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Archaeology, Conceptual

Evolution and Origin of the


Term Ta in Arabic
Grammar

Those who do not speak


about ta among
Orientalists
Silvestre de Sacy (1831); Forbes
(1863); Palmer (1874);
Socin (1885); Donat Vernier
(1891); Howell (1911);
Fleisch
(1961&1979); Blachre&GaudefroyDemombynes (1975)
Encyclopedia of Islam;

The definition of ta
based on scattered data

Al-Sayyid al-arf (d.


816/1413)
al-ta inda al-nut ibra an taqll alitirk al-il f al-nakirt naw raulun
limun (al-Sayyid al-arf, Tarft: 57)

irbn (d. 977/1570)


wa-yaqa nakira bi-musawwi wa-huwa
imm al-ta aw al-tamm aw al-tar
fa-l-awwal wa-huwa al-ta saw akn bi-ifa [] aw bi-waf (Carter,
1981: 376)



][

Few Moderns dealing with


ta
Caspari-Wright. A Grammar of the Arabic Language
(1996: II, 198D, 199A, 261D);
Reckendorf. Arabische Syntax (1921: 57, 193, 200
and 218);

Gtje. Zum Begriff des Determination und


Indetermination im Arabischen (1970: 221, 235);
Fleisch. Ifa (1986: 1008b);
Bad Yaqb and . Al-Muam al-mufaal f-llua wa-l-adab (1987: I, 154, 367, II, 1254);
Troupeau. Nat (1993: 1034a);
Carter. Tarf (2000: 241b).

Gradual Apparition of
Ta in Arabic
Grammar

Sbawayhi (d. 180/796?)


i qulta l irna fa-qad abhamta alanw fa-i qulta dirhman fa-qad
itaata nawan wa-bi-hi yuraf min ayy
naw lika al-adad (Sbawayhi, Kitb: II,
174 and 192)

Za (d. 339/949)
wa-ilam anna ism al-fil i kn biman al-muiyy fa-aafta-hu il nakira
tanakkara wa-in aafta-hu il marifa
taarrafa (Za, umal: II, 90)

Srf (d. 368/979)


ql ab sad man al-nat anna-hu iti
nafs al-mant wa-ir la-hu min ibhm waumm il m huwa aa min-hu wa-l-nakirt
al-manta yuriu-h al-nat min naw il naw
aa min-hu wa-amm al-l-marif fa-yuriuh al-nat min a mutarak al-ism inda wuq
al-labs f-hi il an yazl al-labs an-hu amm
al-nakira fa-qawlu-ka marartu bi-raulin arfin
law iqtaarta al raul wada-hu la-kn alraul wada-hu min umlat al-ril kulli-him wanawu-hu al-la huwa min-hum al-ril al alumm fa-lamm naatta-hu bi-arf r min
umlat al-ril al-irf wa-huwa aqall min al-ril
bi-ilq

Ab Al al-Fris (d.
377/987)
wa-wah abah h al-arb bi-l-ifa
anna al-n mua li-l-awwal kam
anna al-muf ilay-hi muai li-lmuf (Fris, : 190)

Ab al-asan alRummn (d. 384/994)


i al-maml yuai ka-m tuai
al-ifa wa-ka-m tuai al-ifa
(Rummn, ar Kitb Sbawayhi: I, 374)

Ibn inn (d. 392/1002)


wa-lika anna al-ifa f al-kalm al
arbayn imm li-l-tal wa-l-ta waimm li-l-mad wa-l-an (Ibn inn,
ai: II, 146)

Ibn inn (d. 392/1002)


ql li-anna al-ara f al-idfa inna-m
huwa al-tarf wa-l-ta (Ibn inn,
ai: II, 267)

Ibn inn (d. 392/1002)


al-ifa tuksib al-tarf wa-l-ta (Ibn
inn, Sirr inat al-irb: II, 37)

Abd al-Qhir al-urn


(d. 471/1078)
umma ilam anna al-ifa tufd f al-nakira alta wa-f al-marifa al-taw tafsr h
anna-ka i qulta marartu bi-raulin
awin kunta qad naqata min umm al-ism
fa-aalta-hu yaqa al ba al-ins dn
kulli-hi min ayu l tudil man l yakn
awlan min al-ril f-hi fa-h huwa almurd bi-l-ta wa-l yakn ill f al-nakira
(urn, ar al-umal: 276 and alMuqtaid f ar rislat al-: II, 175)

Zamaar (d. 538/1144)


ifat al-ism li-l-ism al arbayn
manawiyya wa-lafiyya fa-l-manawiyya
m afda tarfan ka-qawli-ka dru
amrin aw taan ka-qawli-ka ulmu
raulin (Zamaar, Mufaal: 119)

Ibn arf (d. 609/1212)


wa-fidat al-nat ta al-nakira wa-raf
al-itirk al-mutawahham f al-mant almarifa (Ibn arf, ar umal alZa: I, 300)

Ibn Mlik (d. 672/1274)


fa-hihi kullu-hu ifatu-hu manawiyya
wa-aqqiyya
wa-maa
li-anna-h
muaira f al-muf tarfan in kn al-n
marifa wa-taan in kn al-n nakira
(Ibn Mlik, ar al-Kfiya al-fiya: I,
408)

Extansion of the Meaning


of Ta

Ta linked to l
fa-min musawwit tankr ib al-l
tau-hu bi-waf ka-qawli-ka a-n
raulun min qawmi-ka rkiban (Ibn Mlik,
K: I, 331)

Ta linked to Tamyz
f arbaati ayymin sawan li-l-silna
[Cor. 41, 10] (Ibn Mlik, K: I, 331; Ibn
Him al-Anr, Sabl al-hud: 347; Ibn
Aql, ar Alfiyyat Ibn Mlik: I, 321)

Summary: Contexts of
Ta
Annexation
Qualification

Explanatory Apposition
State Circumstantial
Specification

Ta and Jurology
among Arab Moderns
Sn. Muam mualat ul al-fiqh
(2000: 126);
Hill. Muam muala al-ul (2003: 7178);
aylan. Mabi al-ta inda aluliyyna (2000);
Muammad Al Abd al-Ramn. Aar alta f al-fiqh al-islm (2010)

Ta Among Some
Classic Jurologists
Rz. al-Mal f ilm ul al-fiqh (1997: III, 7 and sq.);
mid. al-Ikm f ul al-akm (2003: II, 485 and sq.);

. ar al-Aud al Mutaar al-Muntah al-uul (2000:


208 and sq.);
Ibn al-Nar al-anbal. ar al-Kawkab al-munr (1993: III,
267 and sq.);
Anr. Fawti al-ramt bi-ar Musallim al-ubt (2002: I,
300 and sq.);
Zarka. Tanf al-masmi bi-am al-awmi li-T al-Dn alSubk (1998: II, 715 and sq.)

Ta and Jurology
among Orientalist
Moderns

Layish. Makama xiii. Reforms in the


law applying in Shara courts (1991:
41a);
Paret. Istisn wa-Istil (1997:
256a, 256b, 258b);

Chaumont. Ambiguity (2009: 9);


Weiss. Language and law. The linguistic
premises of Islamic legal science (1984:
867a)

Ibn al-ib (d.


646/1249): the proof that
ta has a legal origin
Ibn al-ib, jurologist and grammarian
dedicates an entire section of his
Mutaar Muntah to ta and does not
do the same in grammar

Ta might then have a legal origin

Who between these two?


1) fi (d. 204/819) doesnt speak about
ta Bqilln (d. 403/1012) does;
2) A jurologist contemporary to Fris (d.
377/987)?

3) 26 jurologists from Ibn Sar al-fi


(d. 306-908) to Ab al-Qsim al-aymar
al-fi (d. 386/996)

Different forms of Ta