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Haiphongit.com.Giao Trinh Dien Dan Dung Va Cong Nghiep

Haiphongit.com.Giao Trinh Dien Dan Dung Va Cong Nghiep

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~ ~

OlEN DAN DUNG

• •

~ ~

vA CONG NGHIEP

sAcH DUNG CHO cAc TRUONG DAo T~O H~ TRUNG HQC CHUYEN NGHI~P

Thermostat 1 '...4--~..:....o~-------y--

:-~~~~]_ _

: FlLBV :

, '

, :

, ,

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:8

~ NIIA XUAT BAN GIAO DlJC

vo VAN TAM

GIAOTR1NH

£lIEN DAN DUNG vA CONG NGHIEP

•• •

Stich dung cho cac truang dao tao h~ Trung hoc chuyen nghi~p

.(Tai ban Ian ma bay

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO DVC

Vi~c trf chuc bien. so~n va xutlt ban m(jt sf/giao trinh phuc VI!- cho aao tao aic chuyen nganh Di~n - fJ~n tit, Cd khi - fJ(jng z,!C (} cac trLti:tng THCN - DN 10, m(jt sl,l' co g&ng 100 cua VI!- Trung hoc chuyen nghi~p - D~y nghi va Nha xutlt ban Giao due, nhdm timg bLtdc thtfng nhfit n(ji dung ~y va hoe (} cdc trLtdng THCN tren toan qu6c.

Niji dung coo gido trinh aa alJr!C .roy dl!ng tren. ca sd ke thita nhi1ng niji dung aLtCjc giang d~y d cdc trLti:tng, ktt h{1p vm nhitng niji dung mm nhdm aapllng yeu cdu nang cao cha't ILt~g ctdo t~ phl!-c VI!- sl/ nghi~p cong nghi~p h6a, hi~n ru;r,i h6a. Di cuang Clla gido trinh. cUi aLteje VI,l Trung hQ~ chuyen nghi~p - D~y ngM tham khao j kiln cua m(jt s6' trLti:tng nhu : Truimg Cao acing Cong nghi~p Ha Noi, TrLti:tng TH Vi~t - Hung, TrttiJng TH Cong nghi4p II, Trltilng TH Cong ngh~p III v.v ... va aa nh(in aut/c nhiiu j kiln thitt thl/c, giup cho tac gid bien so~n phit

h{1phdn. .

Gioo trinh do cdc nha gitio co nhie'u kinh nghi~m giang ~y (} cac trtti:tng D~i hoc, Cao acing, THCN bien sO(ln. Guio trinh alitJC bien sO(ln ng&n gQn, di hie"u, bO'sung nhiiu kiln thuc mm va bien s~n theo quan ailm mo, nghia la, t!i cq,p nhitng n(ji dung co ban, c6t yeu tIl tity thea tinh chfit cUa ctic nganh nghi ctdo t{LO ma nha truimg tl,l diiu chinh. cho thich h{1p va khong trtii vm quy dinh. cua chLtdng trinh khung aao tao THCN.

Tuy cdc tac gia da co nhiiu co' g&ng khi bien s~n, nhling giao trinh cMc khlJng trtinh. khai nhitng khilm khuyet. VI!- Trung hQC chuyen nghi~p - D(ly ngh€ di nghj cac trui:tng su dl,lng nhitng giao trinh xutit ban l6.n nay de' bO' sung cho ngu6n giao trinli ctang rtlt thieu hi~n nay, nhdm phl,lc VI!- cho viec d{Ly va hoc cua cdc trliang tU;tt chfit ILt~g cao han. Cdc gido trinh nay ciing rtft btl ich dOi vm diji ngii ki thu(it oien, -clJng nhan ki thu(it dl nang cao kie'n thuc va tay nghi cho minh.

Hy oong nh(in dLt{IC SI/ gop j cua cac truang va ban. ctQc de' nhftng giao trinh dLttJC bien SO(ln tie'p hofic idn tdi ban sau co chdt lli~g tm han. MQi gop j xin. gm vi NXB Giao due -81 Tran Hung £)9;0 =Ha N(ji.

V1)THCN-DN

3

MiJd6u

Gicio trinh Dl~N DAN DVNG vA CONG NGHl~P dll(jc bien. sO{ln di cllelng do v¥ THCN - DN, B(j Gicio due & Biro t{lo xay dl/ng va thong qua. Ni)i dung dll(jc bien soan. thea tinh thdn ng&n g~m, di hiiu. Ccic kiln thuc trong toan bi) gicio trinh c6 mot lien h~ Mgic chq_t cke. Tuy vt;iy, gicio trinh cung chi La mQt phdn trong ni)i dung cua chuy~n nganh. dao tao cho n~n nglldi ~y, nglliti hoc cdn tham khao them. cac gicio trinh c6 lien quan dOi viti nganh. hoc d~' vi¢c sri dung giao trinh co hi¢u qua han.

Khi bien. sO{ln gi6,o trinh, chung t6i dii clf g&ng ct;ip nh9-t nhitng ki~n thuc mdi co lien. quan d~n m6n hoc va phu hC/p viti doi tll(jng sri d¥ng ciing nh.u c6' g&ng gdn nhftng ni)i dung U thuylt vm nhitng van M th1/c tt thllUng g9-P trong san xudt, ddi s6ng de'gi6,o trinh co tinh. thuc tiin cao.

Ni)i dung cua guio trinh dllrJe bun sO{ln vm dung lll{fng 90 ti~t, g6m :

Chuang 1. 8u dung va sua chua nhung hu hong cua dung C1,l do di¢n ; Chlldng 2. May di¢n ; Chllang 3. Bao v¢ may di~n ; Chlldng 4. May lanh ; Chlldng 5. Tt;l di)ng hoa h¢ th6ng lanh ; Chlldng 6. Thiet hi gia nhiet, su dung va sua chua nhiing h11 hong thtiang ~p ; Chlldng 7. Khbi dqng d9ng co di¢n. Mi)t so' mach dieu khi~n di)ng co di~n thtidng g~p ; Chlldng 8. Nhftng mach baa v~ va ttl d9ng hoa trong dan dung va c3ng nghiep,

Trang qua trinh sri dl,mg, tuy thea y~u cdu c¥ thl c6 the' aie'u chinh so'tiet trong mai chllelng. Trong giao trinh, chung t6i khOng di ra n(ii dung th1/c tq,p cua titng chuang, vi trang thilt bi ph¥c v¥ cho th1/c· t(ip cua cac truang khong d6ng nha't. Vl v(iy, din cu vao trang thi~t bi ali co cua titng trlldng va khd nang t6' chuc cho hqc sinh thuc tq,p a cac xi nghi¢p ben. ngoai ma truimg xay dt,tng thili lll(jng va n(ii dung th1/c tt;ip c¥ the' - Thdi lll(jng th1/c t(ip toi thie'u n6i chung ciing khOng it han. thm lll(jng h9C li thuyet cua mai m6n.

Gisio trinh dllf!C bien. s~n cho d6i tll(jng ia hoc sinh THeN, cong nhtin lanh. - nghi b(ic 3/7 va no ciing la tai li~u tham khao bO'ich cho sinh vien Cao ddng ki thu(it ciing nhu ki thu(it vi~n dang lam vi¢c d cdc co sa kinh tt nhiiu Iinh. V!iC kluic nhau.

M(ic dit cUi cO' gang nhung chdc cMn khOng trdnh khOi he'( khilm khuyet. Rift mong nh(in dlP;lc y kiln dOng gop clla nglldi su dung de'tan tai lxin sau dll{lc hoan. chinh han. Mqi gop y xin dli(jC giii vi NXB Gicio Due -81 Thin Hung Dao, Ha Noi.

TACGIA

4

Chuang 1

., ""'?.... - .,

SU Dl)NG VA SUA CHlJA NHLlNG HLI HONG

., ...

CUA DUNG CU £)0 £)IEN

. . .

1.1. MO DAU V A cAe D~C TiNH co BAN eVA Dl)NG cu DO Do luang la mor qua trlnh danh gia dinh hrong cac dai hrong can do de c6 ket

9ua xac dinh so voi dan vi cAn do.

1.1.1. Cac d:}e tfnh CIJ ban cua thi€t bi do a) £)" nh~y va thang do

D~ nhay cua dung cu do la gia tri nho nh~t rna dung cu do c6 tM do duoc. b) DtJ chinh xac cua thilt bi do

Chi tieu quan trong nh~t ella thiet bi do la d~ chfnh xac cua no. Mot phep do b~t kl cling c6 sai lech so vci dai IU9'Dg dung.

o· = X· - xd

I I

(1-1)

Trong d6 : x.: ket qua do thir i ;

~ : gill tri dung cua dai hrong do.

C6 the xac dinh gia tri gAn voi x, bang each dung mot dung cu do c6 cap chinh xac cao han hoac c6 th~ lay gia tri trung blnh ella nhieu lAn do.

Sj : sai s6 cua Mn do thu i,

Sai s6 tuyet d6i cua mot dung cu do la gia tri lOO oMt cua cac sai lech (sai s6) gay nen bOi dung cu do trong qua trinh do.

(1-2)

Sai s6 tuyet d6i cua dung cu do khong diroc dung d~ danh gia tinh chinh xac cua dung cu do.

D¢ chinh xac ciia phep do duoc danh gia hang sai s6 nrong d6i ella phep do va duoc tinh theo cong thuc :

!3 = ax

x

(1-3)

Trong do:.6.x : sai 56 tuyet d6i clla phep do;

x : gia tri cua dai hrong do. D6i vOi dung cu do, dai hrong x thuong H(y bang ke't qua cao nhl(t clla thang do;

!3 : dO chinh xac tuong d6i clla mot phep do.

D6i vOi dung cu dien, dO chinh X8.C nrong d6i clla dung cu doduoc tinh nhu sau :

ax 'Y=Ox

Trong do: 'Y : sai 56 luang d6i cua dung cu do :

.6.x; sai 56 tuyet d6i cua phep do :

Dx: khoang do cao nhl(l c6 tM co cua m~l thang chia dO.

Gia tri 'Y duqc dung de danh gia cl(p chfnh xac cua dung cu do va duoc ghi tren m~t dong h6 voi mOi dung C\l sau khi Che'IIiLO.

Vi du : M~t dung cu do ghi cap chinh xac ia 1, co sai 56 tuang d6i 'Y = 1 %.

'(1-4)

D6i voi m6i can bQ ki thuat va cong nhAn sUa chua dung cu do dien, phai biet danh gia nhirng sai 56 cua dung cu do sau mOi Ian sUa chua. Dd.u tien khoi phuc cac tinh nang cua dung cu do, dam bao d(J chinh X8.C thea nha che' tao, Neu khong khoi phuc duoc dQ chinh xac c4n thiet, co the ghi dQ chinh X8.C sau sua chua, de cho ngum su dung bie't voi dO chinh xac nhu vay, nen dung M do trong tnrong hop nao la phu hgp.

1.2. CO CAU DO Til' D~N. UNG D{jNG vA CACH KHA.C PH1)C NHUNG HU HONG

1.2.1. Call tao

Phan tinh cua co cau do III dien la mot mach Itr khep kin. g6m c6 mot nam cham vinh ciru. Tren th1,lc tl! c6 nhieu ket cau mach III khac nhau, nhirng deu co rnuc dich tao ra mQI III tnrong rnanh va deu a khe h& giea mach tll (hlnh 1-1). Ti'r tnrong 0 khe ho co ghi tri ti'r 0,2 + 0,4 Tesla. Gifra khe hb tit d~t mot 15i sat non hlnh tru, rnuc dich la giam khe h& khOng khf, tang tit tnrong b khe bo. Bao quanh 15i sAt non d~t mot khung day hinh chn nhat. Khung day thuong lam bang nhom mong, tren do qulin cuon day, day quan dung day emay (day d6ng co boc scm each dien) dtrong kinh day tit 0,02 + 0,25 mm. True quay giln Ch~l vao khung day, tren true quay gAn

6

10 xo can 6 phia tren va phia du6i khung day, 1.0 xo can co 2 tac dung : tao momen can va lam nhiem V\l dan dien vao khung day. 1.0 xo la hop kim d6ng co pba beryly, dan h6i t6t va 6n dinh thee nhiet d¢. 1.0 xo can ch€ tao thanh hinh xoan 6c, mot dAu g!n vao phan dong cua co cau, con dAu Ida g!n vao gia do cO dinh. De giam rna sat, tang d¢ nhay cua co cau, true quay cua khung day duqc d~t tren 6 do, daukia cua true quay duqc ti len d8. quy ~t ttong 6 do.

De giam rna sat t6i da, khung day duqc treo bang day dan hOi (hinh 1-2).

Hinhl-J

au tao co cj{u do t(r dien,

I. Nam cham vinh citu ;

2. Qua d6i trong ;

3. LOi sat non;

4. Khung da.y ;

5. Kim chi th] ; ,

6. Thang chia d(l ~

7. LO xo can :

8. Giadli";

9. True quay.

1.2.2. Nguyen Ii lam viec

Khi cho dong dien vao khung day, tiro tnrong a khe h6 khOng khi tic dung len dong dien 6 khung day mot lire dien tir, luc nay tao nen mo men quay va lam cho khung day quay. D¢ Ian cua mO men quay hang:

7

M ;:= dWdt (1-5)

q da

Trang d6:

W <It : nang hrong dien tir tich luy cua CC1 cau ;

a : g6c quay do luc dien tu tao ra. V oi dien mot chieu, nang luong dien tu bang : ..

Wdt ;:= I\jI = BSNI (1-6)

Trang do:

I : cui'mg dQ dong dien ; I.V : tu thOng moe vong ; B : dQ tu cam ;

N : s6 vong day cua khung day ;

Hinh 1·2. Co cau do ttl dien dung day treo.

S : ti€t dien mat ca.t ngang vuong g6c vOi tir cam cua khe ho khong khi. Thay (1-6) vao (1-5) ta c6 :

M :::: dWd, = dI\jI :::: Id'V :::: BSNI da :::: BSNI

.q do de da da

Trong d6 : dW:= BSNda

Dum tac dung cua mO men quay, khung day quay lam cho 10 xo can xoan lai, tao ra mO men elm cua 10 xo. MO men can 16 xo bang :

(1-7)

(1-8)

Trong do:

M_, : mO men can 16 xo ;

K : M s6 dan h6i cua 10 xo ; ex : goc quay cua khung day.

Khi khung day quay den mot vi tri nao d6 se can bang voi mo men can, ta co :

M, = Me -» BSNI :::: Kn BSNI

a=-.~

K

8

( 1·9)

(1-10)

1.2.3.11~c di~m cua co cau do tir di~n

a) Quan hf gifia gDC quay cua khung day va dong difn di vao khung day la tuyen tinh, vi the thang cbia d¢ cua mat s6 dung cu do la deu, do do co tbe de dang cb€ tao dung cu do co nhieu tbang do.

b) Di) nhf:ly cua co cau do til difn cao vi til trilO'ng if khe hu khong khi tUn

C6 tb~ cb€ tao dung ClJ. do. true tiep duoc dong dien nho nhir microampe k€.

miliampe k€ ...

c) Di) chinh. xac cao, c6 the ch€ tao dung CI,I do eo d¢ ehinh xac d€n 0,05.

d) Tieu thlJ. cong sudl nho

e) Ket cau phac tap, gid thdnh cao

1.2.4. (Jng dung 00 cau do tir di~n d~ che tao cac dung eu do dong di~n Theo cong thiic (1-7), mo men quay cua co cau do tit dien ti l~ bac nhat voi

dong dien nen co cau do ttt dien chi do duoc dong dien mot chieu,

a) Do dong difn mi)t chUu

I:M do dong dien mot chieu nho, co the do tnrc ti€p dong dien mot chieu bing cac dung CI,I do nhu microampe kt' va miliarnpe kt'.

~ do dong di~n mot chieu 160 hon dong dien cua co cau

do, nguoi ta mac song song v6i co cau do mot dien tra sun R. (hinh 1-3).

each chon .dien trb sun R, phu hop v6i dong dien c~n do

va co cau do:

Tit blnh 1- 3 ta c6 :

Hinh 1-3. Sa dO ampe k€ tir di¢n c6 mac song song dien tre sun R,.

Lay (1-12) thay vao (1-11) :

(1-13)

R = I,·..,rcc

• I - Ie<

(1-14)

9

Trongd6 :

re<: : dien tra trong cua co cau ; -

I

n =~ : h¢ s6 rna rong thang do:

Icc

I : dong dien can do ;

Is : dong dien di qua dien tra sun Rs; R, : dien tra SUD ;

Icc : dong dien l6n nhat eho phep co cau do lam viec blnh thuong.

Hlnh 1-4 bieu thi sC1 d6 ampe k€ tit dien co 3 thang do (I [. 12• 13)' Cac dien trb sun R,[. Rs2• R.3lTiae n6i tiep nhau, sau d6 nOi song song v6i co cau do tit dien, Sir dung congthrrc (1-11) d€n (1-15) de tinh cac dien trO SUD.

Dt giO' eho cap chfnh xac ella ampe k€ tit dien khOng thay dOi a cac gi6i han do khac nhau, phai

eh€ tao dien trb sun e6 dQ ehinh xac eao hon dQ ehfnh xac ella co cau do mot CAp. Vf du : CA:p chfnh xac cua CO' cau do la 0.5 tht ea'p ehinh xac ella di¢n trO sun la 0.2.

Vi vay, cac dien trO sun lam bing hop kim d6ng v6i mangan goi Ul mangannin. V6i hqp kim nay. dien tro cua n6 it thay dOi theo nhiet do, Trong khi d6 dien tro cua khung day lam bing d6ng nen thay d6i theo nhiet d¢ :

Hinh 1-4. So do ampe k~ lif di~n co 3 thang do.

(1-16)

Trong d6:

die ., ~. DC

r c ",,: ien tro cua co cau 0 t ;

rceo : dien trb cua CO' CAU sec,

a : he s6 nhiet d¢ ella day dong bang 0,0004/ °e ; t''C: nhiet dQ moi tnrong a tOe.

o nhO'ng dung CI,I do cap chfnh xac cao, nguoi ta phai t1m each loai trir sai s6 do nhiet d¢ bang each mac n6i ti€p voi co cau do mot dien tra phi tuyen.

10

Th\fC te' cac ampe ke tit dien c6 dQ chinh MC cao thuong bit nhiet dQ bang dien

.. trb d6ng v6i dien trb hop kim dOng vOi mangan. Tren so dO hlnh 1-5 cac di¢n trO R" R2• R. bAng mangannin, cac dien tM R1• rcc bang dOng. Cac dien trb nay phoii ph6i hQP veri nhau sao cho khi dong dien I khong dOi. neu c6 su thay dOi nhiet dQ jhl dong dien di qua co ca:u do khong thay dOi.

R,

Hinh 1-5. Sa d6 n6i dAy ampe kl! tic di¢n co mAc di~n tm biJ. nhiet dQ. b) Do dOng di~n m~t Chii'll cue nhd

Do dong dien ctrc nho co 10-5 A + 1O-10A. Dt do duoc dong dien nay phai co dung cu do c6 d¢ nhay cao. Hien nay viec nang cao dQ nhay, ha thap ngireng lam viec cua dung cu do, khuech dai On dinh, c6 dQ chinh xac cao con g~p nhieu kho khan.

Hinh 1-6 cho ta so d6 dien k€ tit dien khung quay. ~ tang ~ nhay bAng

each giam trong luong khnng day, A _.--

nguoi ta thay kim chi thi bang h~ th6ng.. ~Z.- - . - - or' ------. .---_L..---, ~-.,..

quang hQC, gOm co : den chieu sang I, I

tren day treo 3 ~t guong plUm cbieu 2. N

Khi khung day quay. guong quay theo va phan chieu anh sang len ~t chia d¢

. chi gia tri can do. DOng di¢n ~dn do duoc dAn vao khung dAyS true tiep nho day treo 3 va day khOng me men 4.

V 6i. cau tnic tren, d¢ nhay cua dien ke' guong co the dat de'n 10-12 + 10-14 Nm.

De tang d¢ nhay, trong thJ!C te' thuong dung cac khuech dai dien tit ; dung cac linh kien bAng ban dAn, vi dien tii ; dong

3

s

6

Hinh·1-6. Sa d6 di¢n k6 gurmg :

I_ Den cbi6u sang;

2. Guong pbin cbitu;

3. DAy treo;

4_ DAy khOng me men;

5. Khung day ;

6. Nam cham vinh Clru.

11

dien can do sau khi khuech dai dua vao dien k€. U u di~m cua khuech dai dien til la .. e6 ngueng dt) nhay cao, nhung e6 nhuoc di~m d¢ 6n dinh thap, nhlit la d6i voi ;"! khuech dai ban dan nhieu dau vao Ion, anh huong den s\l lam viec cua khuech dai,

Dt giam anh huang cua nhieu dliu vao, thirong dung cac bo khuech dai vi sai bang

vi dien til, VI cong nghe vi dien ti.r dam bao hai ban dan d6ng nhat, Ngoai ra con dung khuech dai mot chien c6 dieu ch€ (vOi. nhieu dau vao tir 5 + 10 microvon) ...

c) Do dong di~n m~t chitu /Un

Do dong dien mot chieu IOn c6 the dung phuong phap ghep song song nhieu dien trd sun, plurong phap nay dan gian nhung khong an toan cho nguoi Slr dung, Ciing e6 the dung plnrong phap do tir twang xung quanh day dan, tu do suy ra dong dien can do. Phuong phap nay co sai s6 va phu thuoc vao tinh chat phi tuyen cua 15i sit tir, Neu do tu tnrong bang phirong phap cong huong tu hat nhan thl d¢ chinh xac dat eao hem.

Mot phuong phap thong dung de do dong dien mot chieu 100 la dung may bien

. dong mot chieu, TIU!C chat may bien dong mot chieu la khuech dai ttr, ngtroi ta thay dong dieu khien khuech dai tu bang dong dien mot chieu can do : dung ampe k€ do dong dien xoay chieu (dong dien lam viec) se tfnh ra dt.tqc dong dien mot chieu can do. Hlnh 1-7 ve so do do dong dien m¢t chien Ion, Slr dung may bien dong mot chien g6m hai lei hlnh xuyen I va II lam bang v~t lieu sAt tu (pecmaloi), e6 he s6 tu tham J..I. Ion. Tren do quan hai cuon day W I va W 2. Cuon W 2 quan tren lei xuyen II ngiroc chieu veri. W2 quan tren l5i xuyen I.

r,
I"W1•
I II
i2W2 Urv 2

Hinh 1-7. Sa dO do dong di¢n I chieu Ian dung. may bien dong m¢1 chieu,

12

W I mac vao mach mot chieu co dong dien can do I, chay qua, W 2 mac vao mach xoay chien U2. Nguyen uie lam viec cua may bien dong mot chieu nhu sau : dong dien can do I. chay qua W l> tao ra s (ic til dong I. W I a ca hai loi til I va II theo chieu nhu hinh 1-7. DOng dien xoay chieu i2 di qua W2, tao ra trong hai loi hlnh xuyen I va II sac Ill' dong i2 W 2' Phuong trinh can bang sU'C ttr dong cua may bien dong mot chieu :

I. == i2 Wz x W

I

( 1-17)

(1-18)

Dung ampe ke' do dong dien i2, Sf tinh ra duoc dong dien I, can do. Ti s6 :2 goi la he s6 bien dong mot chieu,

I

U u diem cua phuong phap dung bien dong mot chien la : Dam bao an toan cho nguoi sir dung, thay d6i thang do de dang bang each thay d6i s6 vong day WI' Wz. Hien nay da co the che' tao may bien dong mot chieu voi dong dien dinh mtrc tir 15 + 70kA, cap chfnh xac 0,5.

1.2.5. (fng dung co cau do tir di~n d~ che tao dung Cl;l do di~n ap a) V dn ke tir d~n do difn ap mtJt

chilu

Hlnh 1-8 vi: so dO cau tao von k€ tu dien, De d~c tnmg cho co cau tlr dien, tren so dO ta thay th€ bang mot co cau chi thi va dien tro trong ree' CAn do dien ap Ian han dien ap cua co cau Voe, pbai mac n6i ti€p v6i co cau m¢t di¢n tro phu Rp. Tinh gia IIi dien tro phu nhu sau:

Hlnh }-8. Sa dO von kt tir dien,

0-19)

Trong d6:

R, : dien tra phu ;

0-20)

13

f.",: di~n trb trong CM CO cau ;

l.:c : cuong d¢ dong di~n di qua co cau :

Vx: dien lip can do;

Vee: dien lip 16'0 nM't cua co cau. V6i. dien ap nay co cau lam viec binh thl.tC1ng va IAu dai ;

rn = V x : he s6 rna rOng thang do.

V"" . .

~g phuong phap nay. mlc n6i tiep v6i co cau tif di~n cac dien trb phu khac nhau, se tao fa cac vOn k€ ttr dien c6 nhieu thang do (hinh 1-9). each tinh dien tr6 phu R,

theo cOng thU"c (1-20). Hlnh 1-9, So d6 von k€ lir di¢n nhitu thang do (Uec• U I' U2• U J).

Cac vOn k€ ru dien do tnJC ti€p dien ap mot chieu co sai s6 do nhiet dQ khong dang ke. Vl M s6 nhiet dO cua mach von k€ dugc xac dinh khOng chi h¢ s6 nhiet dO day quan cua co cau ru di¢n, rna cA he s6 nhiet dO cua dien trb phu, Dien trO phu duoc che' tao bang mangan 18. v~t lieu it thay d6i thee nhi¢t d¢. Han nua f"" « R, nen viec thay d6i fo:; it 8.nh hu6ng den toan b¢ mach do.

1.2.6. Pham vi (mg d\mg, nhilng nguyen nhan hu hong va each khae phuc cua eo cAu do til di~n

a) Pham vi rIng dung cua ca cau do til difn : chi do duoc dien ap va dong dien m¢t chieu.

b) Nhifng nguyen nhtln hu hong va cach khO.c phl;lc cua ca cdu do til difn

- Cho dong dien hoac di¢n ap vao co cAu do, kim dung yen, khong chi gia tri

nao. Nguyen nhan c6 the :

+ Dth khung day ;

+ Dm day dAn phu trong cC1 cau do ; + Dm dien trb phu cua CO cau do ; + Dth day tree ho~c dm 10 xo can ;

+ Ket chat khung day vao eire tif hay Wi sAt non.

Ma co cau do. tim nguyen nhan bu hong va kh&c phuc.

l4

Neu dlh khung day, c6 the quan lai khung day, Neu co cau do c6 khung nhom, ta chi viec quan day len khung nhOm, thirong co dAy c6 titt dien 0,03 mrn ; nen quan tren may qum day. Sau khi quan xong, han day treo hay true quay, 10 xo can, tam san each dien, say khO, sau d6 thao gia dO' va Hip d~t vao CCf cau do.

C6 nhieu co cau do tir dien khOng c6 khung nhom rna chi c6 khung day. 'Mu6n quan lai khung day nay. neu khOng c6 khuon san ta c6 the dung dAt set n*n dung bang kfch thuoc khung day, Sau d6 quan khung day len khuOn dAt set da phoi kho, quan xong han cac chi tiet can thiel, tam say sOO each dien, sau d6 ngam khung day vao mroc, dat se tan ra de lai khung day, say khO khung day va lAp d~t vao dung cu do.

Cac nguyen nhan hu hong khac neu phat hien hong do. nguyen nhan nao, se khac phuc hu hong b nguyen nhan d6. Sau khi khAc phuc xong, phai can chinh vci dung cu do mAu c6 cap chinh xac cao hon dong h6 hu hong mot cap.

- Cho dong dien hoac dien ap vao co cau do, co cau do chi sai gia tri clin do.

Nguyen nhan c6 the c6 :

+ LO xo can bi xoan qua moe hoac bi r6i ; + TIl cam cua nam cham. vinh ci'ru bi giam ; + LO xo can thay ddi h~ s6 dan h6i ;

+ Tiep xuc xau a m6i n6i nao d6.

Mo d6ng h6 tim nguyen nhan hu hong va khAc phuc.

- Cho dong dien boac dien ap van co du do. Kim chi m",t gia tri nao d6 r6i mAc ket khOng trb v~ vi trl 0 khi khOng cho dong di~n vao CO cau, Nguyen nhan c6 the co:

+ Ket kim vao m$t.d6ng h6 hoac ket a J.a gi6 can diu; + Ket khung day van mach tlr hay loi sAt non.

Thao d6ng b6, nin lai kim, chinh lai khung day cho cAn bang, can bang lai la gi6.

- Kill cho dong dien hoac dien ap vao co cau, kim chi thi dao d"'ng rat lau moi 6n dinh, hoac kim lech qua ve gia tri khong, khOng di~u chinh duoc. Nguyen nhan co the co :

+ La gi6 can diu hi hong ;

+ Qua d6i trong can bAng kim bi mat ho*c sai vi trio Thao d6ng h6 thay la gi6, can bang I~ kim.

Sau mOi Ian sUa chua, pbai can chinh d6ng h6 do voi d6ng h6 mao.

15

1.3. CO CAU DO DI~N Tir. UNG Dl)NG CVA CO CAU DO DltN ru NHUNG NGUyt;:N NHAN HIf HONG V A CACH KHA.C PHl,JC

1.3.1. Cau tao

Co cau dien ttt c6 3 loai cau tao khac nhau : co cau cuon daytron, co cau cuon day det, co cau mach tir khep kin.

Hinh 1·10 vi! so d6 cau tao co cau dien ttt cuon day tron. Phan tinh g6m c6 mot cuon day va d~t c6 dinh mot lei thep non u6n congo Phan dong cling co lei thep non u6n cong va gan ch~t voi true quay. Tren true quay co giin 10 xo can vii kim chi thi,

Khi co dong dien chay trong cuon dAY, hai lei thep tinh va dong diroc ttt hoa cung cue tinh va chung day nhau tao fa rno men quay, true quay va kim quay theo.

Hinh 1·11 ve so d6 cA'u tao co cau dien ttt cuon day det, Phan tinh Iii 1 cuon day, PMn dong g6m mot I<i thep non mong gan chat voi true quay, tren true quay gan kim chi thi va 10 xo can. Khi trong cuon day phan tinh c6 dong dien chay qua, cuon day tao fa hrc hut va hut la thep non gan voi true quay va lam cho co-cau quay, ki\p

chi thi quay theo. .-

Hinhl·lO

au tao co cau di¢n til cuen day trim.

Hinh 1·11

Qlu tao co cau dien t~ cuon day det,

Hlnh 1·12 vi! so d6 cau tao co cA'u dien tir, mach tir khep kin. Phan tinh g6m co cuon day quan tren loi thep, Phan dong g6m c6 cac lei thep, teen la thep gan chat voi true quay. 10 xo can va kim chi thi, Oi loi thep, la thep lam bang vat lieu c6 d¢ dan ti) cao, tOn hao it.

16

Khi trong cuon day co dong dien chay qua, hi thep phan dong co xu huang tien den vi trf sao cho tir dan cua mach tu 18. Ian nhat, gAy ra hrc dien tir, tao ra mo men quay va lam cho true quay, kim chi thi quay theo.

Trong ba loai co cau dien tir, loai co mach tir khep kin co dl) nhay cao nha't. Co cau dien tir cuon day tron co d¢ nhay tMp nhat,

Cling nhu CC1 cau tir dien, mO men quay cua CC1 cau dien til dugc tinh bang cong thirc chung:

M = dWdl q da

(1-21)

12 Wd =LI 2

Hinh 1-12. Cll:u tao co cau di¢n lif co mach tit khep kin.

(1-22)

M =12 dL

q 2da

Trong do: Wdl: nang hrong dien ttr tich Iuy trong co cau do ; a : g6c quay phan dong ;

L : dien cam cuon day phan tinh ;

1 : cuong dl) dong dien di qua cuon day ph~ tinh.

Khi kim chi a vi tri 6n dinh, co cau do can bang, ta c6 :

2dL

M, = Me --+1 -=Ka 2da

(1-23)

(1-24)

(1-25)

Tir g6c quay a, nguoi ta chia tren thang chia dQ cua co cau do duoc cac gia tri dong dien wang irng,

1.3.2. D~c di~m cua co CaD di~n ttr

a) Quan h¢ giiia goc quay a va dong di¢n I khong luyln tinh, do do dQ chia tren thang chia dQ co khoang each khong Mu nhau.

b) DtJ nhf!.y co cdu do difn lillhttp vi di~n cam L crla cu(Jn ddy M.

c) DtJ chinh xac khong cao, do co l(fn hao trong Loi thep.

17

d) Chiu. dnh hlliTng nhieu cua tirtrucmg ngoai.

e) Uu dilm chiu dlll!C qua tdi lim.

g) Che tao dqn gidn, gUt thanh h~.

h) Pham vi fmg d~ng do di~n ap va dong ~n xoay chitu tdn so thdp.

1.3.3. (fng dung CO' cAu do di~n tu d~ ch€ 410 eac dung cu do dongdi~n a) Ampe ke di~n tit

De chl tao ampe kl phai dua tren co cau do dien ·tit. M6i co cau dien tit dtroc ch€ tao voi s6 ampe vong nhat dinh (IW). D6i voico cau cutin day tron thuong co IW = 200 Avong ; cutin day det co IW = 100 + 150 Avong ; loai mach tit khep kin IW = 50 + 100 Avong. Nhu vay, de ma rong thang do ampe kl dien ttl chi din thay d6i s6 vong day sao cho s6 ampe vong khong d6i (IW = const).

Hlnh 1-13 cho sa dO ampe kl dien tit co hai thang do. Chia cutin day tinh thanh hai phan bang nhau. Nlu n6i n6i tilp (hlnh l-13a) hai phan d0<1-D vOi nhau, se do duoc dong dien I. Neu n6i song song hai phAo dO<1-D voi nhau (hlnh l-13b), se do d11qC dong dien 21.

Phuong phap phan dO<1-D cuen day tinh cua CC1 cau do di¢n tit ciing chi ap dung d~ che tao ampe kc! dien ttr nhieu oMt c6 ba thang do, vl tang s61uqng thang do, b6 tri mach chuyen thang do phtrc t'1-P khong tMthJ!C"hi¢n duqc. Nguoi ta thuong dung may bien dong dien, kel

. hop vm ampe ke" di¢n tu de ma rong gioi han do dong dien xoay chieu,

b) fJo dong di~n xooy chiiu lO'n

a)

21

b)

Hinh 1-13. Sa d6 ampek€ di¢n (if:

a) Do dugc dong di¢n I ;

b) Do duqc dong dien 2I.

De do dong dien xoay chieu 160, nguoi ta su dung may biln dong dien k€t hop vOi ampe kl di~n ro. Ve nguyen If lam viec, may bien dang dien hoan toan gi6ng nhu may bien ap, dua teen nguyen If cam iing dien ttl. Ve cau t'1-0, may bien dong dien gom c6 cuon day sa cap it Yang, tiet dien day Ian. quan teen 15i thep ki thuat dien c6 dang hinh vuOng hay hinh xuyen, Cuon day thu cap quan nhieu vong, tiet dien day nho tren cung lei thep v6i cuon sa cap (blob 1-14). May bien dong dien luOn luon lam viec 0 chI! dQ ngAn mach, vl di¢n tro cua ampe kl! RA rat nho, Khi d6 ta c6 phirong trinh can bang sue tit dQng :

I.W.= hWT (1-26)

18

Trong d6 :. K la h~ s6 bien dOi cua may b~n dong.

Trong cong nghiep cac may bien dong tieu chuan boa dong dien thu cap la SA hay IA. COn dong dien SCI cap se c6 nhirng tri s6 phu hop voi dong dien can do.

Vi du : dong dien SCI cap I. = lOA; lSA; 30A; lOOA + lOOOA; dong dien thu cap IT = SA.

MAc may bien dong dien va ampe k€ vao mach do nhu hlnh 1-14b. DQC k€t qua do tren ampe k€, k€t hgp voi he s6 bien dong ta duoc dong dien can do :

I. = KIT (1-28)

Trong d6:

K : ti s6 bien d6i cua may bien

dong dien :

IT : dong dien do doge b ampe k€ ; I, : dong dien sa cap ca.n do.

Sai s6 cua phep do phu thuec vao sai s6 cua may bien dong dien va sai s6 cua ampe kl.

(1-27)

IT
Is .;'
J --

r-- ~Ws -
;- WT
J. r-- ~
r- J
r
a)

OJ

Hlnh 1-14. Sa dO c'u tao may bie'n dOng va mach do:

a) Sa dO clu tao may bitn dong;

b) Sa dO do dong dien,

1.3.4. U'ng dung co can di~n tir d~ che tao d~ng eu do di~n ap

Hmh 1-15 ve SCI d6 cau tao von kl sir dung CCi cau dien tir, dung de do dien ap xoay chieu tan s6 cong nghiep, De phep do duqc chinh xac, yeu cdu dien tre trong cua von k€ phai 16n, dong dien tieu thu cua von k€ obi> ; do d6 s6 hrong vong day quan tren cuon day tinh rat 16n, khoang 10.000 vong, De md rong thang do cua von kc, mAc n6i ti€p vOl cucn day dien trb phu (gicng nhu von kl tll dien).

19

Khi do dien ap xoay chieu a mien tAn s6 cao hem. tan s6 cong nghiep, se xua't hien sai s6 do tAn s6. ~ khac phuc sai s6 nay nguoi ta m~c cac tlJ. dien C (hinh 1-15) song song voi dien tra phu.

1.3.5. Pham vi iing dung, nhUng nguyen nhan hu hong va each khac phuc co cau do di~n tit

C

Hinh 1·15. Sa do von ke dien Ill' co nhi~u thang do.

a) Pham vi ting dung. Oie dung C1,l do dien tit co th~ do diroc dong dien va dien ap mot chieu va xoay chieu, Do d¢ chinh xac cua CC1 cau dien tir thap, nhirng co ket cau don gian, lam viec tin cay, gia thanh thap, nen ung dung chii yeu cua co cau dien tir a nhimg noi nao khong doi hci dc} chfnh xac cao, nhu che' tao cac dung cu do dong dien va dien ap xoay chien d~t a cac bang dieu khitin cua cac nha may dien va tram bien ap.

b) Nguyen nhan hu hong va each khac ph~c ca cdu do d~n til

- Cho dien vao cuon day phan tinh, kim dirng yen, khong chi gia tri nao, Nguyen

nhan c6 thti : .

+ V oi von kG d(n dien tra ph 1,1 , dlh cuon day, ket la gio can diu, ket kim chi thi vao mat d6ng h6 ;

+ V Oi ampe k€, ket la gio can diu, ket kim chi thi va mat s6 cua dung C1,l do ; + Hong la sit phdn tinh.

DUng van nang k€ kitim tra mach, tlm nguyen nhan hu hong va khac phuc, Sau khi sira chua xong, can chinh voi d6ng b6 mAu co cap chinh xac cao hem. it nhat mot cap.

- Cho dong dien hoac dien ap vao cuon day phan tinh, dung cu do chi sai gia tri can do. Nguyen nhan c6 the c6 :

+ LO xo can bi xoan hoac bi r6i ; + Qua d6i trong sai vi trf t

..,.'

+ Lo xo can thay d6i he s6 dan Mi.

Ma d6ng h6, tim nguyen nhan hu hong va khac phuc, Voj co cau dien tir, neu sai 'iO qua Ion so voi gia tri thuc, tot nhat la ke lai m~t s6 dung cu do. Cach tien hanh nhu sau : dan len m~t s6 eli giay trang boac son trang, dung d6ng h6 mau la'y

20

nhirng gili tri clin do va cham nhilng di~m nrong Ung giua d6ng M mlu va d6ng M sua chua. can cli' vao d6 ke Iai m~t s6 thea nhu cac vach chia d(l da: sua lai,

- Cho dong dien hose dien ap vao CC1 cau do, kim mac ket a vi tri nRO d6 tren mat dong h6. khong tra v~ vi trf 0 khi khong cho dong dien vao co csu, Nguyen nhan co th~ c6 :

+ Ket kim vao mat dong h6 : + Ket hi gi6 can diu ;

+ TIVC quay lech ra khoi vi tri can bang.

Ma co cau do, tim hi~u nguyen nhan ; neu kim cong, nAn lai kim, nAn lai hi gi6 va chinh dinh true quay v~ vi trf can Mng.

- Khi cho dong dien va di¢n ap vao co cau do. kim chi thi dao d(lng qua lau moi 6n dinh, hoac kim lech qua v~ gia tri 0, khong di~u chinh duoc, Nguyen nhan c6 tbe c6 :

+ La gi6 can diu hi hong ;

+ Qua d6i trong can bAng kim, sai vi trf hoac bi mat.

Thao d6ng h6, thay la gio, can bang I~ kim.

Sau m6i llin sUa chtra, phai can chinh d6ng M' v¢i. dOng h6 mall.

1.4. CO CAU DO D~N DONG. UNG D1)NG CVA CO CAU DO DI¢N DONG. NHUNG NGUY~N NHAN HU HONG V A CACH

~

KHACPHl,JC

1.4.1. CAu tao

Co cau dien dong g6m c6 2 cuon day. M¢t cuen day phan tinh hlnh tru tron, chia Hun 2 phan c6 s6 vong day bAng nhau, quan it vong, tie't dien day 100, co the

true tie'p cho dong dien chay qua. 0 giua cuen day phan dong c6 mot kbung day, gi6ng khung day co cau tir dien, Cuon day nay diroc gcin ch4t voi true quay, 10 xo can, kim chi thi, la gi6 can diu (h1nh 1-16).

1.4.2. Nguyen Ii lam viec

Khi cho dong dien IJ di qua cuon day phan tinh va dong dien 12 di qua CU¢D day phan dong, Dong dien IJ tao ra tir tnrong tac dong nrong h6 len dQng dien 12 chay trong khung day phan dQng, gay ra luc dien tif va tao thanh mOmen quay.

M ;::: dWelt (1-29)

q do,

".

M = I I dMI2 (1-31)

q I 2 do;

Trong do:

MI2 : he s6 hi} cam ;

Will: nang hrong dien til tfch luy trong CC1 csu do ;

II :. dong dien chay trong - cuon day phan tinh ;

12 : dong dien chay trong khung day phdn dong :

ex : g6c quay cua phan dong,

Khi phdn dong quay d~n mot vi tri nao d6 can bang voi mo men can ta c6 :

1 ._I -'---_...l.-..J

b)

Hinh l·](J. So dO cau tao co cau di¢n dong :

a) So dO n6"1 dAy cuQn dAy phJ1n tinh

b) So d6 cau tao

I, I' - CuQn day pbAu tinh: 2 - CUI)n dAy pilAu d(lng ;

3 - La gi6 can diu;

4 - H(lp hi: gio, dM

M, = Me ---+ 1112 __ 12 = Ka

do.

-II dMI2 a-12

Kda

(1-32)

(1-33)

Ngum ta chia d¢ tren mat CC1 cau dien dong theo g6c quay ex, se duqc cac gia tri dong dien nrong ling.

1.4.3. D~e di~m ella co cliu do di~n d(mg

a) M6 men quay ti ~ vOi tich dong di¢n 1112, VI vay co cau dien dong c6 tbe do

diroc dong dien mot chieu va xoay chieu,

b) Dp nhl:lY thdp vi h~ so hJ cant M12 nho.

c) D9 chinh xQc cao vi CC1 csu dien dong khong c610i thep nen tOn hao nho.

d) Chiu dnh haemg nhidu cda til trahng ngoai.

e) Kh6ng chiu da(lc qua tdi, cdu tao phftc t~p, d& tidn.

g) Ung dung chu yfu cua C(J ctfu difn 49ng de' ~hl tao cac d~ng c(.i do cong suilt, cac dl:lng Cl:l do difn m9t chidu va xoay chUu c6 49 chinh xac cao.

22

1.4.4. (fng dung co cAn di~n d()ng d~ ch€ tao cac dung cu do di~n . a) Ampe kI 4~n 49ng

Ampe k€ dien dong dung d~ do dong dien a trut s6 cao hem trut s6 cOng nghiep (tir 400 + 2000 Hz). D¢ chfnh xac ch€ tao c6 the dat de'n 0,2 + 0,5, nen dirqc dung lam dung CI,I do luong mall. C6 hai so d6 mach do ampe k€ dien dong, khi dong dien can do nho hon hoac bAng 0,5 A. cuon day tinh va cuon day dQng mac n6i tiep vci nhau (hlnh 1-17a).

Khi dong di¢n cAn do

100 hon 0,5 A. cuon day d¢ng va cu¢n day tinh ghep song song voi nhau (hmh 1-l7b).

Cac phan til R va L trong so d6 ampe k€ dien d¢ng (do dong dien Ion hon 0,5 A) dung de tao mach btl sai s6 do t4n s6 va lam cho dong dien trong cuon day d¢ng. cuon

day tinh cung pha voi

a)

b)

nhau.

Cach rna rong thang do va ch€ tao ampe k€ nhieu thang do gi6ng nhu a ampe k€ dien tU.

b) Von lei 4~n 49ng

VOn k€ dien dong khac v6i ampe k€ dien dong Ia s6 luong vong day a phan tinh nhieu vong day hon s6 vong day cua ampe k€ dien dong, Vi von k€ yeu cau dien tra trong lon, nen ti€t dien day ph1in tinh nhO. a von k€ di¢n dong, cuon day tinh B va cuon day dong A luon mAc n6i tiep v6i nhau, ta c6 :

HlIIh 1·17. Sod6 cfu ~ ampe kl di~n dQng:

a) Mac nISi tilp; b) MAc song song.

(1-34)

Theo cong thirc 1-33, phuong trlnh ~c tinh thang do cua CCf clfu dien dong cho vOn k€ co tM vi!t :

23

(1-35)

Trong d6: U: di¢n ap vao cua von kl! ; Z; : tong trb vao cua von ke,

Trong thuc t€ co tb8 che tao vOn kl! dien dQng nhieu tbang do (hlnh 1-18). Trong von ke, cuen day tinh va cuon day dl)ng mile n6i tiep voi nhau va n6i tiep voi dien tra phu Rp. B¢ d6i n6i K lam nhiern VI,I tbay d6i giOi han do. Neu khoa K b V! tri 1, gioi han do la 150V ; khoa K b vi trf 2 gioi han do la 300 V. Cac tu C tao mach btl tan s6 cho von ke.

EI

I 300V

J-~2 K

Hinh 1-18. Sa d6 cfu tao ven k€ di¢n d(!ng co 2 thang do.

C) lYatt U ~n dt!ng

Watt kedi~n dQng duoc.cau tao til co cau do dien dong, cuon day tinh cho dong dien, cuen day d¢ng tho di¢n ap,

. - Khi sir dung do cOng sua:t mach mot chieu,

Theo cong thee 1-33, g6c lech cua kim chi thi watt ke diroc tinh thee cong thuc

• . ? •

sau:

UldM12

a=---=---

K(Ru + Rp)da

(1-36)

Trongd6 :

U ~ dien lip ~t len cuon day dien ap (cuon day d()ng) ; I : cueng d¢ dong dien di qua cuon day tinh ;

K- : he s6 dan h6i 10 XQ CM ;

Ru: dien trb trong cua cuon day dien ap ;

R, : dien trb phu mac n6i tiep voi cuon dien ap,

24

~ cho thang do watt k€ duqc chia deu, di~u kien d:~2 phai la hang s6. Dieu nay phu thuec vao hinh dang, kich thu6c va vi tri ban d~u cua cuon day.

Neu dM'2 = const thl : do.

a. = fJU! = fJP

0-37)

Trongd6 :

fJ= 1 .dMI2

K(Ru +Rp) de

13 goi la dQ nhay Clla watt k( theo dong dien mot chieu,

(1-38)

u

_______ ~ ...J

iI)

b)

Hillh 1-19. So d6 watt kt di¢n dt')ng·: a) So d6 n6i day;

b) D6lhi vee 10' khi do cOng su(( ngudn xoay chieu.

- Khi Slr dung do cOng sua:t mach dien xoay chieu.

Tren do thi vee to' hlnh 1-19b, dong dien I, di qua cuon day dien ap (cuon day dQng) do dien ap U tao fa va lech pha v6i dien ap U mot g6c '(. Dong dien I chay qua cuon day tinh cua watt k€ Iii. dong dien phu tM, neu tai R, c6 tfnh dien cam, dong dien I se cham pha sau dien ap mot goc la <po Giua dong dien I, va dong dien I lech pha nhau met g6c la 0 = <p - '(.

Theo cOng thuc 1-33 g6c lech cua kim chi thi watt kl duoc tfnh theo cong thuc sau:

1 ~ 2

a. = -1.1 cos 0--'_·

KUdo.

0-39)

25

DOng dien I, trong mach cuon day dien ap diroc tinh theo cong thrrc :

U

III =: cosy

(R" + Rp)

(1-40)

dM

N€u __ 12 =: const , ta c6 :

da

a = j3UI cos ( c.p -y )cosy

(1-41)

Tir cong thuc (1-41), mu6n cho s6 chi cua Watt kl ti l¢ vOi cOng sulit, chi khi y=:O hay y = <po

Dieu kien y = 0 dat duqc bang each tao ra cong huang dien ap trong mach cuon day dong, Vi du c6 the mac tu dien C song song voi dien trb phu Rp. Cong hubng chi giU dugc khi tan s6 khong dOi. Ne'u tAn s6 thay dOi, cong huong khong con nifa, Watt k€ se c6 sai 56 do Lin s6.

Dh~u kien y = c.p khong thuc hien dugc vi dong dien trong cuon dien ap III khong bao gia trilng vOi dong dien I trong cuon dong dien (cuon day tInb).

1.4.5. Pham vi ling dung, nhUng nguyen nhan hu hong va each khac phue co Call do di~n dt)ng

a) Ph~m vi hng dung cae d~ng c~ do di~n dt)ng

Cac dung cu do dien dong c6 th~ do duge dong dien va dien ap mot chieu va xoay chieu. Do d¢ chfnh xae cua co cau dien dong cao, cau tao phuc tap va gia thanh cao, nen co cflu dien d¢ng thuong duqc che' tao cac dung cu do mau va nhtrng dung cu do luang tan s6 cao hon tAn 56 eOng nghiep,

b) Nguyen nhcJn hll hong va each khiJc ph~c cria en cd" difn dt)ng

Co cau dien dong c6 cau true phAn dong gi6ng co cau do tir dien, MQi hu hong cua co cau dien dong gi6ng nhir a co eliu tir dien (xem muc 1.2.6).

1.5. co CAU cAM UNG. UNG Dl)NG CUA co CAU CAM UNG.

NHUNG NGUY~N NHAN HU HONG vA cAcH KHA.C PHl)C

1.5.1. CAll tao

Hlnh 1-20 la sa d6 cau tao eo ca:u cam ltng bao g6m :

- Cuon day dien ap duoc quan tren Wi thep ki thuat dien nhieu vong, tilt dien day nho,

- Cuon day dong dien duqc quan tren 15i thep ki thuat dien it vong, tie't dien day IOn.

26

- DIa nhom nAm giua khe hb tlr ella cuon day dien ap va cuon day dong dien, Tren ilia nhom gin true quay. true quay gan vlt vO t~n va be) s6 de Mrn s6 vong luay cua dia nhOrn.

- Narn cham vinh eitu d~t b dia nhom Hun nhiern vu rno men can.

u -~-

Hinh 1·20. Sa dIS c(u tao co c:lU ciim 1hI.g.

I.S.2. Nguyen Ii 18m vi~c cUa eo dlu cam U'ng

Gia true-t 15i til khOng c6 t6n hao, cuon day dien ap thuan cam, bo qua rna satb true quay. Khi ~t di¢n ap vao cuon day dien ap se c6 dong dien I u chay

qua cuon day dien ap : theo gia thi€t cuon day dien ap thuttn cam nen dong dien I, cham pha

sau dien ap mot g6e 90". DOng dien I, tao ra tit thong <Ilu, voi gill thiet 16i thep khong e6 tdn hao, nen tit thong <Ilu trung pha voi dong dien Iu' D6ng thm cho

dong dien I di vao cucn day Hlnh 1-21. D6 thi vee to', quan he giihl dong di¢n, dien ap va

dong dien, dong dien I tao fa tir tlr thOng a CO' c6u dun 1hI.g.

thong <ill' do gia thi€t 16i thep khOng c6 t6n hao .. tir thong <Ill trung pha voi dong dien 1. Quan h¢ giita dien ap, dong dien va tit thong duqc ve tren d6 thi vee to hlnh 1-21.

I ....

u

27

- VOi phu tai c6 tinh dien cam nen dong dien I lech pha so voi dien ap U mot g6c lit <po

- Til thong <llu va <ll] xuyen qua rna nhom va cam tmg tren rna nhOm dong dien nrong trng,

- Til thong <llu, <ll] tac dung tuong hO voi dong dien cam trng tren dia nhorn, tao nen lJ!C dien til, lJ!C di¢n til tao ra mo men quay va lam cho rna nhorn quay. SI,l tac dung tuong hO rat phirc tap, Nbung mo men quay cua CO cau cam Ung du<;1C tinh :

(1-42)

Trong d6:

K : h¢ s6 ti l¢ ;

\jf : g6c lech pha gitta <I> u va <I>] •

1.5.3. ll~c di~m cua co cau cam 6'ng

a) Mo men quay ti I~ vUi tich (/'Juf/J" trll1ng fmg vUi tich cua dong di~n va di~n ap (U.I), nen co cau cam tmg c6 the che tao thanh dung C1,l do cOng suat.

b) Mo men quay kM Ibn, rna nhom c6 tM quay lien tuc theo thoi gian, co cau cam Ung c6 the ch€ tao thanh bQ tich phAn cOng suat thea thoi gian, nhu vay co tM dung M do dem di¢n nang gQi Itt cOng to di¢n.

c) Co cdu cdm flng chi dung dl do dong d~n xoay chitu vUi tan sl/ xac dinh. d) Ca cdu cam fmg chiu dnh hUUng nhieu cae ytu t6 ben ngoai nhu til

trtamg, 49 tim, nhirt 49 ... nen 49 chinh xac thttp.

1.5.4.& di~n nang

a) Cong tv I pha

au tao cOng to 1 pba dua tren csu tao co cau cam Ung (hinh 1-22).

Theo cong thirc (1-42): M" = K<I>u<l>[ sin l¥ va til dO thi vee to h1nh 1-22b co tM viet:

(1-43)

(1-44)

Trang d6: K; K, la M so ti l¢ vOi di.¢n ap va dong dien ; Z, : t6ng tra cuon day dien ap,

28

Thay 1-43 va 1-44 vao cOng thirc mO men quay ta c6 :

Mq = KK'uKIUIsin\jf = K'UI sin\V

0-45)

Trong d6:

K' =Ku u Z

u

K' =KK~K[

\jJ : goc lech pha giira ¢lu. <p[.

Tir d6 thi vee to hlnh 1-22b, co tht: vi!!t : \jJ = 90° • tp Ttr 1-46 thay vao 1-45 ta co :

M, = K·UIsin(90o - qi) = K'UI cos qi = KP

(1-47)

Nhu vay mo men quay ti l¢ voi cong suat tac dung va cong to" 1 pha mac day theo so" d6 hinh 1-22 do dien nang hitu cong. .

R,
'f
u
bj
a)
Hinh 1-2i Sa do cOng to I pha :
a) Sa do cau 1;.t0 :
b) £l.6 thi vee to,
1,2. Uli thep ki t.hu~1 dien :
3. Dfa nhorn :
4. Nam cham vinh dru;
5. Hop s6;
6. Chi tie'! di~u chinh g6e cp.
29 1

u

1

b) C6ng to 3 pha 4 ddy

~ do dien nang 3 pha trong mang dien khong d6i ximg thirong sir dung cong to 3 pha 4 day hay con goi HI. cong to 3 pha 3 phan tir. Ve cau tao, cong to 3 pha 3 phan tir HI. ket hop 3 cong to 1 pha ~t cling true c6 2 hoac 3 rna nhom voi ket cau nhu hlnh 1-23. MO men quay rac dung len cac ilia nhom bang tong mo men cua moi pha. Do d6 cong to do duoc dien nang cua 3 pha.

~1

~ ~ d1fu
2 2

4 ~
-u cr
~ 2[Y
4
~
4 4 5
-u cr- ~
~
W Q

a) b) Hinh 1-23. Sa do cau tao cong 10' 3 pha 4 day :

a) Sa do 2 dla nhom ;

b) Sa do 3 dia nhom, I. H¢p so ;

2. Dla nhom :

3. Cuon day di¢n ap ;

4. Cuon day dong di¢n:

5. Nam cham vinh dru.

Hinh 1-24 cho sa d6 n6i day tnrc ti€p cong to 3 pha 4 day vao lu6i ha ap, K€t qua s6 chi. doc true ti€p dugc'di~n nang tieu thu.

B
To;
Nguon phu
tai
C N P;------------------- -------

Hinh 1-24. Set d6 n6i day cong 10' 3 pha 4 day

30

Hlnh 1-25 cho so d6 noi day cua cOng to 3 pha qua may bien dong BI. each chon cOng to a tuOi 3 pha 4 day thea dien ap cua lum dien, May bieu dong di¢n BI chon theo dong dien phu tai.

til

A

B

Nguon

c

N Ijr--------

I

------_ ..

lei phu tai

----- ......

Hinh 1-25. Sa d6 n6i dAy cOng to 3 pha qua may bien dOng di¢n BI.

K~t qua dien nang tieu thu hang thang phai dugc nhan vm ti s6 bien d6i cua may bien dong.

Vi du : COng to 3 pha 4 day, UcIm = 3 x 380 V, ~ = 3 x 5A. May bien dong dien BI = 4OO/5A ; s6 chi cOng to th..'!ng 2 Itt 2.050 ;

s6 chi cOng to thang 3 ta 4.500. V~y dien nang tieu thu cua thang 3 Itt :

400

(4.500 - 2.050)- = 196.000 kWh.

5

c) Cong In 3 pha 3 day

Cong to 3 pba 3 day hay con goi III cOng to 3 pha 2 phan tU. au tao cOng to 3 pha 3 day Itt ke't h~ 2 cOng to 1 pha ~t chung cung 1 true quay va cung chung mot hop cOng to.

Hinh 1-26 cbo sa d6 cau tao cOng to 3 pha 3 day bao gom hai cong to mot prui d~ -, ~t tren 2 rna

o

Hinh 1-26. Sa d6 cOng to 3 pha 3 day,

31

nhom cung 1 true quay. Khi <ITa nhom quay, true quay quay theo, thong qua ViI vo t~ va hop s6 se cho s6 chi dien nang tieu thu, Cong to 3 pha 2 phAn til chu y€u dung cho luCri dien d6i xirng mang dien ap cao.

Hlnh 1·27 cho sa d6 n6i day cong to 3 pha 2 phAn til qua may bien dong BI va qua may bien dien ap BU. de each Ii dien ap cao vCri dien ap thap, an roan cho nguoi va thier bi. Cuon dong di¢n cua cong to n6i voi dong dien pha A va pha C. CUQn dien ap n6i voi dien ap day Uoh va Veb luang ling.

TIl d6 thi vee to hlnh 1·28 cho ta biet sl! lam viec cua cong to nhu sau :

PI + P2 = U.hlaeos(30o+ <p) + UcnIc eos(300· <p) = .J3vd1d coso (1·48)

Trong do: U.h = Deb = U,

I.=L=.I.J

Nhu vay cong to 3 pha 2 phan tir noi day nhu sa d6 hinh 1·27 se lam viec theo eOng suat 3 pha. VOi PI eOng swlt ella phan tU tM nhat, P2 cong suat cua phan tirthu hai,

BI

BLJ

COllg 10

cc

Htnb 1-27. &1 do n6i day cong to 3 pha 2 pMn nr,

32

\

30 \

\

\

\

~

~

\ \

\ \

Hinh 1-28. D6 thi vee lei dong dien vii. di~n ap cua cong tao d) Cong ta phdn khang 3 pha

C6 [h~ sil dung cong to htru cong M do dien nang vO

Ngu6n

A._ .- __ ~~IA~----~~--------~

cong, Trong thuc te' ngum ra 16 Till

8 rJ---!--.--_-_Q_--+-------I-- .... phu

che' tao cong to phan khang Ie I,,,

rieng. Hinh 1-29 Hl so do n6i c day cong to philo khang 3 pha 2 phan tii, n6i vao mang dien ap cao 3 pha d6i xung qua cac may bien dong BI va may bien dien ap BU.

Phan til thd nhA't cua cong to n6i vao dong dien pha I. va dien ap day Ubc' Phan til thu hai n6i vao dong dien pha I, va dien ap day V.h•

Til hlnh 1-30 1a- do thi vee to quan h~ giifa dong dien vao cong to va dien ap d~t len cong to, co quan he sau :

cc

BI

BU

cc

a

r,

r

___ ~~n_9 !CI. ,

Hinh 1-29. &1 do n6i dAy cong lei phan khang 3 pha,

33

PI + P2 = I.,U""cos(900 - <p) + I.Ubccos(90o-cp)= 2Udldsin<p Trongd6 :

PI : cong suat pMn tir tlnr nhat :

P2 : cOng SU!t phAn tii thir hai ~ .

U, : dien ap day

(U, = Uab = Ub<J ; I.J : dong dien day (I.J = I, = I.,).

Nhu v~y cOng to s15 quay theo cOng suA:t phan khang,

De cOng to chi dung cong suat phan khang 3 pba, bO s6 phai che' tao v6i h¢ s6 nhan la

J3 2

(1-49)

a ,

,

-, t,

,

\

,

\

,

\

\ \

I~

Hinh 1-30. D6 thj vee fa quan h¢ gilia dong di¢n va di¢n ap d,t len ceng to pban khang 3 pba.

1.5.5. Pham vi (mg dung co c:tu cam ung, Thf nghi~m cbog to

a) PhlJ.m vi «ng d(mg. Co ca.'u cam U'ng chu ye"u dung M che tao cac cOng to do

de"m dien nang b mach dien xoay chieu,

b) Thi nghi~m cimg to

~ cOng to chi chfnh xac, t:rtrac khi dem sir dung pbii kiem Ira, hieu chinh, cap chi. Hinh 1-31 la so dd n6i day ki~m tra cOng to. Tir nguon dien 2 pha, qua bo dieu

chinh pha cp, la.'y fa dien ap I pba c6 the lech pha voi ba.'t kl pba nao cua nguon dien tir 0" d€n 3&. I1N va BI phdn tu tao dong dien, c6 the dieu chinh dong dien thea y mu6n. Mach dong dien mac n6i tiep ampeke, watt k€ va cong to. Mach dien ap dUQC dieu chinh dien ap hOi may bien ap 11,1 ngAu 21N. Dien ap c6 th~ dieu chinh phu hop vOi dien ap cua cOng to. Mach dien ap mac song song voi von ke, watt k€ va cong to (cuon dien ap),

Viec kiem tra cOng to thea cac buoc sau day:

- Dieu chinh 2TN sao cho dien ap fa cua 21N bang dien ap dinh rnuc ella cOng to, dieu chinh I1N sao cho dong dien vao cong to bang 0, a thai diem nay watt k€ chi 0 va cong to phai dung yen. Neu cong to quay, d6la hien nrong Ul quay cOng to.

34

A 0---....... -r=;

B t6---r----! c 0--+--"--'

Hinh 1-31. Sa do n6i day [hi nghiem ceng let.

Nguyen nhan cua hien nrong nr quay la do khi che tao, M thang luc rna sat, ngiroi ta dB. tao ra me men bu rna sat. Neu mb men bu Urn hon mo men rna sat, xuat hien hien nrong 11,l quay cua cong to'.

De loai tri1' hien urong t1,l quay, di~u chinh mau tu tren true quay cua cong to va dieu chinh mo men bu cho dtn khi cong to' dung yen.

- Dieu chinh g6c pha c.p

Cho dien ap bang di¢n ap dinh mire cua cong to', dong dien bang dong dien dinh mire cua cong to', di~u chinh g6c c.p = 900, c6 nghia 13 coso = D, b thoi diem nay watt ke' chi 0, cong to' phlLi dung yen. Neu cong to' quay, di~u d6 co nghia la g6c c.p ::;:. 9d\ cOng to' quay khong ti l¢ voi cong sua:t.

Nguyen nhan. khi nghien cuu su lam viec cua CO' cau cam rmg dB. gia thitl. loi thep khong co tOn hao va cuon day dien ap CM CO' cau cam ling thuan cam. Thuc te' loi thep co t6n hao va cuon day c6 dien trb nen tu thOng <I1u va <11; khong nung pha voi dong dien I, va I rna lech pha thea dUOng gach gach b hlnh 1-22b.

~ dieu chinh cho g6c c.p cua cOng to' dung bang 9if, ta dieu chinh bQ phan nhanh til cua cuon dien ap (566 hlnh 1-22a) sao cho tu thong <Pu trung pha voi dong dien L, DOng thoi dieu chinh vong ngan mach cua cuon dong dien de tir thong ell[ trung pha voi dong dien I. Ta phai dieu chinh cho de'n khi cOng to' dirng yen va cong to' se lam viec ti l¢ vci cong suat.

- Kiem tra hang s6 cOng to'

Cho dien ap bang dien ap dinh muc cua cong to'. dong dien bang dong diem dinh mire cua cong to', dieu chinh sao cho coso = 1. watt kt chi tri s6 P = VI.

35

Ta do thoi gian quay cua cong to la t bang dong h6 bam giay, D€m 56 vong N rna cong to quay dlJ\1C trong khoang thoi gian t. TIr do ta tinh duoc hang 56 cong to :

0-50)

Trong do :

Pw = Udmldm : dQC s6 chi cua watt k€ ;

t : thOi gian quay cua N vong dia cong tao

Hang s6 nay thuong khOng d6i d6i vOi mOi loai cOng to va duqc ghi tren mat cong to,

Vi du : Mat cong to ghi lkWh = 600 vong dIa, dieu do c6 nghia Hi C, = 600 vong/lkWh.

Neu Cp khOng bang gia tri eta ghi tren mat cOng tao ta phiii di~u chinh vi trl cua nam cham vinh ciru de tang hoac giam me men can M.: cho den khi Cp dat duqc gia tri dung nhu eta ghi tren m~t cOng to,

Sai s6 cua cong to khi thi nghiem duqc tinh nhu sau :

0-51)

Trongd6 :

eN : hAng s6 cong to khi thi nghiern tinh toan b N vongdia cong to ; Cp : hang s6 cOng to ghi tren ~t cOng tao

Sau khi tfnh, neu sai 56 nho han hoac bang cap chinh tic cua cong to (cap chinh xac duqc ghi teen m~t cong to), viec thi nghiem k€t thuc. Truong hop ian han phai sira chtta hieu chinh lai cong to, r6i kiem tra lai,

cau HOI ON T~P

1. Neu cclu tao va nguyen Ii lam vi~c co cau tll di~n, di~n tll, di~n dqng, cam (mg.

2. Pharn vi (Jng dunp clla co cau tlt di~n, di~n tet, di~n dqng, cam ling.

3. Nhiing nguyen nhan hll hong va each khac phuc d co cau tet di~n, di~n W, di~n d¢ng.

4. Phllong phap kiem tra cong to.

36

Chuang 2

MAYf)l~N

2.1. MODAU

Dien nang ngay cang diroc dung rong rai trong cong nghiep va trong doi s6ng.

Cac thiet bi dien ngay mot cai tien va hoan thien, trong do cac loai may dien d6ng mot vai tro chu yeu trong nen kinh t€' qu6c dan, May dien chia lam 210<\li chfnh :

- May dien quay goi Ia cac dong CO dien,

Dong CO dien Ia nguon dong 1\!C chi! yeu a cac xf nghiep, Dong CO dien chia

thanh nhieu loai :

+ Thea s6 pha : dong co dien 1 pha, 2 pha, 3 pha ;

+ Theo toe do quay: dong CO dong bo, dong co khong d6ng bQ ; + Theo loai dien ap : dong CO xoay chieu, dong CO 1 chieu ;

+ Theo day quan : dong CO r6 to lOng sOC (dong co long soc), dong CO ro to quan day (dong co day quan),

- May dien tinh goi la may bien ap, Nhiem vu cua may bi€'n ap lil truyen tai dien nang va bien d6i til dien lip n.ily sang dien ap khac phu hop voi muc dieh sir dung. Vi du trong truyen tAi dien tll nha may dien den cac noi tieu thu dien, de giam bot t6n hao tren dubng day tai dien, can thief phai nang cao di¢n ap, may bien ap loai nay.goi la may bien ap tang ap, Khi den bo tieu thu, phai ha thap dien lip phil hop voi thiet bi cua h¢ tieu thu, May bien ap trong tnrong hqp nay goi lit may bien ap giam ap, Maybien ap chi Hun viec diroc voi ngu6n dien xoay chieu,

Do sir phat trien cua san xuat va til dong hoa cao, nguoi ra ch€ tao cac loai may dien d~c bi~t nhir : khuech dai dien tll', may dien thira hanh, sensin, may bien ap xoay, may dien do t6c dQ ...

VI vay b chuong nay yeu cau hoc vien hit~u ro va narn virng cau tao, nguyen Ii lam viec cua may dien, tir do phat huy hieu qua khi sir dung may, nang cao tfnh nang va hieu-suar siI dung may. dam baa cac yeu cau ki thuat, hop 1i h6a san xuat, nang cao duoc tuOi tho cho cac may dien. M~t khac, phai nam virng quy trinh bao dtrong may dien dinh kl, xu lf cac tlnh hu6ng may dien lam viec khong blnh thirong mot each thong minh. Khi may dien htr hong, bitt dua ra cac phuong an va phuong phap sua chua thlch hop, 'khoi phuc cac tinh nang lam viec cua may dien.

2.2. MA Y BmN Ap

2.2.1. Nguyen Ii lam viec va cAu tao

May bien ap Itt thi~t bi dien tit tinh, lam viec theo nguyen li cam irng dien tit,

dung de truyen tai nang hrong dien tir va bien dOi dien ap nay sang dien ap khac voi tan s6 khong dOi. Hlnh 2-1 ve mot may bien ap dan gian. May bien ap gom co 1 loi tit lam bang hi thep ki thuat dien. Tren d6 quan hai cuon day WI

va W2• Neu dua dien ap

xoay chieu V I vao cuon Hinh 2·1. au true don gian cua may bien ap.

day WI thl cuon day WI goi Ia cuon day sa cap : nrong ling c6 dong dien II chay qua cuon day WI va dong dien IJ tao ra trong loi thep mot tit thong bien thien <ll chay khep kin trong loi thep, moe yang ca 2 day quan WI. va W 2. Cuon day WI cam ling trong chung sac dien dong EI• Cuon day W 2 se cam ling trong chfing sire dien dong E2 co dien tip fa la V2, cuon day W 2 goi la cuon day thu CAp. Dien tip ra V2 goi la dien tip thu cap, Neu n6i dien ap V2 vOi tOng tra phu tii lit ~ thl se co dong dien 12 chay qua cuon day W2 va tong tra t8i ~. Neu b6 qua dien ap roi tren cac day quan WI va W2, co the coi g4n dung VI ~ EI, V2 ~ E2• Neu dong dien II chay qua day quan WI bien dOi theo guy luat hlnh sin v6i tAn s6 fl thi dong dien h chay qua day quan W2 ding bien dOi theo guy luat hinh sin cung tAn s6 fl.

LOI tu

Ti s6 bien dOi dien ap gilia cac day quan bang :

k WI EI VI

=-=-~-

Wz E2 V2

May bien ap co cac dai hrong d~c tnrng sau :

- Cong suat (dung luong) dinh mire : Sdm la cong sua't bieu kien cua may bien ap dtroc tinh b dju ra thu c(p ella may bien ap, Dan vi cua cong sua't V A, kV A, MVA (von - ampe. kilovon - ampe, megavon - ampe).

(2-1)

- Dien ap dinh mire cua may bien ap V!'<!m, UTdm lit dien ap day tren cac day quan sa cap va thu cap khi khong taL Dan vi tinh v, kV.

38

- Dien ap ngan mach tinh bang phan tram :

UN%= UN 100 Udm

(2-2)

Tci n6i day cua may bien ap la each n6i cuon day sa cap, cuon day thu cap n6i hlnh sao hay tam giac.

Hien nay trong he th6ng di¢n c6 fa't nhieu loai may bien ap dang lam viec, ngoai cac loai thong thtrong con e6 cac loai sau :

+ May bien ap ~e bi¢t dung chinh luu ra dien 1 chieu cho cac thiet bi dien

phan, 10 dien, rna dien ...

+ Cac may bien ap dung trong do luang va dieu khien ... 2.2.2. Pham vi irng dung may bien ap

May bien ap d1I<JC sit dung rAt rong rai trong cong nghiep va trong dbi s6ng. 0 m6i Iinh vue, muc dfch sit dung khac nhau dan de'n k€t cau may bien ap cling khac nhau,

a) Trong cong nghi~p

Cac may bi€n ap co eOng sulit 100 va dien ap eao dung eho 11Wi. dien truyen tai, Cac may bien ap e6 eOng suAt trung binh va nho, dien ap trung va ha ap tll 6 + 35 kV/O,4kV dung cho lum dien dia phuong. Cac nha may va xi nghiep, benh vien, khach sl;ln ...

b) Trong ddi song

Cac may bien ap co cong suat nho nhu nha hang, xirong san xuat nho, tnrong hoc, tram xa.,

c) Dum day Ia mot so loai may bien ap dang lam viec tren lum dien (hlnh 2-2 ; hinh 2-3).

5

Hinh 2·2. VO may bie"n ap 630 kVA; JOkV;

I. Van thao d~u ; 2. ~ tan nhi¢t ; 3. Vach thung ; 4. eM gan nhan may; 5. Xa do c6 banh xe.

Hinh 2·3. Cau tao may bien lip ngam dau ba pha 16000 kV NI 10 kV :

I: Moe van chuyen ; 2. Su cao ap 110 kV ; 3. SU trung lip 38,5 kV : 4. Tru bakelit dau vao cao ap : 5. SU ha ap (10 kV) ; 7. 6ng phbng nO : 8. Ra Ie khf : 9. Blnh gian dau; 10. Thu6c chi dau ; II. Moe de nang ru~t may; 12. Xa ep gong ; 13. BQ IQc khf ; 14. Dliu day ra cao ap : 15. Thiet bi chuyen mach cao ap : 16. Day quan cao lip; 17. Cac cuon day man chan cua day quan cao lip ; 18. BQ phin IQc d6i hru ; 19. Xa tang cuong d¢ cung cua day de vl)n chuyen bang xe gong : 20. Chi) de kich khi can thiet ; 21. V an thao d:iu : 22. V 6 thung ; 23. ~ tan nhiet ; 24. cap cap dien cho dong co dien ; 25. D6ng co

quat gio lam mat b¢ tan nhiet ; 26 . 8¢ truyen d6ng chuydn mach dieu chinh dien ap.

40

2.2.3. Nhii'ng dang hu hong tbuong xay ra trong may bien ap

a) Nhifl dij may bien ap lling coo qua giUi han cho phep do nhftng nguyen nhan sou:

- DOng dien phu tAi may bien ap IOn hon dong dien dinh rrnic ella may bien ap,

may bien ap bi qua tai do ngan mach ngoai : -

- Do nhiet d¢ moi tnrong qua cao lam cho may bien ap n6ng len ;

- Qua nhiet do mec d~u ha thap hoac do d6i luu d!iu trong may bien ap kern ;

- Do ngan mach mot s6 vong day cua cung mot b6i day. dong tai cM ngan mach

IOn nhimg dong vao may bien ap nho khong du cho ro le bao ve tac dong hoac do cac la thep 15i tll' hong each dien, lam t6n hao trong 16i thep tang len,

b) Tieng lceu khOng binh IhuiJng Clla may men tip ta do nhftng nguyen nhdn sau : - Xa ep gong tll' bi hong;

- Cac m6i ghep giO'a tru va gong tll' hb qua mec eho phep :

- Cac la thep b mep ngoai gong tll' bi rung;

- MBA bi qua tru hay mat d6i xirng nghiem trong ;

- Ngan mach giua cac pha hay giO'a cac vong day;

- Dien ap d*t van MBA tang cao qua rrurc cho phep ;

- Mot s6 it tnrong hop do vo may. nip may thung dau phu lip nip khong chat.,

c) Nhftng hu hong khac cuo may biEn tip

- Vb may bien ap bi chaydau, do ro ri b cac m6i han ; gitta vo may va nip may do bu long xiet khong chat, hoac do lau ngay gioang cao su bi hong.

- Cac srr b d~u vao, dau ra bi va mrt hoac chay ~u ; do xiet bu long ~u Slr khong chat, hoac do gioang eao su hong.

- Dien ap thu cap khac nhau, do ti€p xuc XAU b ~u vao, ~u ra hoac dUt day quan so CAp cua may bien ap,

2.2.4. Phan tich cac hu hong cua may bien ap

Cong viec phan tfch cac hu hong cua may bien ap mot each chinh xac la viec lam vb cung quan trong, Dua vao cac nguyen nhan hu hong. ttr d6 phan tfch dung tinh trang cua may bien ap, sau d6 de ra cac phirong an sira chua hop If, ti€t kiem va kinh t€. Neu phan tich sai ctAnden thiet hai ve kinh te, c6 th~ lam cho may bien ap hu hong tram trong hon,

a) Phdn tich hu hong thong qua cac biiu hifn cua TQ le khi

41

6 7 8

a)

12

16

b)

Hinn 2-4. So do ro le kh{ lap cho may bien lip; a) Ro lc kieu phuo ; b) Ro lc kieu coc

42

Ro Ie khi (ro Ie hoi) la thiet bi bao ve ra't nhay vm cac hu hong ben trong may bien ap, Ro Ie khi co 2 bi~u hien sau :

~ Ro le khi cho tin hieu bao su c6. nguyen nhan do may bien ap bi can d~u. do chan dong manh gAn may bien ap, hoac do hu hong nhe ben trong may bien ap,

~ Ro le khi cho tin hieu di dt may cat. ChUng to co hu hong nang ben trong may bien ap, nhu cac vong day trong may bi€n ap bi ngan mach, loi tit may bien ap hu hong each dien do co sir ph6ng dien ben trang may bien ap, Thung thung dau. can dau qua mire cho phep, Do dong dAt hay chan dong manh, Sau khi ro Ie khi tac dong cat may cAt dien, Ngiroi sua chua len tren m*t may bien ap b*t que diem d*t tren van xa khi cua ro le hoi, rna van xa khi ; neu khi thoat ra b6c chay, clurng to xay ra chay trong may bien ap, Tnrong hop nay phai rut ruot may bien ap, tim nguyen nhan hu hong ben trong, tit d6 de ra phirong an sua chua hop If (hinh 2-4).

b) Phdn tich sl! hll hong bdng phuang phap thrt nghifm va do luimg

- Do dien Ira each di~1l giil'a cdc CU¢1! day va giua cae cuon day v6"i va may bien dp bang megom ke:

Khi do dien tra each dien c6 th~ xay ra cac tnrong hop sau :

+ Dien tro each dien bang khong, chung t6 cuon day MBA cham nhau hoac 'cham vo ;

+ Dien tra' each dien giam thap dudi muc cho phep, nguyen nhan do each dien gia c6i, do dau may bien ap chua nhieu mroc va cac chat ban khac. Bien phap khac phuc d~u tien la IQC dau, neu di¢n tra each dien khong tang len duoc, thao may bien ap, rut ruot sua chira each dien.

+ Do ti s6 hap thu R~J~ (quay megom ke 15 giay dQC ket qua va giii nguyen t6c d¢ quay tiep den 60 giay va doc ket qua). yeu cau ve ti s6 hap thu :

Rt\O 21,3 + lA RJ~

(2-3)

so 1,3 cho may bien ap sau sua chua

561,4 cho may bien ap moi dua van van hanh

Ti s6 R6</'RI.5 Idn chtrng to may bien ap each dien t61. Ngiroi ta xem MBA nhu mot tu dien, viec quay megcm kG duoc xem nhu nap dien vao tu dien ; ban d~u dong nap IOn. dien tra each dien nho, sau MBA duoc nap day, dien trO each dien tang len. Dieu kien nay chi c6 diroc khi xem ~u va each dien MBA la nhtmg dien m6i kh6ng bi am va khong Ian tap chat, Khi do dien tra each dien MBA dung megom ke 2500V.

43

- Do dien 11'0 cuan day MBA bang cdu do dien fro

+ Neu dien trb cac cuon day sai khac qua 2 + 3%, do tiep xuc xau gitta cho noi dau ra day quan ; ngan m .... ch mot s6 vong day cua day quan, tiep xuc xau a thiet bi chuyen m a ch dien ap (b¢ phan di~u chinh dien ap).

+ Dien trb day quan bang 0 hoac bang 00.., do ngan m .... ch hoan toan hoac d6t

m .... ch day quan. Khi dUt m .... ch day quan, dung megom ke cung co the phat hien diroc.

- Thi nghiem khong tdi may bien tip

Cac dung C,! do can thiet la : ampe ke, von ke va watt ke.

Neu thay ton hao va dong dien tang dang kt do cac nguyen nhan sau :

+ Do t6n hao trong 16i tir tang. huhong each dien l6i thep, bu long ep gong tir, cac dai thep hong each dien.

+ Neu dong dien 3 pha Ian va khong can bang trong 3 pha, co th~ do chap mot s6 vong day cua mot cuon day nao do.

- Till nghiem I1g611 mach MBA

Neu dien ap ngi\n mach tanglen dang ke, can quan tarn den diem tiep xiic a cac dau fa, btl phan di~u chinh dien lip xau, Neu cOng suat t6n hao tang, c6 the do dlit mot s6 sci chap cua mot day quan song song ...

2.2.5. Sua chtra MBA

a) M,!-c dich yeu cdu vI cong tile sua chiia MBA

Muc dich cua cong viec sua chira may dien la phuc hOi day du cac clurc nang lam viec cua may dien va diun baa thai gian phuc vu cua n6 theo nhu thiet ke. Cac chirc nang a day duqc hieu bao gom cac thong s6 kl thuat duqc ghi trong Ii lich cua may.

Tat ca cac chi tiet tuy khong hong nhung phai duoc kiem tra, do luang va hieu chinh lai, khong de tlnh tr .... ng mor chi tiet lam viec kern. dAn den hu hong cac chi tiet khac,

Sau khi sua chtra xong, may dien phai ducc san l .... i, lam b6 sung hoac lam l a i li lich may, de tien cho cong rae van hanh va sira chua Ian sau.

Neu d a t duoc yeu cau tren, xern nhu cong viec sua chua diroc hoan thanh.

Viec sira chila chi d .... t hieu qua cao ve kinh te, khi chat hrong sira chira d a t diroc cac yeu cau neu tren va gia thanh sua chua ha xu6ng mot each hop li.

b) Mi)t so df!c diim CM cong vi~c sua chua may di~n

- Cac dung cu, cac may cong nghe phai co tinh van nang. de co the sua chua duoc cac lo .... i may dien,

44

- Cac dung cu, cac may cong nghe phai c6 tfnh chuyen dung d~c bier, phu hop voi cong viec sua chua cho cac chi tie't may dien d~c biet, ;

- sUa chua la m<)t loai hlnh san xuat dan le, dan chiec, kh6 c6 thti t6 chirc san xuat hang loat va chuyen mOn hoa ca~. ChAt hrong san phAro phu thuoc vao trlnh dt) chuyen mon cua can'b¢ ki thuat va cong nhan sua chua.

- Thoi gian sua chira yeu cau khan tnrong do yeu cau san xuat. c) Cong lac chudn bi va Id chuc sua chua may d~n

- ChuAn bi mat bang sUa chua. M~t bang sUa chua can rong rai, phil hop voi thiet bi sira chua, he th6ng chieu sang linh hoar.

- ChuAD bi nhan 11}'c. can btl ki thuat va cong nhan phan xueng phai c6 trinh dt) hieu bie't va tay ngM cao, luon hoc hoi va trau d6i nghe nghiep vi cac thie't bi ngay cang phong phu, phUc tap, hien dai va da chirc nang.

- Chuan bi cac may m6c va d u ng cu phuc v .... cho cong viec sua chua, g6m c6 cac nh6m may va d .... ng c u CO khi, cac nh6m may phuc VI,! cho cong nghe che tao thiet h~ thay the, cac nh6m may va thiet bi thir nghiem.

d) Sua chita mt;lch til MBA'

- Yeu cdu ve sua chita mach til

+ Khong Hun thay d6i cac thong s6 ki thuat cua loi ttt nhu suat tOn hao va de) tCr thAin cua loi ttt. Nguyen nhan khr sUa chua loi tCr Hun thay d6i thong s6 tren, la do c6 sl! thay dOi tfnh cMt co lf cua la thep, do rac dong co hoc trong qua trmh thao lap, tAy rira va SC1l1 Iai l3. thep, do ch4't hrong SC1l1 each dien, do lap ghep khong dam baa khe h6 gilfa til}. va gong,

+ Khong lam tang kfch thu6c mach ttt, dAn den kh6lAp rap day quan, lam thay dOi khoang each each dien, dAn de'n giam de) tin cay lam viec cua MBA sau khi sira chtta.

- Sua chua macn til MBA

Vi~ sira chii'a mach tCr, dciu tien la thao tUng ta thep cua mot nira gong rtr, SC1n va say lai la thep, neu each dien bi hu hong, thay the' nhtrng 18 IMp bi hong. Sau do lap 18 thep da san lai, Trinh t1}' thao lAp sUa chua nira gong ttr con lai nhtr giai doan dAu. Trong qua trinh thao lAp sira chua, v~ chuyen khong duqc quang quat, d~p go cac hi ton, dan de'n lam giarn he s6 til tMm, lam tang tOn hao khong tai sau khi sila chtra.

e) Sua chita day quan MBA

- Yeu cau ve sua chua cuon day MBA

+ Khong lam thay doi r6 n6i day MBA, neu nhu khong c6 yeu cau ve thay d6i t6 n6i day.

45

+ Khong lam tang dien trb day quan sUa chua, vi neu lang di¢n trb day quan, dan d€n lam thay d6i thong s6 MBA va di¢n ap ra gifra cac pha c6 th~ khOng duqc can pha, c6 hai cho viec v~ hanh MBA va cac thiet bi dung dien khac .

• SUa chua cuon day MBA

+ Viec sUa chUa cuon day MBA chi gioi han khOi phuc lai nhirng cuon day bi lnr hongjsau khi sUa chua nhUng cuon day bi hu hong, darn bao nhUng tham s6 ban d~u cua nha ch€ tao, 0 day khong de c~p d€n viec sira chua cai tien MBA se dAn den phai tinh toan lai cuon day va coi nhu thitt ke' moi MBA.

+ Neu kfch thu6c day dan dung Hun day quan khi sira chua c6 thay d6i, phai can cu vao kich thuac cua sO mach tll, khoang each each dien cho phep de tfnh lai kich rhuoc day, s6 vong day trong mot lap, tinh s6lap, chien day mOi lap va s6 lap each dien ... Ngoai ra con phai tinh cac tham s6 khac nhu tOn hao, hieu suat, dien ap ngdn mach, dong dien khong t3.i.

+ Trong viec sjra chtra phuc hoi lai MBA bi hu hong,-phan 160 sir dung lai day quan cil, hoac dung day quan moi nhimg kich thuoc bang day en thl khong phai tinh toan gl them. Trong tnrong hop nay, kill sUa chua khong duqc lam sai lech khoang each each dien ciia MBA 18. duqc.

2.3. DONG CO D~N KH()NG D6NG BO· 2.3.1. CAu tao

Dc?ng co di¢n khOng dongbo ve ke't cau chia lam hai 10~ : dong co dien kh6ng dong bo roto long s6c (hlnh 2-5) va dong co dien r6to day quan (hinh 2-6), stato cua 2 loai day quan nay nhu nhau, Stato bao g6m cac Iii thep ki thuat dien ghep lai, gitta Cal; 18. thep duqc each dien de han ch€ dong dien Phuco. Chirc nang cua 15i thep la dan tir va la noi de lay chb dua cho day quan, vi vay yeu cau cua 16i thep I.a phai dAn tir t6t, t6n hao sAt tu nho va c6 ket cau chac chan. Teen ~ mat trang cua 15i thep c6 cac ranh de chira day quan.

46

L

I,

Hinh 2-5. Dong cC1 di¢n khong d6ng bQ roto 16ng soc.

Hinh 2-6. ()()ng eo dien khong d6ng b(I reto day quan,

I. LOi sat stato ; 2. Uli sat roto : 3,4. VAnh ep roto ; 5. True ; 6. Phhl dai dilu n6i rOto ; 7, 9. Qu~ gi6 ; 8. Philn dilu n6i roto : 10. YO ; II, 12. ClJI,lP hu6ng gio ; 13, Day ra roto ; 14. Nap; 15, 19, Nap rna ; 16, 6 bi ; 17, Than che pMn vsnb ; 18. Cira sO ; 20. Vanh tnrot ; 21, Nap ehe phhl vanh ; 22. Dilu n6i vanh truqt v& day quiD reto.

Vo may la noi boo v¢ lOi thep, c6 dinh 15i thep va 18. noi ghep n6i nap-may, g6i dO' tIVC. Vo may c6 the lam bang gang, nhOm bay thep, De cht!~o vo may ngubi ta c6 the due hay ren ... Vo may c6 2Io~. Vo may ki~ri kin va vo may Ideu bao ve. Vo may Id~u kin yeu cdu phai c6 dien tich tan nhi¢t 16n, nen tren vo may ngubi ta Him them nhieu gan tim nhiet, Vo may Ideu bao ve c6 ~ mat ngoai nhan, gi6 lam mat th6i tnrc tiep tren ~ mat ngoai loi thep va trong vo may.

Day quan dm;IC each dien voi 15i thep bang v~t lieu each dien, DAy quan cua dong co duqc nghien CUll 6 rnuc sau, DAu fa cua day quan du<,1C nol fa cac hop C\IC b vo may theo quy luat nhu hlnh 2-7.

D6i voi cac dong CO khong d6ng bQ cOng suat khong Ian (den hang kW) nAp may dong thbi Iii g6i do true, nAp may diroc che t .... o bing gang hay thep,

y

Hinh 2-7. cae dilu fa ciia dAy quan va each chuyen cau n6i dliy de co dU'Q'e n6i hlnh sao Y hay tam giac 8.

47

NAp may duoc lap ghep voi than may qua go lAp than. m6i lap ghep nay cung vci 6 bi xac dinhvi trf cua roto so vci stato. DAy la m6i hip ghep quan trong quyet dinh su lam viec 6n dinh va lau dai cua dl)ng co.

Roto cua dong co khong d6ng bQ bao g6m 16i thep, day quan va true, D6i voi dong C(1 day quan eon e6 cac vanh tnrot gin tren true,

L6i thep cua rotc do cac la thep ki thuat dien ghep lai, Diem khac voi stato 18. gifra cac la thep khong c6 each dien, VI tAn so lam viec d roto rAt thap, chi vai Hz, nen t6n hao do dong Phuco trong 16i roto rAt thap. 0 mat ngoai roto e6 xe cac r1inh de chua day quan,

Day quan roto co hai loai : DAy quan ngan mach hay con goi la day quan long soc va day quan pha tuong tl! nhu day qulin stato.

Day quan long sOC tmrong duqe due bang nhom, cac dAu thanh nhom d 2 phia diroc due ngAo mach, tao thanh vanh ngan mach va e6 cac canh de quat thong gi6 khi roto quay. N goai ra roto long soc diroc che tao til dOng hop kim, e6 dien trd s uAt eao, nham rnuc dieh nang eao mo men rna may. Roto thanh d6ng co dl) tin e~y eao, tranh duoc hien urong to do duc. ROta thanh dong it dung. VI kh6 che 1.,,0 va gia thanh cao.

a)

bi

Hlnh 2-8. Cau IJ1.0 roto ngan mach :

a) DAy quail 16ng soc ; b) Rotc long s6c, g6m dAy qUM va loi IMp.

Ranh cua roto long s6c c6 nhieu hinh dang nhir hinh tron, hlnh qua Ie, hlnh ovan, Cac may IOn con e6 roto long sOC kep, hai long s6c (hlnh 2-9).

ROta day quan la tren roto qulin cac cuon day nrong nr nhu state, nhu : s6 CI,I'C 2P, s6 pha. Day quan roto tlnrong n6i thanh hlnh sao, 3 dau day ra ella 3 pha ducc dua ra 3 vanh tnrot d~t tren true, Cacvanh

48

<,O.3mm

b)

Hlnh 2·9. Cac dang rlinh roto ngan mach , a) Tron : b) Ovan

tnrot duoc each dien v6i nhau va each dien voi tIl:IC. Thong qua cac vanh tnrot, nguoi ta dua dien vao roto qua dien tro phu, de han ch€ dong dien rnb may va dieu chinh t6c dl> quay cua dong ca.

Viec sua chua day quan roto hoan toan tU'C1Ilg nr nhu day quan stato.

TrI,IC rna y duoc ch€ tao tir thep cac bon. Vi~c ch€ tao true kha dan gian, tren true co gan l5i thep roto, day quan, vanh tnrot va quat gio, VI vay true la mot chi ti€t quan trong cua dong ca.

2.3.2. Nguyen Ii lam viec ella d(mg di*n khnng d6ng be)

Khi dua dien vao day quan 3 pha, trong .day quan c6 cac dong dien. H¢ th6ng dong dien na,y tao ra ttr tnrong quay voi t6c dQ :

sor,

n =~-

I P

Trang d6: fl: tan s6 nguon dien vao P: So doi cuc

Neu tan s6 f[ = 50 Hz ta co :

(2-4)

3000

n =~j p

Tir tnrong quay cua stato, cam irng trang day quail roto soc dien dong E (chien suc dien dong xac dinh thea quy tac ban tay phai), vi day quan roto n6i ngan mach, nen tren thanh dan rota hlnh thanh dong dien Ian. Sl! tic dung t1IC1ng h6 gitra dong dien cua rotovoi tir tnrong cua stato, tao ra cac luc dien tir lac dung len thanh dan thea phuong tiep tuyen voi be m~t roto, tao ra mo men, lam cho roto quay. Chien quay cua roto thea chien quay cua tir tnrong, diroc minh hoa tren hmh 2-10.

Ta thay hrc lac dung co xu huang quay Hinh 2-10. Nguyen Ii lam viec cua dOng co

roto thea chien quay cua tu truong. Nhu

khong d6ng bq.

vay chieu quay cua roto phu thuoc vao tlur

t., pha cua dien ap luCri dien, d~t len day quan stato.

T6c d¢ cua roto 02 duoc goi la tOc dq lam viec va 1 uon nho han t6c de) quay cua tir tnrong, VI neu tee de) quay cua roto bang t6c dQ cua tu tnrong, c6 the xem cuon day cua rotc va tu tnrong dirng yen, nen khong xiiy ra hien nrong cam irng dien tir

49

tren cuon day roto, Vl vay, chi trong wang hop t6c d() quay cua r610 nho hem 16e d() quay cua tir tnrong moi xay ra su cam U'ng sll'e dien dong troog day quan roto, Hieu s6 t6e d<? quay ella tir tnrong stato va roto diroc dac tnrng bang mot dai hrong goi la he s6 tnrot s :

s = _0 ..... 1 _-_0...,..2 01

(2-5)

Troog d6 : s: he s6 tnrot

OJ : t6c d¢ quay cua tu truong stato O2 : toe d¢ quay cua rota.

H~ s6 tnrot cua dong co khong d60g hi) e6 tri s6 nam trong khoang tu 0 + 1, khi s = 0 t6e dQ roto bang t6c dQ tu tnrong, ache' d¢ nay goi la che d¢ khong tai If nreng. Khi M s6 tnrot s =1, roto dimg yen (02 = 0) mo men tren true bang mo meo rna ~ay. Khi dong CO quay a rai dinh muc, c6 he s6 tnrot dinh mire, luang img e6 t6e d¢ quay cua roto dinh rmrc. H~ s6 trUQt dinh muc nam troog khoang 0,01 + 0,06.

Ttr cong thuc 2-5 co the tinh dll<JC t6c d¢ quay cua dong co khong d6ng bo bang:

(2-6)

Vi du : Tren ohan dong CO ghi f = 50Hz, n~m = 1440 vong/phut, ta hieu ngay toe d¢ d6ng bo n, = 1500 vong/phiit, s6 doi eJ!C P = 3000 = 2, he s6 tnrot 1500

s = nt - n2 100 = 1500 -1440 100 = 4%

01 1500

2.3.3. M(>t 86 dl).e di~m eua d(mg eo kh6ng d6ng bi)

a) fJ~c dilm quan trong cua dtJng ca khong dOng b~ ltl day quan roto khong 411(1c nOl true tilp vm 111m di~n. vi vay sue dien dong va dong dien e6 dtroc trong roto la do cam rmg, chfnh vi vay nguoi ta goi dong co loai nay ia dong co cam rrng, Tan s6 cua dong dien trong rotc ra't nho, n6 phu thuoc vao he s6 tnrot s cua roto voi tir tnrong stato, lue ia phu thuoc vao hieu s6 n, - n2 :

f = P(nl -n2)

2 60

(2-7)

Trang d6: f2: tAn s6 cua roto

P : s6 d6i eJ!C cua dong CO

OJ : t6c d() quay cua tu tnrong O2 : t6c d¢ quay cua roto,

50

Til 2-4 e6 the tinh f2 thea h~ s6 tnrot ta eo :

f2 == P(nl -n2) = P(nl -n2) .E.l= (nl -n2). Pnl ==sfl (2-8)

60 60 nl n, 60

Til 2- ~ ra thay tan s6 ella dong dien rotc tl l¢ vOi h~ s6 tnrot s· va rAt nho, Vi du : Vai M s6 tnrot s = 0,04, tan $6 ella dong dien roto bang :

f2 = sfl == 0,04.50 == 2Hz

DOng dien roto tao ra sUe til dong roto quay voi t6e dt) n, so voi roto : 60f2 60sfJ

ns =p=-p-=nls (2-9)

T6e dQ quay ella sue til dong roto bang:

(2-10)

Nghia Hi srrc ttr dong roto quay trong khong gian voi t6e do dong bo va khong phu thuoc van t6c dQ quay ella rOto. Noi each khac, trong dong co khOng dong bt), cac sue tir dong do rOto va stato tao ra, quay dong b(> voi nhau vOi toc do n I va tao thanh mQt til tnrong th6ng nhat,

b) lJ(ing co khong dOng b(i co the' lam vi~c U chi 4(1 may phd! di~n. Neu ta dung mot dong co khac keo dong co khong dOng b¢ quay voi tee dQ 16'n han t6c dQ dong hQ va cac dAu ra cua dong co duoc n6i voi lucri dien. Dong co khong dong bo cling c6 th~ trb thanh may phat dien d(>c 14p neu a dAu ra cua dong co dtroc kich tft M.ng cac tu dien, May phat dien khOng dong b¢ lam viec khOng 6n dinh nen it duoc Slr dung,

c) lJ(lng ca khtmg dOng b(i co thlldm vifC U chi' cit) 1 pha. ve mat k€t cAU, dong co dien khOng dong b¢ 1 pha khOng khac may so voi dong co khOng dong b¢ 3 pha. Dieu khac bier Ia dong co khong dong bQ 1 pha khong tI! rna may dm;rc, do d6 tren day quan stato co quan them day qu4'n khbi dong va day quan nay n6i vCri cac phan tu nhir tu dien hoac dien trb d~ tao rnomen khai d<)ng cho dong eo.

2.4. MA Y DI~N DONG ao 2.4.1. Cau tao

May dien dOng bQ thuong dUQe dung nhieu de lam may phat dien, nen cau tao cua n6 e6 2 phan ehinh : phan ttng va pMn dun.

Phan ttng ella may dien d6ng bo, neu cong suat 100 nam tren stato, eon cong suAt nho nAm tren rotc. COng gi6ng nhu dong co khong d6ng bo, phan Ung ella may dien dOng hi) eo tht! Ia 3 pha hoac 1 pha. 56 eire cua day quan ph&1 tmg phu thuoc vao 56 cue cua phdn cam.

51

Phan cam cua may dien d6ng b¢ HI. noi tao ra tir tnrong 1 chieu, no c6 tM Hl nam cham dien hoac nam cham vinh ciru. May dien d6ng bQ c6 nam cham vinh ciru chi ap dung cho may c6 cong sucft nho,

D6i voi may dien dong bo cong suat vira va lon, phan cam phai la nam cham dien ~ phan cam bao g6m cac cue tu, tren d6 quan cac cuon day, con goi la day quan kich IU va cho dong dien mot chien chay ·qua. DOng dien mot chieu dua van day quan kich tir c6 the liy tir may phat dien mot chieu, c6 thti b6 tri di;\t cung true voi may phat dien d6ng b(>. DOng dien kfch tir c6 tM Ia'y tu may phat dien xoay chieu cong suat nho ur kfch, hoac dong tu kich cua chinh may phat dien dong bo, Phan cam may dien d6ng b¢ c6 hai I01;li : loai Cl!C An va loai CI!C I6i.

Phan cam CI,lC I6i (hlnh 2-11a) thirong diroc dung cho cac may phat thuy dien chay voi t6c d¢ cham, nhu nha may thuy dien Hoa Btnh, Tri An, Da Nhim ...

PMn cam Cl!C An (hmh 2-11b) diroc dung cho cac may phat dien tua bin hoi c6 t6c dQ cao. Thuong phan cam eire An a cac may phat dien cong suA't trung blnh va 16'0, dl!f:JC di;\t a roto may phat, tren do quan cuon day va cho dong dien mot chieu chay qua, tao ra ttr truong mot chieu, kfeh tu cho may phat dien,

a)

b)

Hinh 2-11. Cl,rc 16i va cue lin ella roto may dien dong bo : a) C'1c 16i : b) Circ lin

I. Than cue lit ; 2. Mom ClJC lit ; 3. DAy quA'n kfch thfch ; 4. Gia do eire.

Ngoai cac may phat dien dung dong co sa cap la cac tua bin hoi va tua bin mroc, con co rA't nhieu cac may phat dien, dong co sa dip la dong co diezen hoac cac dong co chay bang cac nhien lieu khac, Cac loai may phat dien nay nit da dang, tu 1 pha den 3 pha, cong suat nho va vira, Muc dfch sir dung Iii. larnnguon du phong cho cac benh vien, khach san va cho cac xi nghiep ch€ bien cong suat nho,

52

May phat dien dong bQ co th~ dung lam dong co dien dong bo, may bu dong bo, nhung 86 hrong sir dung khong nhieu, vl gia thanh cao, van hanh phirc tap, nen it diroc ap dung.

Hinh 2-12 mo [a ket cau may phat dong b¢ tua bin nuoc, cue 16i. Hlnh 2-13 cho ket cau may phat dien dong bQ tua bin hoi cue An.

Hinh 2-12. May phat !huy dlen (tuabin nude 105 MW, 13,8 kY) kiEu dong bl) cl!c [oi :

I. Philn kieh tu : 2. Y (, stare : 3 . wi thep state ; 4 . Cue ella roto ; 5. Lung rota : 6 . Ong lot rotc ; 7. Xa do.

Hinh 2-13. May phat nhiet di~n (tuabin hoi) ki~u eire !in :

1. Phan kich thfch ; 2. Yo may; 3. wi thep sta!Q ; 4. BO Him lanh bang khi hydro : 5. Roto.

2.4.2. Nguyen Ii Him viec ella may di~n dong b(t

May dien d6ng bo lam viec thea nguyen Ii cam img dien ttr, bien co nang tnanh dien nang.

Neu dung dong co so cap quay roto may phat dien d6ng Ix'> va eho dong dien kfch tit vito cuon day roto, dong dien nay tao ra tit truong va quet len . day quan stato, cuon day stato se earn irng ra sue dien dong thea dinh luat earn ling dien tit (hinh 2-14).

Ve d~ Ion, sUe dien ~ng cam img bing:

e = Blv (2-11) Hlnh 2-14. Sa d6 di¢n tir ciia may di¢n dOng ~ e6 cue tir quay

Trang d6 : 1. S18I0 ; 2. ROw

B: d¢ nr earn tAe dung vuong g6c vm thanh dAn ella cuon day phan Ung (stato) I: d¢ dai thanh dan nam trong tit truong ;

Cl

C2

C3

v: t6c d¢ quay ella roto,

Trang qua trinh rota quay, tit cam B va thanh dAn 1 khong pMi hie nao cting vuong g6c vOi nhau. T6ng quat, tit earn B c6 th~ tao thanh vm. thanh dAn 1 mot g6c a, nen ta c6:

e = Bm.xlvsina (2-12)

Trang d6 : B.na.. Is d¢ tit cam cue dai rna roto (phan cam) c6 th~ tao ra diroc. v« nguyen li lam viec, sl!

phan ph6i phan cam va phan ..... -. - ;.::'"

irng a tren stato hay roto khong quan trong, Hinh 2-15 me Ii may phat dien d6ng b¢ phan cam d~t d phan tInh (stato), Phan irng d~t a roto va dong dien cam irng duqc la:y ra lU hai vanh tnrot, thong qua hai choi than ti len vanh tnrot, dong dien H1Y ra duoc

n6i voi phu wi Z. Hinh 2-15. Sa d6 may dien dOng bo c6 phan ung quay

54

" D6i voi may phat dien d6ng b¢ cong suat 16'0, dien ap may phat cao bat buoc

,phiii dung he th6ng cue ttt quay (phan earn quay) ; vi neu dl! phan irng quay, viec lay dien ap xoay chien cao ttt choi than - vanh tnrot se g~p nhieu kh6 khan.

TAn s6 dong dien earn ling ti 1¢ voi tee dl? quay cua roto :

f= Pol_ 60

(2-13)

Trong do: f: tAn s6; P: s6 dOi eire : 01 : t6c dl? dong bo,

2.5. DONG CO XOAY CHI~U CO c6 GOP 2.5.1. DQng co xoay chieu co c6 gop 1 pha

Dong co xoay chieu co co gop 1 pha co 2 loai : loai kich thich n6i ti€p, loai kfch thich song song.

a) elfu tao

V~. m~t k€t cau dong CO xoay chieu 1 pha khac vOi dong co dien 1 chieu b chO cue ttt va gong ttr diroc lam bang .cac la thep ki thuat dien ghep lai.

b) Nguyen u lam

viec cua 4png CCT xoay chieu co cd gop m~t pha

ve nguyen tac tac dong, dong co xoay chieu 1 pha lam viec thea nguyen It earn ling dien ur, cling gi6ng nhu dong co mot chieu co the lam viec a hwi dien xoay chien mot pha.

Nhiroc di~m cua

dong co xoay chieu co cO gop la qua trlnh d6i chieu dien ra nang ne, vi ngoai sUe dien dong phan khang, sue dien dong cua ttt truong ngoai con co sue di~n dong cam ling ttt day quan

LL_

u_

a)

u_

bJ

Hinh 2·16, &1 do n6i day dong co xoay chieu 1 pha:

I. Dong co kfch thich song song; 2. D¢ng co k feh thfch n6i tiep

kich tir, sue dien dong nay con g9i la suc dien dong bien ap c6 tri s6 bang :

E.,.= 4,44 flWcllmax Trong d6: fl : tan s6 cua lum dien

W : s6 vong day phan Ung

cb""", : tlr thong do phan dun moe vong sang cuon day phan ling tao nen.

(2-14)

Tai thoi diem khoi dong, sec dien dong bien ap E"" dat tri s6 cJ!C dai, vi vay qua trlnh ddi chieu ding nang De nha.'t. De giam sue dien dong bien ap c6 tbe ap dung cac bien phap tang s6 dOi CJ!C de giam tll thong dum mot eire, giam s6 vong day trong mot phan nr, se dAn d€n tang s6 phien g6p cua cd g6p, lam phirc tap them ve ke't cau cua may. CO the, d~t them cue tU phu cho dong ca. Vdi d()ng co xoay chien mot pha, chi c6 hieu qua d6i voi mot tri s6-dong dien va t6c dt) nhat dinh, Ngoai ra se khong co hieu qua d6i voi dong dien va t6c d" khac, do d6 it dung each d~t cue tll phu cho dong co xoay chieu c6 cO gop I pha.

Viec di~u chinh 16c de) va dao chieu quay d¢ng co xoay chien 1 pha c6 co gop nrong II! nhu d6i vci dong co dien mot chieu kich thlch n6i tiep,

Dong co 1 pha kich thich n6i tiep co the lam

viec trong lum di¢n xoay chieu mot pha hoac u~ +

___ ___,-

lUm dien mot chieu nen con goi la dong co van nang, Trong Ioai dong co nay, neu d{c6 ducc dien ap mot chieu va xoay chieu nhtr nhau, tmg vci tai dinh mifc thl day quan kich thfch dircc chia lam hai phan (hinh 2-17). Khi lam viec voi ludi dien rn()t chieu thl dung loan bo day quan, con khi lam viec vOi ludi dien xoay chieu chi dung 1 phdn day quan,

Dong co van nang diroc sir dung rong rai trong sinh hoat va trong cong nghiep, nhu may xay sinh £6, may born nuoc gia dmh, may khoan dien earn tay ... Uu diem cua dong co van nang ta kich thiroc nho, rno men rnb may 160, rAt thich hop voi che d¢ lam viec ngan han lap lai,

2.5.2. I)(mg" CO' co c6 gop ba pha

a) Cliu tao

Dong CfJ c6 cd g6p 3 pha kfch thich song song c6 hlnh dang ~ ngoai gi6ng deng co xoay chieu va gieng dong CO khong d6ng b¢ roto long s6c. Tren stato lam

56

Hinh 2-17. So'd6 n6i day d()ng co

nhieu chile nang.

bang la thep ki thuat dien ghep lai va quan day quan ba pha nhu d(?ng co long soc, Tren roto cling lam bang cac la thep ki thuat dien ghep lai va quan day quan ba pha, dau ra cua day quan cua r6to n6i vm ba vanh tnrot tJ1dI1.g img vdi 3 pha, gi6ng nhu dong co khong dong h<> roto day quan, Tren roto con quan day quan mot chieu n6i voi cO gop gi6ng nhu dong co dien mot chieu. Dien ap 3 pha diroc dua vao day quan roto thong qua he th6ng choi than - vanh tnrot,

Viec sUa chira loai may dien nay hoan toan gi6ng nhu dong co khong dong bo va dong co dien mot chieu,

Thg dung dong co xoay chien 3 pha co cO gop trong cong nghiep che bien g6, cong nghe boc day ... Uu dil~m cua dong co Ia co the dieu chinh t6c d(l trong pham vi rong va co the dieu chinh tron bang kin mach nen trong no xuat hien dong dien I~. DAy quan tren stato co tac dung nhu day quan thli cap cua dong co khong dong b(I rotc day quan. Cac dau day ra cua day quan stato ducc n6i voi chOi than co the di chuyen diroc tren be mat cO gop.

, Khi dong co lam viec, trong day quan n6i voi cO gop se cam img mot sUe dien d(lng do dong dien II va ttin s6 ft tao nen, Nhung vi no diroc n6i v(ri cd gop va day quan stato ctlng duqc n6i voi cO gop nen khi roto quay, sUe dien dong cam ling 6 day quan stato 111 E3 tJ1dI1.g iing co tan s6 f~ va sUe dien dong earn ling 6 day quan n6i voi cO gop la E, cling co tlin s6 la f" vi vay sue dien dong E, diroc coi lit snc dien dong E, dua vao day quan stato. DOng dien stata I~ se do sue dien dong tong cua 2 day quan tren quyet dinh :

I = E] ±Br J Z

J

(2-15)

Trang do Z, la tong trO cua cuon day stata.

Tri s6 va goc pha cua dong dien I, quyet dinh tri 56 va chieu mo men quay cua dong co.

Neu 2 choi than tren cO gop trung nhau, thi dong co cO gop lam viec nhu dong co khong d6ng bo roto day quan. Khi chOi than xa nhau, s6 yang day giila hai choi than tang, sUe dien dong phu E, tang, h¢ 56 truot 5 tang. t6c d(? dong co giam, khi 2 choi than dich chuyen 6 vi tri cheo nhau, slic dien dong phu dOi chieu, he 56 tnrot Am, t6c d¢ dong CO lang cao hen t6c dQ dong bQ. Pham vi va dieu kien su dung b hIm dien 3 pha thong thuong, V~ hanh dong co don gian, dieu chinh t6e d¢ khong doi hoi thiet bi dAt tien. Nhuoc diem cua dong co 111 c6 ket cau phuc tap, gia thanh ch€ 1I)a caa.

b) Nguyen U lam vi~c ella d~ngcqco cd gop xoay chUu 3 pha

57

Nguyen If lam viec cua dong co thea nguyen Ii cam trng dien tit. Gi6ng nhu dong co khong dong bo, rOto day quan c6 k€t cau them sue dien dong phu vao cuon day cua dong co M dieu chinh t6c dQ:

Tren roto cua dong co c6 2 day quan, mot day quan 3 pha c6 3 dau ra n6i vOi 3 vanh tnrot d~t tren true cua rOto va mot dayquan de dua dien mot chieu n6i voi cO gop d~t a phia d6i dien voi vanh tnrot (hlnh 2-18).

Qua he th6ng ch6i than vanh tnrot, dua dien vao day quan 3 pha, ngu6n di~n nay

tao ra dang dien 3 pha chay trong day quan roto va sinh ra tu truong quay, tu truong nay moe Yang sang day quan state va cam trng sUe dien dong c6 tan s6 :

f3 = sfJ Trong do:

s : h~ s6 tnrot

fl : tAn s6 luCri dien,

DAy quan state cling la day quan 3 pha.

Pham vi dieu chinh t6c dQ cua dong co cO

g6p xoay chieu ba pha c6 tM dat ti l~ Hinh 2-18. Sa d6 nguyen Ii dong co :

3 : 1, khi he s6 tnrot a trong pharn vi I. Day qUlfn 3 pha sa c~p ; 2. Day quan cO gop;

- 0,5 < s < 0,5. 3. Day quan 3 pha thu cap.

De nang cao cose, di chuyen ch6i than di mot g6c nao d6 thea huang ngUQC chieu quay cua roto rna khong lam thay d6i vi tri nrong d6i gifi'a cac ch6i than. Trong tnrong hop nay, sue dien dong cam Ung tren cuon day n6i voi c6 g6p E, se cham pha sausirc dien dong phu E, met g6c e, dieu nay lam tang coso cua dong co.

(2-14)

2.6. DQNG CO DI~N MQT CHI~U 2.6.1. Cau tao

CAu tao dong co dien mot chieu g6m co phan cam la noi tao ra tir tnrong khong dOi, co the la mot nam cham vinh ciru hoac co the la mot nam cham dien, Dong co dien co nam cham vinh ciru chi ap dung cho may co cOng suAt nho. PMn cam la mot nam cham dien, gom co mot mach tit va quan day xung quanb cue tu goi ta da y quan kich tir, Trong dong co dien 1 chieu, ngoai cac eire tit chfnh dung de kfch tU con co cac cue tit phu dung de cai thien dic~u kien deli chieu, Cac cue ttr phu dtroc b6 tri xen ke voi C\!C tu chinh. Day quan cue tit phu dUQC n6i n6i tiep vOi

58

phien day quan tren roto, CUng de cai thien dOi chieu, tren be mat eire tu chinh, con b6 tri them day quan btl va day quan bu diroc noi n6i ti€p voi day quan ro to, thong qua ch6i than a phien g6p. PMn cac mach tu n6i vOi nhau goi la gong tir va dong thai lam VQ may (hlnh 2-19).

2.6.2. Nguyen Ii lam vi~ cua d«)!lg co di~n ml)t chleu

D()ng co dien mot chieu lam viec thee ngu yen Ii cam img dien tit Neu ta quay mot khung day trong mot tit tnrong deu, khung day se cam trng sUe dien dong (hlnh 2-19). DAu cu6i cua 2 thanh dan n6i vai 2 nira vanh d6ng. Tren hai mra vanh dong c6 choi than ti len d6 d~ la.'y dien ra. Chieu cua sue dien dong trong thanh dan

thay d6i khi n6 nam duoi cac

I

---

Hinh 2-19. Nguyen If [am viec cua d¢ng co dien m¢t chieu.

CJ!C c6 clJC tinh khac nhau.

Khi d6 cac ch6i than luon luon tiep xuc vOi cac thanh dan nAm duoi mot cJ!C ttr nhat dinh. Nhu vay, eire tinh cua ch6i than khong dOi, dan den ta thu dircc dien ap mot chieu tren hai ch6i than. Neu dien ap ra n6i v6i phu tell, thlse co dong dien roto, nhu vay ta da co mot may phat dien, DOng dien cam dog trong khung day la dong dien xoay chieu, con dong dien mach ngoai la.'y ra til' chdi than la dong dien mot chieu, Nhu vay ch6i than va phien g6p lam nhiem V1,I nhtr mot chinh luu.

Neu ta d~t dien ap m¢t chieu len hai choi than, se c6 dong dien chay trong khung day, thee dinh luat v~ luc di¢n tu, thi thanh dan co dong dien se chiu mot lJ!C tac dung thea phUC1Dg tiep tuyen va sinh ra mO men quay lam quay khung day : day chinh 18. nguyen Ii Hun viec cua dong co dien mot chieu, Dong co dien mot chieu c6 tfnh thuan nghich, no c6 th~ lam may phat dien va cling c6 th~ lam dong co dien. 0 che d¢ dong co, dong dien mot chieu duqc dua van phan dog qua ch6i than va cac phien d6ng. Nhu vay eh6i than - phien d6ng thuc chat HI. b¢ nghich Iuu co khi, bien d6i dong dien mot chieu a mach ngoai thanh dong dien xoay chien trong day quan roto,

2.7. cAc DA.NG HU HONG CVA DONG CO DI~N vA CACH KHAcPHt)C

2.7.1. Khai niem chung

59

Cac dang hu hong trong cac dong CO dien rat phnc tap, baa gem cac nguyen nhan v~ co. dien, tir va cac nguyen nhan khac, D6i nrong sir dung dong CO dien rat rong rai. nhat la sir dung cac dong co dien da qua sira chUa rat phuc tap, Vi vay & day chi de cap d€n cac dang hu hong d~c tnrng nhat, chu yeu di sau vao cac nguyen nhan va phan tfch cac nguyen nhan M khi g~p bar kl dang hir hong nao cling co th6 xu If duoc,

D6i voi dong co dien d~u co 2 ph~n chfnh la phan cam va phan ling. Do do khi phan tfch Sl! c6 phai luu y den yeu t6 nay de phan doan cho dung. Chi khi c6 phan doan dung, viec khac phuc htr hong duoc nhanh chong va khong gay nhimg t6n kern khOng can thiet.

2.7.2. S., phat tia lila du6i ch6i than

ChOi than dan dien tir nguon dien vao roto hoac tir stato sang roto va ngtroc lai thong qua vanh gop hoac vanh tnrot, ChOi than - vanh gop c6 trong tAt ca cac dong co dien mot chieu, ChOi than - vanh truqt co b cac dong co dien xoay chien c6 cO g6p. Chuc nang cua cluing trong cac loai dong co khac nhau, nhung cac hien nrong dien tu trong chting khac nhau khong nhieu, Vi v4y gop lai cac hien nrong ve choi than d~ nghien CUu chung,

Hien nrong phat tia lira b dum ch6i than bao gorn :

Khi khong tii va khi co tAi, tia lira b dum chdi than nhi> ; Sl! phat tia lira dl16i toan b¢ eh6i than hoac timg phan :

Ch6i than danh lira rnanh ;

Khi mang t:ii chdi than danh lira manh ;

Chdi than danh lira thanh mot vet nho tir chci nay d~n ch6i kia ; Chci than chi danh lira b mot s6 phien g6p nao do.

Nguyen nhan danh lira b chdi than co nhieu, phan Ian trong qua trlnh van hanh cd gop rnon khong d~u nen dan d€n danh lila. Khi sua chua d¢ng sxs co c6 g6p, cong viec dau tien Ia lam tron cd gop bang each dua cd g6p (roto) len may tien, tien lai cd g6p, darn bao d¢ tron deu cua cd g6p.

Vi trf d~t ch6i than khOng dung tren vanh g6p cling gay danh tia lira - dat lai vi tri ch6i than.

Cach dien gitta cac phien gop bi hong, gay chap mot s6 phien g6p vOi. nhau hoac chap phien gop voi true, kiem tra each dien cua cac phien gop.

Chon mua choi than khong dung rna hieu, neu chdi than qua cirng gay rnon nhanh cO gop, neu ch6i than qua mel'Jl. gay danh lim n6i lien tu cue no d€n eire kia.

60

r

Trat nr eire tll' chfnh va cJ!C tll' phu khong thich irng hoac chap mot sO' vong day a ClJC tir chinh hoac cue tir phu, Kitim tra lai cac vong day d cac eire,

Dong co bi qua tai cling gAy ra danh IUa a cac chdi than.

Tom lai, viec sUa chua nhtmg hu hong dong co dien Ia phai nang cao dt> chinh xac trong sUa chtta, bang each nang cap thiet bi sua chua. thiet bi kiem tra, thu nghiern chat luong san pham trong m6i cong doan sua chua, d6ng thoi nang cao trinh dt> can bo ki thuat va cong nhan sua chua,

2.7.3. DQng eo phat nong qua muc cho phep

Nguyen nhan do dong co bi qua tai, co th~ dien ap Ium thap, dong co bi hong quat gio, nen dieu kien lam mat kern. Cham chap mot sO' vong day i:J dong co.

2.7.4. Dc)ng co co tieng 4n va dao dc)ng kh6ng bmh thuoug

Nguyen nhan co the do tee dl) tang cao han dinh mire. 0 dong co mot chieu, do dong kich thfch giam, co the co ngan mach trong day quan phan tmg. Bien phap xu If la do dong dien a cac pha co bang nhau khong va c6 tang cao qua khong, Thao may. kiem tra cac cuon day c6 bi hu hong khong ...

2.7.5. Cac 51! CO cham chap cac day quan

Cham chap giira cac vong day, giua cuon day voi Yo. Nguyen nhan gay cham chap day quan c6 nhieu, chu yeu ia dong co de IAu ngay bi Am. gAy cham chap giUa cac pha cua cuon day, hoac do dien ap tang cao. Do qua tai lau dai lam cho each dien cuon day bi gia c6i. dan den cham chap, Bien phap xu li trong tnrong hop nay bang phtrong phap do. kiern tra t1m vi trf bi cham chap d~ khac phuc, neu day quan bi chay, phai ti€n hanh quan lai,

cAu HOI ON T4p

1. Nguyen Ii lam vj~c va diu tao may bien ap,

2. Cac nguyen nhan hu hong may bien ap.

3. each khac phuc, slia chlla may bien ap.

4. Nguyen If lam vi~c va cau tao dqng co khong dong bq, dqng co dong b(>, d(>ng co di~n m(>t chieu.

5. Nhlnlg nguyen nhan va hu hong cua d¢ng co di~n.

6. Cac phudng phap khac phuc hu hong d¢ng co dj~n.

61

Chuong B

..., .A I A

BAO v~ MAY all~N

3.1. KHAI NI:E;M CHUNG

Dong CO dien xoay chieu cling nhu dong co dien mot chien, duqc dung nhieu trong cac xf nghiep cong nghiep, Do tfnh phd cap va vai tro quan trong cua may dien, trong qua trinh van hanh may dien, van de giam sat, baa ve chung chong cac su co va hien nrong bilt tlurong khac co y nghia d~c biet.

Tuy thea nguon dien sir dung, cong suat lam viec cua dong co dien, nhung trang thiet bi dong ciit dong CO dien rna phutmg thuc baa v¢ cluing co th~ khac nhau. Vi du neu dong co dien dung du dao dong CAl mach dien, 6 day chi co mot phuong thirc bao ve cho dong co lit dung cau chi. Neu muon co phtrong thirc baa ve khac, phai thay thiet bi cau dao bang cac thiet bi dong eat tl! dong khac nhu cong tac to hay khoi dong tir,

Nhu v~y van de baa ve dong eo phai chia ra lam 2 tnrong hop :

- Truong hop thu nh4't la lira chon va tfnh roan baa ve cho cac dong co dang van hanh, can cu vao thiet bi d6ng cat hien co, rnnc dQ quan trong cua dong co trong day chuyen san xuat, cong suilt cua dong co rna de xuat phuong an baa ve thich hop vci cac baa v¢ cho dong co hien co. VI du trong qua trinh van hanh dong co hay bi chay hong, de nhan th4'y baa v¢ dang co khong thich hop nhu cai d~t khOng dung hoac thieu chirc nang baa ve, Neu dong co d~t du cac clnrc nang baa v¢ nhu chong ngan m!1-ch nhieu pha, chong ngan mach 1 pha cham dilt, baa v~ chong qua tai, chong rn4't 1 pha, ket roto va tfnh toan cai d~t dung thl viec xay ra chay hong dong co hau nhu bi loai trir do nhtmg nguyen nhan trim.

- Truong hop tht'r hai. Thiet ke lAp d~t - dong co moi, CAn cu vao yeu cau va nhiem vu san xuilt cua phuong an khi hra chon thiet bi d6ng cat cho dong co, din lua chon dong b¢ thi€t bi baa ve cho phu hop vOi dong co va dam hila yell cau ve kinh te, kI thuat cho phtrong an.

62

3.2. NHUNG mr H6NG V A TINH TRANG LAM vrsc KHONG BiNH THtfONG eVA DONG co DltN

3.2.1. Nhfrng hu hong cua dQng co di~n

Mot trong nhiing hu hong dong CC1 dien nguy hiern nhat la ngan mach nhieu pha trong cuon day dong co dien, do ngan mach .co the d6t chay dong co, Hun SI,1t ap hroi dien se anh huong den su lam viec blnh thuong cua cac thil!t bi dien khac, VI the' nhat thiet phcii d~t bao ve ch6ng ngan mach nhieu pha cho bat kl loai dl)ng co

dien nao, dt! khi bao v¢ tac dong se cAt dong CCi ra khoi lum dien, '

D6i voi hroi dien c6 trung tinh may bien ap n6i dat true tiep. nhu mang dien ap 380/220V, nell xay ra cham dA't mot pha, dong dien ngAIl mach rat Ion, rat nguy hiem cho dong co, can d~t bao ve ch6ng ngan mach mot pha cat dong CCi ra khoi ludi dien,

Trong cac mang dien ap rna trung tfnh may bien ap khong n6i dat hoac n6i Mt qua cuon day dJ).p tAt h6 quang (Peterson), khi cham Mt mot pha, dong dien cham dat chi la dong dien dien dung rat nho, khong nguy hit!m cho dong co, vi vay chi can d~t bao v¢ bao tin hieu cham da:t. D6i voi dong co cong suat 16'0, neu dong cham dat 16'0 han lOA, nen d~t bao v~ chong cham dat loai d~c biet de loai trir sl,l cLi nay.

3.2.2. Cac tmh trang lam vi~ khong blnh thirong cua dQng co di~n DOng dien cua dong co dien tang cao han gia tri dinh rrnrc, nguyen nhan do qua tiii a cac may m6c co khf rna d¢ng co phai keo : do dien tip d*t len dong co giam thap han dien tip dinh mire cua dong co: Do mat I pha lam cho dong dien dong co tang cao va xuat hien thanh phan dong dien thu tt;r nghich vdi tan s6 gap hai hln tan s61116'i. dien, dong dien nay tao ra ter tnrong thu U! nghich va tren roto se cam ling ra dong dien, d6t n6ng roto, Neu dt! keo dai tinh trang dong co lam viec mat 1 pha se da.n den chay dong co, thm gian cho.phep khOng qua hai gic, Hoac do ket roto, tat ca nguyen nhan tren d6u lam ~:10 dong dien dong co tang cao. Khi dong dien tang cao Hun cho nhiet d¢ cuon day nong len qua gioi han cho phep, dan dl!n each dien dong co ch6ng gia c6i, giarn tu6i tho dong co. Vi vay c;in d*t bao v¢ ch6ng qua tai tac dong cAt dong co, 000 tin hieu, giam tiii tuy thuoc vao tinh chat cua tiii rna d¢ng co phai kOO.

Duoi day gioi thieu mot s6 bao v~ may dien co ban.

3.3. BAo V~ MAy DltN DUNG CAU CHt

3.3.1. CAu chl la thlet bi bao v~ dan gian nhat va re tit~n nhat

au chl duqc dung rong rm. de bao ve dong co dien den 100 kW. Nhiem vu chf yeu cua du chl la chong ngan mach nhieu pha va ngan mach mot pha cham dat cho dong co dien.

63

au tao cAu chi xem hinh 3-1, gorn c6 vo cau chi lam bang v~t lieu g6 phfp hay suo Trong vo cau chi d~t day chay bang dong hay nhom va db dAy vo cat thach anh de dap h6 quang khi c4u chi chay,

;,0)

5 3 2 1

7

h)

Hlnh 3 -I. Cau tao cau ch] :

a) au chi loai np . 2 ; b) Cliu chl Ioai OH - 2.

3.3.2. Nguy~n tac lam vi~c cua du chi

Khi dong dien di qua cau chl lcn hen dong dinh rmrc cua cau chi, dong dien nay se flung n6ng day chay va dat d€n mot nhiet dQ nao d6, day chay se chay dm, tach mach dien ra khoi noi xay ra su c6, baa v¢ ducc mach dien (xern sa d6 hlnh 3-2).

Oiu chl duoc d~c tnmg bang hai thong s6 la : dien ap dinh mnc va dong dien dinh muc cua cau chi.

Dien ap dinh mec la dien ap Ion nhat rna cau chi co tht1IAm viec Iau dai, Vi du cau chi DH - 2 c6 dien ap dinh mcc Iii. 500V. do d6 cau chi chi lam viec ducc b hrm dien tit 500V teo xuong,

DOng dien dinh muc la dong dien Ian nhat di qua day chay, dam baa cho cau chi lam viec lau dai, Trang cOng nghiep, cdu chi ch€ tao thea dong dien tieu chuan. Vi du : dong dien tieu chuan 6 - to - 15 - 20 - 30 - 45 - 60 A. .. DOng dien dinh

Il~JlIOPl

CD

(:c.

rmrc 1&1 nhat cau chi toi l000A.

Nhiroc diem cua cau chl Ia dQ chinh xac Hun viec cua day chay khong cao, n6 ph", thuoc vao nhieu y€u t6 nhu vat lieu Hun day chay, tiet dien va d¢ dai day chay, nhiet dQ rnoi truang ...

Ell:

Hinh 3-2. So d6 dan gian "hat bao 'Ie dong co dien dung cau dao CD va cl1u chi cc.

64

Hlnh 3-3 eho ~e tinh day duly cua cau chi, vung gach cheo the hien vung lam viec ella day chay, Khi dong di¢n di qua day chay Ian hon dong dien dinh rmrc ella day chay L, = 1,3 Idm• Thoi gian chay day chay trong vong 1 + 2 gio, Khi L, = (5 +7) I.m" thOi gian chay day ehay trong khoang 1 + 4 5 ...

3.3.3 .. Phuong phap chon cau chi cho d(mg co Chon cau chi thea hai dieu kien :

Dien ap dinh mire ella cau chi phai bang hoac Ian hon dien ap dinh rmrc ella dong co :

(3-1)

Chon dong dien dinh mire ella cau chi phai Ian hon hoac bang dong dien rna may cua dt)ng co vm thoi gian rna may ella d¢ng co :

20

15

10

o

I(s)

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I" ;::: Imm voi tmm (thoi

gian rna may) (3-2) Hinh 3-3. D~ tfnh lam viec cua cau chi

Voi dong co long soc,

tai nhe, thoi gian rna may khoang tir 2 + 55. Do d6 dong dien tinh roan ella day chay cau chi bang :

I r., u2- 2,5

(3-3)

V6i dong co rna may nang, thoi gian rna may ken dai ta 5 + lOs, dong dien tfnh toan cua day ehay diroc tinh bang :

I >~ u - 1,5+2

(3-4)

D6i veri. dong co roto day quan, neu dong dien khoi dong Imm S 2 Idmdlc' dong dien . tinh toan ella day chay diroc tinh bang :

In ;::: ( 1 , I + 1,25) Idm <!fl:

(3-5)

65

Truong hop chon dong di¢n dinh mec cho mot nh6m dong co hlnh 3-4. Viec chon cac cau chi ICC + 5CC theo cac cOng thuc 3~1 ; 3-2 ~ 3-3 ~ 3-4; 3-5

COn du chi chung cho 5 dong co duqc tfnh nhu sau :

JJO!lg dien lam viec Iau dai bang tOng cac dong di¢n . dinh rmrc cua dong co

IMl = 2: I.Jm d,k (3 -6 )

.

DOng dien tinh roan cua

cau chl chung cho ca nh6m 6 ct bang :

L:ldm die + «, - l~dIC)

I ~----~---------

ull(_"c , 2,5 t cc

(3-7)

Trong d6:

L: ~ : tong cac dong dinh mtrc Clla dQng co trong nh6m.

2

4

5

3

Hlnh 34. So d6 ChQD c!l.u ch] cho mot nhom dQng CCI.

I'mm : dong di¢n rna may cua (m)t trong cac dong co trong nh6m c6 cOng su~t IOn-11Mt va di~u kien roo may nang n~ nhat.

I'dm die : dong dien dinh mac cua dong co phu hqp voi dong dien mo may I' rnmDOng dien mb may Imm dlJ9Ctinh theo cong thuc :

(3-8)

Trong d6:

K",m : he s6 mo may, v6i d¢n~ co long s6c K.nm = 5 + 7 tuy thuec vao di.!u kien rno may cua dong ca.

Saukhi tinh dtn;JCdong dien tinh toan cua day chay, tra bang chon cau chi theo tieu chuan, luOn luon chon dong dien day chay cua cau chi len han hoac bang dong dien tinh toan. Khi chon dong dien cho day chay cAu chl, dong thm chon dong dien chiu dung cua vo cau chi.' de khi day chay chay, gAy ap luc 16n khong lam pha vo .vo cdu chi.

Vi du 3·1. Lira chon du chi.cho nh6m gorn 5 deng co khong dong b¢ roto long soc, dOng thm lam viec kbOng IOn han 4 d,mg ca. Dieu kien rna may cac dong co vci tai nhe, Dien ap hrOi 3 x 380V. s61i¢u'~ho a bang 3-1 .duoi dayva co th~ xay fa

, .

haldong co cung rna may.

66

Xac dinh dong dien dinh rmrc cua day chay cho dl)ng co ttl 86 1 de'n 86 5. 56 lieu dong dien rna may lay a bang 3-1.

D6i voi dong co s6 1 ta c6 :

8dng3-1

56 ClIng DOng ~is6 DOng ~ngdi¢n DOngdi¢n DOng di¢n
dQng sua! di¢n dongkhm di¢n rno tfnh loan chon day chay dinh roue vo
co (kW) I.r ... (A) d()ng may day chay theo bang duchl
K I..m (A) In (A) Idmcc (A) Iv (A)
I -1,7 3,7 6 22,5 8,9 10 15
2 2,8 5,8 5,5 31,9 12,8 15 15
3 20 38 6 228 91,2 100 200
4 4,5 9,4 6 56,5 22,6 25 60
5 10 21,5 4,5 96,8 38,7 60 60 22.5 9A

Incrl ~ -- = 8,

2,5

Chon dong dien dinh muc day chay c~u chl tri s6 g~ nh~t la lOA. DOng dinh mire va cau chi 15A.

Tirong tv tfnhtoan chon cau chi cho cac dl)ng co s6 2,3,4,5. Ket qua tinh ghi vao bang 3-1.

Chon cAu chl t6ng cho ca nh6m 5 dong co, d618 c4u chl s6 6 hlnh 3-4.

DOng dien lam viec 100 nh~t cua ell nh6m 5 dQng co thea cOng thlfc 3-6 bang :

ItvlI = 5,8+ 38 + 9,4 + 21,5 = 74,7A -

Theo cUu bai c6 tM Cll hai dQng eo cang rna may. do d6 dong dien tfnh toan cua day chay duqc tinh nhu sau:

I = 74,7+228-38+96,8-21,5 =I36A

uccs 2,5

Tra bang chon dong dien tieu chuan cho cdu chi 86 6 bang 200A, dong dien dinh mire cho vo cau chi 200A.

Cu6i cung dien ap lam viec cua cau chi phu hop voi dien ap hIOi dien, vay dien ap dinh muc cau chi HI. 500V.

3.4. BAo V~ MAy DI~N DUNG Ap TO MAT

Ap to mat la khi cu dien c6 nhieu 10000i, r~t da dang va phong phu dung de dong, cat mach dien, Ap to mit uu viet han cau dao, c6 the cat dong dien phu tai IOn va tl!

67

dong cat dong dien ngan mach n€u mach dien xay ra sir e6. (j day chi gi& han lua chon dong dien khm dong eho bao ve cat nhanh dl}.t true tiep trong ap to mat. Bao ve cat nhanh Iii bao ve qua dong dien, tac dong true tiep cat ap to mat. Ngucn tac dong ella bao ve qua dong cat nhanh, a ap to mat dong dien dinh mec nho han 30A

dung tnrc tiep dong dien sa cap tac dong tnrc tiep. o cac ap to mat dong dien I6n dung ngu6n dong thu cap thong qua may' bien dong tac dong tnrc tiep,

Nhilng ap 10 mat ~t them ro Ie nhiet de 00.0 ve qua tai, each tinh dong khoi dong xem muc 3-5 a phan saU.

Lua chon dong dien khbi dong ella ro Ie dong dien cat nhanh :

Ikdu = (1,4 -0- 1,6}1mrnd/< (3-9)

Neu ap to mat dl}.t eho mot nh6m dong CO thi dong dien khoi dong ella ro Ie dong dien dt nhanh bang :

(3-10)

Trong d6:

Ikdll dong dien khCri. dong doh toan ella ro le dong dien cAt nhanb

Imm die: dong dien rna may ella d¢ng co

l:ldrrKl,/l.: : t6ng cong su!"t dinh rnuc cua d¢ng co e6 trong nb6m

I' mm die: dong dien rna may ella 1 hay 2 dong co dang thei khbi dong I'dm<l/c: dong dien dinh rmrc ella dong co tuong ling v& dong rna may I'nvndle

Ro Ie dong dien cat nhanh dl}.t a trong ap to mat, hi! phan dieu chinh dong dien khOi dong thuong ghi theo b¢i s6 dong dien dinh mire ella ap to mat. Do d6 khi dl}.t dong dien ca.t nhanh, ta phai ~t a vi tri sao eho nhan dong dinh mire ella ap to mat voi boi s6 ella n6 phai bang va IOn han dong dien khOi dong tfnh toan (hinh 3-5).

Vi du 3-2. Chon ap to mat c6 dong dien dinh rmrc 40A de bao ve cho dong co 11k W e6 I.Jm die = 26,4A, dong dien khoi dong cua dong co Irnm d/c = 1 34.6A. dong co lam viec trong dieu kien voi s6l!m rna may khoang viii chuc Ian trong mot gia.

Theo cong thtrc (3-9) ta c6 :

ltd" = 1,4 . 134,6 = 185A

Voi a p to ,." at 40A. b¢i s6 dong dien d~t cua TO Ie cit nhanh bang :

K = 185 =46

40 •

68

Ta di chuyen vit dieu chinh ve vi ill 4,6 a trong lip ro mat. V 6i viec d~t nhu v~ y, dam bao ap ti) mat se tac dong khong thci gian, cit ap ti) mat voi dong dien bang va Ian han 185A nhu da tinh toano

'------f-=l R".o

q'.la d6'~ g :~t nt.an+t

Rd I~

Qua aOI'H) Cal nnarr

, ,

b)

Hinh 3-5. Sa d6 nguyen Ii cau 111-0 ap 10 mal :

a) rae dong IIVC li€p bang ngu6n dong di¢n SO' e4'p ;

b) Tac d¢ng lIVe li€p bang ngu6n dong di¢n Ihli' e(p.

3.5. BAo vt QuA TAl CHO MAy DI~N (nirNG RO LE NHI~T) Ro Ie nhiet dung de bao v¢ dong co dien c6 che' dQ lam viec lien tuc hoac lam viec gian doan nhung khoang each khong nho han 30 phut, v6i muc dich bao v¢ khoi qua nhiet nguy hiem khi dong CO' qua tii keo dai, Thuong ro Ie nhiet che tao thanh ro Ie rieng biet va ~t cung voi cong lAc to' thanh mQt khi cu dien th6ng nhat goi la khoi dong tU.

au tao ro Ie nhiet g6m 2 thanh luang kim c6 M s6 dan dai thea nhiet khac nhau. Khi cho dong dien di qua bQ phan nung n6ng va lam cho 2 thanh luang kim nong len, do he s6 dan dai khac - nhau, lam cho 2 thanh luang kim cong l€m, sl! cong len nay c6 the tac dong tr1,JC ~€p giai ph6ng chat rna true't bi d6ng cAt d~t tr1,JC tiep a trong ap to mat. Hoac SI.! cong len cua hai thanh luang kim de rna tie'p diem, dAn den ngat mach dieu khien cong tac to, lam cho cong tac to' mAt dien va rna til!p diem cua no ra.

Ro le nhiet c6 the lam viec tin cay de bao ve dong co dien chi khi ro le nhiet cung chung voi moi tnrong lam viec cua dong CO' dien. Tuy nhien de d~t duqc yeu cau tren trong thirc te se Mp kho khan, Ro le nhiet dung de bao ve cho dong co chi co y nghia khi dong co lam viec lien tuc, Con doi voi dong co che dQ lam viec ngan han lap lai, dung ro le nhiet baa v¢ cha dong co khong hieuqua. Do vay thea nguyen laC lam viec cua ro Ie nhiet, nhUng tnrong hop sau day khong dung ro Ie

69

nhiet M bao ve eho dong co : dong eo a cau true, dong eo truyen dong thay d6i nhanh 0 may can kim loai, ~e biet khOng nen d~t sa Ie nhiet a cung voi bu6ng II,Ulh. bu6ng nong gAn 10 dien tro. gin. cac chinh luu ... D~c tinh lam viec cua ro Ie nhi¢t ducc bieu thi a hlnh 3-6.

-I I I I I

: _1,,-

oL_ __ ~I r- __ ,- __ =;===;====;=~I~'F'''~'<N~

400

300

200

100

t(s)

2

3

5

6

4

Hlnh 3-6. DQC tInh lam vi¢e cua ro Ie nhi¢t RN.

Khi tang dong di~n vao ro le 160 han dong dien dinh muc ella ro Ie IdmRN t61 20%, ro Ie se khbi dQng vOi thOi gian khoang 20 +30 phut, di6u kien nay lam co sa eho viec 1\fB. chon dong dien khm dong eho ta Ie.

DOng dien khiJi d¢ng ella ro Ie nhiet duqc xac dinh nhu sau :

ltd II ;;?:; ~ RN :::Ij I.tm d/l:

Trong do : I.tmRN: dong dien dinh mUe cua ro le nhiet

I.sm d/l: : dong dien dinh muc eua dong co dien du<}C bao ve.

Ngoai ra khi tinh dong di¢n khoi dong tinh roan Ikdll eon phai k~ de'n nhiet dl) rnoi tnrong xung quanh rna ro le nhiet thuong xuyen lam viec, DOng dien dinh rnuc cua ro le nhiet 0 nhiet dI) tOe duoc xac dinh :

(3-11 )

14mRN(I) = IdmRN JI, 6 ~ 0, 017.1 DC o day ttlC la nhiet dQ mOi tnrong xung quanh.

Ta cong thuc 3-11 ta e6 14m RN :::Ij Idm d/c. ket h<JP cOng thttc 3-12, dong dien khci dong tinh roan bang: :

70

(3-12)

I 0 > I 0 == Idmd/<

kdtL(L C) - dmRN(. C) ~1, 6 _ 0, Ol7.tOC

(3-13).

Viec tinh toan dong dien khoi dong tren, ret le nhiet dAm. bao lam viec tin cay khi dong dien qua tai Ian hon tit 15 + 30%.

Neu mach dien dong co c6 rna y bien dong, dong dien khoi dQng tfnh roan c6 kt! den ti s6 bien d6i cua may bien dong:

, Ikdn Ikdt. =-

K

(3-14)

Trong d6 : K Hi ti s6 bien d6i cua may bien dong. Cong thuc 3:-14 chi ap dung khi fa Ie nhiet Ia:y tu ngu6n thii ca:p cua may bien dong.

Role nhiet khong bao ve cho dong co chong cac dang SI! c6 ngan mach, nen d~ Ioai trir su c6 nay trong mach dien dong co phai d~t cAu chi hay ap to mat.

Vi du 3-3. Lua chon ro Ie nhiet de bao v¢ dong cc, dQng co D, c6 cong suat 1,7kW. DOng dien dinh mne 3,7A ~ dQng co D, c6 cong sua:t 20kW, dong dien dinh muc 38A. Hai dong CO nay thuong xuyen lam viec a moi truong xung quanh 35°C. Dong co D3 co cong sua:t 10kW, dong dien dinh muc 21,5A ~t a trong phong CO nhiet dQ lam viec 25°C. Ta:t cii cac dong co dli duoc hra chon thilt bi d6ng car UI. cong tic tao Nhiem vu lua chon fa Ie nhiet dtroc tinh nhu sau :

Thuong fa Ie nhiet thiet ke' nhiet dQ lam viec a 35°C, a dong co D, va Dz nhiet dQ rnoi truong 35°C nrong tl,l' nhiet d() lam viec cua ro Ie, nen khong tinh den di~u kien hieu chinh thea nhiet ·dQ.

- Dong co Dl c6 I.tm dleDl = 3,7 A thea cong thnc 3-11 .. ta c6 :

Do do : ~RNDl == I.md.Wj = 3,7A, chon rale nhiet c6 khoang di~u chinh 3,61A +3,9A.

- Dong co D2 co I.tm d/<.:D2 = 38A. Chon ro le nhiet c6 khoang di~u chinh tu 37A+ 45A.

- DQng co DJ ~t a trang phong c6 nhiet dQ lam viec 25°C, thea cong tht1"c 3-13 tac6 :

I - Idmd/<D, = 21,5 = 19,8A

,lmKND,(,"C) - ~l,6-0,017.t()C ,Jl,6-0,017.25

Chon [0 le nhiet c6 khoang di~u chinh tit 18A + 25A.

71

So d6 hlnh 3-7 ve mach dieu khien dong co dien c6 sir dung ro Ie nhiet RN. So d6 nay ve minh hoa cho vi du 3-3, hai dong eo D2 va D) ve eiing nrong tl! nhu dong co D[. CD : cau dao ; CC : e~u chi bao ve ngan mach ; RN : TO le nhiet, Khi dong dien di qua TO le tang eao hon dong dien dinh mire cua role. Sau mot thoi gian nhat dinh, ro Ie RN rna ti€p di!m, cuon dAy K mat dien , khai dong tlr KDT rna ra, dong co diroc baa v~. NC : nut cat, ND : nut dong bang tay.

Hinh 3-7. Sa d6 dieu khH!n d~ng CC1 di~n cho vi du 3-3 c6 su dung ro le nhiet.

3.6. nAo V¢ DONG CO DI¢N DUNG RO LE DI¢N TiT

De eo tM sir dung ro le baa v¢ eho dong co dien, cac dong co dien nhat thiet phai co khi cu dien dong cAt tl! dong nhu may cAt dien hay cong tic tao Ro le dien til co nhieu loai, da chucnang nhu baa ve qua dong, ch6ng mat 1 pha, ket rotc ...

Dum day gicithieu mot loai rc le qua dong dien tiI thong dung tren thi truong dung de baa ve cac dong co dien co hieu qua.

• Cac chirc nang lam viec cua ro le :

- sao v¢ qua dong. Baa v¢ se tac dong khi dong dien di vao ro Ie 160 hon dong dien d~t cua TO le voi thai gian d~t i'J bQ phan d~t thai gian "0- TIME".

- Baa v¢ mat pha. Khi mat I pha dong dien trong cuon day dong co tang len den 150% hoac eao hon, diin d€n lam tang nhiet de) cuon day, each dien cuon day gia coi, giiim tuoi tho dong co. Baa ve se me dong voi thai gian d~t "0- TIME".

- Baa v¢ ket roto, Tnrong hop nay dong dien tang cao dQt ngot, TO le dong dien d.t nhanh a ap to mat se tile dQng, neu ap to mat khong lam viec, clnrc nang bao v¢ ket roto se lam viec voi thai gian "O-TIME + D-TIME".

72

• Cac chirc nang khac,

Khi ro Ie lam viec den LED mau xanh sang len. Ro le tac dong, den LED do se sang len, Khi tac dong fa Ie khong tu tfa ve, mu6n fa Ie tfa ve ta a'n nut RESET hoac a'n mit dt. ro le ma't ngu6n cung cap cung tu trb ve. Mu6n kiem tra ro Ie c6 lam viec hay khong thi an nut TEST.

Hinh 3-8 la fa Ie dien tir, s6 1 tren hinh 3-8 g6m c6 2 may bien dong de dtra dong dien vao fa Ie. DOng dien so cap duoc che' tao voi dong dien tu O,5A den 6OA. Voi nhfmg dong co cong suat nho c6 dong dien dinh mire thap han 60~ c6 the dua tnrc tiep dong dien dong co qua may bien dong. Con nhtmg dong CO c6 dong dien dinh mec Ian hen 60A phai ~t them may bien dong. dong dien thu cap cua may bien dong se dira V8.0 ro Ie (hlnh 3-9). S6 4, s6 5 a hlnh 3-8 18. b(l ph~ dieu chinh thai gian d*t cua fa Ie. 56 6 18. bo phan dieu chinh dong dien d~t cua ro Ie.

L 1 L2 L3

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Me

- -- ----,

I

~-~-+-+ 1

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HI

2

3

4

5

Hinh 3-8. Ro Ie dong di~n dien til

I. May bi€n dong; 2. LED mau xanh ; 3. LED mau do; 4. D-TIME; 5. O-TIME; 6. LOAD.

Hinh 3-9. SO" d6 noi day ro le di~n ttl qua may bien dong BI.

73

Sa d6 n6i day bao v¢ dong co dung ro Ie dien tu diroc tht! hien a hlnh 3-10.

l1 12 l3

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l1--- ... x--

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Hlnh 3·10. Sa d6 n6i day tIVC titp dong di¢n qua ro Ie M bao v¢ dc::>ng co,

ChUc nang ella ro le dung de bao v¢ qua tai, dong dien khm dong ella bao ve bang:

Ik<II! = Kill Idm die

Trong do: Kill : he s6 an toan lAy bang 1,3 + 1,5

Lm d~ : dong dien dinh muc ella dong co Thai gian cua bao v¢ tbv= 3s

De tranh bao ve tac dong nham trong truong hop dong co rna may keo dai tai nang, co th~ keo dai thoi gian lam viec cua bao ve Ian han thoi gian rna may ella dong ea. Neu viec keo dai anh huong d€n su lam viec IAu dai cua dong co, phai tinh toan them phan khoa bao ve khi dong co khCJi dong, nhu n6i ngan mach dong dien van d¢ng co hoac dung tiep dit!m n6i song song voi tiep dit!m eua ro le. Khi dong co rna may hoan thanh, se rna khoa M cho bao v¢ lam viec,

Vi dIJ 3-4. Chon ro Ie va tinh dong dien khai dong dt! bao v¢ dong co khong d6ng bo 3x380V, 7,5kW,lJmdle = 19,3A.

(3-15)

Theo cong thUc 3-15, dong dien khoi dong ella ro Ie bang:

Ikdu = Ka!Lmd~ = 1,4.l9,3 = 27,02A

74

Thoi gian cua bao v¢ 1t.v = 2s

V oi dong dien khoi dong nnh toan, chon ro le dien tir co khoang dong dien lam viec tir 3+30A. Thoi gian lam viec 0+ lOs. Sau khi chon mua ro le, mac day thea so do hlnh 3-10. Cai d~t 27 A a nut di~u ehinh LOAD va 2s a nut dieu chinh 0- TIME.

3.7. BAo vt DItN Ap eve TIJ!U

Nhu da biet cac dong co khOng dOng b¢ khOng cho phep lam viec a dien ap thap han dien ap dinh rmrc cua dong co voi thai gian dai, Neu dien ap thap, dong co phai dam baa dll eOng suat, duang nhien dong dien cua dong co se cao han dinh mire, lam phat nong dong co, neu keo dai se gay nguy hiem cho dong co, nbAt la a cac d¢ng co luon luon lam viec day tai.

Chrre nang thu hai ella bao v¢ dien ap eire tieu eho dong co khong dong bo tranh khoi eht! d¢ lam viec ba.'t thuong, khi dien ap hroi dien giam du6i mire cho phep, D~ duy trt che de? lam viec 6n dinh cua cac dong CO quan trong, bang each cat bot cac dong co it quan trong han khi dien ap luoi giam, nho d6 rna dien ap lam viec c6 tM tang len, mat khac con diim bao cho d¢ng co quan trong co th~ tI! rna may khi dien ap sut trang khoang thoi gian ngan, Oic eOng tac to va khoi dong ttt lam viec 6n dinh a dien ap (0.85 + 1,05)Udm. o dien ap (0,4 + 0,5) Udm cac cOng cie to va khoi dong tit nr rna ti!p diem cat mach dien. Do vay neu M-di¢n ap hr6'i giam dirci rmrc 0,5Vdm thl toan bo dong co se cAt dien, neu trang bi toan IX) dong co, tu dong dong lai, da.n den dOng loat dong co rna may. dong dien tang qua eao, lam giam dien ap nhieu ; dieu nay khong eho phep, Do v~y khOng eho phep thi!t k! trong tnrong hop nay ta:t cii cac dong co rna may sau khi dien ap tum giam thap, rna chi M cac dQng co quan trong tt,r rna may tra 1~.

Ro Ie di¢n ap et,rc lieu dung de baa ve dong co sir dung loai dien tir, c6 uu diem kich thuoc nho, tieu thu it cOng suat ; c6 nhieu chuc nang nhu baa ve dien ap cue

ti~u, dien al' cue dai, milt pha, nguoc pha. o truong hop milt pba, trang ro le di cai d~t san thai gian edt la O,5s, ngUQC pba thai gian dt la O,5s va a tnrong hop khong can bang pha thoi gian ro Ie tac dong 13. 3s.

Dien ap khai dong eua ro Ie dien ap cue tieu bang :

Ukd Rtl < = (0,65 + 0,85) U<Im Trong d6: Udm la dien ap dinh mUc cua ludi dien, Thoi gian lam viec cua bila v¢ : tbv = 1 + 5s.

Hlnh 3-11 til. co le dien ap dien tiro

Hlnh 3-12 bieu thi so d6 n6i day cua ro le de baa ve dong co.

P-16)

75

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RI~ .r

4-+=+=:L~J :: 6' RU~

986/

9S RJ~

Hinh 3-11. &fdo n6i day bao v¢ di¢n lip cL!C lieu. Hinh 3-12. Ro Ie dien ap di¢n tfr.

Vi du 3-5. Chon ta le dien ap va tinh dien ap khoi dong de bao ve dong CO

khOng dong bo lam viec a di¢n lip luOi 3x 380V

Dien tip khbi dong cua rd Ie dien ap : Ukd II = 0,8 Udm = 0,8 x 380 = 304 V Thai gian Hun viec cua bao v~ : tJ,v = 3 s.

Til dien ap khoi dong tfnh toano chon co Ie dien ap co khoang dieu chinh 300 -;.. 380V. Thoi gian lam viec cua ro Ie ttt 1 + 5 s,

Can ell' vito U JuJU = 304 V. au d~t b vit dieu chinh 304 V va thai gian d~t cua ro le lit 3s. Sc1 d6 n6i day xem b hlnh 3~ 11 va 3~ 12.

cAu H6. ON T~P

1. PhU'Ong phap tlnh va each chon c8U chi de; bao v~ d¢ng co di~n.

2. PhLfdng phap tinh va each chon ro Ie nhi$t d~ baa v$ qua tai cha 09ng co di~n.

3. PhLfdng phap tinh va each chon ap to mat de; baa v~ 09n9 co di~n.

4. PhLfdng phap tinh va each chon ro Ie oi$n tU'de; bao v$ qua tai va di$n ap thap cho d9ng co di~n.

5. So sanh LfU nhLf<;1c die;m cua m6i phLfdng phap bao v~ d9ng co di$n.

76

Chuang 4 MAYL~NH

4.1. KHAI NI~M CHUNG vA PHAN LO~I

co nhieu plurong phap lam lanh khac nhau, m6i phirong phap Hun lanh c6 nguyen If Hun viec va thiet hi rieng. Nhieu plurong phap lam lanh chi c6 y nghia ve mat li thuyet, nhieu may lanh chi Ung dung trong pham vi phong thi nghiern. Chi c6 mot s6 it phuong phap lam lanh c6 y nghia thuc te va dugc Ung dung rong rai trong san xuat va trong dbi s6ng. Chuong 4 chu yeu gioi thieu may lanh dung trong gia dlnh, trong d6 c6 til lanh.

Til lanh dung trong gia dlnh 180 thiet hi ha thap nhiet d() trong til, nham de bao quan thuc phim, thu6c men, rau qua hoac lam mroc da phuc VIJ giai khat cho gia dmh,

Hien nay cac til lanh gia dlnh deu dung nang luong dien de lam lanh, a nhiing noi khOng co ngu6n dien hrdi qu6c gia, co tM dung loai til lanh chay bang nang hrong nhiet, hoac ngu6n dien m()t chien (Ac quy ... ).

Thuong vo til lanh diroc che tao thanh hai lap, giiJa 2 lap co d¢m chat each nhiet, han ch€ t6i da trao dOi nhiet giiJa trong va ngoai til. eMt lam lanh trong til (tac nhan lanh) gill vai tro quan trong va 180 phuong tien v~n chuyen de tcii nhiet a trong til ra ben ngoai til. Nhu v~y h~ th6ng lam lanh cua til lanh phai co 2 ph!n trao dOi nhiet : bo phan thu nhiet a trong til (dan lanh) va be) phan toa nhiet a ben ngoai til (dan nong),

Tuy theo nguyen dc thu va toa nhiet, til 1~ chia ra lam ba loai : loai khf nen, loai hA:p thu va loai c~p nhiet dien,

a) TEl It,lnh lo{li khf nen

Dng dung hien nrong thu nhiet trong qua trlnh h6a khi soi a dan bay hoi cua khi freon da hoa long M lam lanh, sau d6 khi freon lai duoc dua vao may nen d! chuyen thanh freon dang long, chuan bi cho chu trlnh tiep theo.

Tu lanh Ioai khi nen co nang suat cao, t6c de) lam lanh nhanh, cong suat Ion, nen diroc dung phO bien hien nay. Tuy nhien do phai dung he dong co - may nen, nen tu lanh loai nay lam viec 6n, hay hong h6c.

77

b) Til /t;lnh lo¢ hl;'p thl;l

Thg dung hien nrong thu nhiet trong qua trlnh hoa hoi cua amoniac. Chat hap thu la chA"t trung gian co the la nuoc hay met chAt nao khac hap thu amoniac, tao thanh dung dich amoniac d~ d~. Dung dich nay diroc nung nang len. Khi amoniac Mp thu nhiet, no boc hoi (soi) tao thanh hoi amoniac ap suat cao. Hoi amoniac a ap suat cao va nhiet dO cao duoc dan vao dan ngung. a dan ngung (dan n6ng) c6 lAp nhieu canh toa nhiet, nen nhiet dt) cua hoi amoniac giiim xuong nhanh chong. Amoniac hoa long, amonidc long chay vao dan bay hoi (dan Ianh), T~ dan lanh amoniac bay hoi va thu nhiet a dan lanh tao thanh bu6ng lanh. Sau do amoniac lai duoc chat long hap thu de tao thanh amoniac dum dang dung dich darn d~c va chu trlnh sau lai tiep dien.

Tu lanh kieu hap thu lam viec vai nang suat thap hon kieu khf nen, thai gian lam lanh IAu, tieu thu nang hreng Ian hen kieu khi nen til 1 + 1,5 IAn. Tuy nhien do khong co dong co, tu Ianh lam viec em, tu6i tho cao. Ngu6n nang hrong sir dung c6 the bAng cui, dAu hoa, ga hoac dien,

c) Til /t;lnh lot!-i c~p nhirt dirn Thg dung hieu (ing Peltier:

Ong Peltier dii phat minh ra hien tuong khi cho dong dien di qua hai kim loai boac hai chat ban dan co d*c tinh dan dien khac nhau, tai ch6 tiep

xuc giiia hai kim loai d6 xay ra hien nrong hap thu nhiet, Hien tuong do goi la hieu Ung Peltier.

Nguoi ta dii sir dung hieu + I

trng Peltier de Hun may lanh. Nguyen lf hoat dong nhu sau :

Dung hai chA"t ban dan : chat ban dan rna su dan dien

eua n6 la dien tir (-) va cha't ban dan rna su dan dien cua n6 13. 10 h6ng (+), duqc n6i voi nhau bang thanh d6ng

(hinh 4-1). Chung tao thanh

78

llllllll llllllll 3

1

2

c+)

c-)

Hinh 4-1. Sa do ca:u tao c~p nhiet dien dung d~ lam may lanh :

I. Chat ban dAn di¢n til (-) ; 2. Oilft ban dAn 16 h6ng (+) ;

3. Thanh dong.

c~p nhiet dien, Neu cho dong dien met chieu di tll t{m ban dAn (-) sang tam ban dAn (+) thl ~u nOi giua hai t41n ban dAn Mp thu nhiet (bi I~ di), con ddu kia toa nhiet, Luong nhiet rna ddu Ianh hap thu duqc Ql duqc xac dinh thee cong thlic :

Q=(al-nz)IT1 (4-1)

Trongd6 :

ah ~ : he s6 Peltier

I : cuong d¢ dong di¢n di qua cap nhiet dien T1: nhiet d¢ ddu lanh,

Do s\!' truyen nhiet Ql giua d4u n6ng v6i ddu lanh vA hrong nhiet do s\!' phat sinh cua hieu ling Jun Qj khi dong di~n di qua chsr ban dAn nell' hieu ling lanh thuc tl! co. fch Q, cua ~u lanh bang :

(4-2)

Ap dung hien nrong nay, c6 tM ghep nhi~u c~p ban dAn khac loai vOl nhau, dua tat ca cac ddu 1~ v~ m¢t phfa (dan Ianh), cac ddu n6ng v~ m¢t phfa (dan n6ng) de che' tao thanh tu lanh,

Uu di~m cua tu lanh c~p nhiet dien lam viec tin ~y, ch~y em. hieu su4't cao han loai hllp thu, C6 the dung ngn6n dien Ic quy nen tu lanh c6 the di dong ~t tren oro ... Thy nhien gia thanh con cao. hieu sucit va nang socit lam I~ thap han loai khf nen nen chua 'dUQC dung rong rii.

4.2. TV L~NH GIA DiNH

4.2.1. Nguyen Ii him vi~c ella h~ th6ng' b;mh lo~i khi nen Hoat dong cua h¢ thong lam 1~ a hlnh 4-2 nhu sau :

Khi may nen lam viec, hoi cua mOi cMt tll dan bay hoi duqc hut vao may nen, luong hoi nay duqc maynen, nen len de'n ap socit 6 + 11 at. Do hi nen VOl ap sUllt cao, mOi Chell nong len va di thee duang 6ng d€n dan ngung. Dan ngung 1A 6ng dai uon khtic c6 gan cac thanh tan nhiet, nham tao di~u kien dAy nhanh qua trinh toa nhiet cua moi chllt fa ngoai khong khf. Khi d6 ap su4't cua moi chllt van con cao. Tai dan ngung, moi chill ducc lam lanh va hoa long b ap stItt cao, vi thl! dan ngung con goi III dan n6ng, nhiet d¢ dan ngirng bao gia cling cao ban nhiet d¢ moi tnrong khoang tiI 10 + 15OC. MOi chllt long b dan ngung duoe dua qua van til!t luu. Van tilt luu thuc chllt III mot ti€t dien thAt be lai, khi moi chat long qua n6 bi giam cci ap suat vA nhiet d¢. Trong tii lanh gia dlnh, ngum ta thay van tilt luu bang 6ng mao dAn. Khi rnoi chat long ill qua 6ng mao dan tm dim bay hoi, ap sUlll cua n6 giam dOt

79

ngot va rnoi chat long blen thanh hoi Am, tii'c la hOn hop ca hoi va long iJ ap suat va nhiet d() thap, Hoi nay dua Mn dan bay hoi, Tai day hoi Am se soi va n6 hut nhiet cua cac vat xung quanh thee hien qua trinh lam lanh. Sau khi hut nhiet va soi, hOn hop hoi va long hoan toan bien thanh hoi va diroc may nen hut v~ va l~p lai chu trinh moi nen-hoa long-bay hoi ... DAn ngung tu (dan nong) d~t iJ ngoai tu, dan bay hoi (dan lanh) d~t 0 trong tu.

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Hinh4-2

Sa do h~ Ih6ng lanh loai khf nen.

1. May nen :

2. Dan ngimg (dan n6ng);

3. Dan bay hoi (dan lanh) ;

4. 6ng mao;

5. D(\ng co dien ;

6. H1in iQC;

7. V6 may nen.

ThI}'C chat, may lanh la mot may thu nhiet, thuc hien qua trtnh hut nhie: a ngu6n nhiet d¢ thap (0 dan bay hoi) va nha nhiet cho ngu6n co nhiet d¢ cao han (dan ngirng). TIlI!c hien qua trlnh nay tieu t6n nang luong, d6 la dien nang cho dong co dien keo may nen lam viec,

Dt danh gia kha nang lam lanh cua tii lanh, ngiroi ta dung khai niern nang sual lanh, tuc la luong nhiet (keal) rna may hut duqc trong mot don vi thoi gian (gio), Don vi nang suai lanh (kcal/gio),

Cac may lanh khac nhau, c6 nang suat lanh khac nhau. Nhirng voi mot may lanh, nang SU11t lanh khong phai la mot tri s6 c6 dinh, rna phu thuoc vao nhieu yeu t6. Neu tang nhiet dl) soi va giam nhiet do ngirng cua moi chat thi nang suat cua

80

may lanh se tang, T;(t nhien giam nhiet dt) soi, tang nhiet dt) ngung thl nang suat lanh cua may lanh giiun. Di~u nay cling de hi~u vao mua dong lam lanh nhanh han mua he.

Nang su;(t lam lanh cua mot may lanh thirong dtn;1C cho a dieu kien tieu chUAn : nhiet d¢ sOi t:: = -lSoC. nhiet d¢ soi la nhiet d¢ cua moi cMt trong dan bay hoi. Nhiet de> ngtrng t: = 30°C. nhiet de> ngirng la nhiet de> moi chat long sau khi da diroc ngung trong dan ngung.

Til lanh gia dlnh thuong c6 nang suat lanh b dieu kien tieu chuan khoang til 90+200 kCal/gia.

D6i voi to lanh gia dinh, may nen va dong co duoc n6i voi nhau va duqc di_lt trong mot vo chung. Chi c6 cac d~u 6ng va eire dien n6i ra ngoai, DUng phuong poop nay kha nang ro ri moi chat ra ngoai it hen, nhung day quan dong co phai lam viec b nhiet dt) cao trong moi tnrong dau va khi freon .

4.2.2. Moi chat lanh va dau boi tron

Trong til lanh gia dlnh thuong dung la freon 12 (R12) c6 cong thirc hoa hoc CF2CP2ia san phAm t6ng hop tit d~u mo. RI2la khi khong mau, khong doc b nong d¢ thap. R 12 chi d¢c khi n6ng d¢ trong khong khf Ian hon 20% the tfch.

a ap suat khi quyen 1 at. R12 soi &-29,8°C va dong thanh da a -lS5°C.

R12 tro ve hoa hQC. ~u nhu khong tac dung voi bAt kl kim loai nao, khong.dan dien ; kha nang ro ri qua cac 16 nho trong kim loai cao han khong khi nhieu, R12 co khii nang hoa tan cac hop cMt hfru co va nhieu Ioai son, do d6 day quan d¢ng C(1 dien phai dung loai san each dien ~c biet, khOng hoa tan trong R12.

R12 khOng hoa tan [rang nuoc, LU<}l1g nu6c cho phep trong til lanh gia dlnh khong qua 0,0006% thea kh6i IU<}l1g.

adieu kien blnh thuong, R12 khOng doc, khOng anh huong gl tm chat IU<}l1g thuc pham. Nhimg b nhiet d¢ cao hon 400°C, R12 tiep xuc true ti€p vci ngon lira bi phan huy thanh hydroclorua va hydroflorua rAt d¢C. Gifla ap suat va nhiet dl) sci cua RI2co quan he c~t che voi nhau.

RI2 hoa long va d~u boi tron hoa tan vao nhau khong co gim han. Nhung hoi R12 va dAu boi tron hoa tan vao nhau c6 gioi han, Khi R12 hoa tan trong dAu bOi trcn, de> ohm cua dau boi tron giam xu6ng. Khi ap suat va nhiet d¢ giam thl do hoa tan cua hoi R12 trong dAu tang len.

DAu boi tron trong may nen, dong C(1 tu lanh gia dinh khong the thay the', bO sung dinh kl duoc, han nfra d~u bOi tron lam viec trong dieu kien RI2 hoa tan nen dAU boi tron phai thoa man cac yeu cau d~c bier : d¢ On dinh va dl) nhot cao, dl) Am

81

thap, nhiet d¢ dOng d~ va d¢ lam due thap, Dt) 6n dinh cao cua dau boi tron la khii nang ch6ng sll oxy hoa cua dttu cao, d6 la yeu cau d~c biet quan trong,

Dau hOi tron khO hUt fun rnanh va de dang hap thu nuoc trong khOng khi. Do d6 khi bao quan, van chuyen dau phai chua trong thung kin. Truce khi cho dau vao tii lanh can phai sa'y dau va kiem tra ki dung loai dau Slr dung,

4.2.3. May nen ciia tu lanh gia dlnh

0) Nhi~m v¥ cu.a nuiy nen

- Hut het moi chat lanh tao ra a dan bay hoi. dong thOi duy tri ap suat can thiet cho SI! bay hoi. iJ nhiet d¢ thap,

- Nen moi chat 6 trang thai hoi. tCr ap suat bay hoi. toi ap suAt ngung tu va day vao dan ngung,

- Phai dii nang suat, kb6i luong, hru hrong moi chAt qua may nen, phil hop vdi tai nhiet cua dan bay hoi va dan ngtmg tu.

b) Ylu cdu cu.a may nen

- Urn viec chic chan, 6n dj.nh, co tuOi tho va d¢ tin cay cao, c6 kha nang san

xuat hang loat,

- Hieu suat nun viec cao.

- Khi lam viec phat sinh tieng 6n it nhat,

c) Phdn loqi may nen

Hien nay a nuoc ta dung rAt nhieu loai tu lanh cua nhi~u hang va nhieu nude khac nhau. M6i hang. m6i nu6c che tao may nen co nhtmg d~c diem khac nhau, nhirng v~ nguyen rAe co ban d~u gi6ng nhau.

May nen tii lanh gia dlnh dung pbO bien nhat hien nay la loai may nen pittOng co mot ho~ hai xi lanh. Mot s6 loai rnoi nha't may nen pittOng dung co cau tay quay thanh truot, Ngoai ra con co loai may nen rOto, chu yeu dung cho may dieu hoa nhiet d¢. it th:iy trong tu lanh gia dlnh,

d) Nguyen li tam vi~c cu.a may nen

- May nen pit tong dimg ca cau tay"quay thanh truyen.

May nen pfttong dung co cau tay quay thanh truyen bien chuyen dong quay cua dong co dien thanh chuyen dOng tinh tien cua pittOng. Qua trinh htit va nen thuc hien nho su thay dOi tM tfch cua khoiing gitta pittOng va xi lanh.

Hlnh 4-3 la sa dO may nen pittOng co co cau tay quay thanh truyen, SI! lam viec cua.so d6 nhu sau :

82

Pfttong chuyen dong len xuong trong xi lanh. Khi pittong di chuyen ti'J tren xu6ng dudi, ap su!:t khoang hut giam, clape hut tu dOng rna ra do c6 sl,l' chenh lech ap suat, may nen thuc hien qua trlnh hut. Khi pittong dat d€n diem chet dum, qua trlnh htit ket thuc. Pfttong dOi lurong chuyen d¢ng len phfa tren, thuc hien qua trlnh nen, Khi ap sua:'t trong xi lanh cao han ap suat trong khoang dAy, clape day tu dong rna ra cho moi cha:'t vao khoang day. Qua trinh day hoi moi chat k€t thuc khi xi lanh dat dit~m chet phfa tren. Qua trlnh hut va nen lai lap lai. V6i til lanh dung moi chat freon 12 (R12). nhiet d¢ sau khi ra khoi may nen khoang tren 80°C.

4

Hinh 4-3. Sa dO co du ray quay Ihanh tmyen.

I. Xi ktnh : 2. Van hUI : 3. TAm phing d~t van : 4. Van ddy : 5. NAp xi 1anh : 6. Pftrong : 7. Ch61 ; 8. Thanh truyen ~ 9. Khuyu ; 10. G6i du lIVe.

U u diem cua may nen pfttOng la cong nghe gia cOng don gian, de boi tron, c6 th~ dat ci s6 nen pittOng :

P

n =-!..= 10

Po

Trang d6:

(4-3)

n : ti so nen

PK : ap suat tren dan ngung tu

Po : ap suat sau 6ng mao dan (dan bay hoi).

V m ti s6 tren dung eho mot ca:p nen.

NhllC;1C dit~m ella may nen pfttong la c6 nhieu chi ti€t va e~p rna sat de mai mon, May nen pit tong (mg dung rong rm trong til lanh gia dlnh va ca may lanh co

cOng suat 1&1.

- May lien pittong dung C(J cdu thanh truot.

83

Hlnh 4-4 Hl so d6 may nen pittOng dung eo Cilu thanh tnrot, Tren lay quay cua true lAp eon chay diroc d~t trong long va long d6 n6i cimg vci pittong,

Hinh 4-4. Sa d6 may nen piu6ng dung co ca:u Ihanh tnrot.

Khi true quay. chuyen dong tron cua tay quay bien thanh hai chuyen dong quaytinh tien cua eon chay trong l6ng va cua pfttong trong xi lanh, TA't ea cac ehi tiel cua co cau thanh tnrot d~u e6 dang hinh tru, do d6 dam bao sir chuyen dich tl! do cua cac chi tiet ti€p xuc vOi nhau, rA't thfch hop voi chuyen dong vuong g6c - song song cua cac ehi tiet d6i vci xi lanh ; eh€ tao de dang han. Qua trlnh khac giong may nen pittOng sir dung cocau tay quay thanh truyen,

4.2.4. MQt 56 chi tieu eoa to lanh gia dlnh

EM danh gia ehA't luong cua mot tu lanh, ngum ta dua ra mot s6 chi tieu d~c trtrng sau day :

a) Chi tieu ddu tien ma nglliii tieu dung quan tdm Iii khd nang bdo qudn nhii'u hay it, tu IUn hay hi, do Iii dung tich chung cua tu l(lnh

Dung tich chung cua tu lanh la tM tich gioi han bbi cac vach ben trong cua til lanh, khi d6ng ella va la'y het nhtrng b¢ phan thao rei ben trong, Dung tfch nay do nha che' tao quy dinh. VOi. til lanh gia dlnh, dung tich chung ttr 40 lft den 350 lit.

b) Dung ({ch co ich

Neu IA'y dung tfch chung trir di tM tieh cua cac bl) phan d*t trong tu d~ lam khung, gia dO' san pham bao quan, ta dtroc dung tich eo fell. Dti di}.c tnrng cha dung tfch co ich, nguoi ta dung h¢ s6 sir dung the tich co ich ki hieu iii v, d6 18. ti s6 giO'a dung tfch c6 Ich va dung tich chung:

V= Vi VCh

Trong d6: Vi: dung tich e6 Ich V.:h: dung tich chung,

H~ s6 nay dao dong trong khoang 0,8 70,93.

84

(4-4)

c) Kich Ihuuc va Ihl tich gitJi han

Bao g6m dung tfch ehung cong voi th~ tieh ehO ~t may. th~ tfch cua vo va cua ehlft each nhiet, TM tieh d~t may chiern khoang 15+25%. th~ tich vo va chat each nhiet chiem khoang 20+25% tOng th~ tieh gioi han ella tll. Cac dung tieh chung, th~ tich d~t may, th~ tieh vo va each nhiet tao tfianh kfch thuoc va the tich gioi han cua tu lanh,

d) Dung tich cUa ngdn nhi~1 dtJ Ihttp

DAy cling la chi tieu quan trong cua tu lanh, Tri s6 dung tfch ngan nhiet dQ thap phu thuoc vao dung tich chung cua tu lanh. De so sanh cac til Ianh voi nhau, ngiroi ta dua ra dai lirong dung tfch ngan nhiet de) thap nrong Mi, d6 la ti s6 gitra dung tieh ngan nhiet dQ thap va dung tich ehung cua tu lanh :

(4-5)

Trong do:

V I : tinh bang % la dung tich ngan nhiet dQ thap tuong d6i ella tu lanh V t : dung tfch cua ngan nhiet dQ IMp cua til 1~

Vch: dung tich chung cua til lanh

e) KhOi lu~g cua Iii

Kh6i hrong cua til phu thuec vao cMt luong $ lieu each nhiet, chat hrong v~t lieu ch~ tao cac chi ti€t co khl, dien.Joai tu.letp ton va nhira Iam vo til. ~ so sanh cac tu lanh v6i nhau, ngum ta dung kh6i hrqng rieng cua tu lanh. Kh6i luong rieng ducc tinh la tl s6 gina kh6i lm;mg til vOi dung tich chung cua tu :

M

v =- 2 V

ell

(4-6)

Trong d6:

v2 : kh6i luong rieng cua til lanh M : kh6i luong cua tll lanh

Veil: the tfch chung cua tu lanh,

V~ nguyen lAC v2 cang be cang t6t. Ti s6 nay phu thuoc vao nuCtc san xuat, c6 th~ dao dong trong khoang 0,25 + 0.44 kg/lit.

g) Nhift dtJ trong tli I{Inh

Tuy thuoc vao nha cht tao, til lanh c6 3 cap nhie: d¢ cua ngan lanh -6°C. -12°C va -18°C. Day Itt nhiet de) duqc quy dinh trong dit!u kien tieu chuan. Nhiet d¢ trong

85

ngan lanh c6 th~ thay d6i bang each di~u chinh hop s6 ngan lanh, ngoai ra con phu thuoc vao nhiet d<) khOng khi moi truong xung quanh.

Nhiet d<) phia dum. ngan lanh, phu thuoc vao D;hi¢t d<) cua ngan lanh va rmic d6i hru khong khi trong tii.

h) H~ SfJ tluYi ginn lclm .. i~c

Til lanh lam viec theo chu kl, may nen c6 khoang thai. gian lam viec va khoang thai. gian ngirng. TOng thm gian trong mot chu ld khoang 8+ 12 phiit. Neu tfnh trong I gio, vao khoang tir 5+8 chu kl trong met gib' ..

. Neu goi tlv la thai. gian lam'viec trong mot chu ki va t1: la t6ng thai. gian ca chu kl (bao g6m thOi gian lam viec tlv va thai. gian ngi:rng t,.), thl he s6 thoi gian lam viec bang :

(4-7)

Tri s6 he s6 thai. gian lam viec phu thuoc vao che' d¢ nhiet trong ngan 1~ va phu thuoc vao nhiet d¢ mOi tnrong xung quanh. Khi so sanh til lanh voi nhau, neu cung met che' d¢ nhiet trong ngan lIPID va nhiet d¢ moi truong xung quanh, h¢ s6 b cang be thl cha:t hrong til lanh ~ang t6t.

i) Tisu hao 4~n nang

Dien nang tieu hao chu y~u Ia do dOng co dien keo may nen, nang luong tieu hao khong c6 dinh, phu thuoc vao nhieu ye'u 16. Khi nhiet d¢ trong ngan 1~ cang thap, he s6 thei gian lam viec cang dai, nhiet d¢ khOng khi xung quanh cang caa thi tieu hao dien nang cang Ian. -Di¢n tra xli 113 ... cung g6p phan tieu haa dien nang.

k) Hinh ddng, thim my

Ngoai cac chi tieu co ban tren.khi xem xet tii lanh con chti y den mot s6 chi tieu khac nhir : hlnh dang, d¢tham my, d¢ khep kin, mall sic. d~c bier 18. tieng 6n gay ra tir may nen ...

4.2.5. Dan ngung

a) SI! lam v~c cUa dan ngung

Dan ngung hay con III dan n6ng 18. thi€t bi trao d6i nhiet giira mot ben ia moi chat lanh ngung tu truyen nhiet cho rnoi tnrong xung quanh. Trong qua trinh thai nhiet, mOi chat lanh ter dang hoi bien thanh dang long ap suat cao, lip suat nay phu thuoc vao nhiet d¢ moi tnrong xung quanh. Neu nhiet d¢ moi truong caa thl ap suat moi chili a dan ngung cang cao. a mroc ta nhiet do khong khi dao. dong trong khoang 8°C + 4ifC. tip suat dan ngung nam trang khoang 7 + 1 Oat.

86

Luong nhiet thai qua dan ngung dung bang Iuong nhiet rna dan bay hoi (dan lanh) thu -0 trong tu cong vOi dien nang tieu thu cho may nen. Tu lanh gia dinh da s6 co dan ngung lam mat bang khOng khf d6i luu tl,l nhien, Mot s6 it tu lanh gia dinh va tu lanh thmmg nghiep co dan ngirng lam mat bang khong khi cuang bee.

b) Yiu ctiu doi vUi dan ngung

- Phiii c6 kha nang toa nbi¢t phil hop vai- nangsuat lanh cua may nen trong dieu

kien lam viec da cho ;

- ~ mat trao dill nhiet phai du va t6t ;

- Sl,l tiep xiic giQa canh tan nhi¢t va 6ng dAn mOi cMt phai t6t ;

- Chiu dugc ap su!'t va nhiet docao, khOng bi an mon ;

- Twin hoan khOng khi phai 16t ;

- COng nghe che tao dan gian, bile duOng. sira chila thuan loi, d~ dang, gia thanh ha,

c) Vi tri U1p 4~ cria dan ngung

Dan ngung cua tu lanh, dl1u vao duqc lAp vao d~u dAy cua may nen, dau mOi chat long ra duoc lAp vao phin say IQC tnroc khi n6i vao 60g mao.

Dan ngung duqc U.p ~t sau tu lanh, dan duqc b6 trf sao cho viec d6i htu khong khi la t6t nh!'t, M dan ngung thai nhiet duqc d~ dang.

d) Cdu tao cria dan ngung

Hlnh 4-5 la sa d6 c!'u tao dan ngung cua tll 1i]J1h nen hoi. g6m 6ng thep c6 duong kinh co <1>5 v6i canh tan nhiet lam bang day tMp co <Il =1,2+2. MOi chAt di tif tren dan ngung xu6ng, khOng khi d6i luu 11..1" nhien di tif dum dan ngirng len. TllJ!C hien trao dOi nm¢t ngiroc dong.

Ngoai loai dan ngimg bang cac dan 6ng thep con co loai dan ngung lam bang cac tam nhOm. cac dan ngung nay duqc che tao tif hai la nhOm day 1,Smm, can dinh lai vtn nhau, b giii'a c6 cac ranh cho moi cMt luu thong thay cho cac' 6ng. Khoang gilla cac ranh c6 dap cac khe ha de nang cao kha nang d6i luu khong khf qua dan. Do M s6 truyen nhiet cua trun nhOm Ian. do tao ducc b! mat trao dOi nhiet Ion, nen loai dan ngung nay gon nhe han tic lo .... i dan ngung khac,

Hlnh 4-5. Sa d6 cau tao dan ngung.

Hien nay cac dan ngtmg thubng duqc b6 tri b ben trong VD til d*t phia sau hose ca hai ben suon tll, nen khong th~ nhln thay dan ngirng, Khi d~t dan ngung, nen d*t

87

nghieng 5° so voi vi to thing dirng de tranh hien tuong dong khOng khf n6ng a 6ng phla du6i lai bao boc 6ng phfa tren. Khoang each gru. til hon cua dan ngung a phia dum va khoang each xa hon cua dan ngtrng a phia tren,

4.2.6. DaD bay hoi

a) Sf! lam vi~c cua dan bay hui

Dan bay hoi (dim lanh) la thiet bi trao d6i nhiet, gitra mot ben lil moi chef! Ianh soi va mot ben la moi mrong cru. lam lanh nhu khong khf, mroc hoac san phdm can bao quan, Dan bay hoi thu nhiet cua moi tnreng lanh cap cho moi chat lanh, soi a nhiet dt) thap va ap suat thifp. Tlnreng nhiet dt) soi cua rnoi chat trong dan bay hoi ttr -20oC+-15°C nrong ling voi ap sua't 1,5+1,9at. SV trao dOi nhiet giiia khongkhf trong to Ianh va dan bay hoi c6 th~ do d6i hru tl,l' nhien hoac d6i luu cuang buc (dung quat khuay khOng khf). Thirc t€ phan 1(10 cac ttl dung d6i luu tu nhien,

b) Y eu cdu dOl vOi diln bay hui

- Dan bay hoi phai diun bao kha nang thu nhi¢t cua mOi tnrong phu hop vm nang

sua't lanh cua may;

- ~ m~t trao ddi nhiet t6t ;

- Tiep xnc gina san phAro bao quan va dan t6t ;

- KhOng bi an mon do mei cMt va khOng khf xung quanh :

- Chiu duqc ap suat may nen ;

- COng nghe ch€ '40 don gian, lam viec tin cay, kha nang bao duOng, sUa chira

de dang.

c) Vi tri ldp dijt ddn bay Iwi

Dan bay hoi d~t b phia tren, trong phAn dung tfch c6 Ich cua to lanh. D~t dan bay hoi phfa tren, dam bao cho sl! d6i luu t\,! nhien cua khOng khi a 'phta trong to duoc t6t, cac phan con lai cua khOng gian c6 Jch khong c6 dan bay hoi cung duqc lam lanh, '40 nen cac khoang trong tu lanh c6 nhiet dO khac nhau.

Dan bay hoi duqc n6i voi 6ng mao hose van ti€t hru theo chieu chuyen dong cua moi chat lanh va may nen trong he th6ng lanh.

d) Cdu tao dan bay hui

IDnh 4-6 lA so d6 cAu tao dan bay hoi. Dan bay hoi duoc ch€ tao bang v~t lieu khOng bi an mon hoac c6 th~ phU tren ~ mat mot lap ch6ng an mOD, lap do khOng anh huang d€n pharn chAt thuc pham bao quan trong do.

Dim bay hoi kieu tam bang nhom dugc dung rong riii vi nhom la v~t lieu co d¢ dAn nhiet cao, de gia cOng, gia thanh ha. Cac tam nhom day 3 + 4mm duqc lam

88

sach ~ mat hi!t sue dn than, tren m~t tarn, ngubi ta dung thu6c mau ve hlnh cac riinh moi chat thea thii!t ki!. Mau ve ch6ng duoc SI! khuech tan cua nhom vao nhau khi can. Sau khi ve hlnh, tam nhom ducc dua vao bu6ng s&y d~c bier, Sau khi s&y xong, d~t chong tsm nhOm khong ducc danh dliu len tren va 2 tam nhom duqc gan voi nhau nho ban di~m bAng dien b mot s6 chb. Sau d6 mang di can, ~a ap suat IOn (2S+3Skg/mm2) hai tAm nhom dinh lien voi nhau, trir cac riinh dii ve bang thuoc mall. Nguoi ta d~t tam nhom dii can vao khuon va bam van ranh dii ve mall chat long c6 ap suat IOn (80+ lOOat), riinh se nO' ra c6 hlnh dang va chien cao thea yell Call.

Dan bay hoi lam bang thep khong gi c6 cong nghe chi! t!.LO khac hin. cac tam thep khong gi diroc dap riinh tnroc, sau d6 ghep vao nhau va han kin xung quanh chi chira 2 16 ~ n6i 6ng mao va 6ng hut. 0 gitra ngum ta han cham tirng doan vi giii'a cac riinh khong yell Call kin hoan roan.

Hlnh 4-6a cho cliu tao dan bay hoi dang 6ng tarn, dan 6ng dugc ghep chat len tam tan nhiet, IO!.Li nay duqc dung trang cac tu da kho hoac tu da tl! tao.

Htnh 4-6b. c cho cau tao cua dan bay hoi kieu t&m bang thep khong gi hay

bang nhom. I -:/

!

U II di~m cua dan bay hoi bang nhom c6 cOng nghe chi! tao de dang, kha nang tl! dong hoa day chuyen san xuat cao. gm thanh re, M 86 truyen nhiet Ian nen gon, nhe, Viec b6 tri cac riinh moi cha't ra't de dang, da dang, Dan bay hoi tam nhom cho dung tich b ngan donglanh IOn va de dang b6 tri dan trong tll lanh,

Nhuoc di~m cua din bay hoi bang nhOm la de han gi, nen can bao ve can.than chong han gi. O1n phai xu Ii tranh oxy hoa an6t (m6i n6i giua dan bay hoi vci 6ng mao va 6ng hut), can baa v¢ dau n6i khong bi tham 001 d~ chong an mon dien phan, pha huy phan nhorn, D~ bao v~ dau n6i chong Am, bang each bQC nhimg lap nilon mong hoac nhua quanh dAn n6i. C6ng viec ban nhom ding kh6 han ban dong, Nhom bi metanol.an mon, nen khong dung metanol de ch6ng am cho tu lanh,

4.2.7. Oog mao

a) SI! kim vi~c va yeu cau cua ong mao

89

Ong mao dung de ha ap su~t cua dong moi chat long lanh, tir ap sua:t ngung tu a <tim ngung xu6ng ap sua:t thap b dan bay hoi, nrong lhlg vai nhiet dQ soi can thie't.

M Yeu cau 6ng mao la cung ca:p va di~u chinh du lugng mOi chat long cho dan bay hoi, phu hop vOi tAi nhiet cua dan bay hoi.

M Duy trl ap suat bay hoi On dinh va sll chenh l¢ch ap sua:t giifa dan bay hoi va dan ngung tu,

b) V! tri liJp ~ 6ng mao

Neu co phin loc, thu 11}' lip d*l cac thiet bi theo chieu chuydn dQng moi chat nhu sau : dan ngung, phin loc, 6ng mao, dan bay hoi.

c) Cd" tao ong mao

Ong mao hay con goi la 6ng eapile co cau 1(1.0 dan gian, la doan 6ng c6 duang kinh ra:t nho tu D,5+5mm va duoc ~t tren doan gina dan ngung 1\1 va dan bay hoi (hinh 4-- 7).

Phi>! ap sua! thJp

Dan bay hOi

Phin

i

I Bide I

I

Hinh 4·7. Sa d6 6nS mao trong vi trl 1u lanh,

Ong mao dong vai tro nhu mot van tiet luu, khi cMt long di qua n6, ap suat va nhiet d¢ mOi chat giam xuong, Kich thuoc, thong luong ella 6ng mao phai du dam bao bang nang sua:t khci hrong cua may nen, Do do khi can pbai thay 60g. mao, khOng tM tuy tien thay ba:t kt loai ong mao DaO vOi kfch thu6c dai, agin tuy y duqc vt ong-mao khOng tM dieu ehinh diroc,

90

So voi van ti€t hru, eng mao c6 nhilng uu diem sau day:

- Uu diim : r&:t don gian, khOng c6 chi tie't chuyen dong, nen lam viec dam bao, dt') tin cay cao, khOng cdn binh chua. Sau khi may nen ngimg lam viec viti phut, ap suat se can bang gina dliu dliy va d4u hut, nen dong co dien khoi dong de dang.

- Nhuac diim : de tac ban. tac am. kh6 xac dinh dt') dai 6ng, khOng tv dieu chinh duoc thee cac che dt') lam viec khac nhau, cho nen ern sir dung cho cac he thong lanh c6 cOng su1ft nho,

4.2.8. Phin lee va cac thiet bi phu khac

a) Phin s1fy lit thiet bi lap vito he thong lanh dti hut am (hoi nuoc) con s6t lai

.:i

trong vong tulin hoan ella moi ch&:t lanh. Am lit ke thu nguy hiem nhat cua he th6ng

lanh, Khi lap rap hoac sau khi sira chtra, du can th~.d€n dau, trong h¢ thong lanh vAn con s6t lai mt')t cMt hoi am. Hoi am trong to lanh khOng nhilng gay ra tic Am, con kl!t hqp voi ddu boi tron v~ moi chat tao ra khi khong ngirng tu, tao ra axit an rnon cac chi ti€t.

o cua ra cua van ti€t luu hoac 6ng mao, khi ap suat dot ngot giam xu6ng PlI, nrong ling nhier d¢ d¢t ng¢t giam xu6ng toile (dum CfC) hoi am se dong thanh da bit kin 16i ra cua moi eha't lanh, lam eho he thong ma't I~ hoan toano Hien urong tren goi lit tic am. a tu lanh gia dinh chi 15mg am cung du gay tac; am hoan toano

Hlnh 4-8 la so dO

cau tao phin sa:y g6m mt')t vo hlnh tIV bang d6ng hay thep, ben trong c6 lum chan va dem them lap ni hoac da, a gitra c6 cac hat hut am nhu. sillicagel hoac zeolit, VI phin say bao gio cung e6 hroi chan nen n6 lam ca nhiem vu phin lQC. Phin sa:y duoc lcip eho cit cac he thong lanh c6 nhiet dt') bay hoi thap hon O°e. Phin

Hat hilt am

Ltldi +n]

Hinh 4-8. Sa d6 eM I~O phin s4"y va vi Irl ella phin say trong h~ th6ng lanh,

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say duoc lAp a cu6i dim ngung, tnroc van ti~t hm hay 6ng mao hoac b eu6i dan bay hoi tnroc khi ve may nen,

Tuyet d6i khong diroc cho c6n metanol vao h¢ th6ng lanh d8 ch6ng tie dm. vi con metanol an mon -nhom va pha huy scm. each dien cua day quan dong co dien, tao axft an mon chi tiet khac.

b) Phin tile

Phin IQc dung d81QC bui co hQC ra khoi vong tuan hoan moi chat lanh nhu eat, bui, xi, yay han, mat sAt, kim loai ... de tranh tAc bAn va tranh hong hOC may nen cung cac chi tiet chuyen dong khac,

Hinh 4-9 ve cau tao phin IQC gom vo hinh tru,

ben trong ~t lum lQC hoac loai g6m kim loai co kha nang lQC bui. Phin loc thuang sir dung cho cac he thong lanh, co nhiet d¢ bay hoi 100 han Cfe nhu may dieu hoa nhiet d¢. Khi nhiet d¢ bay hoi nho han Que, thuong dung phin IQC ke-t hop v6i say lQC.

c) Chat chong tllmg

~ tranh hien tuong dong da lam tac 6ng mao, nguoi ta dung mot s6 cMt ch6ng dong, phO bien nhAt dung ruou metyl (CH10H), bang each eho vao he th6ng khoang 1+2% nrou metyl so vOi hreng moi chAt c6 trong M th6ng lanh da dU'gc khu am.

Ruou metyl rA"t d¢c, de bay hoi. nen sir dung phai.can than, RUQU metyl dua vao h¢ th6ng lanh, khong eo kha nang hut am ra khoi tiI lanh rna chi co tac dung hoa tan voi mroc lam giam nhiet d¢ dong thanh da cua nuoc, Nhu v~y khi eho nrou metyl vao, hoi am van hoan roan c6 trong h¢ th6ng.

.,,_.,, __ k},.:-, KJI: I ",":.]. ~·F~·~ ~ ~

Hinh 4-9. SO' do cifu I~O phin Ioc.

Rirou metyl nguyen chat khong c6 tie dung An rnon phan Ian kim loai. Trong moi tnrong mroc, dau, freon, fUQ1I metyl cting eo tac dung lin men kim loai nhAt dinh, nhung khong dang k8. Chi e6 nhom, khi rae dung vm nrou metyl tao thanh rnetylat nhorn. Do d6 trong tu lanh e6 dan nhom thl khong cho nrou metyl vao lam chAt chong d6ng.

N6i chung trong tu I~, ngum ta it dung eMt eh6ng d6ng. Du trong tu lanh c6 thiet bi hut am, phin lQC hay chat ch6ng dong, khi lap rap, sua chua cac b¢ phan cua tu lanh, cung can giii het suc sach se va 18m kho ke cit dau boi tron va moi chAt tnroc khi nap vao tu.

4.2.9. IlQng co di~n

Dong co truyen dong cho may nen trong tu lanh thirong 180 dong co dien. Dong co dien va may nen dugc d~t trong mot vo chung goi 180 16c (bI6e) ella tll lanh,

Yeu cau d6i voi dong co di¢n.v~t lieu each dien cua day quan va v~t lieu phu, khong phan Ung hoa hQC voi moi chat freon R12. voi <lAu boi tron ; VI trong qua trlnh lam viec dong co duqc ngam trong moi chat va dau.

Cach dien cua day quan dong co phai chiu dtroc nhiet d¢ cao, khi dong co, may nen lam viec, nhiet dt) c6 the len den I(XtC. Cac day emay blnh thuong khOng chiu dircc nhiet d¢ nay.

Dong co can c6 ket cau gQD. dan gian, dQ ben cao, tuOi tho dong co tir 15-;.-20 nam, dong co thfch ling ache dQ lam viec khac nhau cua may nen, dien ap lam viec cua dong co phu hop voi dien ap IOOi dien, c6 mo men mo may dll Ian. dong dien khoi dong khong qua Ian.

Cau tao dong co dung cho tu lanh gia dlnh 180 .dong co khong dong b¢ mot pha rota 16ng s6c. Phan tinh (stato) c6 2 cuon day: cuon lam viec va cuon khci dong. Cuon lam viec cua ta:t ca dong co tll lanh quan gi6ng nhau va lam viec lau dai a dien ap dinh muc luai dien, CUQn khOi. dong co.hai loai : loai thu nhert dung dien tro phu mac n6i tiep voi cuon khOi. dong de tao me men rna may, thuc te chi can tfnh toan sao cho ban than day quan khoi dong c6 dien trotuong d6i Ian 18. duoc, Sau khi khOi. dong dong co xong. day quan khOi. dong duqc cat ra khoi luai dien, MOmen rna maya tnrong hop nay nrong d6i nho.

Loai thu hai dung tu dien mac n6i tiep vai cuon day khoi d¢ng, sau khi khoi dong xong cit tu va cuon day khOi dong ra khoi Illai dien, Momen rna may khi dung tu dien IOn han momen rna may dung dien trb phu De tan dung cuon day khoi dong, tang cong suat dong co mot pha, sau khi khoi dong xong khong cat tu dien ra khoi tuOi dien, tu dien a tnrong hop nay vira c6 nhiem vu tao mo men khoi dong va tang cuong them SI,T lam viec cua dong co. Do d6 tu dien ducc goi la tu lam viec. De nang cao mo men mo may, ngum ta mac song song vci tu larn viec mot tv. khoi dong, sau khi kbOi dong dong co xong tl,l khoi dong diroc cat fa khoi luoi dien.

Nguon dien cap cho dong co 18. ngu6n xoay chieu, nen cac tu dien sir dung phai

la tu dau.

Mach dien khoi dong dong co dien ffit)t pha xem a chuang 7.

4.2.10.llieu chinh nhiet dQ

O6i voi tll lanh gia dlnh, dQ chinh xac nhiet dQ trong til khOng yeu cAu cao, e6 the dao dong trong khoang tit 2+5°C. Tuy nhien yeu cau thiet bi dieu chinh nhiet dQ phai dan gian, lam viec chac chan, tin cay, gia thanh ha,

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Hinh 4-10 la sa d6 c.1'u tao ro Ie nhiet dl) dtroc dung phd bien hien nay. Ro le nhiet duqc Hip a dan bay hoi. Nen viec dieu chinh nhiet dQ trong tll la dieu chinh nhiet d¢ cua dan bay hoi.

Ro Ie g6m 6ng xi phong 3. o day 6ng xi phong chiu tic dung cua ap suat chA't khi chua d~y trong phan ttt cam img 1 va 6ng n6i 5. Con d~u kia cua xi phOng chiu lac dung cua 10 xo 4. Lo xo 4 c6 the dieu chinh sire cang nho mim dieu chinh 6. Day cua 6ng xi phong gin cong lAc di¢n 2. COng lAc 2 c6 the d6ng hoac rna dQng co dien cua may nen,

81,1 lam viec cua ro le nhiet nhtr sau. Khi nhiet dQ cua dan bay hoi thay d6i, lam cho nhiet dQ cua dau cam (mg ro Ie nhiet thay d6i thea, kh6i khi chua trong xi phong se thay ddi ap suat dan de"n d6ng hay rna cong tAc 2. Khi quay mim dieu chinh, tuc ta thay d6i dQ cang cua 10 xo 4, khi d6 su d6ng rna· cong lAc 2 tuong tmg voi ap sufi moi, nghia Iil nrong tmg voi nhiet dl) klnic cua dan bay hoi.

Ro le nhiet chi tiep xuc v6i dan bay hoi a doan cam tmg, do d6 6ng n6i nen boc mot lop each nhiet

mong ngan each 6ng n6i vai dan bay hoi. PhAn Ion tll lanh b¢ phan cam ling cua ta Ie nhiet dugc d~t phfa tren dan bay hoi.

4.2.11. M(tt sO sa dO di~n cua til lanh

Sa do dien cua til lanh n6i chung khong phirc tap, nhung phai dam bao su lam viec lien rue, tin cay, chac chan, Cac ro Ie tac dong dong rna mach dien dung vai tro cua may. Tuy loai may mil c6 sa do di day khac nhau.Tuy nhien nhtmg phan co ban khOng khac nhau, diem khac nhau chu y€u cua m6i sa do la sl,l pha tuy€t d dan bay hoi.

Hinh 4-10. Sa dO cA"u tao ro Ie

nhi~t dO (thermostat).

a) StY db m(jCh difn dt11l gidn nh!t cua tu liJnh

Cac chi ti€t xem sa d6 hlnh 4-11. SI! lam viec cua sa d6 nhu sau :

Khi cam phfch 11 vao nguon dien, dong dien se di qua tiep diem 1 cua co Ie nhiet dQ (thermostat), qua tic!p diem 6 cua ro le nhiet bao v¢ qua nhiet, di vao eMu cue R cua cucn lam viec 4 cua dong co, di ra dau chung C ve nguon. Cuon day -8 c6 dong dien Ion, hut Ioi thep 10, ti€p (iiem 9 dong lai, cuon day khm dong 5 c6 dien

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va dong co diroc khbi dong. Khi dong co khbi. dong hoan thanh, dong dien khoi d¢ng giam xu6ng, cuon day 8 khong du lire hat loi thep 10, nhi tiep diem 9, cuon khei dong 5 duoc cat ra khoi hrOi dien,

Ro Ie nhiet lam nhiem vu bao ve d¢ng co qua lru. ve nhiet. Trong tnrong hop dong co khbi d¢ng qua Iau rna cling khOng khoi dong dl1<JC hoac 16c may nhi~t d<) cao qua iocc. ro Ie nhiet 6 rna tiep di~m, cat dong co ra khoi lum dien.

Khi til lanh van hanh, nhiet a¢

trong tiI lanh dat d!n tri sO yeu cdu (phu thuoc van vi tri num dieu chinh nhi~t d¢), ti€p di~m ro Ie

nhiet d¢ rna ra, dong co dien ngimg

hoat dong, Sau mot khoang thai

gian nhiet d¢ tii lanh tang len, nhung khOng nbc han ba phut, role nhiet d¢ 1 lai d6ng ti~p diem, til lanh lai lam viec blnh tlnrong,

Khi 'mo cira tiI lanh, tiep die:m 3 d6ng lai, den 2 sang len chieu sang trong tu lanh.

Loai d<)ng co khOi dong dung tu dien, chi dn mac t1). di¢n 0 gifra cue S va tiep diem 9.

Loai sa d6 nay dan gian nhlrt, d11<JC dung rong riii 0 cac til lanh khong e6 pha tuyet.

b) S(1 do xd da ban t¥ d~ng bdng di¢n tro

8

BLOC

Hlnh 4-1I. Sa dIS mach di¢n Iii I~h kheng Os pha tuy61 :

I. Ro Ie nhi~t d¢ (thermostat) ;

2. mn chieu sang trong lu lanh :

3. Clln g tic canh elm Iii :

4. Cu¢n day Ism viec cua d('mg co di¢n ;

5. Cuen day khbi dOng eua dOng eo di¢n :

6. Ti6p di!m ro lenhi¢t baa v¢ ;

7. Di¢n IrO' nung n6ng ciia ro le nhiet :

8. Cu¢n day cua ro Ie khbi dong :

9. Tiep di~m cua ro Ie khbi d(mg;

10. !...Oi lbep ciia ro Ie khbi dOng.

Hlnh 4-12 la sa d6 xi da tt! dong bAng dien trOt ro le khoi dong va ro le nhiet bao ve kie:u roi. Ro Ie nhiet d¢ (thermostat), day dien tro xi da, den chieu sang tiI, duqc n6i chung voi nhau. Ph1n con 1~ giong i) sa d6 hinh 4-11 .

. _

95

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ROLE KHCII DQNG

s

PHicH CAM VAONGUON

Hinh 4-12. So dO xa da ban II! d¢ng bang dien lro.

Mu6n xa da phai a'n nut an xa dli ; khi d6 se d6ng mach day dien trb va rnb mach dong co dien cua may nen. DAy dien tra bi d6t n6ng, dan bay hoi n6ng len, lam tuyet tan.

e) Sa do xd dti ban tu d~ng bdng hot nong

Hlnh 4-13 la so do dien til lanh xii. da ban nr dong bang hoi n6ng. SI.! lam viec cua so deS nhu sau : Khi xii. da, an nut xa da bang tay, van dien til rno, dong eo may nen van lam viec, hoi n6ng khong vao dim agung rna di tat qua van dien til vao dan bay hoi, pha tuyet bam vao dan, Khi nhiet d¢ dan tang len, bao hieu dii xli da xong, be

phan earn nhiet cua Htnh 4-13. Sa dO xil da ban II! d¢ng bang hoi n6ng.

phan xa da rnb tiGp diem, cat ngu6n dien vao van dien ttr, van dien tit d6ng lai, kGt thiic qua trlnh xa da, tu lanh tro lai lam viec blnh thuong.

96

d) Sud" xd da t1!d~ng

Hinh 4-14 cho sa d6 kh6i tii lanh hai ngan xli dR tl! dong bang day dien trd.

Hmh 4-15 la sa d6 mach dien chi tiet cua tii lanh 2 ngan, day la loai to lanh nrong d6i hien dai, dang duqc dung pho bien 0 cac gia dlnh. Mach dien til lanh loai nay nrong d6i phuc tap. Tfnh nang ki thuat cua to lanh nrong d6i cao, ngoai viec lam lanh, lam da, con c6 be:) phan xa tuyet tl,l dong, dieu tiet de:) Am. sum run riem cira lam kin cira til.

Khi cho dien vao to lanh, quat d ngan lanh va bo phan sum run riem cira duqc , n6i v6i ngu6n lam viec, D6ng thoi dong CC1 dien duoc cap ngu6n va khci de:)ng, to lanh bat d!'i:u lam viec,

Ro Ie thOi gian (timer) dinh thoi gian xii tuytt, c6 su ph6i hop voi quat 0 ngan da, dong co may nen, dien tro nung n6ng xii tuyet,

QUAT NGANlANH

BLUE

VEL r;:::::::=I=F=W~=-.J CONGTAc El!'.N NGAN oA

EJI~U KHIEN El6 LANH

OI!'.N TRO TIMER xl. TUYET

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Hinh 4-14. Sa d6 kh6i mach dien to lanh 2 ngan.

.97

Hoat dong cua timer my thuoc vao tirng nha san xuat. M¢t s6 tu lanh dl.l'l;1e thict k€ voi timer dieu khitn dien trb nung n6ng xli tuy€t lam viec khoang 17 phut trong 8 gia. Mot CO cau cam lap tren true ella dong CO dinh thoi gian (timer motor) quay 8 gio diroc mot vong. CO' cau cam tic dong len cong tic di~u khien (tir vi tri 4 xu6ng vi tri 2 ~ hinh 4~15) ; d6ng mach eho di¢n tra nung nong xli tuy€t trong khoiing thoi gian 17 phiit. Khi co ecru cam cua dongco dinh thoi gian dong tiep diem cua mach dien tra nung n6ng xii tuyet, dong co dien may nen bi cat ra khoi ngu6n dien, may nen ngimg hoat d¢ng.

98

COngl~c~n

.-~~ ~To- ~----~

EJen lrong ngan tanh

cOng ~c

Ifen ngan Ifli :T.~ ....,......J..

cOng Ik qu,~ r----~

Timer xa ~uyf~

Hinh 4·15. Sa dO khai trien mach di¢n till~h hai ngan, xli da II! d¢ng.

4.2.12. ChQD tiI I~Dh gia dlnh a) Cac lieu chutfn di chon tU l{lnh

- DC) lanh cua ngan 1~ (dan bay hoi). DC) Ianh cang thap, til cang c6 kha nang bao quan thuc phAro duoc IAu.

- T6c dC) lam lanh, Tinh bang thai gian tli khi d6ng dien cho tai khi ngan lanh dat toi nhiet dC) phU hop vOi gia tri d~t cua hop s6 tuong ling. Neu thoi gian nay cang ngan, thl t6c de) Hun lanh cang nhanh, hieu qua lam lanh cang t6t.

- Dung tich ngan lanh va dung tich tu, TU c6 dung tfch ngan lanh Ian thi kha nang tao lanh vatrtt 10000nh cang 160.

b) Cach thud! chon ttl ~nh

- Khi rnoi dong dien, UJ khoi dC)ng em. dong co dien quay c6 tieng ru ru nhe, khong rung, khi til Ianh lam viec khoang 2 gia, dong CC1 dien va may nen dat den nhiet de) 6n dinh, SCI tay vao vo 16c may thAY nong v Ua , dong co lam vice blnh thirong.

- Thir but thir dien VaG vo til lanh den khong sang, sau do dOi phfch cam dien va

tlnr 10000i but thir dien, den khong sang. chung to til lanh khong ro dien,

- Mb cira til thAy den sang. Uy tay rut nhe vao cOng tic cira, den phai tit.

- Khi cAt dien cap cho til lanh, dong CC1 co the bi rung nhe, sau moi dirng hAn.

- Thir he th6ng lanh : sau khi cAp dien cho til lanh 2+3 phut, so vao dan ngung

(dim nong), thAY nang deu l3. t6t. D~t mot roc nhorn nbc chua mot it mICIC vao dan lanh (dan bay hoi). Sau 30 phtit, co tuyet bam deu va lien U,Ic khApm~t dan Ianh, mrcc trong c6c nhOm dong thanh da. Nhtr vay, M thong lam lanh t6t.

- Thir hop s6: Dira hop s6 v6 s6 1 hoac s6 MIN (s6 nho nhAt), neu c6c nhOm dii" dong thanh da thl hop s6phlii rna cong tic, ng!t dien v£o dong CC1 may nen, Thea doi dong cAt mot hai chu kl, sau do dua hop s6 ve s6 2, chu lei dong cAt a sO' 2 phai lau han a sO' 1 va neu thea doi d¢ l~ a ngan lanh, thay lanh hem thi hop s6 lam viec t6t.

- Kiem tra cac phan khac : Cita til phai kin, khft, Riem cira til phai du memo Dan nong va dan Ianh khOng hi san sui. han gi.

- Ngoai ra, viec xern xet hlnh thtrc til lanh thuoc ve thi hieu va y mu6n cua nguoi

tieu dung quyei dinh.

4.2.13. Sli dung tii lanh gia dinh a) Cach diU ttl lanh

Khi d~t til can chn y dieu kien thong gio cho dan nong de de toa nhiet, khoang each ttl' sau tll den tuimg nha phai ttl' 0,2 + 0,3 rn tra len. Khong nen d~t til a goc

99

nha se han che di~u kien thong gi6. Tranh d~t til b gAo cM nong nhu gAo bep dun, noi m~t trtri chieu VaG vi tri d~t to I~.

TO phai d~t can bang va chac chin. Day tll each san nha tit 0,2 + 0,3 m d~ tao dieu kien thong gi6 t6t.

Nen ~t c~u dao, ap to mat, cong tac 1:!~ d6ng cat mach dien tii lanh, thay cho thao tac cam va rut phi_ch cam. Dieu nay tranh d6ng dien I~p bap, rat nguy hiem cho tii lanh.

CO th~ dung may bien ap dieu chinh lam ngu6n cung cap cho tit lanh, May bien ap phai c6 cong sua't gap 5+ 7 IAn. cong suat cua dong co tii lanh, nham dam baa cho tu lanh khoi dong duoc de dang. BQ phan di~u chinh dien ap cua may bien ap dieu chinh phai lien tuc, khong duqc dieu chinh gian doan, nguy hiem cho til lanh,

b) Su d4'ng va bdo qudn tu /t,lnh

- Sau khi mua til I~ Vet nen de sau 24 gia moi cho dien vao til. Voi thoi gian tren darn 00.0 eMu boi tron, rnoi ch~ trb ve vi tri 6n dinh, tranh gAy tac, hong tu 1~.

- Khi dang v~n hanh, nlu mat ngu6n dien, ph8i chir 3+5 phtit d~ cho rnoi chat lanh 02 phia dAu day ve dliu hut ap suat can bang nhau, dam bao cho dong co dien khbi dong khong tAi, vi cong suat dong co dien duqc thiet kl t6i UU, tilt kiem dien nang, nen dong co dien khOng co kha nang khbi dong c6 tai, Neu vita mat dien, lip suat giO'a 2 d!u may nen con Ian, d6ng dien VaG dong co ngay, dong ca khong khOi dong dtroc, co the dan d€n hu hong dong ca.

- Dien ap cung cap cho til I~ phai 6n dinh, nlu dien ap cao qua, dong co hi qua tai. Neu dien ap thap qua, dong co khong khci dong diroc, se hi chay.

- Hop s6 nen de a s6 thich hop. Mua he, thuc pham bao quan nhieu, nen de a s6 cao, Mua dong, thirc phdm it, nen M b s6 thap.

- Khong d~t vao til lanh th-uc an con nong, thuc pharo oi thiu, hoac loai thuc pham co mui kho chiu, Khoang mot thang, can lam v¢ sinh tu mot Ian. Lam v¢ sinh bang viii mem va nuoc sach, co the dung mroc Am de lau ben trong tit.

- Khi ngan lanh hi dinh c6c da hoac thirc pharo, khong duoc cay ngay, earn dung dao, cfing nhu cac v~t cling de cay. Gap mrong hop d6, nen dt dien, rna tu, de 1 lat co the Illy ra de dang. Dan nong sau tii can diroc lau sach thuong xuyen bang vii rnem va kho d~ toa nhiet de dang.

- Khi khOng sir dung tu lanh, can lam ve sinh sach se, rna cira tu vai ngay d~ bay hoi. Khi sir dung trO lai, c~ kiem tra ki cac bo phan ; neu cac bo phan con t6t, dong dien cho til lanh lam viec,

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