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50........................................................................................................................................... fstab
Chroot 51...........................................................................................................................
57...........................................................................................................................................
60.........................................................................................................................................

environment ramdisk 61............................................................................................ initial
61.............................................................................................
))Loader 62.......................................................................................................... Boot
67............................................................................................................

68..........................................................................................................................................
)MANagement 68................................................................................................ (PACkage
)79.......................................................................................................................... (systemd

79................................................................................................................................
)82.................................................................................................................................. (DAEMON
83...........................................................................................................................................................
86....................................................................................................................................................... sudo
87.................................................................................................................................................... Yaourt
89...................................................................................................................................................... X
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) ( 115..............................................................................................................
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/
.



/ .




.


. GFDL


.

.
.

http://eManLog.com

http://emanlog.com/?p=324



.
/
.


) (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux
. man


. man

man command .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/FAQ

AUR .

Chroot .

: .

.

/
:


.
VNC SSH .

(media )m
.

.
2012.12.01


cd sha1sum
.
$ sha1sum --check name_of_checksum_file.txt

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Install_from_Existing_Linux
http://archlinux.org/download

" "OK ) .
(. md5sum .


)( )
. .iso CD DVD
.
(K3B

:
. CD
. 2x 4x

) (

.
USB .
.
. /

: /dev/sdx sdx) .
sda sdb (.


: lsblk USB
) (.
/dev/sdx /dev/sdx1
# dd bs=4M if=/path/to/archlinux.iso of=/dev/sdx

.
.

*.iso Open
img

" "USB key" "USB stick" "flash drive

http://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer

Universal USB Installer



.

dd .

USB . -

diskutils list

Terminal.app . USB
. /dev/disk1 . :
diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk1

dd :
dd if=image.iso of=/dev/disk1 bs=8192
20480+0 records in
20480+0 records out
)167772160 bytes transferred in 220.016918 secs (762542 bytes/sec

:

diskutil eject /dev/disk1




. .
:

http://www.pendrivelinux.com/universal-usb-installer-easy-as-1-2-3

unmount

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Mirrors

$ wget http://hive.ist.unomaha.edu/archlinux/iso/latest/archlinux-2012.12.01-dual.iso
--2012-12-08 02:27:00-- http://hive.ist.unomaha.edu/archlinux/iso/latest/archlinux-2012.12.01-dual.iso
Resolving hive.ist.unomaha.edu (hive.ist.unomaha.edu)... 2620:d5:0:22bb::dead:beef, 137.48.187.208
Connecting to hive.ist.unomaha.edu (hive.ist.unomaha.edu)|2620:d5:0:22bb::dead:beef|:80...
connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 449839104 (429M) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: 'archlinux-2012.12.01-dual.iso'
100%[=======================================================>] 449,839,104 110MB/s in 3.9s
2012-12-08 02:27:04 (110 MB/s) - 'archlinux-2012.12.01-dual.iso' saved [449839104/449839104]

:
# mkdir -p /mnt/archiso
# mount -o loop,ro archlinux-2012.10.06-dual.iso /mnt/archiso


HTTP DHCP TFTP

.( )
pxelinux/kernel/initramfs

: NIC
# ip link set eth0 up
# ip addr add 192.168.0.1/24 dev eth0

DHCP + TFTP

TFTP DHCP

dnsmasq PXE
.

: dnsmasq
# pacman -S dnsmasq

: dnsmasq

# vim /etc/dnsmasq.conf
port=0
interface=eth0
bind-interfaces
dhcp-range=192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,12h
dhcp-boot=/arch/boot/syslinux/pxelinux.0
dhcp-option-force=209,boot/syslinux/archiso.cfg
dhcp-option-force=210,/arch/
enable-tftp
tftp-root=/mnt/archiso

dnsmasq :
# systemctl start dnsmasq.service

HT TP
HTTP

) (archiso_pxe_http initcpio hook (archiso_pxe_nfs initcpio hook) NFS .


.

darkhttpd
darkhttpd :
# pacman -S darkhttpd

darkhttpd /mnt/archiso :
# darkhttpd /mnt/archiso
darkhttpd/1.8, copyright (c) 2003-2011 Emil Mikulic.
listening on: http://0.0.0.0:80/

PXE


.
PXE .

.
IBM x3650 F12


PXE /var/log/messages.log
:
# grep dnsmasq /var/log/messages.log | cut -d' ' -f5dnsmasq-dhcp[2544]: DHCPDISCOVER(eth1) 00:1a:64:6a:a2:4d
dnsmasq-dhcp[2544]: DHCPOFFER(eth1) 192.168.0.110 00:1a:64:6a:a2:4d
dnsmasq-dhcp[2544]: DHCPREQUEST(eth1) 192.168.0.110 00:1a:64:6a:a2:4d
dnsmasq-dhcp[2544]: DHCPACK(eth1) 192.168.0.110 00:1a:64:6a:a2:4d
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/pxelinux.0 to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso.cfg to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/whichsys.c32 to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso_pxe_choose.cfg to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/ifcpu64.c32 to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso_pxe_both_inc.cfg to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso_head.cfg to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso_pxe32.cfg to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso_pxe64.cfg to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso_tail.cfg to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/vesamenu.c32 to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/syslinux/splash.png to 192.168.0.110

syslinux TFTP archiso.cfg pxelinux.0

.
:

Boot Arch Linux (x86_64) (HTTP)

:
Boot Arch Linux (i686) (HTTP)

:
TFTP ( initramfs )
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/x86_64/vmlinuz to 192.168.0.110
dnsmasq-tftp[2544]: sent /mnt/archiso/arch/boot/x86_64/archiso.img to 192.168.0.110


PXE-target darkhttpd

PXE-target init :

"1348347586 192.168.0.110 "GET /arch/aitab" 200 678 "" "curl/7.27.0


"1348347587 192.168.0.110 "GET /arch/x86_64/root-image.fs.sfs" 200 107860206 "" "curl/7.27.0
"1348347588 192.168.0.110 "GET /arch/x86_64/usr-lib-modules.fs.sfs" 200 36819181 "" "curl/7.27.0
"1348347588 192.168.0.110 "GET /arch/any/usr-share.fs.sfs" 200 63693037 "" "curl/7.27.0

.
HTTP


darkhttpd


:
# systemctl stop dnsmasq.service
# umount /mnt/archiso

.
( .



.
VirtualBox, VMware, QEMU, Xen, Varch
.Parallels

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/VMware

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/QEMU

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Xen

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Varch

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/VirtualBox

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Parallels

.


.
. .

. .iso CD .
. .

:


Arch Linux VirtualBox Guest
Installing Arch Linux from VirtualBox
VirtualBox Arch Linux Guest On Physical Drive
Installing Arch Linux in VMware

. Delete,

F1, F2, F11 F12 . Post



.

) (CD CD or DVD .
F12 ) (Post

.

Boot Arch Linux
Enter .


:

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Arch_Linux_VirtualBox_Guest

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Installing_Arch_Linux_from_VirtualBox

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/VirtualBox_Arch_Linux_Guest_On_Physical_Drive

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Installing_Arch_Linux_in_VMware

UEFI
UEFI CD/USB
) EFISTUB .(Gummiboot Boot Manager


efivars

/sys/firmware/efi/vars/ :
) . (chroot
# modprobe efivars # before chrooting
# ls -1 /sys/firmware/efi/vars/

: efivars UEFI /sys/firmware/efi/vars


.

UEFI noefi

/sys/firmware/efi/vars . efibootmgr
. modprobe
UEFI

efivars . UEFI

/sys/firmware/efi/vars :




.
) (KMS

) (Restart Tab
nomodeset
.

Enter . video=SVIDEO-1:d
. .


Tab

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Install_from_SSH

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/KMS

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Intel

acpi=off Enter .



(
)
-

us US-

:

# loadkeys layout

fr, uk, be-latin1 .


layout

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/KEYMAP#Keyboard_layouts

# setfont Lat2-Terminus16

- .

) ( )( #

/etc/locale.gen . UTF-8 .

Ctrl + X Y

Enter .

# nano /etc/locale.gen
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8

# locale-gen
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8

.
) Alt+Shift ( Keymap



dhcpcd

.

ping :
# ping -c 3 www.google.com
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms

daemon

rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms

ping: unknown host dhcpcd


IP address .
Ethernet eth0

)
.
eth1 eth2 .
(

:
Static IP address.

Subnet mask.

Gateway's IP address.

Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.

). ( Domain name

) :(eth0
# ip link set eth0 up

:
># ip addr add <ip address>/<subnetmask> dev <interface

:
# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev eth0

Static

man ip .

># ip route add default via <ip address

:
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1

name server
resolv.conf IP
:
# nano /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 61.23.173.5
nameserver 61.95.849.8
search example.com

nameserver .
:
.


.

.
.




gateway

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Network_Configuration

wlan0 linksys ESSID .


:
.

:

)( :

:
USB

udev

# lspci | grep -i net

# lsusb

iwconfig .

:
. .

# iwconfig
lo no wireless extensions.
eth0 no wireless extensions.
""wlan0 unassociated ESSID:
Mode:Managed Channel=0 Access Point: Not-Associated
Bit Rate:0 kb/s Tx-Power=20 dBm Sensitivity=8/0
Retry limit:7 RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off
Power Management:off
Link Quality:0 Signal level:0 Noise level:0
Rx invalid nwid:0 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0
Tx excessive retries:0 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0

wlan0 .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Wireless_Setup

# ip link set wlan0 up

# ip link set wlan0 up


SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory


dmesg

.

# dmesg | grep firmware


firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode




.
(
)
:


) /usr/lib/firmware (
.


.

.

netcfg :
# wifi-menu wlan0

firmware
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Wireless_Setup
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Wireless_Setup

xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem ISDN


:
# pppoe-setup

eth0 .

no ) (.

server.

1 .

Y .

:
# pppoe-start

resolv.conf :
# echo nameserver 8.8.8.8 > /etc/resolv.conf



http_proxy/
ftp_proxy .
>export http_proxy=http://<http_proxy_address>:<proxy_port
>export ftp_proxy=ftp://<ftp_proxy_address>:<proxy_port

:

export http_proxy=http://10.203.0.1:5187/

Router

Bridge

Firewall

export https_proxy=http://10.203.0.1:5187/
export ftp_proxy=http://10.203.0.1:5187/
"export no_proxy="localhost,127.0.0.1,localaddress,.localdomain.com

your-freedom :
"export http_proxy="http://localhost:8080

"export http_proxy="http://127.0.0.1:8080

:

unset http_proxy



.
:
.

)m (


(
)





.
:

Primary

Extended
Logical

bootable.

Primary

raid .

logical
Extended

logical
Extended

.
. Extended

.
Primary

Primary

.
Extended logical
Primary sda1 sda3


. Extended sda4

logical sda5 sda6 ...


:
) (



) /( :

.
/

.
) (/


ramdisk
:/boot
/boot .
bootloader stages

.
. master boot sectors sector map files



/boot
.

:/home

.lck .

:/tmp

.


:/var
/var .
ABS ...

/usr .


) ( /usr

/var .

:
: /boot
' '/bin', '/etc', '/lib ' '/sbin .
.

nosuid , nodev
/etc/fstab

:

noexec , readonly .



:

.




.

.

/var swap .

.


/var :
(.
)

swap

swap
.

/usr

.

.


/var ABS



. /var






. SSD
/var HDD ) (/ ) (/home SSD

SSD .

/

.



.



.

.

/var
swap .

)m (

.

.

/ .
:ext2 Second Extended Filesystem

. journaling
journaling barriers

)(

) ( .
ext3.

ext2
:ext 3 Third Extended Filesystem
journaling .write barriers ext2 .

:ext4 Fourth Extended Filesystem ext2 ext3


.

.
) (subdirectory ext3 .

: ReiserFS (V3) Hans Reiser 's high-performance journaling FS

.



ReiserFS

) (formatting
ReiserFS .

ReiserFS (V3) .

) (mounting .
.
. /var

journaling
:JFS IBM's Journaled FileSystem

IBM AIX OS
JFS . /

/
JFS . CPU

) (formatting ) (mounting fsck
.



( .
)

JFS . ext ReiserFS



.

journaling Silicon Graphics


:XFS


IRIX OS / XFS .

.




.

.

.

.
Fat
:vfat


" "Better FS
:Btrfs
ZFS snapshot multi-disk striping

checksum )
mirroring

.

(




Btrfs
.


.

.
/

NTT
:Nilfs2
.
log-structured
NILFS .
GPL

Swap
Swapping .




Swap .
.
Swap
.
Swap
.
Swap

swap
/ swap



.
swap

Desktop
RAM

SWAP

) Swap (

) Swap (

) Swap (

swap ) SSD ( .


swap
swap .

Swap File

:
.

.
Swap Swap
fallocate Swap

) (M = Megabytes, G = Gigabytes ) (:

# fallocate -l 512M /swapfile

# dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile bs=1M count=512

:

# chmod 600 /swapfile

:

# mkswap /swapfile

:
# swapon /swapfile

/etc/fstab :
# nano /etc/fstab

defaults

swap

none

.
.
.
/swapfile

.
dd

Swap File

:
# swapoff -a

:
# rm -rf /swapfile




Gparted .
/ .

Swap

Swap .
Swap

Swap.

(.
GPT
gdisk ) cgdisk

(.
MBR
fdisk ) cfdisk

.
Parted

cfdisk cgdisk .

http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php

:UEFI

UEFI UEFI

UEFI GPT

.
UEFI UEFI-MBR
:GPT

GPT

MBR .

BIOS ) (
GPT

Syslinux . .

GPT .


:
cfdisk.



/dev/sda
ISO

. lsblk * /dev/sd .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Unified_Extensible_Firmware_Interface#Create_an_UEFI_System_Partition_in_Linux

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/GPT

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/GRUB#GPT_specific_instructions

http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html

http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html

: /dev/sda


) (


(
)

.

.

cfdisk " "Partition ends in the final partial cylinder


.

) (Alt + F2 fdisk /dev/sdX ) sdX ( .

) (p ) (d
) .(w fdisk.

/ SSD

. noatime .fstab

.
ext4 journal

journaling .

swap .
.
USB

# mkinitcpio -p linux /etc/mkinitcpio.conf

block udev .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Install_from_Existing_Linux

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/SSD#Tips_for_Minimizing_SSD_Read.2FWrites

hook

" HOOKS=" udev block

fstab ) (/
.

fstab

.
UUID

:
hd0,0 .
.
.
. uuid
:
)root (hd0,0
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda1 ro
initrd /boot/initramfs-linux.img

):(Label
)root (hd0,0
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/disk/by-label/Arch ro
initrd /boot/initramfs-linux.img

:UUID
)root (hd0,0
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/disk/by-uuid/3a9f8929-627b-4667-9db4-388c4eaaf9fa ro

initrd /boot/initramfs-linux.img

cfdisk

cfdisk ) (sda :
# cfdisk /dev/sda

http://linuxreview.ir/1390/08/mount-partitions-by-uuid



NTFS

NTFS

.
:

]
)
.

sda [( cfdisk

) ( , Help, New, Print


.

New Enter

.



.
Primary

. Primary

.
. .

Beginning

. Type

.
) (

Bootable Bootable Enter


/boot

/var .

Bootable


. .

.
swap

(Linux swap / Solaris) .

.
/var

Primary

sda1 sda2 /var sda3 swap sda4

) .(




.


yes
Write
.
Enter

. Quit . Done

.

libata PATA
:



IDE SATA SCSI sdx
.

Quit Write
cfdisk .

( cfdisk
)
.


) ( , Help, New, Print
.

. sda1 sda2 sda5


. sda7
sda6
.

Delete

Free Space .

: .


.

.

New>Logical>Beginning

.
.


Type ) (
/boot .
Bootable

. New>Logical>Beginning
/var

.
) (

swap New>Logical>Beginning

.
(Linux swap / Solaris)

New>Logical>Beginning

.
) (

sda7 sda8 /var sda9 swap sda10

) .(


yes
Write

.
Enter

. Done
. Quit


libata PATA
:


IDE SATA SCSI sdx
.


:
Quit Write

cfdisk .


gdisk

) (
) (sda :
# gdisk /dev/sda

)(

. o GUID
.

)Command (? for help): o (overwrites existing partitions
)This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR. Proceed? (Y/N): y (yes

n . )
( .
.( ) Enter

. Hex ) ef02 ( .
L .
)Command (? for help): n (new
Partition number (1-128, default 1): 1
First sector (34-83886046, default = 2048) or {+-}size{KMGTP}: press enter to use the default
)Last sector (2048-83886046, default = 83886046) or {+-}size{KMGTP}: add size of partition (I use +3MB
'Current type is 'Linux filesystem
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300): ef02
'Changed type of partition to 'BIOS boot partition

:Swap


Swap Swap

.

. N

. Hex

Command (? for help): n


Partition number (2-128, default 2): 2
First sector (34-83886046, default = 8192) or {+-}size{KMGTP}: press enter to use the default
Last sector (8192-83886046, default = 83886046) or {+-}size{KMGTP}: put your swap size here (e.g.
+2GB)
Current type is 'Linux filesystem'
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, enter = 8300): 8200
Changed type of partition to 'Linux swap'

Hex N

. Enter
Hex .

Command (? for help): n


Partition number (3-128, default 3): 3
First sector (34-83886046, default = 4202496) (this varies based on other partition sizes) or
{+-}size{KMGTP}: press enter for default
Last sector (4202496-83886046, default = 83886046 or {+-)size{KMGTP}: press enter for default
Current type is 'Linux filesystem'
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, enter = 8300): press enter
Changed type of partition to 'Linux filesystem'

. W
Command (? for help): w (write)
Final checks complete. About to write GPT data. THIS WILL OVERWRITE EXISTING PARTITIONS!!
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): y


.
:
gdisk

gdisk



swap sda2
.

) ( # mkswap /dev/sda2 #
# swapon /dev/sda2

:
ext4 sda3

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

.
ext4
mkfs.ext4

cfdisk

.

cfdisk

sda1 . sda2 /var sda3 swap sda4


) .(
sda1 sda2 sda4 .
ext4

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda4

:
swap

# mkswap /dev/sda3
# swapon /dev/sda3


. sda1

:
.

# lsblk /dev/sda

.

/mnt .
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

mkdir /mnt:

# mkdir /mnt/home
# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/home
# mkdir /mnt/var
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/home

: .
UEFI :
# mkdir /mnt/boot/efi
# mount /dev/sdaX /mnt/boot/efi

)(
. pacstrap

# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
##
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
##
Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch

)( # .

.
Alt+6

.
PageUp

.
Ctrl+U

.
Ctrl+X
. Y

Enter .
:

. HTTP

FTP . FTP
.

Mirror

https://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist

https://archlinux.org/mirrors/status

.
:

# pacman -Syy



/ .

Host interface NAT machine


properties .




. -i
pacstrap

base base-devel
.
# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel

https://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/all

cal
:

(
. )


. .
.
ntp

.
:base ] [core

:base-devel make automake ] .[core

. base-devel

fstab
fstab . UUID

)(label
.


) (uuid -U -L .
: genfstab

fstab .

# genfstab -U -p /mnt | sed 's/rw,relatime,data=ordered/defaults,relatime/' >> /mnt/etc/fstab


# nano /mnt/etc/fstab

: fstab .


nano .

NTP .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Time

EFI genfstab EFI



.


EFI noatime .

" "codepage=cp437 " "codepage=437




. . .


: ) (/ 1 .

0 2 .

Chroot
chroot :
# arch-chroot /mnt

.
: arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash chroot
.






( Locale )m
glic locale-aware

-
.

locale.gen locale.conf .

fstab )http://linuxreview.ir/1390/08/mount-partitions-by-uuid
fstab ( .

locale.gen )

( . )( #

.

UTF-8 :

# nano /etc/locale.gen
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
fa_IR UTF-8

# locale-gen

/etc/locale.gen
glibc
.

. LANG
locale.conf
:

# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf


# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8


:
:
# echo LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8

*_ LC locale .

.

: LC_ALL

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale

keymap

# loadkeys de-latin1
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16

vconsole.conf :
# nano /etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1
FONT=Lat2-Terminus16

KEYMAP TTY
Xorg .



FONT

/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16 )
(.

FONT_MAP .

.

man vconsole.conf .


> /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone .

><Zone /usr/share/zoneinfo/ :

# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/

> <SubZone :
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe

/etc/localtime
> /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone :
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime

:
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Iran /etc/localtime

/etc/adjtime :

(
)m UTC

: UTC
.
# hwclock --systohc --utc

.
NTP

NTP

: ntp /etc/ntp.conf
.

NTP


/etc/ntp.conf
:
# nano /etc/ntp.conf
server 0.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 1.pool.ntp.org iburst

server 2.pool.ntp.org iburst


server 3.pool.ntp.org iburst

.
iburst
:

# nano /etc/ntp.conf
server 0.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 1.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 2.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 3.pool.ntp.org iburst
restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
restrict -6 default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
restrict 127.0.0.1
restrict -6 ::1
driftfile /var/lib/ntp/ntp.drift
logfile /var/log/ntp.log

:

# ntpd -qg



:

# hwclock -w


. ntpd -qg cron
.
/etc/rc.local

# nano /etc/rc.local
& ntpd -qg

.
hwclock

(
)m Localtime

: localtime
. localtime .
# hwclock --systohc --localtime

UTC .
.


.


localtime


.

NTPd
:

locatime .
) ( .



.
:


udev

Dual boot

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Time#UTC_in_Windows .

*.conf /etc/modules-load.d/

# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.
virtio-net



*.conf

.
# ;

(Hostname)m
.(arch
)
# echo myhostname > /etc/hostname

: /etc/hosts . nss-myhostname

.
.
.
:

Dynamic IP



< interface> dhcpcd

# systemctl enable dhcpcd@<interface>.service

ifplugd . netcfg

. net-auto-wired
# pacman -S ifplugd

: net-auto-wired dhcp
# cd /etc/network.d
# ln -s examples/ethernet-dhcp .
# systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service

Static IP

: Ifplugd
# pacman -S ifplugd

: /etc/network.d /etc/network.d/examples
# cd /etc/network.d
# cp examples/ethernet-static .

:
# nano ethernet-static

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Configuring_Network

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Wireless_Setup

/etc/conf.d/netcfg . eth0
.

">WIRED_INTERFACE="<interface

net-auto-wired :
# systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service

.

netcfg NetworkManager . Wicd

:
# pacman -S wireless_tools wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond dialog

) (

. :

# pacman -S zd1211-firmware

> wifi-menu <interface /etc/network.d SSID

)> <interface ( .
/etc/network.d/examples/ .
># wifi-menu <interface


: wifi-menu
chroot .

.
chroot

wifi-menu.

net-auto-wireless :
# systemctl enable net-auto-wireless.service

net-auto-wired
: Netcfg
net-auto-wireless .

/etc/conf.d/netcfg .

:wlp3s0

# nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg
"WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlp3s0

AUTO_PROFILES /etc/conf.d/netcfg .
AUTO_PROFILES .


.


:
# nano /etc/pacman.conf

/etc/pacman.conf .

initial ramdisk environment


mkinitcpio.conf

:

. ) initramfs (/boot

linux pacstrap .

hook

/usr .
RAID, LVM

/etc/mkinitcpio.conf initramfs

# mkinitcpio -p linux

: Arch VPS ) QEMU (virt-manager

virtio mkinitcpio.conf :

# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
"MODULES="virtio virtio_blk virtio_pci virtio_net


:
# passwd

:/ .

.

.
:
archie
.

# useradd -m -g users -G wheel -s /bin/bash archie


# passwd archie

userdel .

userdel -r
.

# userdel -r archie

(Boot Loader )m

Syslinux, GRUB . .LILO

.
Syslinux GRUB .

) (Syslinux
Syslinux
. .

:GRUB .

.
.
Syslinux

Syslinux syslinux-install_update

) (-i ) (-a

MBR ).(-m
# pacman -S syslinux
# syslinux-install_update -i -a -m

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Users_and_Groups

syslinux.cfg .

. /dev/sda3

.

fallback :

# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg

LABEL arch

APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro

GRUB

grub-bios grub-install :
/dev/sda : ) ] /boot
[( . .

) sdaX X( .

GPT
:

# pacman -S grub-bios
# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo

grub.cfg


:
os-prober .
# pacman -S os-prober

# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

UEFI
)
GPR
FAT32 (EF00 /boot/efi .
.
Syslinux : UEFI

EFISTUB

EFISTUB .

. rEFInd
gummiboot rEFInd .
.
EFISTUB
UEFI .

. UEFI efivars chroot :


# before chrooting

# modprobe efivars

initramfs
. UEFISYS /mnt/boot/efi chroot

:

/boot/efi/EFI/arch/ .


/boot/vmlinuz-linux /boot/efi/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi .
.efi . vmlinuz
.vmlinux

/boot/initramfs-linux.img /boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img
.

/boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img
/boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img .


initramfs /boot

)incron systemd
. /boot/efi/EFI/arch
.(
systemd


rEFInd .
: .
# pacman -S refind-efi efibootmgr

: UEFISYS rEFInd .
# mkdir -p /boot/efi/EFI/refind
# cp /usr/lib/refind/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind_x64.efi
# cp /usr/lib/refind/config/refind.conf /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind.conf
# cp -r /usr/share/refind/icons /boot/efi/EFI/refind/icons

: refind_linux.conf .
# nano /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind_linux.conf
"Boot to X"

"root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=graphical.target"

"Boot to console" "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=multi-user.target"

initramfs /boot/efi/EFI/arch/ refind_linux.conf :


.



sdaX refind_linux.conf :


.
. efibootmgr UEFI REFInd .

Apple Mac efibootmgr :

.

. mactel-boot

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/UEFI_Bootloaders#Sync_EFISTUB_Kernel_in_UEFISYS_partition_using_Systemd

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/UEFI_Bootloaders#Sync_EFISTUB_Kernel_in_UEFISYS_partition_using_Incron

https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/mactel-boot

'# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "rEFInd" -l '\EFI\refind\refind_x64.efi

: X Y UEFISYS .

/dev/sdc5 X C Y 5.

) .( efibootmgr
refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/boot/boot_x64.efi :

# cp -r /boot/efi/EFI/refind/* /boot/efi/EFI/boot/
# mv /boot/efi/EFI/boot/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/boot/boot_x64.efi

GRUB


- ) EFI
:
.
( Grub-efi-i386 . target=i386-efi
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo

.
UEFI
efibootmgr
grub-efi-x86_64 grub-install

'# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Arch Linux (GRUB)" -l '\EFI\arch_grub\grubx64.efi

grub.cfg

:

:

os-prober .

# pacman -S os-prober
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg



chroot :
# exit

:
/mnt

}# umount /mnt/{boot,home,

:
# reboot


:
.

.
mount umount
.



.

.
/



.

(PACkage MANagement )m

.

.

man .

$ man pacman

Desktop
.



.



.
/etc/pacman.conf .


man pacman.conf .

# pacman -S package_name1 package_name2

# pacman -S extra/package_name
# pacman -S testing/package_name

:gnome
# pacman -S gnome

# pacman -Sg gnome

: .

needed
.


:

# pacman -R package_name



:
# pacman -Rs package_name


:
.

# pacman -Rsc package_name





-n

.
.pacsave

https://www.archlinux.org/groups

# pacman -Rn package_name

:
# pacman -Rdd package_name

.


:

# pacman -Syu


.
/var/log/pacman.log

:
:
-Q

$ pacman -Q --help

:
$ pacman -S --help

$ pacman -Ss string1 string2 ...

:
$ pacman -Qs string1 string2 ...

:
$ pacman -Si package_name

:
$ pacman -Qi package_name

:

-i
$ pacman -Qii package_name

:

$ pacman -Ql package_name



:
$ pacman -Qo /path/to/a/file

(:
)

$ pacman -Qdt

:

$ pactree package_name

:
$ whoneeds package_name

:
# pacman -Syu package_name1 package_name2 ...

:

# pacman -Sw package_name

) ( )
(:

# pacman -U /path/to/package/package_name-version.pkg.tar.xz

Pkgtools .


) (:

# pacman -U http://www.example.com/repo/example.pkg.tar.xz

:


# pacman -Sc

:


# pacman -Scc





:


# pacman-optimize

-f )

(:

# pacman -Sf package_name

" "file exists in filesystem


. pacman -Qo
) ( . -f


.

) ( -f

" "database write


pacman -Syy .

pacman -r /path/to/root -S package .

/etc /pacman.conf
.

/etc/pacman.conf

.


.


:
.



# nano /etc/pacman.conf

#

.
= Include ] [repository
= Include ][repository
:



.
.

:
linux gnome
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
IgnorePkg=linux
IgnoreGroup=gnome

) (
.

.
.
] [core] , [extra ] [community

] [multilib
- x86_64
/etc/pacman.conf .

][multilib
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

AUR


) (AUR

.
AUR [unsupported] .

.
PKGBUILD

. ] [unsupported




] AUR [community


) (AUR Helpers
:
AUR .

yaourt .
/etc /pacman.d/mirrorlist

.


) (nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

.
#
:
# pacman -Syy


--refresh -y

. pacman -Syy

.




. :
# pacman-optimize


.


.

.


.
:

# pacman -Sc && pacman-optimize

pacman -Scc .

.
ftp.archlinux.org

:
.
# pacman -Syu

wget

wget :
# pacman -S wget

] [options /etc/pacman.conf :
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
XferCommand = /usr/bin/wget -c --passive-ftp -c %u


.

Pacman Cache




. .

] [ options #
.

(systemd )m
Systemd .
systemd init

.

systemctl systemd
man 1 systemctl .

systemctl
:
> -H <user>@<host systemd .

SSH .

systemadm : systemctl .

systemd-ui-git AUR .


:
$ systemctl

$ systemctl list-units

:
$ systemctl --failed

/usr/lib/systemd/system/

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Improve_Pacman_Performance



/etc/systemd/system/ .
:
$ systemctl list-unit-files

) (service . ) (mount.


) (socket. . systemctl
) (device.
) ( . .sshd.socket

systemctl .service

. /home

. netcfg netcfg.service .
home.mount .

.
.device

/dev/sda2 dev-sda2.device .
man systemd.unit .


:
># systemctl start <unit

># systemctl stop <unit

:
># systemctl restart <unit

:
># systemctl reload <unit

:
>$ systemctl status <unit

:
>$ systemctl is-enabled <unit

:
># systemctl enable <unit

foo :
# ln -s /usr/lib/systemd/system/foo.service /etc/systemd/system/graphical.target.wants/

:
># systemctl disable <unit

(:
)
>$ systemctl help <unit

systemd :
# systemctl daemon-reload


polkit . systemd-logind

.

.

:
$ systemctl reboot

:
$ systemctl poweroff

:
$ systemctl suspend

:
$ systemctl hibernate

:hybrid-sleep
$ systemctl hybrid-sleep

(DAEMON )m
. systemctl
systemd

<service>.service


.
/{etc,usr/lib,run}/systemd/system
.

.

.

Suspend

.
Hibernate

. swap .

># systemctl enable <service_name

:
># systemctl disable <service_name

:
># systemctl start <service_name

:
># systemctl stop <service_name

:
># systemctl restart <service_name

:
># systemctl status <service_name

ALSA
ALSA Udev .
.


ALSA

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Daemons_List

:
# gpasswd -a yourusername audio

) ( .
:

alsa-utils alsamixer

. :

# pacman -S alsa-utils

alsa-oss :
OSS dmix
# pacman -S alsa-oss

OSS
: udev>=171

).(snd_seq_oss, snd_pcm_oss, snd_mixer_oss

high quality resampling upmixing/downmixing



:
# pacman -S alsa-plugins

alsamixer . )
su username (:
$ alsamixer

.
MM 00


M

.

:
$ speaker-test -c 2

-c )( . 7.1
:
$ speaker-test -c 8

. PCM MASTER .

) su -

(:

# alsaconf

ISA


.
: PCI ISAPNP alsaconf
udev .
modprobe.conf

OSS
OSS .

ALSA

oss :

# pacman -S oss

ALSA
)
OSS
. ALSA
OSS
(

OSS .

:


# nano /etc/modprobe.d/alsa_blacklist.conf
install soundcore /bin/false

oss :

# systemctl enable oss.service

:

# gpasswd -a username audio

OSS :
# ossdetect -v
# soundoff && soundon


:

$ osstest

ossmix .

Ossxmix .

OSS .

sudo
sudo :
# pacman -S sudo

) sudo (sudoer visudo


.

.
visudo vi

EDITOR .

visudo nano :

# EDITOR=nano visudo

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/OSS

: visudo


vi
EDITOR=nano:
# visudo

visudo .
/etc/sudoers

: /etc/sudoers
)

( . visudo /etc/sudoer .


wheel .
:
sudo

%wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL

sudo

wheel . sudo .

Yaourt
AUR Yaourt .

pacman.conf :
-:

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Sudo

# nano /etc/pacman.conf
][archlinuxfr
Server = http://repo.archlinux.fr/i686

-:
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
][archlinuxfr
Server = http://repo.archlinux.fr/x86_64

Yaourt :
# pacman -Sy yaourt

yaourt

- :

$ yaourt saaghar


yaourt
)

(.

: sourceforge

"$ export http_proxy=http://"proxy_ip":"port_number

your-freedom

yaourt your-freedom
:
"$ export http_proxy="http://localhost:8080

:
$ unset http_proxy

: ) (Edit
yaourt n ) (build )(install
y .

X
) X Window System (X11, X


.


).(GUIs


Xorg .
:
# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils

3D mesa :
# pacman -S mesa



:


X .
.

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/VirtualBox#Arch_Linux_guests

:


$ lspci | grep VGA

:
$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less

vesa GPU
.

:
vesa

# pacman -S xf86-video-vesa


. :
Multilib

AMD/ATI

xf86-video-ati

lib32-ati-dri

catalyst-dkms

lib32-catalyst-utils

Intel

xf86-video-intel

lib32-intel-dri

Nvidia

)
(

xf86-video-i740
xf86-video-nouveau

lib32-nouveau-dri

xf86-video-nv

SiS

nvidia

xf86-video-sis
xf86-video-sisimedia
xf86-video-sisusb

lib32-nvidia-utils

ATI
ATI .


) .(xf86-video-ati

.


.
xf86-video-ati

.
HD 6xxx 7xxxM

- -

X1xxx

.

-
2xxx HD 6xxx
-

.

.
xf86-video-ati
ATI
ATI
.

.
)(

.
xf86-video-ati : radeon xorg.conf
xf86-video-ati

.

Catalyst/fglrx

xf86-video-ati:

# pacman -S xf86-video-ati

git
.

EDID
Xorg

https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=79509&p=1

.

.
/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-radeon.conf

# nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-radeon.conf
"Section "Device
"Identifier "Radeon
"Driver "radeon
EndSection

.


.
Catalyst
) legacy

( ) (
driver
) ( .

Radeon HD 5xxx 3xxx ,Radeon HD 2xxx 4xxx


AMD .

Radeon HD 2xxx, 3xxx and 4xxx legacy Catalyst


.
Radeon HD 5xxx .

DKMS

: linux-headers DKMS

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/ATI

.
libgl .
:

: DKMS

systemd .

- - OpenGL
lib32-catalyst-utils . ] [multilib :
# pacman -S lib32-catalyst-utils
(
)m

Vi0L0

.


.

.
Vi0L0

.
] [catalyst HD 5xxx

.
] [catalyst-stable HD 5xxx

Radeon HD 2xxx,
] [catalyst-hd234k legacy Catalyst

.
3xxx 4xxx


: Legacy Xorg 1.13

Xorg 1.12.

/etc/pacman.conf :

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/AMD_Catalyst#Xorg_repositories

# nano /etc/pacman.conf

:[catalyst]
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
[catalyst]
Server = http://catalyst.wirephire.com/repo/catalyst/$arch

:[catalyst-stable]
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
[catalyst-stable]
Server = http://catalyst.wirephire.com/repo/catalyst/$arch

[catalyst-hd234k]
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
[catalyst-hd234k]
Server = http://catalyst.wirephire.com/repo/catalyst-hd234k/$arch

:
GPG
# pacman-key --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 0xabed422d653c3094
# pacman-key --lsign-key 0xabed422d653c3094

:

# pacman -Syu
# pacman -S catalyst catalyst-utils

. libgl
:
OpenGL -

:[ multilib] . lib32-catalyst-utils

# pacman -S lib32-catalyst-utils

Catalyst

.
fglrx

:Catalyst-generator fglrx

) (.

:Catalyst-hook hook mkinitcpio fglrx

catalyst-dkms ].[community

AUR

.
AUR



.
: AUR
X .

: Legacy Xorg 1.13
Xorg 1.12.
:

Catalyst
Catalyst-utils
Lib32-catalyst-utils
Catalyst-generator
Catalyst-hook
Catalyst-daemon
AUR Catalyst-total

Catalyst-total-hd234k
Catalyst-total
Catalyst-test
Lib32-catalyst-test

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/AMD_Catalyst#Xorg_repositories

Catalyst-total-pxp
Catalyst-total

- . Catalyst-hook
.

.
Catalyst-total-pxp powerXpress

AMD

.
GMA 500 GMA 3600

Xorg . xf86-video-intel

- XvMC
.


Intel-dri .

GPU

.
-
DRI

# pacman -S xf86-video-intel

/ GPU VA-API

)
. VA-API libva-intel-driver

(.

# pacman -S libva-intel-driver

: lib32-intel-dri

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/AMD_Catalyst#Installing_directly_from_AMD

- .
.

NVIDIA
Nouveau

.

Nouveau




. .
:
# pacman -Rdds nvidia nvidia-utils
# pacman -S --asdeps libgl


:
Nouveau .

: Nouveau
Nouveau
/etc/X11/xorg.conf X
.

DDX xf86-video-nouveau .
-
DRI
nouveau-dri
.

Xorg .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Intel_Graphics

http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/FAQ

http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/FeatureMatrix

http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/CodeNames

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Nouveau#Keep_NVIDIA_driver_installed

- lib32-nouveau-dri
multilib .


: EFI .

. .


:
.


.
.
GPU nvidia-beta AUR
:
.

. :
] NVC0 [ nvidia


:
# pacman -S nvidia

[NV40-NVAF] nvidia-304xx


:

# pacman -S nvidia-304xx

] [NV30-NV38 nvidia-173xx



:
$ yaourt -S nvidia-173xx

https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?name=linux

http://www.nvidia.com/Download/index.aspx?lang=en-us

] [NV11 and NV17-NV28


///


nvidia-96xx :

$ yaourt -S nvidia-96xx

nvidia libgl
Nvidia-utils

libgl

.

unsatisfied dependencies .
:
# pacman -Rdd libgl

) (xorg-server1.12 xorg-
nvidia-96xx-utils .

server .

lib32 .
:
lib32-nvidia-utils, lib32-nvidia-304xx-utils lib32-nvidia-utils-beta
city
: nvidia-96xx nvidia-173xx

:
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
][city
SigLevel = PackageRequired
Server = http://pkgbuild.com/~bgyorgy/$repo/os/$arch



. nouveau
.

:
# nvidia-xconfig

:

# nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf

"Section "Device
"Identifier "Device0
""nvidia

Driver

"VendorName "NVIDIA Corporation


EndSection


. (xf86-input-evdev) evdev
Udev

xorg-server
. evdev
.
xf86-input-synaptics

:
# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics

Xorg xorg.conf .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/NVIDIA

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Touchpad_Synaptics

X Server
.

X
.
:

:
xorg-drivers .

$ pacman -Ss xf86-input | less

-
xf86-input-keyboard xf86-input-mouse .
:

# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm

Xorg .xinitrc

. :

$ rm ~/.xinitrc

: tty .
Xorg :
$ startx

. .

exit .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Xorg

$ exit

(Ctrl+Alt+F2
)

) root Enter
Enter . X server :
# pkill X

:

# reboot


Xorg.0.log . ) (EE

. ) (WW

$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log

wgetpaste
:
# pacman -S wgetpaste
$ wgetpaste ~/.xinitrc
$ wgetpaste /etc/X11/xorg.conf
$ wgetpaste /var/log/Xorg.0.log

wgetpaste

IRC


TrueType DejaVu .

:
# pacman -S ttf-dejavu

axel ) .

# pacman -S axel
# axel http://emanlog.com/archbook/fonts/farsifonts.sh
# chmod a+x ./farsifonts.sh
# ./farsifonts.sh axel

.

All..
.


.fonts ) (/home

font.ir
.

:

$ mkdir ~/.fonts

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Font_Configuration

http://cyberrabbits.net

font . .

$ fc-cache -vf

/usr/share/fonts/ .


.
X Window ) (GUI

.
DE WM

.

. DE WM

)(WM

X Window

. .

)(DE




. DE

.

.

KDE Gnome LXDE Xfce OpenBox



WMFS
.

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Window_Manager

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Window_Manager

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Desktop_Environment

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Desktop_Environment

.xinitrc
.

: ) kdm
(KDE .

:
.GDM, KDM, LXDM, LightDM :

.
GDM

# systemctl enable gdm.service

.
KDM KDE

# systemctl enable kdm.service

SLiM ~/.xinitrc
) ~/.xinitrc ( .

:
# systemctl enable slim.service

LXDE .
LXDM
:
# systemctl enable lxdm.service

LightDM
. :
# systemctl enable lightdm.service

~/.xinitrc
startx

: .
$ nano ~/.xinitrc
#!/bin/sh
#
# ~/.xinitrc
#
# Executed by startx (run your window manager from here)
#
exec <session-command>

.< session-command>

:awesome

$ nano ~/.xinitrc
#!/bin/sh
#
# ~/.xinitrc
#
# Executed by startx (run your window manager from here)
#
exec awesome

:

exec awesome
exec dwm
exec startfluxbox
exec fvwm2
exec gnome-session
exec openbox-session
exec startkde
exec startlxde
exec startxfce4
exec enlightenment_start

exec mate-session
exec wmfs

KDE
:


f
.

KDE

:
KDE
# pacman -Syu

KDE:
# pacman -S kde

:kde-meta
# pacman -S kde-meta

KDE KDE-meta KDE.



:

# pacman -S kde-l10n-yourlanguagehere


kde-l10n-fa .

$ pacman -Ss kde-l10n

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/KDE_Packages


KDE 4.x :

KDE .


KDE 4.x : Gamin Fam

:

KDE SC
# pacman -S kdebase phonon-vlc

phonon-gstreamer phonon-vlc .

: * ttf- phonon-vlc .


ttf-freefonts phonon-gstreamer
ttf-dejavu * ttf- .
KDE

KDE . .xinitrc

KDE
kdm
systemctl . .
SliM LightDM .

KDE startx ~/.xinitrc .

KDE KDE


: fallback mode .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Kde

http://linuxreview.ir/1390/05/an-example-of-kdes-flexibility-and-power


Gnome-session
fallback mode .
fallback mode

.
gnome-panel/Metacity gnome-shell/Mutter


:

# pacman -Syu

:
# pacman -S gnome gnome-extra


. .xinitrc

gdm
systemctl . .
SliM LightDM .

startx ~/.xinitrc .
.
DE

Alt+F2 r

Enter .

MATE
.

MATE
.
http://repo.mate-desktop.org/archlinux

https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/CheatSheet

/etc/pacman.conf :


# nano /etc/pacman.conf
][mate
Server = http://repo.mate-desktop.org/archlinux/$arch

:
# pacman -Syy
# pacman -S mate
# pacman -S mate-extras

--force .

MATE

. .xinitrc


lightdm

systemctl .

SliM .
.
lightdm :

# ln -s /usr/lib/lightdm/lightdm/gdmflexiserver /usr/bin/mdmflexiserver

startx ~/.xinitrc .


Nautilus Caja

Metacity Marco

Gconf Mate-conf

Gedit Pluma

Eye of GNOME Eye of MATE

Evince Atril

File Roller Engrampa

GNOME Terminal MATE Terminal

L XDE
L XDE

LXDE .

LXDE lxde-common, lxsession, desktop-file-utils .


LXDE :

# pacman -Syu lxde

.

Gpicview, libfm, lxappearance, lxappearance-obconf, lxde-common, lxde-icon-theme, lxdm,
lxinput, lxlauncher, lxmenu-data, lxmusic, lxpanel, lxrandr, lxsession, lxshortcut, lxtask,
lxterminal, menu-cache, openbox, pcmanfm,


menu.xml, rc.xml autostart ~/.config/openbox .
/etc/xdg/openbox :
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/openbox
$ cp /etc/xdg/openbox/{rc.xml,menu.xml,autostart} ~/.config/openbox

Gamin .
FAM daemon:

# pacman -S gamin

DE .

# pacman -S leafpad xarchiver obconf epdfview


LXDE
.

LXDE

LXDE . .xinitrc

lightdm

LXDE systemctl .
SliM .
.
LXDE startx ~/.xinitrc .
.

Xfce
.
Xfce KDE
Xfce4 . Xfce .


.

Xfce


.
Xfce

:
# pacman -S xfce4



Enter .

) (.

:


# pacman -S xfwm4 xfce4-panel xfdesktop thunar xfce4-session

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/LXDE

# pacman -S xfce4-settings xfce4-appfinder xfce-utils xfconf

:

# pacman -S xfce4-goodies

xfce4-mixer ALSA :
# pacman -S gstreamer0.10-base-plugins

Gamin :
# pacman -S gamin

Xfce

Xfce . .xinitrc


lightdm

Xfce systemctl .
SliM .
.
Xfce startx ~/.xinitrc .
xfce .

OpenBox
OpenBox floating community

OpenBox

:
# pacman -S openbox

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Xfce

:
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/openbox
$ cp /etc/xdg/openbox/{rc.xml,menu.xml,autostart,environment} ~/.config/openbox

OpenBox

OpenBox . .xinitrc


lightdm
OpenBox systemctl .
SliM
.

OpenBox startx ~/.xinitrc .


OpenBox

WMFS

Dynamic

.
WMFS

WMFS

$ yaourt -S wmfs-git

:

$ mkdir -p ~/.config/wmfs

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Openbox

https://linuxreview.ir/1390/03/openbox-how-to

$ cp /etc/xdg/wmfs/wmfsrc ~/.config/wmfs

WMFS

WMFS . .xinitrc


lightdm

WMFS systemctl .
SliM .
.
WMFS startx ~/.xinitrc .
WMFS .

)m (

.
.

chroot


-U
.
:

.
# cd /var/cache/pacman/pkg/
# pacman -U PKGNAME-VERSION.pkg.tar.xz

icu icu-4.8-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
:
# pacman -U icu-4.8-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Wmfs

.

:
$ yaourt -S downgrade


A.R.M.
.
Enter s

:( )
# downgrade firefox
The following packages are available in your cache:
1

local firefox-7.0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz

please choose a version, [s]earch A.R.M., or [q]uit: s


The following packages are available from the A.R.M.:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra

firefox-8.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz.sig [installed]
firefox-8.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz [installed]
firefox-7.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz.sig
firefox-7.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-7.0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz.sig
firefox-7.0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-6.0.2-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz.sig
firefox-6.0.2-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-6.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz.sig
firefox-6.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-6.0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz.sig
firefox-6.0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-5.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-4.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-4.0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz.sig
firefox-4.0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.9-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.8-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.7-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.6-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.4-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.3-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz

firefox-3.6-2-i686.pkg.tar.gz
firefox-3.6.2-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.15-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.14-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.13-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.12-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.11-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.6.10-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
firefox-3.5.7-1-i686.pkg.tar.gz
firefox-3.5.6-1-i686.pkg.tar.gz
firefox-3.5.5-1-i686.pkg.tar.gz
firefox-3.5.4-1-i686.pkg.tar.gz

extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra
extra

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

please choose a version or [q]uit: 2

.
2 firefox-8.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz

:
# pacman -Sc

:

# pacman -Scc

chroot
) (change root
Chroot

)

(.



:

. chroot jail chroot .

(
Chroot )
.

) (Live CD ) (Live USB

mount .

:

/ ) ( .
.chroot

.chroot

:

# uname m


chroot chroot

swap chroot . swap

> <# swapon /dev/

/

unix

) (.

./ ) (Mounting
.

Linux
!


/ .

.

.

.
.
.

) (:

# fdisk l

:
# mkdir /mnt/arch
> /mnt/arch <# mount /dev/


:
mount :
# cd /mnt/arch
# mount -t proc proc proc/
# mount -t sysfs sys sys/
# mount -o bind /dev dev/
)/boot ,/var ,/usr :

(... ) (:
> boot/ <# mount /dev/

.
chroot

chroot mount

mount
) (umount chroot

)
) (umount all

( chroot

mount umount .
.

chroot DNS

:
# cp -L /etc/resolv.conf etc/resolv.conf
# cp -L /etc/hosts etc/hosts

chroot :

# chroot . /bin/bash

chroot: cannot run command '/bin/bash': Exec format error


chroot /etc/mtab :
# grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts > /etc/mtab

bash chroot

bash


bash
:


~/.bash_profile
~/.bashrc
# nano /etc/profile

chroot
chroot chroot :
# exit

mount umount:

}# umount {proc,sys,dev,boot,

umount:

# cd ..
# umount arch/

:
/mnt
( chroot .

. /mnt/arch/usr
( mount

. /mnt/arch
umount mount

mount :

# mount

:
# umount -f /mnt


... .

# pacman -S mplayer openjdk6 dvd+rw-tools libdvdread libdvdcss


# pacman -S ntfs-3g dosfstools gstreamer0.10-bad-plugins dvd+rw-tools
# pacman -S gstreamer0.10-base gstreamer0.10-base-plugins
# pacman -S gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-good
# pacman -S gstreamer0.10-good-plugins gstreamer0.10-ugly
# pacman -S gecko-mediaplayer xine-lib xine-ui flashplugin

.
.
:Rsync

.
:Deluge
:Empathy )(.

:Kopete ).(KDE

:Pidgin .
:Evolution .

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Common_Applications

:Thunderbird .
:Firefox .
.
:Chromium
:Opera .

:Hotot .
:Choqok ).(KDE

:Filezilla .FTP
.

:GParted

).(KDE
:Okular
:Foxit Reader .PDF

.
:goldendict /

:Amarok ).(KDE

:Rhythmbox )(.

:Banshee .

:Clementine .

:Blender .

:Gimp .
:Inkscape .

:Krita .

:GalaPix .

:XnView .
.
:Mplayer
:SMPlayer Qt .Mplayer

.
:VLC
:PiTiVi .

.
:Audacity

:Pulseaudio .
).(todo list
:Taskwarrior
:LibreOffice .

:Abiword .

:LibreOffice Writer )
(.

:LibreOffice Calc .
:Iptables .

:Brasero ) CD/DVD(.
).(KDE
:K3B CD/DVD
)(.
:Glipper

).(KDE

:Klipper

:Peazip .

.
:Ark

:P7zip .7-Zip

:Dolphin ).(KDE

:Nautilus )(.
:PCManFM .

.
:Cario -Dock

:Avant Windows Navigator .

.
:Docky

:Conky .

).(KDE
:Yakuake

.
Yaourt