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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

5. TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING AND


DEMULTIPLEXING

Aim:
1. To study the 4 channel analog multiplexing and de multiplexing
2. To study the effect of sampling frequency on output signal
characteristics.
3. To study the effect of input signal amplitude on the output signal

characteristics.

Apparatus required:
1. Time Division Multiplexing and de multiplexing trainer Kit.
2. Dual Trace oscilloscope

Theory:
In PAM, PPM the pulse is present for a short duration and for most of the time
between the two pulses no signal is present. This free space between the pulses
can be occupied by pulses from other channels. This is known as Time Division
Multiplexing. Thus, time division multiplexing makes maximum utilization of the
transmission channel. Each channel to be transmitted is passed through the low
pass filter. The outputs of the low pass filters are connected to the rotating
sampling switch (or) commutator. It takes the sample from each channel per
revolution and rotates at the rate of f s. Thus the sampling frequency becomes fs
the single signal composed due to multiplexing of input channels. These
channels signals are then passed through low pass reconstruction filters. If the
highest signal frequency present in all the channels is fm, then by sampling
theorem, the sampling frequency fs must be such that fs≥2fm. Therefore, the time

space between successive samples from any one input will be T s=1/fs, and Ts ≤
1/2fm.

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Circuit Diagram:

Fig: 1 Time Division Multiplexing And Demultiplexing Circuit


Procedure:
There are 4 signal sources;
a) AF Signal generator
b) Triangular wave generator
c) Square wave generator and
d) Sine wave generator
1. Connect these four signals to four inputs of the Multiplexer. Adjust each signal
amplitude to be with in +/-2V (p-p) and frequency non-over lapping within a
frequency band of 300Hz.
2. Connect A, B output of 7476 to A1, B l inputs of Multiplexer.
3. Adjust the frequency of IC 8038 (Square wave, triangular wave generator) to
be around 32 KHz, so that each of the Four channels are sampled at 8 KHz.
4. Adjust the pulse width of 555 timers to be around 10µsecs.
5. Observe the 4 output pin 11 of 7476 on one channel 1and TDM output pin 13
of CD4052 on second channel of oscilloscope. Synchronize scope Internal-CH
1 mode. All the multiplexed channels are observed during the full period of the
clock (1/32 KHz).
6. Connect TDM output to comparator –ve input and saw tooth wave to +ve
Input. Observe the Comparator output. The PAM pulses are now converted in
to PWM pulses.

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7. Connect the PWM pulses to TDM input of De multiplexer at pin 3 of second


CD4052. Observe the individual outputs Y0, Y1, Y2, and Y3 at pin 1, 5, 2 & 4
of CD4052 respectively. The PWM pulses corresponding to each channels
are now separated as 4 streams.
8. Take one output and connect it to Low Pass Filter and the Low Pass Filter
output to Amplifier. Observe the output of the amplifier in conjunction with the
corresponding input. Repeat this for all 4 inputs. This is the Demodulated
TDM output. Any slight variation in frequency, amplitude is reflected in the
corresponding output.

Observations:

Input Signal Multiplexed output


S.No Type of Signal Amplitude Time period Time No. of
(Vp-p) (ms) Slot(ms) cycles
1 AF signal 2 3.4 1.5 7
2 Sine wave 2 3.4 3.6 2
3 Square wave 2 3.4 2.4 1
4 Triangular wave 2 3.4 2 1

(a)

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(b)
Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) AF Signal and Triangular Wave (b) Square and Sine
Wave

Fig: 3 Multiplexed Output Waveform

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(a)

(b)

Fig: 4 Output Waveforms for (a & b) Demultiplexing Circuit

Inference:
Time division multiplexing and de multiplexing are observed.

Questions:

1. What is TDM?
A. The TDM process produces a bandwidth expansion factor ‘N’
independent message sources into a time slot equal to sampling
interval.

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2. Applications of TDM?
A. Telephony.

3. What is the effect of amplitude and frequency of input signals on


output?
A. If the amplitude and frequency of the output signal is varied in
accordance with the input signal.

6. PULSE CODE MODULATION AND


DE MODULATION

Aim:
To obtain the pulse code modulation and de modulation signals.

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Apparatus required:
1. PCM trainer kit
2. Dual Trace Oscilloscope.

Theory:
Pulse Code Modulation is known as digital pulse modulation technique. In fact,
the pulse code modulation technique that the message signal is subjected to a
great number of operations. It consists of 3 main parts i.e., transmitter,
transmission path and receiver. The essential operations in the transmitter of a
PCM system are sampling, quantizing and encoding. Sampling is the operation in
which an analog signal is sampled according to the sampling theorem resulting in
a discrete time signal. The quantizing and encoding operations are usually
performed in the same circuit which is known as an ADC. Also, the essential
operations in the receiver are regeneration of impaired signals, decoding and
demodulation of the train of quantized samples. These operations are usually
performed in the same circuit which is known as digital to analog converter.
Further at intermediate points along the transmission route from the transmitter to
the receiver, regenerative repeaters are used to reconstruct the transmitted
sequence of coded pulses in order to combat the accumulated effects of signal
distortion and noise. The quantization refers to the use of a finite set of amplitude
levels and the selection of a level nearest to a particular sample value of the
message signal as the representation the system at transmission in which
sampled and quantized values of an analog signal are transmitted via a
sequence of code words is called Pulse Code Modulation. Two most commonly
used versions are the differential pulse code modulation and delta modulation.
The PCM communication system is shown in Fig1. In the circuit is often called an
analog to digital converter. The functional block that performs the task of
accepting binary digits and generating appropriate sequences of levels is called a
digital to analog converter. The bandwidth of PCM will be much greater than that
of the message. PCM is used to convert analog signals to binary form. Low pass
filter may be used to reduce the quantization noise and it yields the original
message signal.

Circuit Diagram:

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Fig: 1 Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation Circuit

Procedure:

1. Make the connections as per the diagram as shown in the Fig.1.and


switch on the power supply of the trainer kit.
2. Clock generator generates a 20 KHz clock .This can be given as
input to the timing and control circuit and observe the sampling
frequency fs= 2 KHz approximately at the output of timing and control
circuit.
3. Apply the signal generator output of 6V(p-p) approximately to the A to
D converter input and note down the binary word from LED’s i.e. LED
“ON” represents ‘1’ & “OFF” represents ‘0’
4. Feed the PCM waveform to the demodulator circuit and observe the
waveform at the output of D/A which is quantized level.

Observations:

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Amplitude: 7v (p-p)
Frequency: 100Hz

(a)

Amplitude: 6v (p-p)
Frequency: 2 KHz

(b)

Amplitude: 3.68v (p-


p)

(c)
Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a)
Modulating Signal (b)
Sampling Signal (c) PCM output

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Amplitude: 6.4v (p-p)


Time period: 8ms
Frequency: 122.2Hz

Fig: 3 Output Waveform for


Demodulation Circuit

Apply the DC control voltage

DC voltage(v) Bit sequence


MSB LSB
-4
1100 0111
-3
1010 1101
-2
1001 0111

4
0001 0111

5
0011 1111

Inference:
Recovery of the transmitter information does not depend on the height, width (or)
energy content of the individual pulses but only on their presence or absence.
Thus noise immunity of a PCM signal is much more than any analog pulse
modulation signal.

Questions:
1. What is the need of parallel to serial converter?

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A. To transmit all the bits in one channel.

2. What is the use of companding?


A. Companding is used to overcome quantizing noise in PCM.

3. What are the applications of PCM?


A. Because of high immune to noise it can be used for storage
systems in CD recording.

7. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE CODE MODULATION AND


DEMODULATION

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Aim:
To study the differential PCM & demodulation by sending variable
frequency sine wave & variable DC signal input.
Apparatus required:
1. AF oscillator
2. DPCM modulator
3. DPCM demodulator
4. Connecting wires
5. CRO - 30MHz
6. Variable DC Source – 1
Theory:
In this DPCM instead of transmitting a base band signal m(t) we send the
difference signal of Kth sample and (k-1) th sample value. The advantage here is
fewer levels are required to quantize the difference than the required to quantize
m(t) and correspondingly, fewer bits will be needed to encode the levels. If we
know the post behaviour of a signal up to a certain time, it is possible to make
some interference about its future values this is called prediction. The filter
designed to perform the prediction is called a predictor. The difference between
the interest and the predictor o/p is called the prediction error.

Circuit Diagram:

Fig:1 Differential Pulse Code Modulation Circuit

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Fig: 2 Differential Pulse Code Demodulation Circuit

Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental kit.
2. Apply the variable DC signal of amplitude 6v(p-p) with frequency of 80Hz
to the input terminals of DPCM modulator.
3. Observe the sampling signal of amplitude 5v (p-p) with frequency 20KHz
on channel 1 of a CRO.
4. Observe the output of DPCM on the second channel.
5. By adjusting the DC voltage potentiometer, observe the DPCM output.
6. During the demodulation connect DPCM output to the input of

demodulator and observe the output of DPCM demodulator.

Observations:

Amplitude: 5v(p-p)
Frequency:20KHz
(a)

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Amplitude: 6v(p-p)
Frequency:80Hz
(b)

Amplitude: 3.68v (p-p)

(c)
Fig: 3 Waveforms of (a) Sampling Signal (b) Modulating Signal (c) DPCM Output

Amplitude: 5.8v (p-p)


Step width: 1.4ms

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(a)

-
(b)

Fig. 4 Output of (a) D/A Converter (b) Demodulated

Inference:
The DPCM wave forms were generated and they are demodulated for DC input
signals. By using DPCM the overall bit rate is decreases and number of bits
required to transmit one sample is also reduced

Questions:
1. What is the effect sampling signal?
A. Sampling time interval should be greater than the A to D conversion time.
2. Write the advantage of DPCM compared with PCM?
A. It reduce the transmission bandwidth and for a constant signal to quantizing
noise ratio and a sampling rate of 8khz, the DPCM provides a saving of about
8-16 bit per second over standard PCM.
3. What is the one bit version of DPCM?
A. Delta Modulation is the one bit version of DPCM.

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8. DELTA MODULATION
Aim:
To obtain the delta modulation and demodulation signals.
Apparatus required:
1. Delta Modulation & Demodulation Kit
2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 0-30MHz
Theory:
Delta modulation uses a single bit PCM code to achieve digital transmission of
analog signals with conventional PCM each code is binary representation of both
the sign and magnitude of a particular sample. With delta modulation, rather than
transmit a coded representation of the sample, only a single bit is transmitted,
which indicates whether that sample is larger or smaller than the previous
sample. The algorithm for a delta modulation system is quite simple. If the
current sample is smaller than the previous sample, a logic 0 is transmitted. If the
current sample is larger than the previous sample, a logic 1 is transmitted. The
input analog is sampled and converted to a PAM signal, which is compared to
the output of the DAC. The output of the DAC is a voltage equal to the
regenerated magnitude of the previous sample, which was stored in the up/down
counter as a binary number, The up/down counter is incremented or
decremented depending on whether the previous sample is larger or smaller than
the current sample. The up/down counter is clocked at a rate equal to the sample
rate. Therefore, the up/down counter is updated after each comparison.

Block Diagram:

Fig: 1 Delta Modulation Circuit

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Fig: 2 Delta Demodulation Circuit


Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental board.
2. Connect the clock signal of frequency of 10KHz,with amplitude of 5v(p-p)
to the delta modulator circuit.
3. Connect the modulating signal of amplitude 5v(p-p) and frequency of of
0.2KHz modulating input of the delta modulator
And observe the same on channel 1 of a Dual Trace oscilloscope.
4. Observe the Delta Modulator output on channel 2.
5. Connect this Delta modulator output to the Demodulator
6. Also connect the clock signal to the demodulator.
7. Observe the Demodulator output with and without RC filter on CRO.

Observations:

(a)

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(b)

(c)

Fig: 3 Waveforms (a) Clock input (b) Delta modulation output & message signal
(c) D/A converter output

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Fig: 4 Output
Waveform for demodulating signal

Inference:
Delta Modulation signal is generated and demodulated.

Questions:
1. What is the slope overload effect?
A. In general the step size we choose to quantize is fixed. So under
maximum slope of the signal this step size becomes small to follow the
steep of the input waveform. This condition is called slope - overload and
the resulting quantizing error is called slope – overload noise.

2. What is granular noise?


A. Granular noise corresponds to the error due to quantization in the ‘1’ bit
coding process.

3. Write the advantage of DM over PCM?


A. Dm transmits only one bit for one sample, thus the signaling rate and
channel bandwidth is very small, where as in PCM 4,8,or 6 bits are used per
sample.

4. What is the effect of the Low Pass Filter cut off frequency on output of
demodulator?
A. If the modulating signal frequency is higher than the low pass filter cut off
frequency the signal will be attenuated.

9. FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

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Aim:
To generate the waveforms of frequency shift keying

Apparatus required:
Name of the apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity
Resistors 33kΩ 2
Capacitors 0.01µF, 100pF Each one
Function Generator 0-1MHz 1
RPS 0-30V, 1A 1
CRO 0-30MHz 1
Supply voltage - ±18V or
IC 8038 36V 1
Power dissipation – 750mW
CRO Probes ---- 1

Theory:
FSK signaling schemes find a wide range of applications in low-speed digital
data transmission system. FSK schemes are not as efficient as PSK interms of
power and bandwidth utilization. In binary FSK signaling the waveforms are used
to convey binary digits 0 and 1 respectively. The binary FSK waveform is a
continuous, phase constant envelope FM waveform. The FSK signal bandwidth
in this case is of order of 2MHz, which is same as the order of the bandwidth of
PSK signal.

Circuit Diagram:

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Fig: 1 Frequency Shift Keying

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1
2. Apply the (binary) Data input of amplitude 20V (p-p) with frequency of 6 KHz
from function generator to pin no.7.
3. Give the power supply of 10v to the appropriate pins.
4. Observe the FSK output at pin no.2.
5. Now note down the mark and space frequencies for different carrier
frequencies.
6. Calculate the maximum frequency deviation and modulation index.
7. Repeat the steps (5) and (6) for different pulse durations of binary input.

Observations:

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Amplitude: 5v (p-p)
Frequency: 50 KHz

(a)

Amplitude: 20v (p-p)


Frequency: 6 KHz
Positive width: 90.80µs
Negative width: 87.42µs

(b)

Amplitude: 5.8v (p-p)


Time period: 48µs
Frequency: 20.83
KHz
Positive width:
12.45µs

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Negative width: 35.55µs

(c)
Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) Carrier wave (b) Data input (c) FSK Wave

Amplitude: 14.2v (p-p)


Frequency: 5.6 KHz
Time Period: 178µs

Fig: 3 Output Waveform for Demodulated Signal

Inference:
The frequency of the sinusoidal carrier is switched depending upon the i/p
binary signal

Questions:

1. Write the advantage of FSK compared to ASK?


A. It has constant modulated signal envelope and equal conditional error
probability for both the digits.

2. What is the disadvantage of FSK compared with ASK & PSK?


A. The bandwidth of FSK signal is higher than that of ASK &PSK signal

3. What is the effect of R1, C2 values on the output?

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A. If R1, C2 values are changed the time period of the carrier will change.

10. PHASE SHIFT KEYING


Aim:
To generate the waveforms of phase shift keying.

Apparatus required:

Name of the apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity


Diodes(IN4007) Max Voltage:45V 4
Transformers 7V-0-7V 2
Function Generator 0-1MHz 2
CRO 0-30MHz 1
CRO Probes ---- 1

Theory:
Circuit diagram of PSK as shown in Fig.1. The phase of carrier is shifted between
two values is called Phase Shift Keying. The amplitude of carrier remains
constant. Phase Shift Keying is also called Phase Reversal Keying. The
performance of PSK is more than ASK. PSK is a non linear modulation. PSK
needs a complicated. Synchronous circuit at the receiver. The bandwidth of PSK
is 2fm.

Circuit Diagram:

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Fig: 1 Phase Shift Keying Circuit


Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental board.
2. Apply the carrier signal of amplitude7v (p-p) with frequency of 4 KHz to the
modulator input and observe the signal on the channel of the CRO.
3. Apply the modulating signal of amplitude 6V (p-p) and frequency of 0.5 KHz
to pin.11.
4. Observe the output of PSK modulator on the channel 2 of the CRO.

Observations:

(a)

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Amplitude: 6v (p-p)
Frequency: 1 KHz

(b)

Amplitude: 6v (p-p)

(c)

Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a)


Carrier signal (b)
Modulating signal (c) PSK output

Inference:
The PSK waveform was generated for different message signals .and the phase
of the carrier is switched depending upon the input binary signal
Questions:
1. Drawback of DPSK compared to BPSK?
A DPSK uses two successive bits for its reception .error in the first bit creates
error in the second bit. Therefore error propagation in DPSK is more .on the
other hand in BPSK single bit can go in error since detection of each bit is
independent
2. Write the advantage of BPSK over the BPSK?
A Bandwidth requirement of BPSK is double the bandwidth requirement of
BPSK
3. What is the effect of carrier amplitude on the output?
A. The amplitude of the output can be varied by changing the carrier amplitude.
4. What is the effect of modulating signal frequency on the output?
A. The phase difference interval can be varied by changing the frequency of the
modulating signal

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11. DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION


AND DEMODULATION
Aim:
To study the various steps involved in generating the differential phase
shift keyed signal and the binary signal from the received DPSK signal

Apparatus required:
1. DPSK trainer board
2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (0-30MHz)
Theory:
The differentially coherent PSK signaling scheme make use of a technique
designed to get around the need for a coherent reference signal at the receiver.
In the DPSK scheme, the phase reference for demodulation is derived from the
phase of the carrier during the preceding signaling interval, and the receiver
decodes the digital information based on the differential phase.
Circuit Diagram:

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Fig: 1 Differential Phase Shift Keying Circuit

Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental board.
2. Check the carrier signal and the data generator signals initially.
3. Apply the carrier signal of amplitude 6v (p-p) with frequency of1KHz to the
carrier input, the data input of amplitude 5v (p-p) with frequency of 600Hz
to the data input and bit clock of amplitude 5v (p-p) with and frequency of
1 KHz to the DPSK modulator.
4. Observe the DPSK wave of amplitude 5.6v (p-p) and frequency of 1 KHz
with respect to the input data generated signal of dual trace oscilloscope.
5. Give the output of the DPSK modulator signal to the input of demodulator,
give the bit clock output to the bit clock input to the demodulator and also
give the carrier output to the carrier input of demodulator.
6. Observe the demodulator output with respect to data generator signal.

Observations:

(a)

(b)

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(c)

(d)

Amplitude: 5.6v
Frequency: 1.16 KHz
Time period: 860µs

(e)

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Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) Carrier signal (b) Bit clock (c) Data input (d) Differential
data (e) DPSK wave

Fig: 3 Output Waveform


for demodulated Wave

Inference:
The DPSK waveform was generated and demodulated for the binary
message signal.

Questions:

1. Write the advantage of DPSK?


A. DPSK does not need a synchronous carrier at the demodulator

2. What is the drawback of DPSK compared to PSK system?


A. DPSK uses two successive bits for its reception .error in the first bit creates
error in the second bit. Therefore error propagation in Dpsk is more .on the
other hand in BPSK single bit can go in error since detection of each bit is
independent.

3. What is the effect of carrier amplitude on the output of DPSK?


A. The amplitude of the DPSK is same as the amplitude of the carrier signal
if it is varied the amplitude of the DPSK will vary.

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12. AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING


Aim:
To generate the waveforms of Amplitude Shift Keying.

Apparatus required:

Name of the Apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity


Resistors 1.2KΩ, 3
Transistor BC 107 2
CRO 30MHz 1
Function generator 0-1MHz 1
Regulated Power Supply 0-30V, 1A 1
CRO Probes --- 1

Theory:

The binary ASK system was one of the earliest form of digital modulation used in
wireless telegraphy. In an binary ASK system binary symbol 1 is represented by
transmitting a sinusoidal carrier wave of fixed amplitude Ac and fixed frequency fc
for the bit duration Tb where as binary symbol 0 is represented by switching of the
carrier for Tb seconds. This signal can be generated simply by turning the carrier
of a sinusoidal oscillator ON and OFF for the prescribed periods indicated by the
modulating pulse train. For this reason the scheme is also known as on-off shift
testing. Let the sinusoidal carrier can be represented by Ec (t) =Ac cos (2Πfct)
then the binary ASK signal can be represented by a wave s(t) given by S(t) =
Accos(2Πfct), symbol 1 ASK signal can be generated by applying the incoming
binary data and the sinusoidal carrier to the two inputs of a product modulator.
The resulting output is the ASK wave. The ASK signal which is basically product
of the binary sequence and carrier signal has a same as that of base band signal
but shifted in the frequency domain by ±fc. The band width of ASK signal is
infinite but practically it is 3/Tb.

Circuit Diagram:

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Fig: 1 Amplitude Shift Keying Circuit

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the supply.
3. Apply the sinusoidal carrier signal from the function generator to the collector
terminal of the transistor with 10v (p-p) amplitude and10KHz frequency.
4. Apply the Binary signal from the pulse generator to the Base terminal of the
transistor with 5v (p-p) amplitude and 2 KHz frequency.
5. Observe the output of ON/OFF keying from ASK modulator circuit using CRO.
6. Now vary the Amplitude and frequency of the binary signal and observe the
output changes of ASK modulated Wave & compare it with the modulating
data signal applied to the modulator input.

Observations:

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(a)

Amplitude: 4v (p-p)
Frequency: 2 KHz

Amplitude: 4v (p-p)
Frequency:2KHz

(b)

Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) Carrier signal (b) Data signal & ASK wave

Inference:
The ASK waveform was generated for different values of message signal. And
amplitude of the carrier is switched depending on the input binary signal

Questions:

1. Why we are not preferred ASK over PSK and FSK?

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A Because of constant amplitude of FSK & PSK the effect of non linearties,
noise interference is minimum on signal detection However these effects are
more pronounced on Ask

2. What is another name of ASK modulation scheme?


A. ON –OFF Keying
3. What is the Effect of carrier amplitude, frequency, V cc on the output?
A. The amplitude of the output varies depending upon the V cc and the amplitude
of the carrier.

APPENDIX

Name of the Important Specifications Pin Diagram

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component
Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
74LS00
+70oC
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low Max- 80mA
Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
74LS08
+70oC
Output Current High Max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low Max- 80mA
Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
74LS74 +70oC
Power supply current - 8.0mA

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
74138
+70oC
Output Current High Max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low Max- 80mA
Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
+70oC
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA

74194

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Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
High level input voltage min – 2V
Low level input voltage max– 0.8V
74LS374 High level output current max – -2.4mA
Low level output current max- 24mA
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
+70oC

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
74151 +70oC
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
+70oC
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA
74LS163

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
+70oC
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
74LS164
Output Current Low max - 80mA

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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Free air operating temperature- 0oC to
+70oC

74165 Supply Current max – 36mA


Clock frequency – 25MHz
Pulse width (Clock) – 25ns

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
+70oC
Power supply current – 34mA

74168

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
+70oC
74193
Clock frequency – 25MHz
Supply Current max – 34mA

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
74LS86 +70oC
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA

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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Supply Voltage Min – 4.75V


Supply Voltage Max – 5.25V
Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
+70oC
74LS90
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA

Input voltage Range - -14.5V to 13V


Voltage gain – 40V/mV
Saturation voltage – 1.5V
LM311
Positive Supply Current – 7.5mA
Negative Supply Current – 5mA

Wide power supply rating – 3V to 32V


Operating temperature Range – 0oC to
+70oC
Storage temperature - (-65oC to +150oC)
LM324

Supply Voltage – 5V
Operating temperature Range – (-55oC to
+125oC)
DAC0800 Power Dissipation -500mW
Input current – 5mA
Storage temperature - (-65oC to +150oC)

Supply voltage – ±5V


Clock range – 50 to 800KHz
Operating temperature Range – (-55oC to
+125oC)
ADC0800
Power supply current – 20mA

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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Supply voltage - +5V to 18V


Operating temperature Range – (-40 oC to
+80oC)
CD4051 Storage temperature - (-65 oC to +150oC)
Power dissipation – 700mW

Supply voltage - +5V to 18V


Operating temperature Range – (-40 oC to
+80oC)
CD4052 Storage temperature - (-65 oC to +150oC)
Power dissipation – 700mW

Simultaneous outputs – sine wave


Square wave and Triangle
Low distortion – 1%
High linearity – 01%
Easy to use – 50% reduction in external
components
Wide frequency range of operation 0.001
Hz to 1.0Mhz
8038
Variable duty cycle – 2% to 98%
Supply voltage - ±18V or 36V total
Power dissipation – 750mW
Input voltage (any pin) Not to exceed
supply voltages
Input current (pins 4 and 5 ) – 25mA
Operating temperature range: 55oC to
+125oC
Supply Voltage ±22V
Power Dissipation 500mW
Differential input voltage ±30V
μA741 Input voltage ±15V
Operating Temperature -55o to +125oC
Storage Temperature range -55o to
+150oC

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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Supply Voltage ±18V


Power Dissipation 680mW
Input voltage ±15V
TL084 Operating Temperature -0o to +70oC
Storage Temperature range -65o to
+150oC

Operating tem :SE 555 -55oC to 125oC


NE 555 0o to 70oC
Supply voltage :+5V to +18V
Timing :µSec to Hours
Sink current :200mA
IC 555
Temperature stability :50 PPM/oC change
in temp or 0-005% /oC.

REFERENCES:

• Digital Communications - by John Proakis, TMH


• Communication Systems - by Simon Hay kin, John Wiley
• Communication Systems –by Sanjay Sharma
• Digital Communication Fundamentals & Applications –by
Bernard Sklar
• Principles of Digital Communications – by P.Chakrabarthi

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