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ARCHMAG /

1 2015

ARCHMAG FAITH
#1 Easter 2015

Cover
Nikita Dolgoy

Editorial Board
Ivan Matveev, Nikita Dolgoy

Design
Ivan Matveev

Composition
Ivan Matveev, Nikita Dolgoy,
Elena Hasyanova

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Proofreading
Ivan Matveev, Nikita Dolgoy

Translation
Ivan Matveev, Primavista (p.
4041, and 5859)

, Primavista (.
4041, 5859)

Website
Ivan Matveev

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1 2015

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/
FAITH

21
archmag.ru
, 2015

Architecture and faith

FAITH /

Sacral architecture in the


beginning of the 21st century
archmag.ru
Moscow, 2015

#1, Easter


, 11

, 17

, 25

, 31
, 43

, 55
, 57


, 69

, 105
, 112
, 115

Wooden Architecture at Risk, 122
, 124


, 129

, 143

, 157


, 167

, 173


, 183

, 197

, 229

CONTENTS
Editorial, 12
Ivan Matveev

Modern church design, 138


Nikolay Vasnetsov

For God is with us !, 22


Olga Tolstikova

Chapel, 154
Nikolay Vasnetsov

Church and space, 28


Ivan Matveev

Oikonomia, 162
Eugene Sablina

Atlantis of the
Russian North, 40

Architecture and orthodoxy, 170


Ekaterina Chistova

Quadratura Circuli, 43

Valaam, 178
Anna Bazilevich

Sacred/Urban Moscow, 55
Defenseless masterpieces, 62
Olga Tolstikova
Kizhi Island
restoration facility, 72
Ben Hayes
Obshee Delo, 105
A list of church restoration
projects, 113
Shelters for the ruins, 120
Sergey Kanterin
Wooden Architecture at Risk, 123
The Russian Ark, 126

The sky is never bright here, 194


Jennette Shchedrina
The Northen wind, 212
Ivan Matveev
Authors, 229

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EDITORIAL

The Russian state, which appeared on the basis of the Orthodoxy, reached
its greatest cultural and spiritual flourishing, developing within the Orthodox Christianity.
After almost a quarter of a century of absence of the common spiritual
vector, the rebirth of Orthodoxy in Russia has begun. Churches are being restored, new ones are being built. Young people, who are not satisfied with the ideology of consumer society, go to church.
These processes permeate the whole of society. Despite the rupture of
architectural tradition, still there are caring people who are ready to
design and rebuild the temples.
The importance of the Orthodoxy for the Russian World cannot be overestimated. Russians, as a people historically formed on the basis of the
Orthodoxy, and the Russian World, as a community of different nations,
undergoes destruction with the loss of the foundation, of faith.
This is especially evident now, when there is a fratricidal war in Ukraine.
How soon people lose their humanity after doing the first step becoming indifferent to others grief. Internal moral constraint for murder can be bypassed by abstracting the object of aggression. The dehumanization begins with indifference.
But despite the sea of hatred in the world, still there are people who
take the cross, and lead the people, lighting our way with the power of
their faith.
The previous issue of our magazine was dedicated to the architecture
and war.
Any war is a result of manifestation of the spiritual war, an eternal
war between good and evil. A war of the divine creative principle in
man, with mans destructive beginning. This issue is dedicated to the
spiritual warfare.

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Next page:
Tapestry Troparion Of The
Holy Cross. Artist Olga Tolstikova. Wool, silk, hand weaving. In collection of Moscow Museum of Modern Art.
The troparion of the Holy Cross
(short hymn in Byzantine Liturgy):
O Lord, save Thy people, And
bless Thine inheritance. Granting to Thy people victory over
all their enemies. And by the
Power of Thy Cross, preserving
Thy commonwealth.

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On the right:
Temple of Sofia the Wisdom of
God, Vologda.

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On the top:
Mosaic on Komsomolskaya
metro station, Moscow.

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FOR GOD
IS WITH US!

Olga Tolstikova
authors photoes

And this is the condemnation, that light is come


into the world, and men
loved darkness rather
than light, because their
deeds were evil.
John, 3:19.
Temples and cathedrals of Saint Sophia in
ancient Russia. One in
Novgorod, another in
Polotsk, and one more
in Kiev. Temples of 11th
century, they are the
greatest, the most important unity cathedrals of ancient Rus.
Here they are the
temples of Saint Sophia uniting the country from the north to
the south. They represent the collegiality
and unity of our people.
They stand for the wisdom and power of Russia. Saint Sophias Cathedral in Kiev is the
starting point. Here
our Pantokrator Christ
shines in the gold of
the central dome, He
is in the sky above the
ground and He sees
everything. He is inex-

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orable and relentless.


Christ is here, with us,
and in the eternity at
the same time.
If you dare to come
into Saint Sophias Cathedral in Kiev, the Holy
of Holies, you will see
hell before you, you will
see your hands covered
with blood of innocent
victims. So come and
stand before God and
pray to Him for your
forgiveness! Pray to the
Lord and then you will
see what you have done!
You, poor mothers
whose sons are shedding blood of innocent
people! How can you
live after everything
they have done? Your
sons are so cruel. You
need to stop them! You
need to pray for them!
Another Saint Sophias Cathedral is on
a slope above the river
Vologda. It is dazzling
us with its white walls.
The temple of the 16th
century, it is like a huge
Warrior standing tense
and majestic. It is all
rigor and power. The

temple covers all the


space around it with its
monumentality. There
is the whole power of
Orthodoxy, the power
of Russia in the brilliant
simplicity of cathedrals
architecture. No decor.
Sole spirit. Everything
is so ascetic. Narrow
windows look like loopholes. The great white
walls of the cathedral
are bending the corbel
archs with their power
and drawing the sky
apart with their domes.
Quietly, the domes
are humming like the
skies before a storm.
The sound is faint, but
you can feel the power
in heavenly domes. It
seems they are moving
like great planets in the
sky. With the Universe
is spinning inside, the
domes are spinning in
the Universe.
Your head is raised,
but your eyes cannot
cover these magnificent
white walls. They cannot see the entire great
white space and the entire Universe of the cathedral. This temple on
earth is like the one in
heaven it is there to
empower us, to support
our spirit in the time of
trouble.
The domes are
driving into the blue sky
and breaking through it,
rushing up to the Lord!
All our endless Russian fields covered with

snow are seen within


those white walls.
Spring thunderstorms
are heard in those magnificent domes. Russian
power is felt within that
cathedral. Our soulful
simplicity and Orthodox prayer are within
those stones. The white
walls are reddened with
the crimson of the skies
above the domes like
blood shed on the snow
in Saint Sophias land.
But the Sophia standing
on the Vologda keeps no
silence, it is praying. It
is standing there like a
warrior in a bloody helmet. Its bells toll a tocsin for the whole Russian land. The domes of
northern Sophia have
reddened with tocsin
red color for Sophia of
the south.
Now is the time
when every pagan
rite, embroidery, amulet, used to replace true
Orthodoxy, is vanishing. They look too shallow, too decorative in
the days of trouble. And
it is time when drear
cuckoos in the trees are
calling for us, for those
who are living their
easy peaceful lives away
from grief. The birds
are cuckooing about the
eternal and the meaning and transience of
life. The birds make us
remember the death, remember the dead, remember the suffering.

1: Isaiah 8:910
Associate yourselves, O ye people, and ye shall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all ye of far countries: gird
yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces.
Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought; speak the word, and it shall not stand: for God is with us.

The Vologda, hiding in


the grass, and all the
writers of the Russian
land, Northern Thebaid!
Where is your Belozersk Regiment your
noble warriors! Stand
up! Speak up! Where
are you? Are you fainthearted?..
Exodus. Exodus of
Russians searching for
salvation. The tragedy
of the situation is enormous and inconceivable.
There they are, those
refugee women holding
their children tightly.
Peer into their faces
and try to understand.
These are the faces of
orphans, the faces altered by the war forever.
Their faces are open,
and you can see they
are Russians. They have
no defense. No defense.
Silent, they are crying inside. Heartbreaking like The Scream of
Munch. They are silent,
with no power to cry
out. Each one of them
has his own story, his
own broken life. Enough
to write a whole novel
like the one of Bulgakovs about people in
misery. Remember, he
felt their suffering as if
it was his own, he was
with them in their misery. What about us? We
are with them in our
minds and souls every
minute. We can neither
sing nor dance. We have
our faith, and the truth

of our Holy Fathers, and


our prayers. A clear distinction between black
and white. No grey
compromise. There is a
war. Lord, have mercy!
Lord, have mercy! Lord,
have mercy!
Saint Sophias are
Holy warriors, ready for
battle with their domes
rising in the sky like
helmets. The temples
are human-like, with
their windows serving
for eyes, the dome for
the head, the base for
the feet. The temples
are our spiritual warriors in the invisible everlasting battle. They are
standing for those who
accomplish their feats
in Donetsk, Lugansk,
and Slavyansk. Wherever we are, whether
in Vologda, or in Moscow, we think of those
in the battlefield Our
whole country is with
you. We are with you in
our churches and in our
prayers. Like Papanins
crew had been once rescued on an ice block
with the whole country
empathizing sincerely.
Komsomolskaya
subway station. Mosaics on the dome lights
designed by Pavel Korin. Russian troops before the battle, the gonfanon above them, the
Holy Saviors image as
the banner. This is the
image that saved the
besieged city. This is

the image that Dmitry Donskoy prayed for


when he received the
news of Mamai attacking Russia. This gonfanon had accompanied Russian troops in
many campaigns from
the battle of Kulikovo
until the times of World
WarI. Later it was
called znamya meaning a banner, the word
znamya replacing the
old Russian styag.
The Holy Saviors image
soon became a talisman of the city and the
whole country. This image is most important
for Russian Orthodoxy,
its value and meaning
close to the one of the
cross and the crucifixion. The eyes of Christ
on the icon Christ the
Ardent Eye are piercing the enemy with its
ardent power, immense
and inexplicable. The
power to fight and win.
Let this power of Christ
protect you and defend
you the same way it
protected the warriors
of Dmitry Donskoy. The
soldiers of Christ are
bright and courageous.
Every righteous man is
a warrior accomplishing a feat.

A great thing it is,


brethren, to lay our
lives for the Orthodox
faith. No mercy to
enemies!
God may cause his
face to shine upon us,
that thy way may be
known upon earth,
thy saving health
among all nations!
Be broken, you peoples, and be shattered.
For God is with us!

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CHURCH & SPACE


Ivan Matveev

A temple is not only an architectural and aesthetic dominant, but


it is also a powerful city-forming
factor. Orthodox churches have always been organizing centers of
settlements. Why most of the old
Russian cities have ring structure
of building?
Because citizens wanted to
build houses on the perimeter of
churches and monasteries: they
not only spiritually sustained the
parishioners, but they also were
shelteres against attacks of enemies. Temple has the ability to lift
up peoples minds to the heights of
the spirit
Only the church spiritually unites
the people.
father Dmitry Smirnov.
What forms the native Russian
space?
Oh, brightly lit and beautifully
adorned, the Russian land! So
wonderful with its many beauties
The Lay of the Ruin of the
Russian Land.

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The concept of the Russian land


includes forests, fields, and the
man surrounded by this landscape. The first time it appears
in Nestors writings, the first
historical work in Russia in the
early 12th century. It is usually called The Primary Chronicle (Povest Vremyannykh Let).
It was written in Kiev Monastery of the Caves (Kyevo-Pechersky Monastery). Russia has never
had that kind of writings after
that. These are the narratives of
bygone years regarding the origin of the land of Rus, the first
princes of Kiev, and from what
source the land of Rus had its
beginning. It is not a history of a
state, but a history of the Russian
land Different ethnic groups
were living in the space of the
Russian land There were different cities, different politicians,
but Nestor put the Russian land
in the heart of his story. Thus he
united them all; it is the vector of
the development of Russian civilization...
The theme of the Russian
land as a specifically formed
space, is essential for the Rus-

sian civilization. Not only in


the artistic sense, but ideologically formalized. Our ancestors
found some certain sense in this
space...
The desire for peace and
quiet, extremely difficult to
achieve. Church on Levitans
painting creates that very image
that he inexplicably managed to
express. Yevgeny Troubetzkoy in
his book Speculation in colors,
writes about the space of icon.
This icon space somehow resonates with the space of the Russian landscape.
In the second half of the
12th century Russian architects
have created Church of the Intercession on the river Nerl in 1162.
The church was placed in a vacuum, there has never been any
property near there: that time,
the construction itself took incredible amount of workfor it
stands on the flood meadow
There are some reliefs on the facade of the church the main of
which is the image of King David the Psalmist. The Book of
Psalms was used as a textbook in
Ancient Russia. Thats why these
images had a great meaning for
people of that time. Felix Razoumovsky, from the lecture
Russia: the space as a prophecy
at MArchI.
The Russian space with
its scarlet sunsets, with wide
fields, is like a temple, it is connected with Russian icons. In the
run-up to the revolution, Prince
Troubetzkoy writes:
We feel that not onlychur
ches were built in that onion-dome style of old Russia, but everything, what lived
the spiritual life the whole

church and secular world, from


tsar to plowman... Everything in
this universal aspiration to the
cross is searching for the flame,
everything echoes its form, and
everything is sharpened in the
gradual ascent. But only by getting the real point of contact
of the two worlds at the foot of
the cross, this fiery search flares
up with bright flame and joins
the gold of heaven. This has the
whole mystery of that icon gold,
which we were talking about: for
one and the same spirit has been

ter in Goritsky Monastery, which


stands above the lake, with the
evening sun falling into it.
But most of all this feeling has strengthened in Solovki,
when the whole nature seemed to
be catching fire after the monks,
praying in a procession of the
cross.

The whole point of the existence of Holy Russia is in this fiery


flash. In the burning of church heads it finds a vivid picture of its
own spiritual image; it is like an anticipation of the image of God,
which should be represented in Russia.
Eugeny Troubetzkoy, Three Essays on the Russian icon.
expressed in the ancient church
architecture and painting.
The whole point of the existence of Holy Russia is in this
fiery flash. In the burning of
church heads it finds a vivid picture of its own spiritual image; it
is like an anticipation of the image of God, which should be represented in Russia.
This burning sensation of
ascention to heaven first came to
me in Pskov, where we went on
a tour with our school class. Numerous heads of churches, blue
with gold stars on them, against
a bright blue sky. This was the
beginning of the feeling that
has strengthened in me in Vologda in Lamaniha village, where
the Church of St. Nicholas on
the river Vologda, directing the
whole space around it upwards,
and then in Ferapontovo, and af-

29

http://planeta.ru/campaigns/10280

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:
Photo here and on the next pages by: Atlantis of the Russian North

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ATLANTIS
OF THE RUSSIAN
NORTH

Atlantis of the Russian North


is a feature-length documentary
about the Russian North how it is
created, beat, saved, and what kind of
free and hard life comes out of it.
Read more and watch the trailer at
http://planeta.ru/campaigns/10280.

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http://cc-qc.ru/

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:
: Quadratura Circuli
On the right:
Russian cultural center in Reykjavk
Architect: Daniil Makarov
Images by: Quadratura Circuli

45


:
: Quadratura Circuli

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Missionary Temple
Architect: Daniil Makarov
Images by: Quadratura Circuli


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Church of the Resurrection


Architect: Daniil Makarov
Images by: Quadratura Circuli


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: Quadratura Circuli

Church of St. John the Evangelist in Anisimovo


Architects: Daniil Makarov, Ivan Zemlyakov
Images by: Quadratura Circuli

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Chapel in Efimovo village


Architect: Ivan Zemlyakov
Images by: Quadratura Circuli


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On the right:
Project of a wooden church
Architect: Daniil Makarov
Image by: Quadratura Circuli

53

SACRED/
URBAN
MOSCOW

Pilot phase

One of the most obvious assumptions about Moscow temples is that of imbalance. There are a lot
of churches in the de-populated historical centre and a lack of them in the over-populated periphery. This situation is rooted in the fact that
most churches in the periphery are former village churches, and have a smaller capacity. This diagram demonstrates the mapping of churches vs
population density. A population map density was
taken from Archeology of perifery research issued in 2013.
Having identified the types of urban plots with
no temples, conceptual resolutions can be proposed
with the specificity of each urban environment in
mind.
The research contains an investigative and a
visionary part. The visionary part offers both realistic and utopian conceptions of temple development in Moscow.

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sacred.urban.moscow@gmail.com
https://vk.com/sacred_urban

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61

DEFENSELESS
MASTERPIECES
Olga Tolstikova

Old log houses in the


city of Vologda. Houses
where the sense of time
has been preserved in
the unmatched deep
grey of the wood. Carving, combination of
pierced, sawn-through
and dimensional fretwork, marvelous flight
of fantasy. The entire house is like a huge
wooden sculpture; in
its color, mixed out of
rains, snows and sun,
the dear old times are
present. One yearns so
much to cuddle up to
this shaggy, cracked
wood, to pass ones
hand over it. To hug all
these, so dear, houses
the small particles of
Motherland.
In the older days,
the practical field work
for arts colleges students in the old Russian towns helped them
to feel, understand and
love Russia, its history
embodied in architecture, and architectural
environment. I was
one of those who participated in the paint-

62

ing practice in 1985


in the city of Vologda.
Theres Russian spirit
here, theres Russias
scent! The sparkling of
Vologda river and little
churches on the bank,
like white swans, about
to spread their wings
and fly into the bright
blue through the festive gold of dandelions. There is no prettier place than our Easter-time Russia. Under
the blue skies, a golden
city rises... Gods own
grace. Everything is
so dear and familiar
as dear as the serene
Little Moscow yard
painted by Polenov. A
carved-wood town with
un-trampled young
grass. Vologda of those
days was like Moscow of
my childhood, my Taganka, my Krutitzy, my
Novospassky Monastery
(New monastery of the
Saviour)...
A two-storey house
built of wood in the very
center of Vologda. The
house smothered in
the embrace of giant li-

lac bush in full bloom,


transpierced with
its sound fragrance,
with the light of white
nights. It stayed in my
memory like this the
way carved wood appears silver in the inflorescences shimmer. Whose hand was it
that dared to burn such
beauty down! A store is
now built in the houses
place.
Some fifteen or
twenty years ago, these
arsons started, the incineration of Russia. I
remember the first time
I saw, instead of a silvery house, the black,
sleek luster of firebrands. The burntdown house like a
knife in my heart! And
then again, more and
more frequent, getting
more and more customary. No-one was hurrying anymore to clear
up, pull down, hide the
arson traces no, its
easier to hang on top
of it huge banners with
paintings by an Academy member war vet-

eran. Such sacrilege! To


replace the old, tranquil town, a new aggressive style rushed
in from Moscow the
glass-plated architectural monstrosity has
pierced the sky with
its blue fang, breaking
down the entire harmony of the city. What
is yet to come, if they
have launched in this
direction? What is in
store for the city?
An academic conference in Kirillo-Belozerski historical reserve museum in 2005
was called Preservation and implementation of wooden architecture monuments in
the 21st century. Even
back then, this problem was not an exclusive concern of Vologda
land. Participants from
Moscow, Sankt-Petersburg, Veliky Novgorod,
Arkhangelsk, Vladimir,
Yaroslavl and Kostroma
were discussing what
was then approaching so rapidly and tried
to stop it. They were

not afraid to talk about


things that still are a
sore and unsolved issue
today.
An abstract from
a report by Lyudmila
Kashina, at that time
the head of Department of culture and architectural heritage of
the region: Preservation of the monuments
not only facilitates popularization of the high
standards of the national culture and fostering of patriotic feelings. Historical and cultural heritage is an economic resource of a
special sort. The social and economic environment was planned
to be created around
the monuments. She
stated even back then
that conditions of the
wooden historical and
cultural heritage of the
region, same as overall
in Russia, engenders serious concerns about its
future fate. Analysis of
the situation throughout the region has determined a number of
the most alarming factors. It is, above all, unfounded and in many
cases illegal demolition
/ scheduling for demolition or arson of wooden
structures and a new
construction in the historical areas that have
become mass-scale in
the recent years. Nowadays, there is nearly

nothing left to restore.


The houses get torched
and even if the residents manage to defend
them the first time, the
arsonists will not stop
and burn them down all
the same.
Both in Vologda
and in other cities,
buildings on the housing and public utilities balance cause apprehension, as they do
not ever get repaired.
The buildings are transferred into such a state
where the repairs become impossible. This
equally concerns monuments and environment-related wooden
structures.
Currently, a grave
problem is becoming
the tendency to destroy
the authentic monuments and create their
copies out of contemporary construction materials in their place. Article 47 of the Federal
Law No. 73 FZ dated
June 25, 2002, states
that reconstruction of
the cultural heritage
items may be performed
in exceptional instances
and using the old-time
technologies, where
the said item has special importance. This
norm does not provide
for demolition of existing items of the cultural
heritage.
Municipal authorities often ignore re-

quirements of the Federal Law No. 73 FZ


dated June 25, 2002, on
the necessity to perform repair and restoration works on the cultural heritage items and
engagement of restoration specialists for
this purpose, leading to
the sites common repairs being substituted
for the actual repair and
restoration works. With
this approach, a real
danger exists that in
the nearest future many
historical and cultural
treasures of the region might by irretrievably lost. Today, the
grave and sometimes
emergency condition of
many items of the cultural heritage demonstrates that this field of
activity is not one of the
priorities in our countrys state policy anymore.
All problems that
were voiced at that conference have become
even more intense in
the past years. Especially now, when we
have lost so much after that conference that
seemed to be a life-savor, where all challenges were clearly defined and the action
tendencies were stated.
Neither conference
nor fight that followed
failed to stop anything.
Today, a new danger is
impending Vologda, a

new tide of destruction


of those last remaining morsels. I would like
to quote here an opinion of a well-known Vologda lore writer expressed in his Facebook
account: One can understand the feelings
of young Vologda citizens when they protest against demolition
of old wooden houses in
the city. Heres a photo
of todays demolition of
one of such buildings. A
pity? Yes! But would you
like to live in it, to move
in here from your customary gas, hot water
and central heating?
This opinion justifies and legitimizes the
arsons and is lately introduced so subtly, so
gradually into the public mind via mass media. So, it seems easier to drive people out,
to burn the house down
and build some commercial property on
its place, pocketing
the profit, rather than
choosing the civilized
way, reconstructing the
old houses carefully
and creating comfortable, modern living conditions.
But the major
thing is to squeeze the
money out of the old
housing sites, isnt it,
and for this purpose,
to convince the citizens smartly, believing they will not under-

63

stand, will not defend


their dear, to convince
them that it is inexpedient to preserve wooden
architectural structure, allegedly inconvenient and uncomfortable for living in. To
burn it down and justify the crime by expediency. I wonder who
builds on the cleared
sites afterwards and for
whom? Who is the obvious criminal here?
In the center of
Vologda, an architectural monument has
been illegally destroyed.
The scandal concerning the demolition of
a late 19th c. house located on the crossroad
of Victory Avenue and
Vorovsky Street has
been going on for over a
week. Despite their protests and appeals to police, the historic preservation activists failed
to stop illegal demolition of the architectural
monument. In the opinion of member of the
public movement Real
Vologda, it is sup-

posed to be replaced by
a three-storey mansion.
To all appearances,
some persons in our city
are so influential that
they deem themselves
above the law. There is
no other explanation of
the situation where the
federal monuments are
torn down and the culprits remain unpunished. Thus, in the fall
2012, a 19th c. building
of Tanners stalls was
destroyed. The owner
declared that it was
necessary to pull the
building down in order
to rebuild it from the
ground. Yet, no-one
except for the human
right activists minded
that once demolished,
monuments usually lose
their cultural value and
that Department of Culture had issued a permit to perform works
to preserve the cultural
heritage item. A refusal to initiate criminal proceedings on the
grounds of this fact was
ruled illegal.
The situation re-

peats itself. Yet another monument is destroyed presumably by the same people
that have earlier pulled
down the Tanners
stalls. In early March,
at Victory avenue 48,
workers started demounting the house of
pharmacist Nikolay Nemirov built in 1901.
Despite the historic preservation activists having disrupted
the demolition works
several times within
a number of days and
even called the police,
as of today, the workers have actually pulled
the house down to the
ground. The regional
department of culture has confirmed the
houses status as of a
site possessing characteristics of cultural heritage and has brought
an administrative action following the fact
of the buildings demolition.
The historic preservation activists also
appealed to the office

of prosecutor, writes
ostrana.ru.
Vologda has been
awarded the name of a
Cultural capital of Russian North once again.
However, it must measure up to this name
in all aspects and do
everything to be able
to carry this name with
dignity and not just
on paper. Do not sugar-coat the reality. Lets
define problems and
solve them all together.
It is admirable that
young people acquired
such civic courage nowadays, that they fight
for their culture and
defend it and express
their patriotic attitude.
I would like the Governor to lead the movement on Vologda restoration, so that our city
could finally be named
the Cultural capital
of Russian North by
rights. By all accounts,
without his dynamic actions corruption cannot
be defeated and Russia cannot be strengthened.

,
Moscow Courtyard, Vasily Polenov

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. : ,
On the next page: Above Eternal Peace, Isaak Levitan

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1862 .

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Kizhi Pogost.
Constructed in 1862, the two
churches and bell tower are
the only original construc68
tions on Kizhi island.

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KIZHI ISLAND
RESTORATION
FACILITY
Ben Hays
authors images
Location: Kizhi Island, Karjala, Russia.

Why did you select the


theme of preservation
of Russian wooden architecture, what motivated you to take that
theme?
I have always been fascinated with the sublime landscapes of
Northern Russia, in particular, how the landscape had been depicted
in poetry, literature and
landscape painting over
time. I became interested in the profound
relationship between
the landscape and the
architecture of timber
buildings in the area.
I spent a year intensively researching
Russian timber architectural heritage and
visiting architecture in
Karelia, Kizhi, Petrzavodsk, Murmansk. I realised that the cultural
heritage of many timber
buildings was in desperate need of saving

72

in particular areas. My
proposal imagines how
a drastic measure might
be proposed to save
some of this endangered architectural heritage. In it, the project
re-imagines the landscapes around Kizhi Island and attempts to
capture the imaginations of people in Russia
and around the world of
how and why this architectural might be saved.
It is an earnest call for
the protection and celebration of this most
fragile heritage.

This lyrical proposal


is for a museum landscape that will facilitate the restoration and reassembly of
250 wooden Orthodox
churches onto Kizhi Island in Northern Russia. These fragile, desecrated structures
have a spiritual presence that commands respect, however, in the
next 1015 years these
wooden monuments
will almost totally disappear. The churches
were once central to
their communities, just
as the Orthodox faith
was central to the people, they speak of the
inner lives of the people
in this place. This lyrical proposal explores in
depth the changing relationship between the
Russian landscape and
national identity, tracing back the influence
of Romanticism at the
start of the nineteenth

century and looking at


the wide scale impact of
Soviet collectivisation
and de-ruralisation.
This project challenges the programme
of the existing museum on Kizhi Island
and considers a more
ambitious architectural intervention, radically expanding it to include all 250 wooden
churches. I propose a
new restoration facility
and museum to facilitate the dismantling of
the church monuments
from their original location, their transportation to Kizhi via shipping, their restoration
and open-air curation
across the whole island.
The facility will contain
temporary and permanent structures for research, storage, preservation and exhibition of each church that
has been relocated. The
project addresses two

problems: it protects
and restores this fragile
heritage, that today is
on the verge of total extinction, and it dramatically redesigns the visitor experience on the
island.
The intervention
adopts an approach
to the islands landscape: the whole island is treated as a repository of protected
buildings that is constantly transforming,
thus challenging existing notions of preservation and heritage. The
new formation of this
landscape will be the
impetus for the comprehensive study of the
buildings and amassing
data connected to them.
The project is an earnest call for the protection and celebration of
this most fragile part of
the cultural heritage of
Russia.

73

:
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74

On the right:
Ben Hays, Kizhi State Openair Museum Existing Building
arrangement. Scheme from
thesis for his MArch work.

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http://obsheedelo.ru/

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:
Photo by: Oshee Delo

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On the right:
Photo by Obshee Delo project.
Alexander Slepinin near the church of
st. Nicholas (1636) and the bell-tower,
which he began to restore himself alone.
Arkhangelskaya oblast, Onega region,
Vorzogory village.
Alexander, even not being a christian, decided that after his death the bell-tower
would fall the same way as the churches
nearby, and began to restore it to preserve
for the descendants.

111

http://obsheedelo.ru/

http://www.dom-restavros.ru/

http://verenitsa.ru/

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: archmag.
ru@gmail.com.

Obshee Delo

Restavros

Verenitsa

http://obsheedelo.ru/

http://www.dom-restavros.ru/

http://verenitsa.ru/

Volunteer union of young people Restvros was founded


in 1990 by enthusiastic volunteers from the All-Russian Society for Historic Preservation
and Cultural Organization
(VOOPIK) .
We have accumulated a
rich experience in attracting
volunteers all comers, to
take part in simple construction and restoration work in
temples and museums in Moscow, Moscow region and many
other cities, large and small.
Our track record includes labour in Kiev and Belgorod,
Orel and the Kuban; in Belozersk and Kirillov, in Kargopol and the Konevets Island; in the Perm and Nizhny
Novgorod

We restore wooden churches


in the Russian North. We
make projects and participate
in scientific discussions during autumn and winter, and
drink strong tea with rum.
With the coming of spring
warmth we set off to work on
the chapels of Vologda. Then
we go to the Arkhangelsk region with volunteers, when
summer comes where our
churches and our friends are.

Obshee Delo Project. Revival of wooden churches


of the North unites caring people, seeking to preserve the ancient shrines of
Orthodoxy and the monuments of wooden architecture in Arkhangelsk, Vologda
and other regions of the Russian North.
Volunteers of the Obshee Delo clear debris and
remove trash from the temples, conduct emergency and
conservation works, put icons
and invite clergy to perform
divine services. Locals take
are actively involved, and after the departure of volunteers continue to take care of
their shrines.
.
For seven years of existence of the project more
than 130 expeditions were
carried out, during which surveyed about 270 churches and
chapels; in 108 of them emergency and conservation works
were made. The Divine Liturgy has been celebrated in
eleven churches for the first
time since the decades after
their closing.
Hundreds of volunteers
are sent to the North annually. Teachers and students
of Sretensky and St. Nicholas Ugreshskaya seminaries
young people of Optina Monastery Metochion and many
other churches in Moscow
traditionally participate in
the expedition. Coordination
Center for the project is at the
Church of Tikhvin Mother of
God in Alexeyevskoye.

Our three principles are:


1) our movement is secular,
2) our movement is a volunteer, 3) all funds collected go
to the restoration of churches,
none of the participants in
the movement receives any
payment.
We are restoring:
Church of St. Nicholas in
1790 in the village of Gridino
in Belsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Church of Vladimir Icon of
the Mother of God in 1755
in the village of Melandovo
in Kholmogorsky District of
Arkhangelsk Oblast
Church of Elijah the Prophet,
1901 in the village of Nyunezhskaya Shenkursky District
of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Chapel of Smolensk Icon of
the Mother of God, 1875 in
the village of Upper Onega
district of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Chapel of the Holy Spirit,
1901 in the village of Osinovskaya in Shenkursky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Chapel of St. Blasius XVIII
century in the village Nikitinskaya in Vozhegodsky District
of Vologda Oblast

If you can tell us about any


other valuable projects, not
included in this list, please
dont hesitate to email us:
archmag.ru@gmail.com.

114

115

Ruins

Shelters
New forms

Stone

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Wood


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119

SHELTERS FOR THE RUINS


Sergey Kanterin

Preservation or something more

Ruins. In hope of restoration


There are plenty of temples in Russia, which
stay in a semi ruined
condition. More often they are wooden
churches and chapels in the North, and
stone and brick ruins in
the middle zone. Many
people are attracted to
them: photographers,
artists, historians, art
historians and even architects are looking for
the features of authenticity in them, not yet
extinct connection with
the past, with the real
art. They call them heritage. The results of
these searches appear
slowly: exhibitions are
being opened in the cities; archives are being
collected in the internet; some make blogs,
publish articles, researches, reconstructions, etc. This is the
way an important work

120

is held to collect the information about this


wide part of architectural history (circa XVI
c. to the beginning of
XX c.) .
Thus the existence of temples is like
moving from material
to virtual form. It looks
like this transformation
is more important, than
the real state of the
heritage, as the common research and understanding of it happens in the virtual reality. However, it is important to remember
that these ruined temples are in danger of extinction now. These
are the houses of God,
which we must take
care about as the inheritors. They were born
by the Church and the
Russian people as a naturally necessity for the
existence. Only 70 years
of estrangement in XX

century have turned


them into ruins its
time to change that.
Wooden architecture hidden opportunities
Wooden architecture
can help to preserve the
ruins from extinction. It
has many obvious positive qualities. It has always been affordable
to people, as wood is
cheap, easy to process
and there is plenty of
it. It is easily changeable, as the construction
is fast; there is a great
variety of constructive schemes due to
the anisotropic structure of wood. Together,
these qualities allowed
wooden architectural
design to quickly develop the features of
anew style. That is why
nowadays the cultural
revival of folk wooden
architecture can make a
significant contribution

to overcoming the stagnation in our temple architecture.


One more interesting feature of wooden
architecture is its
spontaneity. Wooden
churches have often preceded the stone
ones, and appeared just
after the establishment
of a new settlement.
They were built in large
numbers, mostly without any specific church
or state program, just
for the natural desire of
the people. It is this act
of the popular will that
is now able to save and
restore the remaining
ruined temples. After
all, if you think about
it, what is the point of
the state restoration
of monuments, if people living nearby do not
take live participation
in it? Working together
will be a much greater
benefit for them. For example, the volunteer

project Obshee Delo,


which involves locals
in the work, is getting
more and more popular.
Overall, a small part of
rural churches little by
little are restored across
the country, and in my
opinion, it is always accompanied by the general development of the
town or village. Restoration a local church often becomes a trigger
for this development.
Unfortunately, there is
lack of good projects.
Architects should pay
attention to this fertile
area of creativity. Under
the influence of specific
conditions, they can
find new and interesting solutions of temples
together with the community.

Ruins + shelters = new


forms
Saving the ruins may
not only be a matter of
preservation, but also
a search for new stylistic qualities. In the
first place, we must isolate them from the rain
to protect the ruins and
dilapidated temples
from further destruction that is, roughly
speaking, make a roof,
or shelter. It is already
possible to make prayers
and a small number of
services under it. The
shape of this cover, the
pattern and texture of
the walls, the support
system is a sufficient
scope for creativity. In
the future, the shelter can be transformed
into a complete temple.
The wooden parts will
be beautifully combined
with the old masonry
or framework. As a result, wooden elements
can fully compensate

for missing parts or create new ones. It is important that the whole
process of recovery cannot be reduced to the
reconstruction, but it
can be a new project
based on the existing
ruins. Wooden temple
is easier and cheaper to
look for features of the
new style, rather than a
stone one (although tectonics certainly different and they cannot be
compared). Its structure
can be compared to a
full-sized architectural
model. Finally, this approach can solve a set of
tasks: the ruined temples are saved, the locals and architects get
the experience of real
cooperation, the temples are slowly restored
and start to operate in
the original place, and a
search for the new style
of church design becomes possible.

121

WOODEN ARCHITECTURE AT RISK


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, The New York Times.

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richarddavies.co.uk/.
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WOODEN ARCHITECTURE AT RISK


Why Russian churches?
When I was young, my mum bought a record of Mendelssohns violin concerto played by Jascha Heifetz. On the flip side was a concerto by Prokofiev. I was head banging to Prokofiev while my friends
were head banging to the Rolling Stones from The New York Times interview with Richard Davies.

Wooden Architecture at Risk (WAaR) is a UK


based charity set up by people who have seen at
first hand the unique and beautiful wooden buildings and churches in the far north of European
Russia and who are moved by the distressed and
wretched state of many of these beautiful structures.
How can a charity based in the UK, possibly
help?
The answer is: strictly in partnership with local
Russians. Many of the localities are poor, but this
does not mean that the people are indifferent to
their heritage. On the contrary, given the chance
to show that they care, many local volunteers have
come forward, carpenters, builders, smallholders,
foresters, craftsmen and others, who are prepared
to contribute their time and skills. It is in these
places that WAaR is helping.
WAaRs first projects are:
1. Bells for Turchasovo
To commission and install a set of 5 bells, from
the famous Shuvalov bell foundry at Tutaev on the
Volga, for the wooden bell tower at Turchasovo, on
the river Onega, in Archangel region. Alexei Sioutine, a university teacher, spent his childhood holidays in Turchasovo, the village of his mothers
birth. He now returns every summer, to spend time
with local people and professional carpenters, conserving the beautiful Church of the Transfiguration
(1786) and its bell tower (1793).
2. Support the work of Father Alexei at
Vorzagory
To restore the historic troinik, winter church,
summer church and bell tower, in the village of
Vorzagory. Vorzagory is perched on a high sandy
promontory overlooking the White Sea. Father
Alexei, a priest from Moscow, and his family, come

here every summer. Over many years he has helped


the local people restore the Church of St Nicholas
(1636) and the 18th century bell tower. The church
has now been re-consecrated and liturgies are held.
The village council recently returned to the parish
the winter church, the Church of the Presentation
of the Virgin (1793). Our plan is to help Fr Alexei
and his professional restorers return this building
to its former glory. In past times a village troinik
was a common sight in the Russian North but now
less than a handful remain this is a very rare
survivor.
WAaR currently has three trustees.
Richard Davies (photographer and publisher)
Chairman of WAaR. For over 10 years Richard has
travelled extensively in the north of Russia. His
book, with Matilda Moreton, Wooden Churches
Travelling in the Russian North was published in
2012
Daryl Ann Hardman (Russian translator and
charity director) Secretary of WAaR. Daryl Ann
has been travelling to Russia and other former Soviet Union countries for 45 years. She has been
on the board of several charities working in those
countries. She first visited the Russian north in
2002 and has made numerous trips since.
Cathy Giangrande (conservator and fundraiser)
Cathy is a trustee of WAaR. For over 15 years she
has been raising funds to restore and preserve heritage sites worldwide, including palaces in Russia.
Passionate about Russias extraordinary cultural
heritage she is the author of, Saint Petersburg: Museums, Palaces and Historic Collections.

123

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Wooden Architecture at Risk
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Web: info@therussianark.org.uk
Email: www.therussianark.org.uk
?
1) The Russian Ark
Project.
2)
.

,
Illustrated Elevation of the Church of St. Peter and Paul

125

THE RUSSIAN ARK

The Russian Ark Project is intended to celebrate the shared


values of design, craftsmanship
and community in Russia and
Great Britain. We plan to build
one of the most evocative symbols of Russian culture, a traditional wooden church.
These ancient log buildings
reflect the ingenuity of the Russian people over the centuries.
These constructions overlaid
with decorative details shingled onion domes, axe carved
crosses and delicate tracery reflect a profound and enduring
sense of fantasy.
Project aims
1. To increase the awareness and
enjoyment of traditional Russian culture through direct contact with the skills and techniques employed in the construction and conservation of wooden
architecture.
2. To enable the sharing of skills
between craftsmen in Russia and
the UK, and to give students of
architecture the opportunity to
learn a less familiar architectural
language.
3. To present this unique experience to a diverse audience
young and old.

126

Project information
The church will be built by a mix
of architectural students and
professional carpenters here in
the UK, in collaboration with
master craftsmen from the Russian north.
These traditional Russian
skills, almost lost during Soviet
times, have been revived to restore those fragile wooden structures that survive. The project
intends to encourage links between individuals and organisations in Russia and the UK
in support of that work. The
churches are of a simple construction. Logs are laid one on
top of the other and interlocked
at the corners without the use
of nails or fixings. This means
that once the church has been
built and enjoyed in one location it can be taken down and reassembled elsewhere in the UK.
The process of building, disassembling and re-assembling the
church will be very much part of
the experience.
Our aim is to establish a direct link with the past by reconstructing a church lost to history.
The church of St. Peter and Paul
in Plyos was destroyed by fire
in 1903 but more significantly it
was the inspiration for Isaak Lev-

itans extraordinary painting


Above Eternal Peace. Painted in
1894, it now hangs in the Tretyakov gallery in Moscow.
The Russian Ark Project
is collaboration of people from
a wide range of backgrounds
who have seen at first hand the
unique and beautiful wooden
buildings and churches in the
far north of European Russia and
who are moved by the distressed
and wretched state of many of
these beautiful structures.
Disastrous historical events
that led to state atheism and a
complete disregard for the traditions and heritage of Russias northern towns and villages
have resulted in the loss of many
of these exquisite examples of
wooden architecture. Those that
remain are scattered over thousands of miles of the north in a
landscape of forests, lakes and
majestic rivers they are drifting into decay and oblivion.
The Russian Ark Project is
working with wooden Architecture at Risk (WAaR), a charity
that seeks to raise awareness in
partnership with local Russians.
Many of the localities are poor,
but the people are not indifferent to their heritage. On the contrary, given the chance to show

that they care, many local volunteers have come forward, carpenters, builders, smallholders,
foresters, craftsmen and others,
who are prepared to contribute
their time and skills.
Please visit our website or
email us:
Web: info@therussianark.org.uk
Email: www.therussianark.org.uk
HOW CAN YOU HELP?
1) By making a donation to The
Russian Ark Project
2) Can you put us in touch with
others who may be interested in
helping or supporting us?

127

128

129

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RW
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: NAMELESS Architecture

RW Concrete Church
Place: Seoul, South Korea
Architects: NAMELESS Architecture

Photoes by NAMELESS Architecture

130

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Community Church
Place: Hordaland, Norway
Architects: Reiulf Ramstad Arkitekter


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Images by RRA and Hundven-Clements Photography

131

Photoes by Shigeru Ban Architects


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Cardboard Cathedral
Place: Christchurch City, New Zealand
Architects: Shigeru Ban

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100Walls Church
Place: Sebu, Philippines
Architects: New York architects CAZA

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133

Photoes by Moreno Maggi


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Foligno Church
Place: Italy, Foligno
Architects: Reiulf Ramstad Arkitekter


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Bergkapelle ( )
: Cukrowicz Nachbaur
Architekten ZT GMBH
: Alpe Vordere Niedere Andelsbuch,
Austria
: Andreas Cukrowicz, Helmut
Dringer, Hanspeter Schiess

On the right:
Bergkapelle
Architect: Cukrowicz Nachbaur
Architekten ZT GMBH
Place: Alpe Vordere Niedere Andelsbuch,
Austria
Photo: Andreas Cukrowicz, Helmut
Dringer, Hanspeter Schiess
http://www.cn-architekten.at

136

137

MODERN
CHURCH
DESIGN
Nikolay Vasnetsov

What is a church, and


what is a temple?
A temple is an architectural structure, designed for performing divine services and
religious ceremonies.
There are pagan, Jewish, Muslim, Christian temples. In Christianity, a temple is also
called a church. The
word church is a hose of
God in Greek. The main
feature of Christian
churches is the presence of the altar, where
there is an altar with
embedded antimins
a cover with relics of
the saints, which allows for a complete
cycle of divine services. Churches can
be cathedral. A cathedral is a main church,
where there is episcopal cathedra (abishops throne), and where
usually serves a bishop.
Episcopal chair actually
represents a single stair
elevation, located in the
cathedral of the temple where the worshipers pray.

138

New churches
Some say, that many
new churches are different from the older
ones not the best way.
Church architecture requires special training. Before designing
a church, it is necessary to understand the
structure of church, its
historical, hierarchical, symbolical contents.
Creativity, worked out
through special cases
when a man is touching the spiritual world,
when image of a church
has been revealed to
him not in sensual
and material, but in
spiritual component.
Such spiritual enlightenments laid in the basis for building church
architecture. Some kind
of a building norms and
rules for churches were
born. Spiritual norms
and rules have been interwoven with material life in ancient times.
For example, a raised
threshold in the house
and low doors opening

inwards. On one hand


a possibility to open
the door swept with
snow, more wind isolation, and entrance with
a bow to an icon is provided on to provide input with a bow icon on
the other hand. A canon
also includes the contents of ecclesiastical
order and, remains constant in the present as a
spiritual core.
Symbolic system of
the temple a constant canonical basis
Cross temples were created in Byzantine Empire after it adopted
Christianity in the 4th
century. This type of
temples reflected an image of the Holy Catholic
Apostolic Church.
A dome of a
church a head on a
cylindrical base (neck,
drum) symbolizes the
Old Testament Church,
which consists of the
upper Angelic rank,
and the lower the
Prophets and Fathers.
Below there is a quad-

rangle, symbolizing the


New Testament Church.
Inside the temple, from
the quadrangle to the
pillars structural transitions so called sails
come down, which have
the Evangelists depicted on them. The
sails are put on four columns, which symbolize the four Gospels, the
foundations of interpretation of Christianity.
The inner part of the
church quadrangle is
covered with paintings
of evangelical or Theotokos plots arranged
in chronological order
by the movement of the
sun. Under these plots
the pillars of the church
are depicted the celebrated honored saints.
The lower row of icon
paintings is towels
kneeling space for parishioners of the church,
a symbol of repentance
for people living in this
world. Thus, the forthcoming eternal life is
intertwined to the present in the construction
of the temple, the whole


: ,
:

Brother Klaus Field Chapel


Place: Mechernich, Germany
Architects: Peter Zumthor

Photo by Pietro Savorelli

139

church is built up in a
conciliar hierarchical,
it reflects the image of
the Triumphant Church
(heavenly) and Militant
Church (ofthe earth
of the people living on
Earth). The plan of the
church is square it
symbolizes the Heavenly City, the humans
arms of salvation the
cross. On the east side
there is a three-part
rounded apse, the place
for the altar a symbol of heaven on earth
and the presence of the
Holy Trinity. Gates are
put on three sides of
the church, just by the
square plan as a symbol of grace of the Holy
Trinity distribution in
the earthly world. The
central entrance (the
western) symbolizes the
Royal way the sacrifice for the humanity on one hand, and a
way for salvation on the
other. The crossing of
the Royal way (central
nave) and the axis of
entrances from north to
south (transept) forms

the area to which the


ambo is attached. There
the Holy Communion and preaching is
held. An architectural
construction called
the sky with dome
and cross is arranged
over this place. The altar is a sacred place, a
prototype of heaven on
earth. Usually a cross or
a head with a cross is
put over the brick vault,
which covers the altar.
Altar has three exits to
the main volume of the
church: the central
the royal Gates, the
north one the sacrificial Gates, and the
south one is the deacon Gates. Beautifully
painted iconostasis of
the altar is oriented to
the world in the direction of the western part
of the temple.
Lightning
The lightning of a
church can be external,
from the street, and inner from the candles. The central part
of the temple is light-

ened by the windows


in the main cylinder
drum. The inner lightning from the lamps
and candles highlights
the icons.
Floors
Floor is a symbol of
the earth here, from
which a man should
rise to heaven. This
is why floors have not
been filled with ornaments, detracting from
the meaning of priest.
A clear reminder of the
crosses on the floor is
not permissible, because the cross should
not be derided.
On the natural materials in the church
The question on
the materials in the
church is not easy.
Wood, stone, brick, lime,
sand and metal is used
since ancient times. Uncomfortable climatic
balance, inability scriptures frescoes on wet
technique, the modified
properties of acoustics,
etc. occurs because of
the concrete. The use of

cement is also undesirable due to its incompatibility in abutment with


mortar and red brick,
and because of the inpossibility of raw frescoes application.
Non-humidified
vault is more resistant
to temperature changes,
withstands the wandering dew point. The usage of modern materials on churches is often
controversial, because
of their interaction with
the traditional building
materials. But sometimes their use may offer benefits; this requires a careful scientific approach.


: ,
:

140

Church of the Light


Place: Ibaraki, Japan
Architects: Tadao Ando

Photo by Bergmann (from Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0)

141

142

143

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: Bernardo Bader Architecten
: Krumbach, Austria
Kapelle Salgenreute
Architect: Bernardo Bader Architecten
Place: Krumbach, Austria
http://www.bernardobader.com/en/projekt/kapelle-salgenreute-2

144



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: Andreas Cukrowicz, Helmut Dringer, Hanspeter Schiess
Bergkapelle
Architect: Cukrowicz Nachbaur Architekten ZT GMBH
Place: Alpe Vordere Niedere Andelsbuch, Austria
Photo: Andreas Cukrowicz, Helmut Dringer, Hanspeter Schiess
http://www.cn-architekten.at

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/ Architect: Sanaksenaho Architects ltd. /
Matti Sanaksenaho, Pirjo Sanaksenaho
/ Place: Seiskarinkatu 35, Turku, Finland
http://www.kolumbus.fi/sanaksenaho/

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/ Architect: Sanaksenaho Architects ltd. / Matti Sanaksenaho,
Pirjo Sanaksenaho
/ Place: Seiskarinkatu 35, Turku, Finland
http://www.kolumbus.fi/sanaksenaho/

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St Henrys Ecumenical Art Chapel
/ Architect: Sanaksenaho Architects ltd. /
Matti Sanaksenaho, Pirjo Sanaksenaho
/ Place: Seiskarinkatu 35, Turku, Finland
http://www.kolumbus.fi/sanaksenaho/

152

153

CHAPEL
Nikolay Vasnetsov

The role of the chapel


In the chapel, except for private
prayers, the preparation of believers for the Divine Liturgy
takes place. The Psalter, canons, hymns, hours and service of
the day are read without a priest.
Priest can perform the sacrament
of baptism, confession, Extreme
Unction, blessing of the waters,
perform the funeral and memorial services in the chapel.
From the history of chapel and
its analogues
The history of chapels and their
analogues begins in ancient
times, when the first Christians
erected monuments over the entrances to the underground cemeteries and over the underground
churches. These gravestone
monuments were the first chapels; they are designated places of
worship over graves of the martyrs. Small forms like canopy ciborium have developed from
them.
Sen (Russian) or ciborium
(Greek) is a small open chapel-like construction without
walls. It is a canopy over the altar, where the liturgical rite
the consecration of the gifts of
the Holy Spirit is made. A ciborium called Royal, is usually put

154

in altars of large temples. The


cupola of ciborium symbolizes
the glory and grace of God, the
sky over the cross and the place,
where the body of Jesus Christ
was laid. That is why a pigeon
was put inside of the ciborium in
the early Christianity, in which
the Holy Gifts were put.
A Holubets (Russian, a
dove) is a gable coated frame
canopy over the grave covered
with aspen a small architectural form, like a mini-chapel,
which it is impossible to get into.
A covering ridge beam in Holubets symbolizes the dove, which
represents the grace of the Holy
Spirit rested over the burial.
Hence the name.
During the period when the
priesthood was not numerous,
and temples were mostly put in
prince residences, chapels were
important organizing centers in
the development of Christianity.
Located in the settlements, far
from the rare operating temples,
they were the reference points
for missionary priests.
In Russia, the image of
churches and chapels developed
on the basis of Byzantine architecture in conjunction with the
construction of the ancient culture of the Slavs, with wooden
architecture. After the Baptism
of Russia, temples were arranged
in Byzantine style, stately, A A
cross-in-square, they decorated
the epic country. As the Christianity evolved, newly baptized
villagers could not immediately
build expensive stone church
buildings, requiring not only
special handicraft skills, but also
its long-term study. Slavs began to build wooden religious

buildings with their own craft


and carpentry techniques. This
explains the transition to the
stone-brick construction of temples from the Byzantine source
to the traditional Russian architecture to the XVI century. Construction defines the architectural image of a church without
frills, with symbolic decoration.
Externally, like dresses, architectural styles has changed,
rich dcor and unconstructive,
often deprived of church meaning: Baroque, Classicism, Modernism et al., but the internal
church Orthodoxy discipline or
mood does not allow to change
the symbolic order, the order of
form creation and the church
design canon has been mainly
preserved.
On the symbolic, constructive,
and volume epression of the
chapel
Traditionally, a chapel, as well
as the temple during construction, is oriented to the sunrise,
symbolizing the Second Coming of Christ. In contrast to the
temple, in chapel there is no altar part because the chapel was
not created for the full range of
daily worship and liturgy, which
is takes place every Sunday in
the church on the patristic tradition, in the chapel it is admissible only if clearly needed
and in the presence of specially
brought antimins. We should
pay attention to the concept of
a temple-chapel. In fact, these
are churches with altars, but of
a very small size, comparable to
the chapel, in which the liturgical service is very rare, so they
are often used as chapels. In the

traditional orientation of the


chapel, its eastern wall from the
inside is the basis of the iconostasis. The chapel is crowned or
with one cross, or may be single-domed, double-domed and
multi-domed. The constructive
solution of chapel can be kletskaya (rectangular), domed,
hipped, and tiered, fiery.
The plan of a chapel can
be circular, square, rectangular, cross-like, octagonal, or polyhedral.
Dimensional, spatial and color
variety of chapels
In the history of chapels and in
modern practice two main typological moments can be seen.
One is that chapels can appear
spontaneously in a sheltered
space, where it is convenient for
a person to stand in prayer. It
can be a cave or any other natural cover.
Chapels can be divided in
two types: open like a canopy
and closed, like a chapel with
walls. Open chapel suits for conciliar prayers of many people,
theres plenty of light here. In
the closed type chapel there is
little light, but it suits more for
the renunciation person from the
outside world.
The purpose of the chapel
while maintaining its spiritual
essence is diverse. In our reality, the tradition of putting chapels in urban areas, in rural areas,
on the roads, over the springs, in
the villages and cemeteries is revived. The tradition of putting
memorial chapels above the altars of former churches, and in
honor of the historic and religious events has been preserved.

Also, there are house chapels,


hospital, cave, transport and mobile chapels, ship chapels, chapels at schools, in the army, in
prisons, etc. Generally accepted
structural building materials for
the execution of the chapels in
the tradition of Russian church
architecture are wood, brick,
stone, iron, copper, lead. In ancient times tissue tent chapels
during military campaigns and
in the field of military camps
were used. The color of the
chapel depends on the building
material, in the case of its dyeing,
of its symbolic dedication. The
church constitution and church
tradition specify the colors that
are used throughout the year
in the liturgy. Yellow and gold
colour means the Divine Glory,
white means the spiritual purity
and the Transfiguration, green is
a colour of eternal life, the Trinity and saints, red is the colour of
the Easter and martyrs, silver is
the colour of purity and repentance, and the blue is the colour
of the abstinence and the Holy
Cross holidays.

ennobles the space. It is a banner, a symbol of the spiritual being, which heads the mental and
physical strength.
Chapel was a link of the
church space in older times, of
the space, which began in the
roadside crosses, in kiot (Russian, icon case) pillars, and then
was marked by chapels, churches,
monasteries, and completed in
the ensemble of the city. In the
modified, sometimes depersonalized residential environment it
serves as a spiritual enzyme, saturating, creating space of high
spiritual state of a person.

Construction of chapels in the


modern urban space
The new image of the chapel can
be founded on the regional architectural traditions based on
centuries-old traditions of the
Orthodox Church Byzantine,
Kiev, Moscow, Northern Russian
and others.
The image of a chapel can
help to replenish the lost grace,
it is essential in the existing
world. Traditional chapel as well
as a temple, set in a complex urban situation among rapid highways and towering skyscrapers,

155

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161

OIKONOMIA
Eugene Sablina
authors images

Oikonomia (also spelled oikonomeia,


economia or economy) literally means
household management, the law of the
house, or house building, and refers primarily to two related concepts in the Orthodox Church the divine plan for mans salvation and the specific episcopal application
of the canons in the life of the Church. The
latter usage is a derivation of the former.
Oikonomia is one of two ways of observing the Canons of the Church, the
other is Akriveia or strict adherence (precision, exactness). Whereas the application of
Oikonomia is generally regarded as being a
more flexible application or interpretation
of the Canons, the application of Akriveia is
regarded as being a more precise and strict
one. Pastoral Discretion is of key importance in either application.
http://orthodoxwiki.org/Oikonomia

162

When we began studying childrens architectural environment,


the first question we asked ourselves was how childhood is associated with architecture?
Even a superficial look
brings the thought that the formation of a human is directly associated with progressive growth
at home. For example, any construction site needs an architectural supervision. And what
about a child? But what about
the person, what a child can do
without leadership? It is said:
Except the Lord build the house,
they labour in vain that build it:
except the Lord keep the city, the
watchman waketh but in vain,
(Psalm 127:1).Which house is
that? It is the house of the soul,
the inner house. A man is a temple of the living God (for ye are
the temple of the living God, 2
Corinthians, chapter 6:16). It is
obvious, that the construction of
such importance cannot do without a leader, without the One,
Whose name should be put as the
cornerstone, in the firm basement of the House.
The relationship between
internal and external seems obvious, but how to project the laws
of developing of the little man on
the real architecture?
Pehaps we should use a
method of experimental observation (like how to choose the
perfect profile of an airplane
wing), which is taken as a basis
for actually existing laws in nature. And then here is the answer to the question on children
architectural environment: I
think I would design that way.
First walk on a salty agile sea
shore. Imagined that the frost

has struck. So suddenly, that I


had found the ice of the frozen
salty coastal waves in my hands.
ThenI would have looked into
it. And then would have found
an endless movement in one frozen cubic meter. This is how the
intention becomes a form. The
eternal mystery.
So whether I would have
found air bubbles there, which
hadnt got to the top, or a web
of dandelion-like seaweed, or a
golden caviar, or a shell of a reckless cancer all that would have
been the life of the sea, which I
would have got so suddenly and
barbarically well. And if I could,
I would have created a plant of
good thoughts. I would have
pressed pause in the moment,
when some children would have
been laughing, others would
hav been willing someting very
much, and some being still, some
just having intention for someting, and others sacrificing. By
the way, it would have been on
a cornflower meadow. All the
most ridiculous things are happen there. For example, the way I
rake up in one sack the air vibrations of laughter, the golden aspiration and the invaluable sacrifice. They take form in the moment I notice them. They are my
building materials. And so, all of
a sudden, there was a stagnation
of thought, and if, in the end, if
this crystallization could happen
to the sea, why could it not happen to the childrens glee? And
here I got the only natural childrens habitat
Here reader has the right
to argue that it is not a methodology, but metaphysics. And he
will be right. Until we ask him

about the most uncertain matter about the matter of space


(asit is the category of environment, children environment in
particular), which is fully operated by the architect. Space is
what he lives with. It is his daily
bread. But what is it? Maybe it is
a light for an architect. What is
it for a child? And where it originates in this case?
The space was created by
the Word: In the beginning God
created the heaven and the earth.
And the earth was without
form, and void; and darkness was
upon the face of the deep. And
the Spirit of God moved upon
the face of the waters. (Genesis 1:1,2)
Moving, warming the abyss
from which blooms Universe
with its warmth. The uterine
darkness, shining colours, blinds
more than physical light (and
here there is more space than the
light). A person (achild) comes
to the world from this darkness. From mothers womb. It is
a lightless space. A light not as a
physical quantity. The space is a
grace. It is an action of the Holy
Spirit, of Lords personality.
But how to describe the
grace?
There is an unwritten saying of Jesus Christ an agrafa:
He who is near me is near the
fire; he who is far from me, is far
from the kingdom.
Here is the border near the
infinite flame of God, where a
person stands and trembles before His glory. And is afraid of
losing him, and is afraid that
this glory would scorch and burn
him father Daniil Sysoev.
And here it is the only

163

thing, in fact, that teaches people how to live: The Fire of the
Holy Spirit. Scorching and burning alive those who hate God,
hate good and truth, and washing, softly cleansing and treating
those who trembles God and pursue him with all their being.
It is no coincidence that this
very strong image is present in
all children Russian folk tales
(the fire burning and healing).
Only because it is real.
And now, when it is clear
that any creation, any process of creation (whether material or spiritual) is carried out by
the action of grace, we understand that there is one Archi-

164

tect and Inspirer of this amazing building: the Lord. In other


words, the problem of projecting
the inner life on real architecture is reduced to one: how much
architect is ready to forget himself for the sake of Truth, how
much he is ready to flat out, become a thin, hard as a diamond,
transparent as a dew, a lense, so
that the Unfading Light of Christ
could light all the created things
in the material world, lighteth
every man that cometh into the
world (John, 1:9).
Then how a space created
this way would affect the unique
personality of a little man? Can
it make him search for the Truth,

can it light his heart with a thirst


for Him. No. Because the gift of
free will is a great gift. But it can
as well tease, stir up, affecting
the heart and mental strength
through the external senses, and
gently give a choice. What is that
choice for? In order the child
is not deprived of the sweetest
thing on earth the search for
Truth, thirst for Truth. In other
words, of the communion with
God.
And if you design this way,
the incomprehensible greatness
of poverty will form the space,
so there is no room in the whole
universe left for indifference.

165

166

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169

ARCHITECTURE &
ORTHODOXY
Ekaterina Chistova

While working on my diploma, I


faced an interesting theme of Orthodox traditions in architecture
and modernity.
The search in the architectural practice is oriented mostly
at everyday life and consumption, while the spiritual is mentioned seldom, and usually based
on classical forms. ThoughI was
looking for an answer for this
question, I wasnt able to find
one, on which I could stop, and
start using. So this question is
still open for me.
The world has two origins:
they are the Divine one and a
human one. Nature is a Divine
manifestation, and architecture as a manifestation of human spirit. What is it the orthodox (religious) architecture?
What forms it, what are its aims?
Aims: to accept a person for
a meeting with God, to help a
person to feel with divine spirit
through the visible images.
Canonical forms are based
on the mentality of the person,
which forms certain geometry
Forms, understood by man, human-friendly, organically derived from his feel of himself
in space: a line, a square, a circle, an arc, a vault, etc Earthly
in man based on the square, and

170

the divine strives to the vault


(Athorough development of
the theme causes huge interest
in the writings of teachers and
other architectural specialists.)
But architecture is not only
the erected walls. They must be
filled with spirit, and then the
space will come alive and become the Temple
A temple today is an island,
taken out of time, it has a print
of the epochs long gone, when
mens Spirit in and prayer were
closest to God, His vision and
understanding.
The orthodox architecture
and culture, as we see it nowadays has been forming during
many centuries, under the influence of different cultural environments. Coming out of the catacombs, the Christianity of the
first centuries has started the
process of creation of architectural forms, needed for the orthodox parish. Hereinafter this
goes through the centuries, absorbing the Byzantine history,
echoes of European forms and
blooms on Russian soil. Orthodoxy comes to us with a basic set
of concepts and canonical forms,
while there is whereas here there
are at least a thorough system of
values and culture of the pagan

worldview. Christianity received


by Slavs doesnt cross out the established rhythms of life and
cultural patterns. They reached
us in the archetypal forms and
mostly live in folk art museums.
But none of those systems can be
considered as a code, mainly,
the interest and complexity is
contained on the fact that our
culture carries both of them and
weaves them in its folk art.
The first monasteries arise
in the 4th5th centuries AC. The
beginnings of monastic life can
be traced back as early as of the
first Christian communities.
Christians are dispersed around
the world, but at the same time
continue to carry the flame of
faith, warming the hearts of the
newly coming. When the persecution subsided, and peace and
life of Christianity could be arranged freely, and the apostolic
age went further into the past, a
need to go back to the apostolic
condition and life rose in the
hearts of many people, and that
was the beginning of the development of monastic life. Its essence is that a need for catholicity, for brotherhood, for a common purpose and meaning for
the Lord Jesus Christ emerges
in the hearts of believers.

Visiting ancient monasteries, plunging into their life and


experience from the pages of history, we can trace a certain phenomenon monasteries grow
in the bosom of wild nature.
Nature nurtures, inspires
and creates. Nature is the best
teacher of perfection. It helps to
find yourself, to understand your
soul, your weaknesses and impulses. The Lord Himself walked
away from the people, society,
urban bustle, to pray in the desert, before significant events
of His earthly journey. When a
man is left alone with nature,
everything falls into place in
front of him. This is the only way
we can ourselves feel, understand which place we occupy in
the world. Who is the man next
to power, infinite depth of nature and its continually creative
force? These thoughts frighten
and touch, open the defenselessness and security of man at the
same time.
Observing the work of nature is significant in many cultures, including Christianity.
That is why I see the need to reflect the natural beginning in the
architecture of a monastery. This
should be a place of solitude and
unity at the same time. A place

of understanding of the nature


and the Spirit, of a prayerful contemplation and silence in man.
There the creative beginning
of man and nature should come
into contact.
Also monastic and spiritual
life opens a new sense of perception of time and space. A special feeling of time, of the past,
the present and the future goes
through the whole history of
Christianity with a single thread.
It has no end or beginning. It
lives from the Creation. This can
be felt in monasteries, in solitude and heavenly-like life of
monastery. In view of such feelings, the concepts of traditional
and modern architectural
forms are irrelevant. An ideal architectural building of the monastery if it feels like the monastery is pulled from Eternity
and brought to us for inspiration and desire for eternal life.
Yet it lives and grows in
the city and along with it, which
leaves its mark. Interyard forms
are adjusted by the geometry of the temple landmarks and
the exterior line, coming on city
streets, responds to the urban
architectural rhythms by the
shape of the roof and with the
regular grid of window openings.

This search influenced


my design work, but the result
seemed to me dry and deprived
of fullness (namely architectural,
interior part of it). And here it
became obvious to me that no
matter how precise and minimalist the architecture is, it is not
enough to be classified as art
And here, in my opinion, for the
newly erected walls (even if only
virtually built in project work),
is where the most interesting
part begins. The new worlds are
opened here, and anything that
fills the mans soul, what it aspires for, his relations with God
and the inspiration that he gets
from the Creator is reflected in
his work.
If you recall the historical
context outlined above, and accept the modern criteria of architectural forms, at the junction of
the semantic context and shaping systems, then filling of architectural forms with the living images of Russian contemporary Orthodox reality seems to
me the most interesting creative
process.

171

172

173

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174

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175

176

177

VALAAM
Anna Bazilevich
authors photoes

Valaam stayed on its granite, on


the islands, in the woods, in the
straits; with its bells, with its hermitages, with granite crosses on
the forest roads, with the great silence in the calm, with the rumble
of the forest and expanse in storms,
with labour for the Lord, in the
Name. Like St. Athos Valaam
shines today.
Athos is in the south, Valaam
is in the north. In the twilight of
our time, in the coming night of
the world we need lighthouses.
Ivan Shmelev, Old Valaam,
1935.

178

Its not the first time Im going there, I know, theyre waiting. Waits our workhouse with a
well in the yard, with horses and
a creaking wooden stairs, the
small light monastery cell with
a window to the floor, the refectory with hot leavened bread
All that seems so simple because
of the immeasurable purity, impossible depth and beauty.
Im going for the help, for
the consolation, going for all
scale and rust to be taken away
from my heart with a kind and
steady hand. And in the same
time Im afraid. Maybe it
wont let all of a sudden? Maybe
it wont happen? MaybeIm not
worthy?
It let, it happened. Tiny blue
Saint Nicholas, rocking on the
treacherous and grey steel waves
of Lake Ladoga, came in the calm
monastery cove and moored at
the wooden.
The domes of the renewed
of Holy Transfiguration Cathedral shone with gentle azure.
Now the scaffolding has been
taken away. Go upwards, by the
Favorsky stairs, even higher

leaving the white building of the


hotel to the right and grey Znamenskaya chapel, further, to the
very heart of the island to worship saint Sergius and Herman.
In my heart there is calm, quiet
joy. Im at home now.
How can a story, an essay, a
book, contain everything that
had filled my heart during the
time, spent on the island? I want
to give away, to present this part
of myself, to share this joy with
everyone, multiplying it; but
words are not enough, thoughts
are getting lost, memories are
capturing me. Not able to share
my own ones Ill tell you about
the magnificent Holy Transfiguration Cathedral, one of the major shrines of Valaam, which was
built during the hegumen Jonathan (Dmitriev). The project was
made by the diocesan architects
G.Karpov and A.Silin, and the
young Synod architect, academician N.Prokofyev.
The foundation stone was
laid on the 30th of June 1887.
Old bricks from former cathedral and new bricks, made on the
two Valaam brick factories were

used for the construction. Granite was quarried on the islands


of St. Sergiy (Puutsaari grey)
and St. Herman (Suskujansaari
red and black). A two-storey cathedral, 43 meters height with a
72-meter bell tower on the west
side combines the features of
both the Byzantine and Russian
style. Traditional five-domed
church, with helmet domes and
a hipped bell tower, with brick
tracery on the walls The walls
were painted by father Luca
(Bogdanov), who led the monastery school of drawing and painting at the time, with monks and
novices. Father Alipio (Konstantinov), who studied in the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts with
the blessing of Abbot, supervised
icon painting. The abbot Gavriil
(Gavrilov, 18481910) has completed finishing of the cathedral,
and personally wrote the images
of cherubs. Grand Duke Vladimir
Alexandrovich participated in
laying of the foundation stone of
the lower (ofSt. Sergiy and Herman, 1892) and upper (ofthe
Transfiguration, 1896) churches.
I close my eyes and remem-

ber: evening, the upper church,


filled with unearthly, incredible singing, iconostasis glowing with warm gold, tension
of hearts connected together,
merged in supplication, thanksgiving, hope. High soaring dome
of the cathedral, strict faces on
the walls, kind, simple and complicated faces around. And almost September wind behind
the tall windows drives the lead
waves on Lake Ladoga. The lake
is rough. Valaam does not let
me to the mainland, holds in his
arms. A goodbye fill happen tomorrow, for another year. Difficult, sad parting will disturb my
heart for a long time with rolling
and peals.
This will be tomorrow, but
for now: O Gentle Light of the
holy glory of the immortal, heavenly, holy, blessed Father, O Jesus
Christ

179

, :
Valaam, photo by Anna Bazilevitch

180

181

182

183

:


, 16 .
On the right:
Church of the Ascension of
Christ Starovoznesensky
nunnery, 16 century.

184

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187

, , 13 .
:
Pskov, St. John the Baptist Cathedral of the former
St. Johns nunnery in Zaveliche, 13th century
photo by Jennet Shedrina

188

189

, 3, :
Pskov, Temple 3, photo by Jennet Shedrina

190

191

, ( ) - , 14 .
:
Pskov, Church of the Ascension of Christ (Novoye Voznesenye) of Novo-Voznesensky on Polonische Nunnery, 14th cent.
photo by Jennet Shedrina

192

, , 16 . .
:
Pskov, Church of St. Sergius of Radonezh the Wonderworker from Zaluzha, 16th cent. Beheaded.
photo by Jennet Shedrina

193

THE SKY IS NEVER BRIGHT HERE


Jennette Shchedrina
authors photoes

The sky is never bright here. Velikaya (Rus., Great transl.)


River is slowly pulling its waters to the north into the Pskovskoye Lake. Reflections of
Pskov Kremlin, with strict squat
walls, old timbered houses,
abandoned factories, tasteless
buildings and ancient monasteries drown in it. Everything here
is reminiscent of that Pskov region is the western borders of our
Motherland. Ancient architecture and nature evoke thoughts
of Lithuania and Estonia, but
at the same time everything
has the Russian spirit in it,
everything is impregnated with
Russian antiquity.
Pskov is a warrior city.
Pskov region repeatedly defended Russia against the threat
from the west and it is very
clearly expressed in the rigor and
conciseness of architecture. Unusual fate of the city is the reason why the Pskov region has developed its own very special and
independent school of architecture, distinguished among the
rest of ancient Russian architectural schools. Moreover this an-

194

cient vanguard has not lost its


face and after Pskov has joined
the Moscow State. In the XVI
century, when almost complete
uniformity of forms dominated
throughout Russia, Pskov architecture has not lost its originality Pskov continued to build
in its own way. Today Pskov has
buildings originating from XII
century. Many of them were
completed and rebuilt, with
Pskov building everything out
of its local material, limestone
almost completely abandoning
bricks, which very much complicates the work of archaeologists it is much easier to determine the time of construction by
bricks. That is why many monuments of Pskov architecture have
not yet been dated, but the overall picture of the development of
forms is not yet clear. But this
does not take away the beauty
and grandeur which Pskov architecture has, and many people are
willing to visit Pskov, to feel its
distinctive charm.
Even now Pskov is filled by
many temples and monasteries, though it is on a small part

of what was there by the end of


the XVI century. Pskov was filled
with churches and monasteries
some were constructed according
to the vow, others were churches
of various professional associations (sewing, smithing, etc.) and,
of course, konchanskiye (district) churches. The total number of temples in the city came to
a hundred and fifty. All they like
their belfry were towering over
the whole mass of building. This
dense forest of churches, in the
words of Pole Piotrowski, who
visited Pskov in 1581, produced
a strongest impression on everybody.
Over time, these temples
were completed, rebuilt, demolished, combined, etc., so only a
few have survived, but whats
left is enough to say that Pskov
has three churches per square
meter. They are scattered literally everywhere. Some monasteries have survived too. Mirozhsky Monastery and Snetogorsky
Monastery once men, and now
womens monastery, are the most
remarkable of them. Snetogorsky monastery is in the outskirts

the city now, and once was on its


border. Pushkin liked to visit this
place during his exile in 1825.
Only five monks are living in
Mirozhsky Monastery now, but it
has a great value for the cultural
treasure, it holds the Mongol period frescoes in The Holy
Transfiguration Cathedral.
Most of the temples of
Pskov are small and medium-sized cubic single domed
temples with three apses. There
are also exceptions, e.g., the
Trinity Cathedral of the Pskov
Kremlin or Stefanovskaya church
of Mirozhsky Monastery, but
they do not express Pskovs general spirit. This spirit lies in
small, dilapidated, often poor,
groomed temples in their whitewashed walls, classical Pskov ornamental corbels, consisting of
two rows of rectangular and one
row of triangular troughs between them, in simple compositions of imposed belfries, in
unexpectedness with which
these temples appear before the
amazed audience. For example,
you can suddenly find a beheaded
dilapidated temple in honor of

St. Sergius of Radonezh between


the garbage and playground in
one of quiet Pskov courtyards, or
the Temple of Ascension in Polonische, hidden among the houses
in the outskirts of the park. On
a deserted street you can see the
Church of Ascension of the former Starovoznesensky Monastery attended by nobody. Nuns
have long left the monastery,
there is no frescoes depicting the
faces of saints, nor rich decoration, there is little icons. Nevertheless, the soul itself, urged by
no one, lifts off and rushes upwards the light space of dome.
The air here is saturated with
prayer of nuns and it seems like
they are all around you, all who
were shot in 1917, whose bodies
were thrown into the cellar under the temple, and all those who
were before them. Time stands
still it no longer exists. You
can stand all day here not even
noticing it.
At the moment, some temples are closed, some go to ruin
or are nearly ruined, and all of
them require restoration, but
the money to restore them is not

given from the budget, and there


are not enough parishioners in
Pskov to restore the churches
themselves. These valuable monuments of architecture, these islands of peace in the modern city
will soon be lost. These temples,
which today allow us to touch
the soul of this unique ancient
Pskov inexorably decay and
become history.
One doesnt fall in love at
first sight with Pskov; it does
not immediately open its treasures. But if you look closely, imbibe, try to understand the Russian land, make at least a little
effort it will pay off. And you
will want to come back, stand
in empty churches, full with silence, and walk around the Pskov
streets and stay to live in one
of those courts. No wonder that
Savva Yamshikov, art historian,
researcher of ancient Russian
culture, who was born in Moscow, has moved to Pskov at the
end of his life, spent here his last
days and was buried in Pushkin
Mountains.

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, , 16 .
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Solovki, Cathedral of the Assumption, 16th cent.
photo by Ivan Matveev

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Solovki, the Cathedral of Transfiguration, 16th cent.
photo by Ivan Matveev

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, - , 16 .
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Solovki, Cathedral of Transfiguration, 16th cent.
photo by Ivan Matveev

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:
On the left: Solovki, the Church of St. Nicholas, 19 th cent.
photo by Ivan Matveev

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, , 16 .
:
Solovki, Refectory Complex of the Assumption, 16th cent.
photo by Ivan Matveev

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, - , 16 .
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Solovki, Cathedral of Transfiguration, 16th cent.
photo by Ivan Matveev

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On the right:
Solovki, the Cathedral of
Transfiguration, 16th c.,
and the Cathedral of the Assumption (onthe back), 16th
c. photo by Ivan Matveev

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On the next spread:


Solovki, Onion domes
of the Cathedral of
Transfiguration, 16th c.
photo by Ivan Matveev


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211

THE NORTHERN WIND


Ivan Matveev
authors photoes

...Burdened by his cross,


throughout your length and breadth,
in the rags of a slave, the Heavenly King
has walked, blessing you, my native land!
Fyodor Tyutchev, translation by by F.Jude Durham.
It is a land of forests, fields and lakes. The power
of nature is in everything in the grass in the
fields, in the woods. Severe nature does not allow to be distracted by nonsense, vanity is thrown
away. Northern Wind in the grass and in the
trees, in the strenuous scarlet sunset takes away
everything unnecessary, leaving you alone with the
northern sky.
The further north you go the closer the sky
becomes, in the north it meets the earth, you can
nearly touch it. This feeling of near sky becomes
particularly strong on the White Sea.
The Arkhangelsk region, the White Sea, the
Solovetsky archipelago
Going from Kem to Solovki through the sea takes
four hours on a boat. In the middle, the sea merges
with the sky, the white light fills the entire space,
the border vanishes.
ThereI remember the Gladsome Light. This
unfading light is everywhere here, it becomes almost real, it fills the space. Monastery comes up
from it. Austere stone walls and domes are flying in
the space full of light.
Architecture and nature strive to the sky in
one movement. Im going to the north seeking for
this quiet power of nature.
The north is harsh and beautiful in its asceticism. It sobers up, like a bucket of icy water.
Solovki is our northern Russian Athos, the edge

212

of the earth, where the sense of Gods presence is


maximized. It is impossible to be indifferent here,
or the fiery north wind will sweep you away. The
whole nature, like The Unburnt Bush1, is burning in that light which gives life to everything, fills
everything with its fiery force. It seems as though
the light of the northern sky has become the northern wind, it has become possible to touch it.
The Solovetsky Monastery
The Solovetsky Monastery floating in the fog between the sky and the White Sea.
The far north is creating a place different from
everything else, with white nights. The sun, just
having struck horizon, rises again.
Monumental stone of monastery walls, red of
moss, with blue flowers between them. The monastery, as it were growing out of the ground, rushes
up to the sky.
In the morning St. Zosima came out of the trees
and saw a ray of light, covering the whole place, and
St. Zosima was frightened, seeing the shining of this
unusual light; and he raised his eyes to the east, and
saw a magnificent and wonderful church, which appeared in the air before him...
The life of St. Zosima of Solovki.
The cathedral of the Transfiguration with
sloping walls emphasizes this movement with its
whole mass. The wind disperses the fog and the silvery wooden domes of the temple flow out of it. The
fog ebbs and flows from the monastery as if it was
an island in the ocean.
Cross procession
Holiday, a windy day. A Cross procession comes out
from the monastery. They go far through the village. Golden vestments and black cassocks, fluttering in the wind. It seems, like the wind itself is flying for the people going in prayer. And the whole
world around is lighten up by this flaming prayer.
The whole archipelago as a single monastery, flaming with prayer with its scattered hermitages, outstrips the land.

1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burning_bush

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Previous page:
Phos Hilaron, photo by Ivan
Matveev.
Phos Hilaron ( )
is an ancient Christian hymn
originally written in New Testament Greek. Often referred
to by its Latin title Lumen Hilare it has been translated
into English as O Gladsome
Light. It is the earliest known
Christian hymn recorded outside of the Bible that is still in
use today. The hymn is part of
vespers in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and also included
in some modern Anglican and
Lutheran liturgies.
O Gentle Light of the holy
glory of the immortal, heavenly, holy, blessed Father, O
Jesus Christ: Having come to
the setting of the sun, having beheld the evening light,
we praise the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Spirit: God. Meet
it is for Thee at all times to be
hymned with reverent voices,
O Son of God, Giver of life.
Wherefore, the world doth
glorify Thee.

Authors:

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

Nikolay Vasnetsov, architect


Anna Bazilevich, architect
Nikita Dolgoy, architect
Sergey Kanterin, architect
Ivan Matveev, architect
Evgeniya Sablina, architect
Olga Tolstikova, artist
Elena Hasyanova, architect
Ekaterina Chistova, architect
Jennette Shchedrina, architect

,
,
,
,
,
,

,

Sofia Gorlenko, filmmaker


Richard Davies, photographer
Sergey Kazakov, architect
Gleb Kuznetsov, screenwriter
Daniil Makarov, architect
Ben Hays, architect
Daryl Hardman
Father Alexey Yakovlev, priest

Thanks to:

ARCHMAG / FAITH

#1 Easter 2015