc tinh long yeu nuoc, duang loi dau tranh thea each manq va san, phuonq phap tuyen truy en ehinh tri, van hoa, quan su So hoc vien cua Viet Nam Cach M <;lng Dong Chi HOi dat ket qua xuat sac duoc gai sang Lien Xo hoc dai hoc phuonq Dong, so con lai tro ve nuoc thuc hien chu truonq "vi: san hoa", ren luyen I~p truonq giai cap eong nhan, dua hoi vien bam chac vao nha may. So hoi vien nqay canq tang, narn 1928 co 300 nguai, den narn 1929 da co 1700 nquoi.

Cau 4. Trinh bay nQi dung co ban cua Chanh eu'dng, Sach hroc van tat 03/02/1930. Neu mQt vai nh~n xet khi 50 sanh voi ban Lu~n eu'dng ehinh tr] 10/1930?

1) Noi dung co ban cuo Ch6nh cl/ong, S6ch 'I/oc van tat 0310211930:

- Hoi nqh] hop nhat tal Ciru Long (Huonq Canq) dien ra nr 03 - 07/02/1930 do dong chi Nguyen Ai Quae chu tri, hoi nqh] co 07 dai bieu tham du (02 dai bieu chi bo ha] nqoai, 02 dai bieu cua Dong DUo'ng Cong San Dang, 02 dai bieu cua An Nam Cong San Dang va dong chi Nguyen Ai Quae).

- Hoi nqh] nhat tri lay ten Dang la Dang Cong San Viet Nam, nqay 03/02/1930 la nqay ghi nh a su kien hop nhat. Hoi nqh] nhat tri thong qua Chanh eUo'ng van tat, Sach IUQ'e van tat va Dieu Ie van tat do dong chi Nguyen Ai Quae trinh bay. Do la eUo'ng ITnh va dieu Ie dau tien cua Dang. Mot so noi dung co' ban:

• Tinh chat: each rnanq Viet Nam la "TU san dan quyen each rnanq" va "tho dia each rnanq" de dl tai xa hoi Cong san.

• Nhiem vu:

• Chinh tri: danh do de quae Phap va phong kien phan dong lam eho Viet Nam hoan toan doc I~p, dl/ng ra ehinh phu eong nang binh va quan doi eong nang.

• Kinh te: thu tieu het quoc trai, thu het san nqhiep Ian cua TU ban de quoc Phap giao cho chinh phu cong nang binh; tich thu ruong dat cua de quoc chia cho dan nqheo. Mien thue cho dan nqheo, thuc hien nqay lam viec 8 gia .

• Xa hoi: dan chunq duoc tu do to chirc hOi hop, nam nO' blnh quyen, phd thong giao due thea huang cong nang hoa.

• Luc IUo'ng: Dimg phai van dong thu phuc cho duoc dong dao cong nhan, lam cho giai cap cong nhan giO' vai tro lanh dao, phai thu hut cho duoc dong dao nang dan va dua vao nang dan ph ai loi keo tu san, tri thirc, trung nang ve phia giai cap va san, can nhO'ng thanh phan 10 mat phan dong thi phai danh do. Cach manq la viec chung cua toan dan.

• Dang giu voi tro tien phong cua giai cap va san. Dang to chirc va lanh dao each rnanq Viet Nam.

• Dang phai lien ket vai cac dan toe b] ap birc va giai cap va san the giai. Hoi nqh] hop nhat mang tam voc mot dai hOi thanh I~p Dang, hoi nqh] da thong nhat tu tuonq, to chirc, duang loi cua phong trao each manq ca nuoc,

2) Noi dung co' ban cuo luan cUo'ng chinh tri 1011930 (thom khao):

- Thanq 04/1930 dong chi Tran Phu hoc 6' Lien Xo tro ve nuoc, thanq 07/1930 duoc bo sung vao Ban chap hanh Trung Uo'ng lam thai va duoc phan cong chuan b] cho Hoi nqh] Trung Uo'ng Ian I.

- TLt 14 - 31/10/1930, Hoi nqh] Ban chap hanh Trung Uo'ng Ian I dien ra 6' Hironq Canq (Trung Qudc) do dong chi Tran Phu chu tri quyet dinh mot so noi dung sau:

• H9i nghi nhijn dinh: va san Viet Nam, Lao, Cao Mien tuy khonq co chung ti eng noi, phong tuc, noi giong nhUng co chung ke thu nen ve chinh tr] va kinh te can phai lien he mat thiet. Hoi nqh] quyet djnh doi ten Dang Cong San Viet Nam thanh Dang Cong San Dong DUo'ng. HOi nqh] da cu ra Ban chap hanh Trung Uo'ng chinh thirc gam 06 nguai (dong chi Tran Phu lam Tong Bi ThU).

• H9i nghi danh gia ban Chanh cuonq, Sach luoc van tat do Hoi nqh] hop nhat thong qua vao nqay 03/02/1930: "Chi Lo van ae phon ae rna khong Lo cho qiai cap". Chinh VI v~y rna Hoi nqh] Trung Uo'ng Ian I da quyet djnh thv tieu Chant: cuanq sacl: iuac van tat cua Dang (do Nguyen Ai Quoc soan thao 03/02/1930). Hoi nqh] quyet dinh phai dua vao nqh] quyet cua Quoc te Cong San de hoach dinh duang loi. Hoi nqh] thong qua Lu¢n cuanq chinh tri do dong chi Tran Phu soan thao vai noi dung co' ban:

• Mau thuan gioi cap dien ra gay gat 6' Viet Nam, Lao, Cao Mien gi O'a "mot ben La tho thuyen dan cay, cac phon tu Lao kho vai mot ben La dia chv phong kien va tu ban ae quae".

• Tinh chat Cach mqng Dong DUo'ng: la each rnanq TU san dan quyen co tinh chat tho dia va phon ae. Sau khi each manq TU san dan quyen thanq loi tiep tuc phat trien bo qua thai ky TU ban, tranh dau thang len con duang Xa HOi Chu NghTa.

• Nhlem VI!: 51/ cat yeu eva each manq TU san dan quyen La dant: 00 cac di tich phong kien, thuc hant: each manq rU9ng oat cho tri~t ae va tranh aau dant: 00 ae quae Phap. Hai nhiern vu tren lien he mat thiet.

• LI/c IUC1ng each mqnq: giai cap va san va nang dan la hai dong hrc chinh cua each manq, trong do giai cap va san la dong hrc chinh va la giai cap lanh dao, nang dan la dong hrc rnanh. tuan cuonq cho rang cac giai cap khac deu co nhuoc diem, chi co phan nr lao khd 6' do th] rno] thea each manq.

• Phuo'ng phap each monq: chuan b] vo trang bao dong qianh chinh quyen, dua vao sire rnanh bao hrc cua quan chunq.

• SI/ lanh dqo cua Dang C9n9 San: la dieu kien cot yeu cho thang lol cua each manq.

• Dang phai lien h~ mijt thiet vai va san the giai va cac dan toe thuoc dia, dac biet la va san Phap.

Luqn cllC1ng dd khang dinh tal nhieu van de cua Chanh cllC1ng, tuy nhien do nh qn thuc giao dieu may moe ve miii quan h~ dan t()c va gioi cap, khong hieu biet day du ve tinh hinh xd h9i Vi~t Nom, chiu anh hllang true tiep cua khuynh hllang to trong Quac te C9n9 San, vi the Luqn cllC1ng chilo vach ro mau thuan chu yeu, khong dua van de dan t9c len hang dau, dd co quyet dinh khong dung trong vi~c doi ten Dang ciing nhu vi~c thu tieu Chanh cllC1ng Sach III(lC cua dong chi Nguyen Ai Quac.

Danh gia khong dung kh a nang each mqng cua tang lap tieu til san, kha nang chang de quiic va chang phong kien a m9t muc d9

'-- ____' nhat dinh cuo gioi cap' Til san dan

Ch6nh cuan

- Cach manq Vi~t Nam La "tu san dan quyen each manq" va "tho oia each manq" oe di tai Xa hi)i Ci)ng san.

Luqn cuan

- Chinh tri: dant: 00 oe quoc Phap va phong klen phon oi)ng Lam cho Vi~t Nam hoan toan oi)c LQP, dl/ng ra chinh phu cang nang binh va quan oi)i cang nang.

- Kinh te: thu tieu het quoc trai, thu het san nghi~p Lan cua TU ban oe quoc Phap qiao cho chinh ph u cang nang binh; tich thu rui)ng oat cua oe quoc chia cho dan nqheo. Mien thue cho dan ngheo, thuc hi~n ngay Lam viec 8 gia.

- Xa hai: dan chung duoc tu do to cnuc hi)i h9P, nam nii binh quyen, pho thang qiao due thea huang cang nang hoa.

GillC1ng coo ng(}n ci:l giai phong dan t9C.

- Toan dan. Chu truanq thu hut oang 000 nang dan, cang nhon, Lai keo ti eu tu san, tri ttuic, trung nang ve phia qiai cap va san Lam cho qiai cap cang nhan giO' vai tro liinh dao.

- Cach manq Dang DUong La each manq TU san dan quyen co tinh chat thoi oia va phon oe. Sau khi Cach manq TU san dan quyen thOng Lqi tiep tuc phot trien bo qua thai ki TU ban, tranh oau thOng Len con ouang Xa Hi)i Chu Nqhia.

- Chinh tri: dant: 00 cac di tich phong kien, tranh oau dant: 00 oe quoc Phap.

- Kinh te.· thi hant: each manq rui)ng oat tri~t oe.

Khong gillC1ng coo ng (}n ci:l dan t9c len hang dau ma nijng ne dau tronh gioi cap va cach mqng rU9ng dot.

- Di)ng LI/c each manq La qiai cap va san va nang dan, trong 00 qiai cap va san La oi)ng LI/c chinh va La qiai cap liinh dao, nang dan La oi)ng LI/c manh.

t<k, kha nang toi keo m9t b9 phijn trung tieu ala chu tham gia mqt trijn dan t9c thong nhiit chong ae quoc va tay sal.

Cau 5. Trinh bay hoan canh va nQi dung du'ong loi chien 1u'c;1c du'c;1c E>ang ta de ra trong HQi nghj Trung u'dng ran VIII 05/1941? Y nghia cua HQi nghj?

1) Hoan canh lich su:

0) Quac te:

- Chu nghTa phat xit da gay toi ac vai toan nhan leal, chuan b] ke hcach tan cong vao hai birc tuang vO'ng chac cua dong minh la Lien Xo va My. Day la tran do sire quyet liet cua chien tranh. Phat xit Nhat da chiern het chau A - Thai Blnh DUo'ng, day rnanh chinh sach boc lot tan bao, diet chunq.

b) Trang nUac:

- Sau khoi nghTa Bac Son, khoi nghTa Nam ky bung no vao nqay 23/11/1940, trong cu OC kho] nghTa nay xuat hien la co do sao yang a VOng l.iern. Tiep den la cuoc binh bien Do LUo'ng dien ra vao nqay 13/01/1941. Cac cuoc khoi nghTa chua qianh thanq loi nhUng da bao hieu cuoc dau tranh vo trang, ket hop vai dau tranh chinh tr] tien tai kho] nghTa toan qu6c bat dau.

- Nqay 28/1/1941 Nguyen Ai Qu6c ve nuoc tnrc tiep lanh dao each manq. (huyen Ha Quang tinh Cao Bang)

2) Noi dung:

- TLt nqay 10 - 19/05/1941 HOi nqh] Trung Uo'ng Ian VIII hop tal Pac Bo (Cao Bang) gam cac dong chi:

TrUong Chinh, Phung Chi Kien, Hoang Qu 6c Viet, Hoang Van Thu, ... Dong chi Nguyen Ai Qu6c chu tri Hoi nqh].

- Hoi nqh] Trung Uo'ng Ian VIII phan tich tlnh hlnh chien tranh the giai va du doan xu huang phat trien cua chien tranh: con 02 niroc rat rnanh chac chan 58 vao cuoc do la Lien Xo va My. Khi nao co cuoc chien ay xay ra thi Phat xit 58 b] tieu diet, thai co' t6t 58 den vai each manq Viet Nam. Dien bien cua cuoc chien tranh thea xu huang do 58 dem lai thai co' cho each m anq giai phonq dan toe (tren thuc te ca hai nuoc deu vao cuoc trong narn 1941).

- Hoi nqh] tan thanh chu trUo'ng chuyen huang chi dao chien luoc cua each rnanq giai phonq dan toe da neu ra trong Hoi nqh] VI va VII. Hoi nqh] Trung Uo'ng VIII chu truonq t~p trung danh de qu6c va giUo'ng cao nqon co giai phonq dan toe hon bao gia het.

- Gia] quyet van de giai phonq dan toe trong pharn vi moi nuoc Dong DUo'ng.

- Thanh I~p M¢t Ttiin Vi~t Nom Di)c LQP Dong Minh (Vi~t Minh) bao gam nhieu giai cap, tang lap

trong xa hoi.

- Hoi nqh] du kien dieu kien de kho] nghTa nhu: giai cap th6ng tr] a Dong DUo'ng khunq hoanq toan dien, each rnanq Phap va Nhat bung no, dong minh thang the ...

- Hoi nqh] xac dinh hlnh thai kho] nghTa a nuoc ta la di nr kho] nghTa tUng phan tien tai tong kho] nghTa.

- HOi nqh] nhan rnanh cong tac xay d l/ng Dang, gap rut dao tao can bo. Hoi nqh] bau dong chi TrUong Chinh lam Tong Bi thu,

3) Ynghla:

- HOi nqh] Trung Uo'ng VIII co y nghTa lich str tronq dai, HOi nqh] oa hoan chinh chuyen huang chi 0<;l0 chien hroc nharn giai quyet muc tieu 56 mot cua Cach rnanq Viet Nam. Hoi nqh] co y nghTa quyet dinh thang loi cho Cach manq thanq Tam.

Cau 6: Trinh bay nguyen nhan th ang lc;1i va y nghia lich su' cua Cach m~ng thang Tam 1945?

1) Nguyen nhan thong toi:

a) Nguven nhan khaeh quan:

- No ra trong hoan canh the gioi co nhieu loi nhuan, ke thu true tiep cua nhan dan ta la Phat xit Nhat

oa b] bal tran hoan toano Quan Nhat a Dong DUo'ng va Chinh ph u tay sai b] tan ra, sup 00. - Dang ta oa chap thai co' 00 phat oong va lanh 0<;l0 cuoc tong kho] nghTa thanh congo

b) Nguven nhan ehu quan:

- Day la ket qua va dinh cao cua 15 narn dau tranh anh dOng cua toan dan ta duol su lanh 0<;l0 cua

Dang rna true tiep la phong trao giai phonq dan toe (1930 - 1945).

- l.uc IUQ'ng chinh tr] va hrc IUQ'ng vo trang hung hau duoc xay dl/ng va ren luyen nqay canq Ian rnanh.

- Xac dinh va chap oung thai co', kip thai kho] nghTa khi thai co' chin rnuoi.

- Day la ket qua cua 15 narn trirc tiep lanh 0<;l0 cua Dang voi ouang 16i oung dan. van dunq sang tao

chu nghTa Mac - Lenin vao Viet Nam.

2) Ynghlo: a) Dan toe:

- La mot trong nhO'ng trang str ve vang nhat. la mot buoc nqoat vi dai trong lich str dan toe, o~p tan ach th6ng tr] Phat xit Nhat 05 narn, ach th6ng tr] cua thuc dan Phap trong gan 100 narn, I~t 00 che 00 phong kien hon nqan narn, dua nuoc ta buoc vao ky nguyen moi, ky nguyen OOC I~p tu do.

- Cach rnanq thanq Tam la thang lol cua truyen th6ng quat cuonq, bat khuat. la ket qua cua 15 narn oau tranh gian khd cua ca dan toe. Nhan dan ta nr than phan no Ie len vi tri nguai lam chu oat nuoc, lam chu van rnenh cua rnlnh. Giai cap cong nong duoc giai phonq. Khang dinh vai tro lanh 0<;l0 each manq cua giai cap cong nhan Viet Nam. Cunq c6 kh6i lien minh cong nong nqay cang vO'ng chac,

- Cach rnanq thanq Tam cunq c6 vO'ng chac dia vi lanh 0<;l0 Cach rnanq Viet Nam cua Dang. Dang Cong San Viet Nam nr mot Dang hoat oong khonq hop phap tro thanh Dang lanh 0<;l0 chinh quyen trong ca nuoc, TLt cot m6c nay Cach rnanq Viet Nam buoc vao giai doan moi, giai dean Dang lanh 0<;l0 chinh quyen trong ca nucc,

b) Quae te: co y nghla Lan Lao:

- Khang dinh gia tr] cao ca. sire s6ng rnanh liet cua chu nghTa Mac - Lenin va TU tuang Ho Chi Minh a mot nuoc thuoc dia.

- Gop phan cunq nhan loai chien thang hoan toan ch u nghTa phat xit.

- Co vO thuc oay phong trao giai phonq dan toe tren the gioi. Dac biet la co anh huang sau sac oen

cac thuoc dia cua Phap.

- Ma ra thai ky sup 00 cua chu nghTa thuc dan, gop phan lam tan ra he th6ng thuoc dia cua chu nghTa De qu6c tren toan the giOi.

3) Sai hoc kinh nghiem (thom khao):

- GiUo'ng cao nqon co giai phonq dan toe, ket hop oung dan hai nhiern vu ch6ng oe qu6c va phong kien. Hai nhiern vu ay co m6i lien he m~t thiet, song nhiern vu ch6ng oe qu6c la chu yeu.

- Xay dl/ng t6t kh6i dai doan ket dan toe, thanh I~p mat tran dan toe th6ng nhat de phat huy sue rnanh cua toan dan toe.

- Xay dl/ng doi quan chu luc la eong nhan va nang dan, tren co so kh6i lien minh eong nang vO'ng chac lam nang e6t de xay dl/ng luc IUQ'ng.

- Biet lei dunq rnau thuan trong hang ngO ke thu. Day la van de kho khan phirc tap nhUng co y nghTa chien hrcc. Do ehinh la rnau thuan trong noi bo de qu6e, phat xit, noi bo giai cap th6ng tr] ... Cach manq thanq Tam han ehe su khanq cu, qianh thang loi nhanh qon, it ton that.

- Biet sir dunq bao hrc each rnanq tong hop, ket hop gam luc IUQ'ng ehinh tr] va luc IUQ'ng vO trang.

Trong do luc IUQ'ng ehinh tr] la chu yeu.

- Xay dl/ng Dilng la mot kh6i th6ng nhat ve tu tuang ehinh tr] va to chirc. Phai co duang 16i each manq dung dan, duang 16i ay khonq ngung duoc bo sung phat trien eho phu hop voi tUng giai dean.

Cau 7. Tal sao nol sau Cach m~ng thang Tam 1945 v~n menh dat miac ta nhu "Ngim can treo sc;1i toe"? Trinh bay nhli'ng hleu biet cua rninh ve hoan canh dat nu'ac trong giai doan lich sU' nol tren.

Nuoc Viet Nam Dan Chu Cong Hoa vua ra dai da phai dung triroc tlnh the het sue hiern nqheo.

1) Tinh hinh the gi6'i: 0) Thuan ldi:

- Sau chien tranh the gioi II da co mot s6 to chirc bao ve hoa blnh ra dol: to chirc Lien Hi~p Quae (26/6/1945).

- Sau chien tranh Chu nghTa Xa hoi tro thanh mot he th6ng cua the gioi voi hang loat cac qu6e gia a Dong Au len Xa Hoi Chu NghTa. Lien Xo co uy tin qu6e te eao, co vai tro tham gia giai quyet cac van de qu6e teo

- Sau chien tranh phong trao dau tranh giai phonq dan toe a cac thuoc dia A, Phi, My latin da phat trien ram rO.

b) KhO khan:

- Sau chien tranh Lien Xo b] thiet hai n~ng ne (han 20 trieu nguai chet), dat nuoc b] tan pha dO' dol. VI v~y, Lien Xo chua the giup gl eho cac nuoc khac,

- Sau chien tranh My vuon len la mot nuoc de qu6e rnanh nhat the gioi voi tham vonq lam ba chu the giOi. My co mat a rnoi noi (Bae vi tuyen 16 cua ban dao Dong DUong duoc ehia eho My).

- Viet Nam narn trong vonq yay cua cac the hrc phan dong trong khu vue, Chung quyet tam tieu diet ehinh quyen each rnanq can non tre.

2) Tinh hinh trong nu6'c: 0) Thuan ldi:

- Sau Cach manq thanq Tam 1945 nuoc ta tro thanh mot nuoc doc I~p, nhan dan thoat canh no Ie.

Voi truyen th6ng yeu niroc nang nan, nhan dan Viet Nam quyet tam bao ve nen doc lap.

- Tir mot Dang heat dong bi mat, Dang ta ra eong khai lanh dao dat nuoc bang nhO'ng kinh nqhiern cua 15 narn lanh dao.

b) KhO khan:

• Nen kinh te:

- B] tan pha n~ng ne do hau qua cua chinh sach boc lot cua Nhat, bat nho lua trong day, cuno voi nan 10 lut va han han nen da co 02 trieu nguai chet doi a phia Bac. Dai song cua nhan dan vo cunq kho khan.

- Nha niroc khonq chiern duoc ngan hang rna ch i tiep quan duoc mot kho bac trong rang. Trinh dO quan Iy phat trien kinh te can rat yeu.

• Nen van hOo:

- Voi chinh sach ngu dan tren 80 narn c ua thuc dan da lam cho hon 90% dan so rnu chO', han che viec phat huy dan chu trong che do mol.

- Te nan xa hoi hoanh hanh dO' doi trong nhan dan. Co' so giao due khonq co g1.

• Chinh tri:

- Vi tri phap Iy niroc ta chua duoc the gioi cong nhan, b] chu nghTa De quoc bao vay hong xoa be thanh qua each rnanq.

- Theo Hiep uoc Potsdam va thea su thea thuan cua My va Tuonq, Anh va Phap cunq cac th e luc nqoai xarn tran vao nuoc ta: Tuang 200.000, Anh 20.000, Phap 26.000, Nh ~t 60.000. Trong do nguy hiern nhat la Tuang va Phap, Anh va Nhat 58 rut ra khoi Viet Nam.

- Sau thai song IUu vong duo] su bao ho cua Tuang va My, hai to chirc phan dong Vi~t Quae (Vi~t Nom Quae Dan Dang), Vi~t Cach (Vi~t Nom Cach fvlQng Dang) da thea chan Tuang ve nuoc chong pha chinh quyen each manq.

- Cac to chirc khac trong nuoc nhu DQi Vi~t Duy Tan, DQi Vi~t Quae Gia lien minh nqoc dau day chong pha chinh quyen quyet liet.

- Chinh quyen moi thiet I~p chua co du thai gian de cunq co dOi ngO, trinh do quan Iy kinh te xa hoi cua can bo can yeu. l.uc IUQ'ng vO trang ch i co 5000 nguai voi vO khi tho so' lac hau.

Nha mlac each mqng phai doi pho vai hang loqt thit thach cam go, tllilng chung nnu khong the vllt;lt qua dill/c. Vqn m~nh dat nllac nnu "ngan can treo Sl/i toe", D9C lqp dan t9c co the bi thil tieu, nhan dan co nguy co tril ve kiep song ngl/a trau no l~.

Cau 8. Trinh bay hoan c anh lich su va du'ong loi khang chien chong Phap giai doan 1946 - 1954?

Neu mQt vai chien thang Ion tren chien tru'ong de khang djnh tinh chat dung dan cua du'ong loi noi tren.

1) Hoan canh lich sit:

- Nqay 18/09/1946 sau nh O'ng na hrc cuoi cunq de keo da] thai gian chuan b] luc IUQ'ng, Chu tich Ho Chi Minh nr Phap tro ve nuoc lanh dao cuoc khanq chien. Cunq ve co mot so tri thirc Viet Nam yeu nuoc nhu: ky sir Pharn Quang Le (Tran Dai NghTa), ky sir Va Quy Han, bac sl Tran HO'u Tiroc,

- Nqay 20/10/1946, doan ve den canq Hai Phonq tren chien ham Dyerwin do thuyen tnronq Oneir chi huy. l.an dau tien trong lich str Chinh phu ta duoc don tiep bang nghi thirc nqoai giao a nhieu nucc, Tlnh hlnh trong nuoc rat cang thanq, thuc dan Phap am rnuu cuop nuoc ta Ian 2 cho nen da tim rnoi each tri hoan cuoc dam phan, pha heal rnoi dieu ky ket.

- Cuoi narn 1946, Phap chuan b] danh up Ha Noi, buoc Chinh phu ta dau hang: 16/12/1946 D'Argenlieur do] kho] phuc lai Hiep uoc 1884. Nqay 19/12/1946 tuong Phap la Bolla gui 3 toi h~u thir doi ta giao nop vO khi dau hang.

- Tnroc tlnh hlnh tren, de the hien tinh than quat kho] cua dan toe, nqay 19/12/1946 Chu tich Ho Chi Minh ra "Lai keu qoi toan quae kh6ng chien", nqay 22/12/1946 Trung Uo'ng Dang ra "Chi thi toan dan

kh6ng chien" va narn 1947, Tong Bi thu TrUong Chinh da viet tac pharn "Kh6ng chien nhdt dlnh thOng loi". Ba tac pharn day da hoan thien noi dung duang loi khanq chien chong Phap.

2) f)u'ilng loi khang chien chong Phap:

- Ml,lc tieu clio CU()C khang chien: danh thuc dan Phap qianh doc I~p dan toe.

- Tinh chat clio CU()C khang chien: ke tuc su nqhiep Cach rnanq thanq Tam hoan thanh nhi em vu

giai phonq dan toe, rno rong va cung co che do Cong hoa Dan chu Viet Nam. Cuoc khanq chien co tinh chat dan t9c qiai phOng va dan chu mOL

- Thuc hi~n chien tronh nhan dan: khang chien toan dan, toan di~n, tru'ilng IcY, dl/o vao sue minh la chinh.

• Toan dan: so sanh luc IUQ'ng giO'a ta va dich va each manq phai la su nqhiep cua quan chunq nhan dan, mat khac Phap muon xoa be nen doc I~p cua nuoc ta cho nen phai huy dong toan the nhan dan tham gia danh gi~c bat cir noi nao, luc nao.

• Toan dien: nharn tao sire rnanh tong hop, muon chien thanq ke thu phai tien hanh khanq chien tren rnoi ITnh vue quan su, kinh te, chinh tr], van hoa, nqoai giao.

• Chinh tri: doan ket toan dan, van dong nhan luc va v~t hrc cho khanq chien. Cunq co che do Cong hoa Dan chu. Xay dl/ng chinh quyen nhan dan cac cap.

• Quan su: cuoc khanq chien 58 trai qua ba giai do an: phonq ngl/, cam cu va phan congo l.uon tang cuang ren luyen va phat trien hrc IUQ'ng. Triet de dung du kich van dong.

• Kinh te: toan dan ta tu tuc luonq thuc, ra sire pha nen kinh te cua dich, khonq cho chunq lay chien tranh nuoi chien tranh. Chuan b] tiern luc cho cuoc khanq chien lau dai.

• Van hoa: phai danh do van hoa no dlch, xoa rnu chO', thuc hien can, kiern, liern, chinh.

• Nqoai giao: doan ket voi Lao, Campuchia va nhan dan Phap. Tranh th u su ung hO cua the gioi, d~c biet la Lien Xo va Trung Qu cc,

• TrUong kV: do tuonq quan so sanh ta va d ich, chunq ta vira tien hanh khanq chien vua xay dl/ng hrc IUQ'ng cho nen cuoc khanq chien keo da] (truang ky). Danh lau da] la lam cho ch a rnanh cua dich nqay mot han che, cho yeu cua ta tUng biroc duoc khac phuc, Buoc dich phai danh thea each danh cua tao

• DUo vao thUc LUc trang nUac La chu veu: chua co nuoc nao giup do ta, mat khac, can su vO'ng vang doc I~p ve duang lol, cho nen cuoc khanq chien chu yeu la dua vao sire rnlnh la chinh. Chung ta phai dua vao nhan hoa, dia lol, thien thai.

f)u'ilng loi khang chien dung don tren day dd dua sl/ nghi~p each mqng clio nhan dan to thong I(li tilng bu'uc va thong I(li hoan toano

3) Chien thong lun tren chien tru'ilng: chon 1 trang 3

a) Chien thOng Viet BGC Thu Dong:

- Nqay 07/10/1947 Phap cho 12.000 quan tan cong len Viet Bac hong tieu diet co' quan dau nao, nhanh chong ket thuc chien tranh.

- Nqay 15/10/1947 Dang ra chi th] phai pha tan cuoc tan cong rnua Dong cua Phap, danh tren tat ca chien truonq, phan tan hrc IUQ'ng cua dich rna danh.

- Sau 75 nqay dem chien dau (07 - 22/10/1947) ta da danh tan cuoc tan cong cua Phap, tieu diet 7000 quan, pha hang tram xe a to, ban rcl 16 may bay, danh ch lrn 16 ca no, 1 tau chien. Co' quan lanh dao khanq chien van an toano Can cu dia van dung vO'ng. Thang loi Viet Bac co y nghTa va cunq quan tronq, rno ra mot giai dean rno] cho cuoc khanq chien.

b) ThOng Ldi chien dich Bien giai:

- Sau thang loi Viet Bac, tlnh hlnh the giai co chuyen bien Ian, anh huang den cuoc khanq chien cua nhan dan tao Chung ta da nhan duoc su giup do rnanh me cua nhan dan the giai, Phap buoc phai chuyen huang danh lau da] trong the b] dong. Khi Phap co cum phonq thu thi Dang ta quyet djnh ta chuyen tir the cam cu sang tong tan congo

- Nqay 16/09/1950 ta m a chien dich bien giai va ket thuc thang loi vao nqay 15/10/1950. Ta d a tieu diet 8300 quan tinh nhue, thu hon 3000 tan vO khi va phuonq tien chien tranh, giai phonq hoan toan khu vue bien giai giap Trung Qu6c.

- Thanq 02/1951 tal Tuyen Quang dien ra Dai hOi Toan qu6c Ian II, co 221 dai bieu tham du (trong do co 158 dai bieu chinh thuc). Dai hoi quyet dinh doi ten Dang Ci)ng San Dong DUong thanh Dang Loo Di)ng Vi~t Nom. Nhiern vu co' ban cua each manq Viet Nam van la danh dudi De qu6c Phap xarn IUQ'c, qianh doc I~p th6ng nhat that su Dai hoi bau dong chi TrUong Chinh lam Tong Bi thu, dong chi Ho Chi Minh duoc bau la Chu tich Dang. Dai hoi danh dau su truonq thanh cua Dang ve rnoi mat.

c) Chien thOng Dien Bien Phu:

- Truce sire ep cua My, thanq 03/1953 Navarre cho xay d l/ng voi va cir diem Dien Bien Phu vai rnuu do chien hroc la nhir quan ta vao de tieu diet.

- Phap huy dong 17.000 quan dong t ai cir diem nay vai cac loai vO khi t6i tan nhat cua My. Can ta huy dong 261.464 dan cong rno duang va van chuyen 27.000 tan qao, 4 dai doan bo binh, 1 dai dean phao binh len Dien Bien Phu, trong do da dua 24 khau tronq phao len nu] cao.

- Nqay 13/03/1954 rno man chien dich va nqay 07/05/1954 k et thuc chien dich. Tra] qua 55 nqay dern vai tinh than chien dau dOng cam cua cac chien 51 cunq vai su chi huy rnuu tri tai tlnh cua can bo lanh dao, quan ta da pha huy hoan toan 49 cu diem, quan Phap te liet khi b] bao yay. De Castries cunq 16.000 quan dau hang va dieu kien. 17h30 nqay 07/05/1954 da di vao lich str nhu mot trang choi IOi nhat.

Cau 9. Trinh bay hoan canh va nQi dung du'ong loi chien hroc each m~ng Vi~t Nam du'c;1c eang ta neu trong Nghj quyet e~i hQi d~i bleu Toan quoc Ian III (09/1960)?

1) Hoem cimh mlac to sou thong 07{1954:

- Str nqhiep each rnanq dan toe dan chu tren pharn vi ca nuoc chua hoan thanh, dat nuoc ta tarn thai b] chia lam hai mien.

• Mien BGe:

- Ve co' ban mien Bac da hoan toan diroc giai phonq, nqay 10/10/1945 Phap rut ra kh oi Ha NOi, nqay 16/05/1955 Phap rut hoan toan kh oi mien Bac.

- Nen kinh te b] tan pha n~ng ne sau chien tranh, luc IUQ'ng san xuat nho be, trinh do san xuat lac hau, dai s6ng nhan dan g~p nhieu kho khan.

- Mien Bac tiep quan nhO'ng vunq Phap da rut, bao gam nang than, khu cong nghi ep, thanh th].

Nhanh chong on dinh chinh tr] xa hoi, phuc hoi va phat trien kinh te, buoc dau xay dl/ng kinh te thea dinh huang Xa Hoi Chu NghTa.

• Mien Nom:

- De qu6c My nhay vao thay the quan Phap, am rnuu bien mien Nam thanh thuoc dia kieu rno] va can cir quan su cua My.

- Nqay 07/07/1954 My dua Ngo Dlnh Diem ve Sai Gon lam Thu tuang. Nqay 17/07/1955 Ngo Dlnh Diem tuyen b6 khonq hiep thironq Tong tuyen cu' nhu quyet dinh cua Hiep dinh Geneve,

nqay 23/10/1955 phe truat Bao Dai, len lam Tong th6ng ehinh quyen tay sai than My. Xay dl/ng mot Nha niroc doc tai "Gia dinh tri",

- My - Diem tang euang dan ap, khunq b6 eh6ng lai dong bao mien Nam. Ap d~t ehe do thuc dan kieu moi de ehia cat lau da] dat nuoc tao

- Truce tlnh hlnh tren, dong bao mien Nam phan ung rat quyet liet, hang loat cuoc dau tranh ehinh tr] phan d6i ehe do doc tai da bung phat. Truce cuoc dau tranh quat kho] cua nhan dan mien Nam, My - Diem da dan ap dam rnau phong trao dau tranh dac biet la phong trao cua Tang ni Phat W, gay ra khonq khi va cunq eang th ang trong xa hoi mien Nam.

• Nhan ainh:

- Dat nuoc tarn thai b] ehia cat thanh hai mien, phat trien thea hai ehe do ehinh tr] xa hoi khac nhau.

- Dung triroc nhO'ng bien doi phirc tap noi tren, lich str lai d~t ra mot yeu cau birc thiet: lam sao tiep n6i duoc thanh qua each rnanq rna nhan dan da dat duoc trong giai do an tnroc, lam sao giai phonq mien Nam th6ng nhat nuoc nha, dap ung nguyen vonq cua nhan dan ca nucc, Tlnh hlnh do d~t ra eho Dang ta mot yeu cau la phai phat huy eao dO tinh than tu chu sang tao trong viec vach ra mot duang 16i chien IUQ'e dung dan eho each manq Viet Nam trong giai do an mol.

2) Noi dung tlllilng liii chien lilac cach mong Viet Nom:

- TLt nqay 05 - 10/09/1960 tal Ha NOi da dien ra Dai hOi Dai bieu Toan qu6e Ian III, tham du co 523 dai bieu va 20 doan dai bieu qu6e teo Tai dai hoi nay dong chi Ho Chi Minh duoc bau lai lam Chu tich Dang, dong chi Le Duan duoc bau lam Bi thu thir nhat Ban Chap Hanh Trung Uo'ng Dang.

• Nhiem vu chung:

- Dang ta xac dinh nhiern vu cua each manq Viet Nam trong giai do an nay nharn muc tieu chung la hoan thanh each m anq Dan toe Dan chu Nhan dan, th6ng nhat nuoc nha.

- Day la nhiern vu thienq lieng cua ca dan toe, du co hy sinh gian kho va lau dai, chunq ta van kien dinh eho den nqay thang 1Q'i.

- Hai mien tuy co hai nhiern vu chien IUQ'e khac nhau, song duoc tien hanh dong thai va co m6i lien he vO'ng chac voi nhau.

• Nhiem vu cach mong Xa Hoi Chu Nghlo a mien BGe:

- Xay dl/ng Chu NghTa Xa Hoi a mien Bae tir mot nen kinh te nang nqhiep lac hau len Chu NghTa Xa Hoi, mien Bac phai vuot qua duoc nhO'ng kho khan th Lt thach, nhanh chong xay d l/ng co' so v~t chat eho nen eang nqhiep va nang nqhiep hien dai, van hoa va khoa hoc tien tien, cal thien dai s6ng eho nhan dan.

- D~e biet la mien Bac phai tro thanh co' so vO'ng rnanh, can cir vO'ng chac cua ca nuoc trong cuoc dau tranh th6ng nhat nuoc nha. Cach m anq Xa Hoi Chu NghTa giO' vai tro quyet djnh nhat d6i voi su phat trien cua toan bo each rnanq Viet Nam va d6i voi su nqhiep th6ng nhat nuoc nha.

• Nhiem vu cach mong mien Nom:

- Gia] phonq mien Nam khoi ach th6ng tr] cua De qu6e va phong kien, tien hanh each manq dan toe dan chu a mien Nam, thuc hien th6ng nhat nuoc nha, hoan thanh nhiern vu doc I~p dan chu trong ca nucc,

- Con duang phat trien co' ban cua each rnanq Mien Nam la khoi nghTa qianh ehinh quyen ve tay nhan dan.

- Cach rnanq mien Nam giO' vi tri quan tronq co tac dunq quyet djnh true tiep d6i voi su nqhiep giai phonq mien Nam, thuc hien hoa blnh th6ng nhat nuoc nha.

• fvl6i lien he gWo cac nhiem vu chien LUcie a hoi mien:

- Xay dl/ng Chu NghTa Xa HOi a mien Bac, mien Bik tro thanh can cu' dia vO'ng chac eho su nqhiep each rnanq cua ca nucc, Mien Bac 58 duoc tang euang ve rnoi mat, la noi tiep nhan su vien tro cua he thong Xa HOi Chu NghTa va nhan dan the giOi. Mien Bac la hau phuonq Ian 58 chi vien sue nguai sue cua eho chien truonq mien Nam.

- Thang loi cua each rnanq dan toe dan chu nhan dan a mien Nam dong vien tinh than doan ket cua nhan dan ca nuoc, gop phan thong nhat nuoc nha, khang dinh dung dan cua duang loi tu chu, sang tao cua Dang Lao Dong Viet Nam. Khang djnh va nang eao uy tin cua each manq Xa Hoi Chu NghTa mien Bac voi nhan dan Viet nam va the giOi.

- Nhiern vu chien IUQ'e hai mien phai gan bo m~t thiet voi nhau, tac dong va thuc day nhau cuno hoan thanh nhiern vu.

HET/!!

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