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Nguyen Ly Thiet Ke Cau Tao

Nguyen Ly Thiet Ke Cau Tao

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PHAN TAN HAl

va DiNH Dlep· CAO XUAN LUONG

I\Iguyenly thi.!t k@ cilu tao

cAe CDNG TRiNH KIEN TRUC

NHA XUAT BAN xA.V Dl)'NG HA NOI- 2004

, ~ ?

LdI TAC GIA

Niim 1986 nhom. can 6(> giang d9-Y Truong Dai hoc Kiln true, h9i uien. H9i Kien. true su TP. H6 Chi Minh co xu/it ban quye'n: "Nguyen lj C(i'U tao hier: true dan dung". Nhiim. phuc Vi! eho can. b9 thief ke' kien true va sinh vien nganli kiitn true - xdy dung.

Nay do nhu cau cai each dao lao dai h9C; sinh oien. hoc thea hoc pluin, chia hhoa

hoc ra tam 2 giai doan:

- Giai doan. I: H9~ 2 nam. dau hoc phon. khoa h9C ca ban va co Sd nganh.

- Giai doan. II: ho« 3 ruim. tie'p thea, hoc pluin chuyeri mon va chuyen stu: cua nganh.

Ne'u sinh uieri khong len duoc giai doan. II thi pluii ra truimg, Do do dil eho sf/ sinh oien. ra truong sam. khi h9C xong giai doan I co mgt Slf hie'u biet co ban vi nganh. nghJ nett nqi dung bai giang pluii phil lutp voi tung h9C trinh (15 tiel), cluing t6i bien soan guio trinh.- "Nguyen Ij thilt he' c{':u tqo cae cong tr inh. kien true" cho phil hc;Jp voi cac yeu. cau tren.

Guio trinh nay chia lam 2 tap:

Tijp 1: Giai doo n I:

Ph/in. ca ban:

1. Khai niem chung vi diu l\LO kien true

2. Cdu tao mong nha

3. Cau. tao tuitng nha

4. Cdu. tao rruii nha Ph/in. cliuyen sdu:

5. Cdu tao clla

6. cs« tao scm

7. ca« tao cdu thang

- Cd'u tao nen mong oa tuimg

- Ctiu tao cua va cdu thang

- Cnu tao san va mai

Tg.p II: Giai doan II Pluin. ch.uyen. de':

- ecru tao nha khung

- Ctiu tao kien true nlui cong nghiep

- Ciiu tao kien true nlui nang nghi~p

- Cau tao nha. lap ghep

- Cau t9-0 trang tri n(Ji th/it

- Ctiu tao kiln true chuyeri biift

fJdy la ian xu/it ban ddu lien thea cdi each. dew t{LO dai h9C, cluing toi xin manli dan viet ra de" kip thiJi ph.uc v~ cho sinh cien va can bQ giang day. Rat mong doc gid dong gop y kiln de' cluing tni b6' sung lioati chinh. trong tan tai ban.

Nhorn hie gia

3

ChU'OT1g I

- ".' Iff.'" '7 "". "\. A,.' .

NHlTNG VAN DE co BAN VE CAU TAO

" , ,

CONG TRINH KIEN TRue

§1 - Khai ni,m chung.

1.- Muc dich, y~u cau:

C§u tao nha dan dung ]iI mon hoc nghien ciru thuc hien cac h(> phan cua nha dlfc;1C

lam bang v(U li~u gi ? eh€' tao nhir the' nao nham =

1-1 Bao dam s\f Elm vi~c binh thtfi1ng cua cong trinh trong qua trinh sLr dung : - Ch6ng duqc anh hl1dng tac hai cua thisn nhien.

- Ch6ngduqc anh hircng tac hal ella con ngiroi VB phal thos man mol ysu cau sit

dung khac nhau cua con ngtJi1i.

1-2 BaD dam cUcJng d¢ cua tttng bo phan va loan bO cong trinh, phu hrjp vai ngtlyF-n ly chlu lire, kit cJfu b.~n vitng.

1-3 Dong thai baa dam thai gian xay dung cong trinh ngan nha], viii gia thanh ha nhat, sli dung v~t lieu hqp Iy, c:1u tao dan gian va thi c6ng thuan lei.

2.- Phuong chAm thilt ke:

Thi€t ke' ca'u tao va thie't ke' kie'n true co htdng quan hU'u ccf ch;J.t che - Trong qua trinh thi6t ke' kie'n true kh6ng nghi ti1i kha nang cau tao va s1/ hop ly cua no til khong thirc te', se gay ra lang phi. Ddng thol bi~n phap cau t';10 t6t hay xau cling co ilnh In((ofng nhat dinh t&i y~u cau su dung va ngh$ thuat tao hinh cua ng6i nha - Do d6 thiet ke' CAll tao vB. thie't ke kie'n true phai dong b¢ nham dam bao can d6r gilts hai ve' CUR. phuong cham nganh xay duug iil : «BEN virnc - KlNH TE va THien D{JNG - ~riT QUAT'\·· boac «KY THUATvil NGH¢ THUA,T .. cho toan bQ cong trinh.

3.- Cac y~u t6 ben ngoai anh huang d~n giai phap CclU tao kien true:

Muon Iva chon d1.iI/C phirong an k6t cau va v(lt li{m chmh xac, hop ly v~ cau tao, ngoai vi~c nghisn ciru yeu cAu s\1 dung cua ng6i nha, con phai chu y t&i cac II han t6bi·n ngoai anh hU'dng tdi cau tao nha.

5

Nhirng nhan t6 nAy co th~ qui lai 210l;1i : - Anh hUdng cua thien nhisn

- Anh huang true ti6p cua con nginri

3-1 : Anh hUdng eua, thien nhien :

Trong thien nhien nha cua IUOn chju anh hUdng cua birc xa m;)t tr(j'i ; mira, ,gin. bao, 811 thay d6i cua khi h~u, cua mnrc ngdm cua dQng ddt va cac loai con trung - Anh huung Ian hay nho tuy theo dieu ki~n tt;! nhien cua bing khu va cac h¢ phan khac n hRU cua nha,

Khi' hau thay a6i eo anh huang ntt Ian de'n nha cua. d vung nhi~t di1i, nhle! buc xa mat troi rat lrrn, lam cho nhiet d¢ trong phong thay dlii 16'n, vi v~y tucmg va mal can phili co each nhi~t t6t; V! tri cua etta s6, cira di va hinh thuc cua etta phai baa dam ngan hire xa mat trdi va t6 chirc thong giG t6t.

d rung khi hau lanh, nhiet dO bsn ngoai tha'p, d~ dam bao nhiet dQ ben trong nha binh thirong, tuong ngoai va mai cAn co khfi nang cho'ng Ianh nhl1't djnh ; dong thai

-ch6ng diroc cac hien ttlQ'ng bang tuy~t pha hoai cac cau kien cua nha. a vung' khi h~u thay d6i nhMu, do sl1 eo dan cua v~t li~u con him eho ban than mai va tUdng ho~c eho lii!n ke't gilia mal va tltdng sinh ra cac v6t mit - Ngoai ra con chu y trri tac dung cua gkl d6i vtri tLtClng ngoal va mid d6'c. Mal d~c bi~t cAn chu y ch6ng dot va to chirc thoat nuoc nhanh - Cs nhCtng ndi mue nu'de ngam cao cAn d~ phong tham va hien tirong xam thuc, do do chon v~t ] i~u him m6ng can co kha nang ch6ng xam thuc cua nLt6C va ch6ng thiim cho tAng h§.m.

Ngoai ra d nhirng noi co nhieu con trung, dac biet nha ket ca'u gll c~n co 1) i{'n phap chong m6i, muc, mot d~ chong sir phs hoal cua con trung,

~

3-2 : Anh hUdng cua con nguiJi :

Nha thuong xuyen chiu anh hU'dng cua con ngu'di, co khi anh huong true tie'p tdi chirc nang cua ngoi nha, co kbi hinh thanh dan dan va pha hoai ke't cau cua nha .

.

Trong hnrng ban than cac b¢ phan nha cira, trong lu'c;1ng ngttdi, dung cu gia dinh

va thi€t b], tac dung cua cac Ioai chan dong do may moe sinh ra la nhu'ng nhan to" tat ye'u phai nghien ciru khi thie't ke ket cau va cAu tao nha. Trang qua trinh thie't ke' ki6n true vi(!c chon v;)t lieu, phircng an ke't e~u va bien phap c6u tao, t6t nhlen phiii d~lm bao dUdi tac dung bAt ]Oi nh3"t cua ngoal lire vdn bao dam b~n chac va 6n djnh.

Hoa hoan true ti~p anh hUdng de'n an toan tmh mang CUB con ngu'O'l va lam nha cu-a b] phs hoal j cho nen d nhirng not d~ sinb ra ngon hia nhu bep, san khau nhfi hat v.v ... cdn co hien phap cau tao d~ phong chay.

6

Ngoal vi~c phong ngira phat sinh ra hoa hoan, v~ phuong dien clfu teo ki6n true cAn co bi~n phap phong hoa c6 hieu qua nhu tttc1ng trong nha b~p, san nha va trAn nha, nan cac c~u ki(m bAng g3 gAn 6ng kh6i cAn phal co bien phap c~u tao phong hoa. a nhirng not dA ph at sinh ra ngudn lira cAn lam cae cita phong hoa vit man phong hoa.

a nhirng not phat sinh ra ti6ng 6n : ti~ng OM, ti~ng may bay, loa phong thanh ... d~u co snh huang d6n y~u cAu all dung cua con ng1.tC1i nen cAn phai cdu 40 each Am. (Hinh 1-1),

4.- Cae bQ ph$-n chinh cUB nha va me dvng cUa no :

Nha lit do cac cA'u ki~n th!ng dirng, cac bO phsn nArn ngang, phinrng ti~n giao thong

va cac bO phan khac td hop tao thanh,

Cli"u ki~n thlmg dting gdm co mong, tuirng, cOt, clia.

Cae bO phan nAm ngang g6m : n~n, san, mai (trong do co h~ d!m hoac dim). Phmmg ti~n giao thl'mg n'gang nhu hanh lang, giao thong len xud'ng nhir cAu thang. Cac b¢ phsn khac nhir ; ban cong, 0 vang, mai hAt, mang ninrc.

Can cli' vao tac dung co th~ phan thanh cac b¢ phan sau : (Hinh 1-2) 4-1: lAcing:

Mong 1& cg"u ki~n d dtt&i dat, no chiu toan b¢ tsi trong nha va truy~n tal trong nay xu6ng n~n. Do do ngoai y€!u cAu dn dinh va b~n chac, mong con phai co kha nAng ch6"ng th~m, ch6ng Am va ch6ng ill mono

4-2 : Tuimg ua c~t :

Tae dung chu y6u cua tU'Ong lit d~ phan nha thanh cac gian va 18. k6t cAu bao che va chju dttQ'c I1/c cua nha,

TUdng va c<>t chju tac dung cua san gac va mal, do do y~u cAu phal co de> cirng IdO! cttilng d<> cao, b~n chao va 6n dinh, Tinrng ngoal phai C?o khii nang ch6ng dl1c,1c tac dung cua thien nhian nhu mira, nAng, gio, baa, ch6ng dli!JC nhi~t bltc xa cua m~t trfri va co kha nang each Am, each nhi~t nhdt dinh.

4-3: Silngac

San gac duc;1C cau tao hoi 'he ddm va ban chlu tsi trong cua ngtt6'i, trong hrcng cac dvng cu trang thie't b] sli d\1ng - San gac tira len tUi1ng bay eQt thOng qua dAm - San gac phai co d¢ cling Ian kien c6 b~n lau va each lim - Ml)t san phal co kha nAng chong mai mon khong sinh ra bui, d~ lam ve sinh va he sO' hut nhlet nho ; ngoal ra co mot sO' noi y€!u cAu san phal co kha nang ch6ng thA'm vB. phong boa t6t.

4-4: M6i

7

La b¢ phsn nam ngang hose dircc d~t nghicng thea chi~u ninrc chsy, diroc cdu tao boi h~ dam, dan va ban hoac ch~t IQP. Mili nha vira la b¢ phan chiu lire, dong thoi la ket cd'u bao che g6i tlJa len tu'dng hoac c¢t thong qua dam, dan do do yeu cau ket cau cua mai phai dam bao du(jc b~n le.u, kh6ng th~m nUdc, thoet nUdc nhanh va each nhi~t cao.

4-5 : cia sti, cu-a di

Tac dung cua cira s6 d~ thong gio va l~y anh sang hoac ngan each. etta di ngoai tac

,

dung giao thong va ngan each ra, cling co khi ~6 m¢t tac dung nhat dinh lay anh sang

va th6ng gi6. Do do di~n tieh etta 1&0 hay nho va hinh dang cua cira phai thea man cac y~u cau trim - Thidt ke cA'u b;1O ctta cAn chu y phong mira, giG, lau chui thuan ti~n. Trang m¢t 86 ceng trinh, ella con co y~u Call phai each am, each nhiet va co kha nang phong hoa cao.

4-6.' Cdu. thang

c~u thang cling la b¢ phan nam ngang dLiqc d;)t nghieng d~ tao phuoug ti~1l giRo thong thea chieu thang dirng ; co ket cau chiu bang ban hoac ban dam - Yeu Call cau t~o phai b~n v\'tng va kha nang jlhong hoa \dn, di \~i d~ dang, thoai mai va an toano

4-7: Cci.c b¢ ph4n khsic :

Ban cong, ~vang, mimg mnrc, 6ng khoi, logia ... tuy theo vi tri' d~u phal co nhirng y~u cAu va tac dung thich dang.

5.- Phan loal nha theo v~ t li~u :

V(i.t li~u xliy dtfng hien c6 : gO, gach, da, thsp, ximang, cat, voi, bet6ng, betong c6t thep ... Tuy thea v(it lieu lam kat cau chiu hrc chinh cua nha co th~ phan thanh : ke't c~u g6, ke't c6u betong c6t thep, ket cau thep, va k6t cau h6n hop.

5-1: Ktt ca.u g6.

Thui1ng dung e~t ga, d~m gO, san gd, va h~ th6ng ket cAu mai bang g6, thui1ng chi co tac dung baa che va ngan each - Loai nay tinh cirng, tinh b~n lau deu kern, t6n nhisu gb nsn chi dung 0 n~ti'ng ndi nhieu g6 va d nang them.

5-2 : Ktt cdu bet6ng c6't thep :

H~ th6ng chiu l\fc chmh ella nha : dam, cQt, san, mai lam 'bang belong cot thep , tUdng khong' chju hrc chi co tile dung bao che. Hinh thirc ket eB"u nay t6n nhidu thep va ximang, gtil thanh cao ; do do no chi thich dung doi vdl nha cong cQng, nha nhieu t~ng.

5-3 .' Ktt cdu. thep .'

H~ thong chju liro chinh ella nha la c¢t thep, darn thep, vi keo thep ; hidng va sar; lam blling v~t lieu khac, Ret cAu nay trong luqng nhe, kha nang chiu hrc cao, ben lau,

8

nhirng t6n nhieu thep - Trong nha dan dung ooi ehung it dung loal k6t cdu nay. 5-4 " Kit cdu h6n hap :

a/- Ket c6u gfJ,ch - g6 " Vi keo gO, san gO. Tttang gach h04c c()t gach chiu lire. So vai k6t cAu gO thi loal nay cung va ben hon, nhung so vai loal k6t c~u khac thi tinh cirng va tinh b~n IAu vdn con kern do do cling it dung hose chi dung cho nha met bing.

b/- K€t enu b€Mng - goch. " San mai lam bang betOng c6t thep, tUdng b~ng gach.

Loai ke"t cAu nay kien c6, h~n chac, phong hoa va phong Am d~u nrong d6i t6t. So v,jj ke't cau betong cot thep ghi thimh re hon, ti~t kiem dUl{c ximang VB thep. Day Is loai ket cau dttc;1c sti' dung tuong doi nhidu.

c/- KIt cnu beMng co't thep va thep : H~ thong chju lire chinh cua nha : mat dim bang thep - Dlim, cOt bang bet6ng cot thep, Loai ke't cAu nay kien co', b~n chac, chju diroc nhlet d¢ cao, thuan ti~n cho vi¢c cong nghiep hoa, Dung nhieu cho cac cong trinh cong nghtep, nha co nhidu chan dOng Ion.

§2- Khai ni~m vi kit e~u eh!u IIfC cua nha dan dl}ng.

1.- Y ~u Call chung:

Chon phtrong an ket ca:-u chiu lire cua nha, can ket hcp nhieu y~u cau: 1-1 : Yt!u enu vi kft cau chju luc :

- HflP Iy v~ phirong di~n chiu hrc : Tuy urng loai .eong trinh rna ta chon v~t lieu va hinh thirc k6t cdu, bao dam tmh chAt lam viec cua cOng trinh :, ~n dinh, du cinrng dQ, b~n chaco

- D~ dang thi cong : tuy tUng nol, v,ji kha nang trang thie't hi va di~u kien thi cong rna ta chon ke't cAu chiu luc cho phu hop, baa dam t_hi cong d~ dang, dung chAt hrong y~u cau cua cong trinh.

- Baa darn gia thanh ha, phu hop cac chi tieu kinh te ky thu~t dB. de ra. 1-2 : y~u cdu vi phlldng dien. kiln true:

Chon phuong an ket cau chiu hrc cua nha, cdn ke't hop vai yeu cau kien true: a- Y~u cdu stl dung cua ng6i nha

b-- Yeu c~u b6 C\1C mat bang, day chuyen c- Yeu cAu cua nghs thuat xli Iy mat dirng 1-3,' Yeu cdu v~ phuang r:Ii~n ecru too :

9

- TU'Ctng ngan ghia esc phong tirong d6i day nen each Am't6t.

- DO cling ngang cua nha Ion.

- Cite 86 md co th~ tirong d6i Irrn.

- C€u tao logia d~ dang,

Nb1.tqc di4!m :

- Tuemg ngang day va nhi~u nan t6n v~t li~u, chiern nhleu dieri tich va tang tai _t_nmg ciia mongo

- Kha nang chju hrc cua tuimg doc chtra dircc t~n dung,

- B6 tri' khong gian cua cac phong khong diroc linh hoat, cac phong thinmg pha!

bang nhau, neu khac nhau pha! lam nhieu loai panen.

Loai nnmg ngang chiu hrc thich hop vai di~u kien khi h~u nang, gio bao nhi~u va trinh d¢ lAp ghep hay con thap, Thmrng ap dung veri cac nha nho, it tang va cac bu'Cfc nho hon 4M.

~ TuOng d{JC chju lite: K6t Call chju hrc chmh cua nha 1.1 tltCtng doc. Mai co th~ dung hinh thuc ban VI keo hoac Call phong n6u lit nha mai dd'e.

D~ dim bao dO cling ngang cua nha, each mOt khoang nh~t dinh phai co tu'dng ngang day la tirong 6n dinh ; thU'dng lol dung tu'Ctng c4u thang lam tttdng 6n dinh, (Hi nh 1-3b).

Loal n!y co uu di6m :

- T~n dung dU<;1c kha nang chiu hlc cua btifng ngoai,

- Dien tich tu'dng ngang nho, tie't kiem dtt<;1c v~t lieu va di~n ticb.

- B6 trf m~t b~ng nrong d6i linh host, khong bi han ch6 bc1i cd panen.

Nhuqc diim :

- TUdng ngan ghia cac ph6ng ttrong d6'i mong, kha nang each Am kern.

- ell'a sd md b] han eh6.

- N6u lil mai d6c thi dung gO tirong d6i nhieu.

- Ne'u 18 mai bAng thi t6n nhieu ximAng va thep,

Loai k6t cilu tirong dQC chju hlc thttdng ap dung nhieu vdi nha hanh lang gnra, c/- 7\tc:i-ng ngang va furci.ng doc chju ll.l'c : Moi tang d~u lay tU'ang ngang va

hlemgd9C chiu luc, san gao thU-<1ng ch]u lire thea 2 phuong. Co khi con dung hinh thU"C' phan tAng chiu luc,

Loal nAy thinrng' dung cho nha hanh lang b~n. (Hinh 1-3c).

11

2-2 : H~ th6ng k~t cl\u khung chju 111c :

a/-Khung khOng hocin tocin (khung khuyot) : Trang cac ng6i nha gian tuong d6i rong, hay mat bang phan chia cac gian kh6ng thea mot quy tac obB't dinh, h~ th6ng k~t c~u ella nha co th~ lam hinh thirc khung khong hoan toan d~ chia san va maio Ngoai vi~c lol dung tuemg ngoai d~ chlu ''Ie co th~ dung tuang trong hoac c¢t 18 ket cau chiu lire co th~ dung ttlCmg trong lam ke't cdu chiu It/c. Hinh thirc nay m~t bang be tri turrng d6i linh hoat, nhttng dung nhieu bet6ng va thep hon so viti tUdng chju hrc lien k€t giira tuang va dam phirc tap. (1 nhirng noi d6t y6u d~ sinh ra hien tuong tuong va c(lt lun kh6ng d~u, aoh hutrng d6n ch~t hrong cong trinh. (Hinh 1-4a).

bf- Khung hoan tocin (Khung tron) : K6t c6u chiu hrc cua nha 18 dam va cot.

Tuong chi la k6t c6u baa che, do do t1.1ong co th~ dung v~t li~u nhe, 6n djnh chu y6u cua nha dua vao khung.

V~t Ii~u lam khung thmrng lam b~t6ng edt thep va t.hpp ho~e bang g6 - Hinh thirc ke't cdu n4y trli" khung g6 it dung trong cac nha dan dung binh thLiirng vi t6n nhi~u ximang va thep, do do chi nan dung d6i viti nha if cao Mng hoac nha c6ng cong. (Hinh 1-4b).

2-3 : H~ th6ng ki!t cau khong gian :

Trong esc nha dan dung co y~u c~u khong gian Urn nhu rap hat, rap xi&c, nha an, nha th~ thao co mal. .. ngoai cac phirong an k6t c~u da nsu tren ra, cling co th~ ap dung qui lu(it va nguyen tae tao hinh CElU true cua cac sinh thirc v~t thea phong sinh h9C kien true nhu :

- Suon. kh6ng gian 3 chitiu : phong thea c~u true cua d~u khrrp xuong dOng v$t. (Hinh 1-5a).

- Hinh thirc mat x€p : phong thea cAu true cua lit huang. lit dira, (Hinh i-5b).

-Hinh thirc vo mong : phong theo c~u true cua vo tnrng, vo so, S9 d9ngv~t. (I Iinh

1-5c).

- Hinh thirc ke't c6u day ding: phong thea ca'u true cua mang nh(m. (Hinh 1-5d). H~ th6ng kat c~u chju 'tic kh6ng gian thi cong va c~u tao phirc tap, Tom lai chon cac so dd chiu hlc cua nha dan dung, ngoai vi~c chu y tCri hop Iy ve phucrng tlien chiu lire, d~ dang thi cong va kinh t8'. V~ phirong di~n cA'u tao cAn chu y tuong va m~i phai co kha nang gilt nhi{!t va each nhiet nh:ft djnh. San gac va vach ngan co khii nang ~a{'h fun cao. Hinh thirc cAu tao gian drrn, esc cAu ki~n va v~t li~u dung r<)ng rai, trong hrong cac cau ki~n khong lim qua, hop vdi di~u ki~n thi congo

12

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§ 1. - Khai ni~m chung

1.- MO ti:

1/- N~n mong : la lap ddt nam du6'i mong chiu toan b¢ hoac phdn Ion tai trong cua cong trinh, con duqe goi la ddt ndn.

2/- Mong : (Hinh 2-1a/1b).

2-1 : la bo phan du'c,1c cau tao i1 phdn thap nh~t cua c6ng trinh nam ngam duot m:)t dAt. Th6ng qua mong, toan bQ tal trong cua cong trinh dU'Q"c truyen deu xu6ng da't nen chlu taL

2-2: Cac bQ phan cua mong gdm: tllitng mong, dinh mong, gd mong, g6i mong, lop d~m, chieu sau chon mongo

a.- Tucing mong : La bO phan eo tac dung ehuy~n hie tll' tran xu6ng ch6ng lire dap cua n~n nna hose h/C ddy ngang cua khdl dat va nircc ngdm bao quanh t~ng ham, Thudng duoc cB:u tao day hon.tucng nha nen nho ra hen chan tuong nha, tao cam giac chac chan va be th6 cho nha,

b.- Da~nh mong va gr:; mong :

bi : Dinh m6ng lil mat ti6p xuc ghi'a mong veri tu'Ctng mong hoac ket Call cOng trinh, bz : Gb mong Iii mot phdn b~ mQ_t ella dinh mong gi&i han ttt mep ngoa! clm dinh

mong de'n day cong trrnh, tao di~u ki~n thi cong phdn tren duoc chinh X;lC' t hf'o vi t rl thi6t k6,

c.- G6i mong : La h9 phan chiu lire chinh cua mong dliqc ea'll tao thea tiet dien chir nhat hoac hinh thap hay dac b~c nham tac dung giam dl1n ap suat truyen tHi den day mongo D6ng thoi viii yeu Call day m6ng phai md rOng hon nh iell so viti ph.in cong trinh ti6p xuc viti mong va cinrng dQ ella dat nen thltdng nho bon nhieu so vU'i v~t li~u xAy dung cong trinh.

d.- ftiy mong va ki-p dfm :

dl: Day mong : M~t ti€p xuc nam ngang gili'a m6ng va dAt n~n.

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d2,' LiIp d~m : Lap co tac dung lam chan d6, lam phang nham phan d~u ap S'lli't du&i day m6ng. V{Lt Iieu duoc dung Is; be t6ng gach va hoac da c6 mac 25# ; 50#, 75# day IOem - 15em hose 18 lap cat dAm chat,

,_ d.-Chieu sOu chOn mong : La kh{)angcach tu day mong tot mat det thien nhian hoac m~t dilt thirc hi~n. Tr] 86 du'qc chon se tuy thuoc tinh hinh d§'t dai, tlnh chat eUA ninrc ngdm, khf hl)u, IlJc tac d¢ng tu ngoai, d;)c di~m .cua him than c6ng trinh, ke't ca'u m6ng va phirong phap thi cOng cung tinh trang ella cac cong trinh kg can neu co.

§ 2. - Phsn lo,i va truimg hqp ap dl}ng.

1.- Phan Ioai :

1.- N.$n mong : CAn ell vao tai lieu tham do dia cha't va thl't nghi~m cung tmh toan d~ xU' ly n~n mong, d~t n~n du.;tc chia lam 2lo1,li : dat nen hI nhien va dat ni?n nhan tQ.0.

1-1 : Ddt nln hi nhien : Loai dat ndn c6 du kha nang chiu luc, cac krp dlft dmri day m6ng vAn nAm nguyen veri thl nam cua chung khi chiu tal, V&i loai dat nen nay, vi~c thi cOng se don giim, nhanh gia thanh ha, chi can dao ranh m6ng hoac h6 m6ng phang, hoac hinh thang hoi ddc VB trai mQt lap cat d~m duai mongo

1-2: Ddt nln nluin tQO : L01}.i da't n~n ye'u, kh6ng du kha nang chiu lire, c~n cai tao, gia cd" d~ nang' cao cttang dQ, slJ dn dmh, dong thai giam tlnh tham mnrc cua dAt nen, bao dam yeu c~u chju tai ttt mong xu6ng.

Tuy thuoc co c4'u dia chdt va cac di~u ki~n dja ch5t thuy van, da't n~n nhan tao dli<;1c gia c6 thea 5 phirong phap,

a- Phuong phap nen cht;lt dilt "

U f -' Ddm n¢n -' Dung cac loai dam hoac cac tam nang de dam chat dat 0 ho mong.

Co th~ trai them da soi, da dam d~ tang cuong kha nang chiu hrc ella dat nen.

U2 .- Nen chdt bang Cf'C ddt : ap dung cho tnrong hop dam chat dat lun uat dmri sau, duoc rhuc hien bang each dong 16, nho do tao ra quanh 16 vi:mg nen chat, tiep sau HI. dat diroc nh6i VaG 16 va dam chat,

(13 : Hi} muc nuoc nga'm _. Dung born hut mroc til mot h¢ thong gieng thu mroc hoac tit he thong ong tieu niroc co cau tao dac biet "ong cham kim". Dat trong pham vi thay d6i cua rrurc nuoc ngam se duoc nen eh*t l~i do ap luc nen tang len mot each tuong d6i, dong thai dat cling se duoc chat them do ap luc ella thuy dong thea huang di xu6ng.

b- Phuong phop thay ddt :

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Lop dli't ye'u se dttQ'c b6c di1i di d~ thay bang met Ii1p dilt khac nhir soi, cat. Ap dung khi ldp dg't y6u d trong pham vi kh6ng qua lim v6'i d¢ sau nho,

c-P'Ila-o-ng phci.pkeo ket: Ap dung d6i v6'i tangdll't co kha nAng thAm th8'u nhilt dinh va bAng phirong each dung esc vl).t li(lu li~n k~t bom phut vao trong dAt, d~ nang cao kha nang chju hie cua dtit, ddng thai tam cho dAt khOng thtlm ninrc.

c-l : Phuong ph6.p xinuing Map set hoa va bitum hoa : Ie phirong phap phut vira ximAng vao d6t d~ gia c6 dat nTn cat, dli't cUQi soi, dAt n~n mit ne, d6ng thai d~ xlly dung cac mim ch6ng thAm. D~ tdng cinrng nhanh qua trinh dOng k6t hoa cirng cua dung djch xlmang, dung thuy tinh long va Clorua Canxl, d~ tang Cl1Ctng 6n dlnh dung betonlt. Ngoai ra con dung phirong phap berm bitum nong lit bi~n phap phu tr<;1 d~ 14'p nhet cac khe mit krn trong da cling d~ ngan chan all rlia cua cac dung djch ximang va set khi t6c d¢ chay cua mrcc dl{[1i d~t Ian.

c-2 : Phuong philp Siliciu haa va nhip: hoa " Phirong phap dtt<;1c ap dung d~ gia c6 va tao cac man ch6ng thtlm trong esc loai dAt n~n co cat, dtlt hoang th6 va dilt lun ltdt. Thl1Ctng dung hai dung dich Iii Silicat Natrl va Clorua Canxi cho loai d:it co h~ 86 tha'm cao, dung m~t dung dich Silicat Natri cho loai ddt co h~ 86 tham th4'p.

d- Pluco-ng phcip dring cpc : Dung CQC bAng gO, tre, thsp ho~c bflt6ng c6t thep va cling co khi dung CQC cat d~ dong xu6ng d;1't n~n lam cho d3't nen ch~t hoac do rna sat gitia CQC va d't lam cho mire chiu tai cua da':t n~n tang thsm.

Tuy theo each lam viec cua CQC ta phan thanh 2 loal :

d i : CQc eMng: La loai CQC duQ'c dong xuysn qua lap d((t m~m ben tren va true tie'p truy~n tai trong len litp dat cU'ng d phia dirci.

d2 : CQc ma scit : La. loai CQC dttQ'c dong den vi trt hrng chirng trong li1p dAt m~m, the dung chu yt1u cua CQC 18. I'lC rna sat ghia than CQC va dtlt d~ chong da cOng tri nh hose lam chat dat. Trong cac c6ng trinh dan dung a mnrc ta, thinmg dung CQC tre, tram thea m~t dQ trung binh 25 cQc/M2, q, 80 - lOOMM vai chleu dai 2,50m cho coc tre va 4 - 5m cho CQC tram.

d- Phuong phci.p di~n va nhi~t : La phirong phap ling dung hlen tltt;1ng dien tham d~ t{tp trung mrdc rna born hut cho thoat lam kh6 ddt, d6ng thai dira dung dicn boa chdt vao d~ lam chac dat.

dl : Ha muc nuac ngam: Dl1C1i t3c dung cua luc di~n tham xuit hi~n khi cho qua mot dong dien mot chieu trong dat n~n kh6 tham va co h~ s6 tham O.05m/ngay dem nmr dtlt chua nhi~u ham hrong set hoac dat cat hoi tich. NU'ac ng~m se dltqc berm rut cho thoat tu he thong gieng hoac ong cham kim.

d2 : Dien thdm Silicat haa " Ap dung cho nhitng loai dA"t co tinh thdm nho nhir ddt

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dinh, dtit bun. Dtt&i tac dung cua ap lire bom phut va hi~n tu'Q'ng di~n thAm, dung dich Silicat Natri duoc thilm VaG d~t n~n d~ dang,

ds : Phuong phap nhitt .' Ap dung hi~n tttqng phat nhiet cua dien nang d~ nung dAt n~n thimh nhirng coo dAt nung du'bi mongo Hose bang each born hot nhiet de> cao van cac 13 da khoan sau, ap dung chit yiu v6'i dA't n~n lun tt6't, it Am co tmh thllm WB phal, va sau khl cong viGc k6t thuc, cac 16 khoan dttQ'c tram kin bang betong hay dAp dlt.

2.-Mong:

V~ phan loai mong thi hi~n nay co nhidu each va tiell chuan d~ phan loai nhu sau : 2-1 : Theo vQ,t lit-u :

a- Mong cUng: La loal mong dUc;1C cau tao vfri vl)t li~u chiu hrc nen drm thuan nhu m6ng gach, m6ng kh6i dil hOc, momg bHOng da h~c va bHang. Theo qui uac tl so gilta chidu cao kh6'i mong viii chieu rong > 1/3 va tai trong tac dong tu tren xu6ng, sau khi truy~n qua m6ng cirng se dttQ'c phan ph6i lai tran dA"t nen. Loai m6ng n~y diroc dung ncti mtac ngdm iJ dttm sAu. (H2.3a b-e),

b- Mung mem : Mong duoc cAu tao voi v~t lieu chiu lire keo, nen va u6n. Tai trong tac dong trim dl nh m6ng bao nhiau thi a dubi day mong cung vftn b3'y nhisu. Mong m~m bi6n dang gAn nhu n~n, khong lam nhiem V\I phan ph6i Iai ap lire. Mong bet6ng c6t thep la loai mong vira b] bi~n dang kha nhidu lai vira c6 kha nang phan bo lel ap hrc trong d.4't n~n, co cueing dQ cao, chong xam thuc tot. Cau tao theo yeu cAu tao hinh b.ft ky, ti6t kil~m v~t li~u, thi cong nhanh khi dung giai phap thi cong lap thsp. (H2.3d).

2-2 : Theo hinh thU"c chiu hrc : (H2.4a-b).

a- Mong chju tdi dung ttim : LOQ.i mong dam bao huang truydn II/C thang dirng tit tren xu6ng trung vao phan trung tarn cua day m6ng clap U'ng dinrc yeu c~u chiu hrc t6t nhat cling 81/ phan ph6i hrc d~u dl16'i day mongo

b- Mong chju tai lich: HQ'p hrc cua cac tai trong kh6ng di qua trong tam cua mQ_t phAng day mong, loal m6ng co ke't cau phirc tap. Ap dung d vi t.ri d;)r hi(>1 nhu i1 khe lun, ghia nha cu va nha mot.;

2-3: Theo hinh th~ mong : (H 2-4)

a- Mortg chiec (mong coD; La loai m6ng riang biet, chju tal trong t*p trung, gO'i mong du'Qc ch6 tao thea khoi l~p phirong, thap CVt, d~t cap, viti v*t li~u bang gsch, dil, bet6ng ho~c betong c6t thep,

b- Mong being : Loai m6ng duoc diu tao chay dai doc dl1iti chan tl1C1ng hoac tao thanh dili dai lien k6t cac chan C9t, chidu dai cua m6ng la rat dai so vcri chi~u rong cua

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no. Ap dung cho esc ccng trinh dan dung nhi~u tAng ki~u khung va c6ng trinh cong nghiep.

c- Mung be (mong toan di~n) : Khi Sltc chiu tai cua d8't n~n qua yeu kern so vdi tai trong cong trinh va b~ r¢ng cua cac day mong chi6c hoac mong bang gAn sat nhau, gAy nsn hian tirong chdng ap suAt trong d~t n~n. Dien tich day m6ng bang dien tich xAy dung.

2-4 : Theo d~c tinh chju tRi :

a- Chju teii trpng tinh : La loai mong se chlu tac dOng cua tai trong thinrng xuyen xuat hien 1i~n tuc khi thi cong ho~c khi sli dung trong hrcng ban than cua cac b¢ phan va ke't cAu cong trinh, cung ap hie cua d;!{t. HAu het cac loai m6ng nha dan dung d~u duqc tinh toan va chon lua d~ dap ung yeu cAu chiu tai trong tinh,

b- Chju tdi trong dPng : Loai mong chiu tai trong tam thai co th~ kh6ng xuat hien vao cac thai ky nhB:t djnh nhir tai trong gio, ap lt1c song bi~n, dac biet La d()ng da't vi stI rung cua mongo Giai phap m6ng d~c bi~t dt.tqc chon ap dung trong tntdng hnp nAy la loal m6ng may, m6ng ch6ng chin dOng.

2-5 : Theo phmrng each c4u ~o :

a- Mang tocin kMi : Loai m6ng duQ'c xAy hose due ngay tai hi~n trinrng.

b- Mong IdpgMP: Loai m6ng diroc lAp ghep vai cac be) phan diroc ehe tao truce bAng bMOng e6t thep t~i eo xinrng,

2-6 : Theo phmmg phap thi cong : (H2-4).

a- Mung oong : Loai m6ng duqc xay hay due trong h6 m6ng dao toan b¢ vai chldu sau chon m6ng < 5M. Ap dung cho cac cong trinh ki6n true nhe hoac tren d~t n~n co sue chiu tai cao d ngay tr~n m~t. Hinh thuc m6ng dircc t1ng dung trong truong hop ndy - thinrng Is m6ng bang, m6ng chiec, m6ng be.

b-- Mong sciu : Leal mong khi thirc hien thi khdng can dao hoac chi dao m9t phan h6 mong va se dung giai phap c~u tao d~ chuyen tai trong tll' tren xu6ng thong qua mong vao long dA't nAn, dat chidu ssu thi6t ke nhu giai phap m6ng tren CQc, m6ng tr(on gi6ng chim, Ap dung trong trinrng hero tai trong c6ng trinh nrong d6i Ian rna lap dat n~n chiu tai lai 0 dttdi sau,

e- Mong duo! nuoc : Mong se dltQ'c thirc hi~n trang rung da't n~p nu'de nhir d ao h6, sOng rach, bi~n. Phuong phap tie"n hanh thuo hi~n loai m6ng nl1y lit xay dung nhirng bit vAy kin nuoc baa quanh vi trf mong cong trinh d~ born thoat nuae lam kho khi thi cong mongo

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§ 3. - Cilu tao cac loal mongo

1.- C~u tao mong n6ng : 1/- Mong duai tliang :

1-1 : M6ng bang du6'i tuang: (H2-6a).

a- V(it lifU: Dung v*t li~u chiu nim t6t nhu gach, dil, betong. Ap dung cho c6ng trinh nho, Vlia < 4 tAng va sue chju nen etta n~n dilt > 1,5kg/cm2.

81 : Mong gach dU'<;1e dung khi chieu re.ng cua mong B < 1,50M viti gach co clfdng de. > 75kg/cm2.

a2: Mong da hoc xAy voi chi~u r{mg cua mong B>50cm, chi~u cao d{lt bac tll' 35 - 60em, tuy thea loai dil da gia cllng ho~c chua gia cong bao dam du 2 ldp xay cho moi b~c va cUCrng d¢ cua dB. Ion hon 200kglcm2.

sa : Mong betOng : Loai rnong co kha nang' chiu lire cao, thinrng d1.f<;1c ap dung trang

tru'dng hop chisu sau chon mong lrrn. b- Hinh thuc :

bi : Mong muong co ti~t di~n ngang thea hinh chir nh$,t c3'u tao trong long h6 mong dU'Q'c dao theo hinh thirc muong hose ranh v6'i chidu sau chon mong H > 60cm, chidu cao g6i mong h < 35CM vci m6ng b~t6ng va tuy theo goc khuye'ch tan ap luc a trong moi

g6i m6ng e6 th~ IS. 1/1,112,1/3 v6'i h bAng a, 28, 3a. (a ~ B-b).

2.

Chi~u day lap dd't phU dinh mong 1~ 15 - 20em d6i vbi m~t dat ur nhlen, CH2-6b). (viti

b lil b~ day cua htcmg dl)t tren dinh m6ng va Bvb + 2h khi h = a) (H2-6e).

b2 : Mong chan vat co U@t dien ngang theo hinh thang, vdi h> 35cm, gd mong 5 - lOcm. Til1t klem vQ,t li~u iJ phdn ngoal cua goc chuyen hrc Q. Vdi m6ng betong a-45°, h>lOOcm, B>200cm.

l

bs : (H2-6d) M6ng hdm co tie't dien ngang thea hinh d~t bac va chieu sau chon mong trong khoang nr 3 - 5m, loai mong bang ap dung eho c6ng trinh kie'n true kh6ng quan trong va khi ddt n~n chiu tai d sau. Kleh thu'dc cua d~t b~c viti chi~u ngang ttt 15 - 30em, ehi~u cao tlt 40 - 50em tuy thea vQ,t li~u cau tao mong, vdi mong b~t6ng thi .35 < h < lOOCM VB B < 200CM.

1-2: M6ng chile dllili tuong : Loai mong diroc ap dung khi da't nen chiu tai tot, khoang each gilt8 2 m6ng tlt 2,50 - 4.0M. D~ chiu do hldng ben tren bang each xay vom cu6n gach, da hose due dam bet6ng c6t thep d~t tren g6i mongo (H2-6e).

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1-3.' M6ng dufli tUdng tren. ddt nin d6c: cAn phai stia soan va chia dat n~n thanh nhirng mat pbAng ngang co hinh b~c cAp, d6ng thai day m6ng dU'Q'c diu tao d~t b~c veri mong phan doan dl)t cdp. Trirong hop dAt ch~t thi ti 96 ghia chieu cao a cua bac va chldu re>ng I cuabi)c khe.ng duc;fc > 1/1, khi a ~ 100CM. Tntaug hop dilt khong chat thi all =

1/2 khi a <$O~M. (H2-60. .

2.- Mong dttdi cQt :

2-1 : M6ng chile dlliJi eel: M6ng chisc duQ'c diu tao bang gach de xay hoac bang bet6ng vO'i hinh thirc dat bi,lc. Nhttng loai m6ng cUng n~y c6 nhinrc di~m vi hi kh6ng che'bai goc rod a ella mong nan khi go.p trU'dng hQP c~n md rc)ng day m6ngthi phai tang ca chieu cao g6i mong, tang trong lllctng va chi~u sau chon m6ng. Vi the khi mong cling, phai chiu tai trong lon ho~c vi1i tinh hinh dia chAt phirc tap khOng cho phep tang them chieu sAu chon mong (nhir mrcc ngsm coo, tAng d&"t t6t kh6ng day ... ) thi hop ly hctn ca ls. dung mong b~tf>ng c6t thep vi co th~ giam dU'Q'c chi~u sau chon mong, ddng thrri co nhi~u iru di~m khi chiu tai trong l~ch tam Ibn.

Mong chlec thinrng co kich thirdc khong Ion, co day hi nh vuong, chti nhat hoac tron, tuy nhian v&i day mong vuong t6t hon chli nhdt vi d<} lun cua d:l't n~n duCri mong nho hon. V~ tri' d~m m6ng d~ chiu cac tUdng ngoai cua c6ng trinh c~n htu y ket hop vdi vi~c ch6ng tham cho hldng va chiu luc dap cua n~n nha. (Hinh 2·7).

2-2: M6ng bang duai c~t ; Mong bang con goi la m6ng ddm v6'i sinrn tren hoac sltc1n dudi va tao thanh hinh dai lien ke't cac chan c~t. Mong dlfdi c~t thudng du'Q'c ch6 tao bAng betting c6t thep (mong m~m). Nhttng trtti1c khi dung giai phap mong bang dlt6'i cOt thi phai xet de'n phuong an dung mong chiec, tuy nhisn khi phai md r(>ng cac m6ng chie'c qua IOn.J thi cac m6ng nay se rllt g4n nhau do do t6t nh6t lit dung m6ng bang, vi no co tac dung t6t v~ moi mat nhu vira co tac dung him giarn ap hrc day mong, vB. co tac dung phan b6 tai trong d~u len m~t ddt n~n giam thi6u chenh l~eh lun gilta cac cQt va co kha nAng chan d¢ng. D~ tang clfdng sll viing chac chung cho vi~c lien ket gilta ket clfu phdn tren v6'i mong, cdn phal CElU tao kh6i nach d V! tri giao nhau ghia cOt, d~m mong va g6i meng, (H 2-8a).

2-3 : M6ng dUdi e~t tren. dat nln Me : D~ trimh hien lttQ'ng chdng trng suAt trong d6t n~n ghia 2 mong co chieu still chon mong khiic nhau d tren dat nen doc, khoang each ghia 2 mong va V! trt cua chung phal dam baa di~u klen 18. g6e nghtsng cua mliit d~t tli day mong dat nong de'n day mong d~t sau phai nho han hoac bang gOG rna sat. trong cua dtft n~n (tri~n d6c t1/ nhien cua loai dat nen) a < cpo ~Cei deL ex = 30°, viti dat a = 60°. (Hinh 2-8b)

II.- Ciu tao mong sau :

1- Mong tren gi6ng ehim hay t"V chile:

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1-1 : MtJ td: Gi€ng hay tru co ti€t di~n hinh trim vuong, chir nh!)t vdi khoimg r¢ng

b~n_trong > l,OOm t6i thi&u phai du d& mt)t ng'ltt1i thao tac. Gie'ng chim duqc cAu tao v6'i thanh gi6ng co th~ dung vim g~ g6 ghep (thung rirou), xAy gach ho~c due b~ng bstong c6t thep, Khi gi6ng dttqc ha d6n dQ sau thi~t k~ thi rut)t gi6ng se dttQ'c tram kin b~ng b~t()ng. TUy theo khoang each ghia cac gi€ng rna chung se diroc n6'i l~i a tren dliu hAng each xAy vom cu6n da khi I < 4M hoac dAm bAtOng c6t thep khi I < 6M, dong thcl k6t hqp d~ chiu tltitng bAn trsn. (Hinh 2·9).

1-2;.Ap d4-ng : Glai phap mong trsn gi€ng chim dttqc ap dung cho tntang hop dAt n~n y6u trAn m~t va co y~u cAu cho gi€ng ti tua vao lop dB. cU'ng d dttCri sau. TrltCrng hop ldp dd't n~n chiu tai d dttdl sau, nhttng mu6n dlj1.t t6'i phai xuy~n qua lap mrcc ngAm thi phai chon giai phap h~n hop gi6ng tr~n CU v6'i phdn Cll nam trong lap dtrt co nunc ngdm,

2/- Mong tr~n cQc, ell' :

La loai m6ng du'Q'c cd'u tao gdOl cac CQC rieng re dong sAu xu6ng ddt va cac dAu c¢t diroc n6i veri nhau bang ban diti CQC co cAu tao tU'c1ng ttl nhu cac loal mong nang. Mong tr~n CQC co U'U didm Ia giarn nhieu kh6i lU'<;fI1g dao h6' mong, ti6t ki~m v~t Ii~u, cC1 gim hoa thi cong. Vl)t li6u lam CQC co th& la bAng gO, thep, bet6ng, bet6ng e6t thep hote cat. Pham vi irng dung rOng rai phd bl€n trong cac tntCtng hop nhu d nhirng noi dA:t y6u rna phai chiu tsi trong IOn nhii'ng nrri co m1dC mat marc ngam k6 ea nhU'ng not d't khong x~u Mm. Tuy theo phirong each thi cong mong tren CQC diroc phan thanh 3Io~i chinh nlnr sau :

2-1: CQc dong:

a- Hinh. thue : LOQ,i CQC diroc ch6 tao sAn voi tiet dlen hinh vuong, chit nhat, tron, bat giilc va co hinh 6ng, hinh thap thee chi~u dili.

&- Yeu cOu k.hi dOng cpc: D~ dua CQC V80 ddt n~n, dat chieu sau thi~t ke', co th~ dong vai vo bang gO, b§tong, hoac bua may hay do tile d¢ng rung cua may chan dQng, SU'C xoi cua tia nUdc dtfCri ap It/c. Dau cit va mui cO' d~u pha! dttqc bao v~ khi dong CQC, d6ng thdi ciing phai d~c bi~t quan tam trong vi~c n6i cit va xay dung cit khi dtta VElD v! tri dong. Khoang each giita cac CQC phi'li Ian hon hoac bang 3lAn tnrc kinh cua CQC d~ dam bao SUe chlu tsi cua mM CQC thong qua sll rna sat.

e- Yeu cau eua loq,i cpe :

c1 : Vdi CQC bang gd: Ddu CQC phai luon luon nam dttdi rmrc nu'C1c ngam th.i'p nh.i't. trong nam lit > 15cm d~ dam bao dAu coc kh6ng b] muc. Sau khi hoan tat viec dong CQC, cac dau CQC phai dircc ctta phAng ngang nhau, nra 16y he't bun non va phu len mot lOp d~m bang cat va bet6ng. (Hinh 2·10a).

C2: Vc1i CQC bang betOng c6t thep : Sau khi hoan t:rt vi~c dong thi tien hanh lien ke't

26

c6t thep dliu CQC vito g6i mongo (H2.10b)

2-2: CQc nMi : Loai CQC dltqc diic tai ch6 bAng each d6 bet6ng hoac bet6ng cdt thsp vao h6 dttqc khoan dao hinh 6ng thAng dU"ng hoac nhdl vao 6ng thsp tao h6 CQC. Bi~n phap nang cao sU'C chiu tai cua CQC nh6i dltqc tht,tc hi~n b~ng each md r¢ng chan CQC ncri CQC hla vao lap da cung hose d doan giita than CQC bAng phuong phap n6 min. (Hinh 2-11).

2-3 : CQc 6ng : Khac voi esc loai CQC neu tr€!n a ch~ ban than CQC 6ng III mOt ke't c~u rOng bang thep hay blltl>ng c6t thep (ti6t kiem v~t li~u) va duqc ha vao trong d6t chu y~u bAng tac dung rung cua may chAn dong. Nher the' rna CQC ang co th~ ha trong bAt ky tinh hinh dla chat phirc tap nao, den nbang dO sau kha IOn.

§ 4. - Bi~n phap bao v~ mong

1.- Mllc dich:

Mong Iii b¢ phan vira pha! truy~n luc, h;1i dttc,1c chon sAu duoi dAt hal).c ngam trong ninrc. Da't va mroc d~u co kha nang ill mon mong' v~ mat hoa va ly, cae sinh v~t trong 2 mdi trinmg do cling co th~ gAy tac dOng phil hoal mongo Cho n~n mong c4n dllQ'c each ly va bao v~ nham 2 muc dich :

1/- Chong marc ngAm xam thuc v$.t Iieu thuc hien mong nhir gach, da, betong, b~t6ng c6t thep,

2/- Dam bao kh& rao cho ke't ca:u phAn trim. 11.- Bao v~ kh6'i mODg: (hinh 2·16)

Qua trinh huy hoai m6ng do tinh chA:t xam tht.!c cua nl1C1C ngdm phu thuoc vaod~c tfnh cua mroc, tinh chAt cua ximAng1 m$t d¢ cua b~t6ng, 81/ xulit hi~n khe nUt trong kh6i bet6ng ... D& ch6ng l~i stl xam thue nay, hi~n nay co th~ dung cac bien phap,

1/- Dung loai ximang chong xam thuc d~ che' tao bet6ng due m6ng

2/- Dung bien phap each mtac cho mong, bi~n phap each ly se tuy thuoc vao tile d¢ng eua mnrc, d~c tmh cua ddt n~n, y~u c4u va d~c di~m cua mongo Ap d1Jng phurtng each trat, dim 1 lap vira xlmang cat atfan bao quanh khdi mong nhat la d nhting mat co c6t thep d~t gAn mep. D6i viii nhU'ng m6ng co khoi Urn co th~ dung bien phap don gian lit quet len ml)t ngoal cua m6ng met vai lap nhua dt1dng va sau do dap da't set bao My toan bO m~t ngoai cua mong.

3/- Bi~n phap thao kho cling xAy dl/Ilg bAng h~ 6ng Heu thoat mnrc.

27

ill.- each 'm tuimg mong :

HOi Am va hot nirdc trang dAt do tac dung mao dAn cua v~t li~u lam mong, co th~ theo I€!n him cho hiCtng luon luon d trang thai Am u6't m~t tinrng bi pha hoai, vtta trat b] bong va imh hUD-ng de"n di~u ki~n ve sinh trong nha.

Vi v~y cAn phai C!lU tao lop each Am d b¢ phan tuCtng mong, d~ ngan hoi ~m va hoi b6c l€!n, bAng cac v$,t Ii~u va d vi tri thich hop.

1.- v*t Ii~u each Am ;

1-1.' Vua ximang cat 1 .' 3 day 2-3,5cm hol)c betong dB nho toim khoi day 6-12cm.

D~ tllng kha nang chiu kim cho b~Wng d6ng thai ciing tang them d¢ cirng cua nha trong truCtng hop Iun khong d~u thi co th~ d~t thsm thep ho~c h.tai thep trong betong dli nho, Wa ximang cat.

1-2.' Giay ddu : Dung We lam bAng m~t, sau do trw nhua bitumva dan len mot, hai lap gi8:y dau (giay dau Is v~t lieu phong ~m m~m kh6ng co 10 rang cho nsn each lim bAng gi;1'y dau tinrng d6i tri~t d~ va khong bi ran mit khi lun kheng d~u).

1-3: each am bAng vlta mat tit at fan.

2/- Vj tri 16'p each Am : Vi trflap each Am co lien quan mat thi~t vai dQ cao cua n~n nha va each lam nen nha. (H.2-17)

2-1 : Tnti1ng hqp n4!n dl).c :

8- Khi mat n~n cao hon mat th~m nha (via be) thi lop each Am dtt~c dat ngang veri mep tren lap chuan hi n~n hoac cao hon mat th~m > 20cm d~ tranh anh huZ1ng cue mroc mira ban len tti th~m lam dm tU<mg ban tren d6i vdi nhirng nha thoat runrc it: do. Khi n~n nha qua cao thi phal quet bitum hoac dan gitfy dau d trong tu lap each Ant d~n lcp chuan b] n~n.

b- Khi mi).t ndn thap hon mat th~m nha ben ngcai thi cdn keo dal hip each tim len cao trsn mj)t tUdng khol mi)t th~m >6cm. Dong thai kip Wa limg mat n~n a vi trf nAy duqc trat ti~p Mn chan tUC1ng d dQ cao >6cm.

2·2 ; Tntdng hep n~n r6ng :

Thea nguyen tAc chung thi lop each c1m se duc;1c d;)t tai 2 V! tri, m¢t lap d di nh m6ng va m¢t tap if dlt6'i k~t diu chiu n~n. Nau k~t cAu chiu luc cua n~n Ie d~m glJ thi lop each Am d~t dU'di dAm r/J 1,2 lrrp gach ho~c ngang day dam. Neu I.e san het6ng cot thep thi ap dung nhu san di).c. Ngoal fa d~ n~n va tuesng dUdi n~n rong duc,1c kh6 rao thi co th~ lam esc ctra thong hoi d tUdng mongo

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§ 1. Khai ni~m chung.

1 .. - Mo ti teing quat: 1/- Chue nAng:

Tinrng IS. b¢ phan quan trong trong cac cong trinh kien true no co chirc nang kh6ng nhting 18. kt§'t cdu baa che, ngan each giua cac khong gian rna con lit ket cau chill hrc trang nhling cling trinh t11Ctng chiu lire.

2/- Cac ~ ph*n chu y€" cua tuong: (Hinh 3-1a) TtfCtng chu yeu gdm cac b¢ phan :

, - B~ ttfong (tttang mong)

- Than tinrng (gOm cac b~ C\!8 s6, lanh t6, til tl.1Ctng, tl.121ng con gaL) . - Dinh htCtng (Ma! dual.

n.- Phan Ioai tuimg :

Phanloai tl10ng co nhidu each nhu dtla vao hinh thirc, hose thea c6ng nang hay thea b~ day cua nrong d~ phan loai, nhirng thong thtrong ng'ltCti ta phan IOGli tU'(mg theo may each :

1/- Thea vi tri: (Hinh 3-1b)

.

- TU'Ctng trong nha d~ ngan chia khong gian trong nha hoac d~ chill hrc,

- Tt1Ctng ngoai nha d~ bao che, ngan mira, chan gi6, each nhist, each am ... hoac d~

chiu hrc,

2/- Thea v~t li~u xay dung :

- Ttfd'ng dat : con goi Ie nrong trinh, dung dat d~ due thanh t1.1dng.

- Ttnrng da ! dung nhirngphldn de de gia cong ho(1c chua gia e6ng d~ xliy urong.

- TuCtng gach : dung gach dat nung, gach Silicat, gach latarit, gach xi, gach bet6ng ...

d~ xay nnrng.

39

- T,l1crng b~t6ng cot thep : co th~ dung nhirng tllm betong e6t thsp due san hoac do tal ch6 d@ lam tU'ang;

3/- Theo phmrng' phap thi c6ng :

Co th~ chia tinrng thanh mAy loai ;

- TttangxAy : dung vira lien k6t cac vien glitch ll;li vai nhau bAng phirong phap thu c6ng d€ thanh tU'dng (tinrng gach, tt121ng da).

- Tu'i1ng toan kh6i : dung c6p pha d~ d6 ht!t6ng tal chb hoac dap da't lam tuong trinh.

- Tlldng tap ghep : ch6 tao tal cling xUdng hay tal cling trirong cac tAm (to hay nbc tuy theo thi6t ke) va dung co giai hoac ban err giai d~ lAp thanh tinmg, lien ke't ghia cac tAm tlldng co th~ 13 han, bul6ng hoac toan khdi.

111.- Cae y6u ~u ciia tuang : .

Trang k6t cau nha dan dung tLtang chlem vao khoang 40·65% trong hrong v~t lieu toim nha, gia thanh chiern khoang 20-40% giii thanh ella nha. Do do vi~c chon v~t li~u lam hiemgcan hop Iy, phuong phap c8"u tao dung each dong val tro quan trong lam giam gia thanh ella nha,

Cap. CU vao vi tri va tac dung cua tu'ang, thiet ke tinrng can thoa man cac yell cdu

sau:

1/- Kha nAng chju hIe:

N6u thi6t k6 ttli1ng chiu luc thi birc tlidng do phai thoa man:

1-1 " Cuang d¢ chiu. life: nrong quan vai chieu did nnrng bao dam chiu dune : - Trong hrong ban than h.ti1ng, trong hrong san va mal truy~n xu6ng nnrng.

- Chiu ll/e dAy ngang eua gi6, dat, mroc, chan dong trong va ngoal nha.

1·2: lJ¢ bin va d¢ cling: Tu'dng quan viii mac cua v$t 1i~u sire chiu bli cua n@n dR't va m6ng tltdng, chidu cao, chi~ll day va chi~u dai cua tttangJ dong th2ti cling con tLtdng quan d6n ky thu~t thi cong, ki~u each sAp x6p kh6i xAy va mach vtia bao dam tmh toan kh6i cua tircng,

1-3 : Kha nang chiu lire cua ttlemg con dircc tang cinrng bang lanh to, giang tinrng, tru tl1dng va cac tuong ngan ngang.

2/- Kh8. nAng each nhi~t . ght nhi~t :

Can cu vim y~u cAu Bli dung va qui lu~t thay d6i nhiat dl) d~ chon v~t lieu xay dtlng b~ day va each ca'u tao tt1dng d~ tuang kh6ng b] ran mit vi anh htidng cua thai ti et, k hi hau,

40

Tu'itng phai thea man y€!u cau sinh heat binh thuong CUB con ngudi trong phong, tl1dng can co kha nang each nhiet d~ baa dam mua d6ng nhiet d() trong nha cao hrm nhlet d¢ b~n ngoai va mua he ngliqc lal.

3/- Khi nAng each tun :

each Am chc tuitng, nhdt 18. ttldng trong dong mQt vai tro quan trong d~ bao dam ytiu cdu : An, d, ngii, him vlec cua con ngUai dli<;1c binn thutrng, tu'img phal du kha nAng ngan tie"ng 6n gilta cac phong anh hui1ng d~n nhau.

CAn C11 yflu cAu su- dung chon giai phap cA'u t40 loai tuemg each Am vdi vl)t lieu va b~ day thich hop. Co k6t hop vbi kha nang each Am cua cira, n~n, san va tr4n nhs.

Trong nha dan dung tuang thinrng day 22cm co do kha nang each Am 50 d~ciben.

Tufmg llem kha nang each Am co th~ dat 30 deciben. Ri~ng cac cong trinh c6ng cQng nhu rap hat, rap chie'u bong, hoa nhac viec thi6t k6 each dm cho tu'dng cang quan trong va phirc tap hern.

4/- KIul nAng chong Am, ch6ng thtlm :

Tttang ngoai c4n thea man kh6ng cho mld'c rmra thAm qua. D~c bi~t tLtdng ngoai va tuang trong khu v~ sinh VB tAng h;1m can co bi~n phap ch6ng Am va ch6ng thB'm tot hen,

5/- Kha nAng phong hoa :

Tuy thea cAp chiu hia cua cong trinh va yeu c!1u sit dung rna cAu tao tuang phong hoa vC1i khoang each, v6t li~u va b~ day thich hop,

6/- Kh.8. nAng d(U duilng O'ng, thi6t b! :

Trong kb3'n true hi~n dai va dcri s6ng diroc nang cao, doi hoi trong sinh hoat day du tien nghi, do do trong nha co nhi~u thiS't b] dlidng 6ng d~ phuc V1.J nhu : hoi d6t, di~n, nude, v~, sinh ... D~ bao dam my quan, cac duong ong n4y can nam ben trong tuong, do do doi hoi tttimg phal co du dQ cung d~ li~n ke't 6ng vao, du rOng d~ di;i.t 6ng vao trang.

Cac y~u c~u tren d6i khi co mau thudn v&i nhau nhtt tttCtng day d~t 6ng dll<;1C each fun, each nhiet, phong hoa deu t6t ; nhimg v~t li~u dung nhi~u, gia thanh tang, di~n tich sit dung giam, Do d6 khi thi6t k6 cu th~ cAn xet chon chi~u day cua tUCrng hop ly hoac dung cac bien phap khac vita du bao dam ytiu cau sit dung, vita dam bao yeu cau kinh t6.

7/- y~u cAu sit d\lng v(lt li~u :

Sit dung v$,t li~u hop ly, c~u kien co kha n:lng cling nghlep hoa va thi cong err gicri hoa,

V;).t li~u lam tttc1ngnen chon v~t li~u nhe, nhuvay giarn dttQ'c trong hrong ban than,

41

ti6t ki~m v~t H~u, giam gie thanh, ddng thdi giam bOt strc lao dong - PhUctllg cham s\t dung v$.t HOu cua chung ta 18: «Trong h.tc;1ng nhe, cinrng d~ cao, dung phe' lieu nha may, v~t lieu dja phirong, tie't klern thep-.

§ 2. - tutm9 xay

1.- Tuimg g:).ch cMt nung : 1/- Klcb thuuc eo ban :

1--1. Chieu oo:y cdo: du:O-ng g(LCh :

a- Yeu cau chiu. life: dd bao dam dLtc;fc yeu cau chiu hIe eua tinmg khi thiet ke' ehi~u

day cua tirong can dira VaG :

- Tmh chAt va dl) 16'n cua tai trong tile dung len tirong.

- Klch thiroc cac 16 cda va khoang each giCta cac It> ctta tr~n tttitng.

- K6t hop yeu c~u each dm, each nhiet va phong hoa cua ttti1ng.

b- Phani vi su df!,ng .' Chieu day cua tuang gaeh la'y chldu day cua vlen gach linn neu chuan, chidu dai cua ttCang Idn hern mot gach thi no gdm chieu dai vian gach cong vdi ohleu day mach vira (mach viia dling thucng day lOmm).

Tuy thea pham vi Sll' dung rna ta co cac loai tltdng khac nhau: - Tutrng 1/4 gach (Bern) : Cach ngan, tLtong baa chs.

- Tinrng 1/2 gach Cl Icm) : Tl1ifng ngan, bao che, tram lap nha khung, unrng nha

1 tAng.

- Tl1dng 1 gach (22cm) : Tu'dng chlu lire nha mot tang, va tAng thu 3 tTd len cua nha nhi~u tAng.

- Tuong 1 gach 112 (34cm) : Tuong chiu luc nha nhidu tling.

- Tl10ng 2 gach (45cm) : Tl1dng chiu 111C nha nhiau tang, cong tri nh kien co, tuang

mongo

1-2. Chieu clcii cdo: tuO-ng gq.ch:

T6t nhdt lil hOi 86 cua chidu rong vien gach c¢ng them chieu dal mach Vlr8 : L = (l05 + 10)x o.

Lam nhu v~y co th~ giam bi1t cong ~h~t gach, Mu6n lam nhu v~y duqc dung kich thiroc cua vien gach phai duqc moduyn hoa phu hop vc1i kich thud'C cua nha, Di~u nay cang quan trong d6i voi nha tap ghep .

.+2

1-3. Chieu cao eua tuO"-ng:

Quye't djnh bOi do On dinhcua t.ltcrng va co lien quan t6'i chi~u day cua t\ldng.

2/- Ki~u each xay : 2-1. Nguyen tdc t

Khi xay ttnrng c~n baa dam cac nguyen tac :

- B~ mat chiu lire cua unrng phai thAng g6c vdi hUdng chuydn lire.

- V~t lieu xay phai : ngang bang, thAng dung, m:)t phang, g6c vuong - Mac vli'a

phai dung thea yeu cau cua tung loai hidng.

- Mach vira du-ng hang trsn khong du'Q"c trung v&i mach vira dtrng hang du'bi d~

baa dam tinh toan kh6i - Yeu cau cua kh6i xay pha! dam bao d:}c chac, 6n djnh.

2-2. xu« ccieh sap CQ-Ch :

-Vaeh ngan 6-11cm

- TUc1ng chiu lire 22 - 33 - 45em.

- Cot gacb.

(Hinh 3.2)

II. Cac bl} phan lam tang ~U'Ong kha nang chiu luc eua tUOng:

Tinrng trong cling nhu ttfCtng ngoai do yeu cAu st't dung phai chira lai cac 16 (eli'a di, clfa s6, 16 di;it cac loai dU'Cmg 6ng thiet hi ... ) hoac chiu tai trong t$p trung cue be:> - Cac hien tttQ"ng nay lam glam kha nang chiu lire cua hti1ng phal thie't ke' them cac cau kien nhu : lanh t6, vom cu6n, giong tuong; tru Ii~n tllCtng.

1/- Lanh to:

Lanh to Iii ket cau chill hlC tren 16 ella s6 hose cira di. Lanh t6 co nhteu loal tuy

thea nhip cua lanh t6, tai trong tac dung l~n lanh tel, hinh dang kich tluroc 16 cira,

Thtrong co cac leal lanh to: g6, cuon gach, gach cot thep, betong c6t thep va thep, Hisn nay dung nhieu lanh to gach xAy cuon phAng va lanh to bet6ngcot thep, 1-1. Lanh t6 KQ.ch :

a- Lanh t6 gach. xdy cu6n ph&.ng : D~t glitch xay dling, 2 ben nghisng va dung dAn v~ phia trong tam, mach vita hinh canh quat. Xay gach thong thudng mac 75, vira tam hop mac 50. Mach We lim nhat khong qua 20mm va cling kh6ng dl1CJc nh6 hon 7mm. DQ cao thong thuong cua cucn Ia 1 gach hoac 1 gach 1/2. Loai lanh t6 nay thich hop vdi 16 cli'a 1,25m. Thong qua tinh toan ne'u nang mac vli'a len eo th~ ap dung cho nhip 10 cli'a 1,50m. (Hinh H3 . 3A).

43

b-''Lanh t6 g(lCh.my cu6n vom : Lanh to cu6n chi chlu nen la chu y~u, do do co d¢ ~.~n bao dam va lal khong t6n thep, hoac n~u co cling fat it, song thi c6ng co hoi phirc tap. No cling d~. hu hong n6u nha lun khong d~u (2 g6i tua eua lanh to lun khac nhau)

(Hinh H3 - 3b).

c- Lonh. tlJ goch. edt thep : Tran 10 ctta phu mot litp Viia ximang mac 50 hose 75 day 2 - 3cm trong d~t thsp t 6 hoac thep ban 20 x lmm cti' 112 gach d.,.t mot thanh, hai d.;1u chon sau vao tU'dng 1 d6n 1- 1/2 gach, phia tren dung viia mac 50, xfly cao 5 - 7 hang va kheng dircc rtho hon 1/4 nhip, sau do xAy binh thiarng. L01;l.i ndy thich hop vdi nhjp 2,OOm. Tal esc ch3 goc tUOng ne'u chieu r¢ng cua tl10ng kh6ng du kha nang chiu lire x6 ngang cua lanh to thi 56 hCQ'ng thap do k~t cau tinh toim quy6t djnh,

Tai rung dia ch~t chiu hrc kh6ng d~u co kha nang tao thanh lun khong d~u va nhti'ng nha co chan d¢ng lim khfmg nen dung lanh to gach.

(Hinh H3.4).

1-2: Lanh to betong c6t toop:

Theo phinrng phap thi cong co th~ chia thanh 2 loai : lanh t{) toan kh6i va lanh t6 lAp ghep.

a -Lanh t6 toan. kh6i : Phia tren 1& cite lAp van khu6n di),t c6t thep va dli betOng.

Chieu rOng lanh to thong thtt<rng bang chi~u rong tinrng. Chleu day va 86 hlqTIg cua c6t thep trong lanh 16 do tinh toan quy6t djnh.

Khi tinrng km hon 1 gach, thi chi~u rong cua lanh to v~ phuong dien chiu luc cling kh6ng cAn bang cua chieu T9ng cua tt!CJng, luc do lanh ta co th~ lam hinh chit L. Trtfdng hc;1P san gac db toan kh6i khi d¢ cao cua lanh te. va dO cao cua san gl1n bang nhau nen ke't hop db san va lanh t6 lam mot, nhu v$y kha nang chiu luc se bing, d6ng thai giam bitt trinh t1/ thi cong.

b - Lanh t6 bei6ng c6t thep lap ghep : Thi cong nhanh, co th~ V1.tQ't diroc khdu dO lon. Loai ndy hlen nay sU' dung rAt rOng rai, d6i voi nha slta chira lai Sll dung cang t6t - Ti6t di~n ella lanh to dai da 861a hi nh chit n hat, cung co khi lil hi nh chit L. Kich thiroc cua lanh t6 nen lAy b¢i 86 cua kich thuoc vi~n gach lam tieu chuan, chldu r{mg t6t nh3"t bang chi~u rOng cua 1/2 gaeh hoac 1 gach ; chidu cao bang chieu day cua 2, 3, 4 visn gach - Lanh to chon sAu vao ttJdng 1-11/2 gach, (Hinh H3 - 5).

1 • J : Lanh 16 gO :

A.p dung ndl co nhi~u g6 va cac loai nha ban vinh cltu - Co th~ k6t hop vdi khunn cira, (Hinh H3 - 6).

1-4 : Lanh to .hip:

44

Trong hrong nhe, khAu dO Ian. Thircng' dung thep hinh - Loal nAy it dung VI kb6ng cAn thi6t va dAt ti~n. (Hinh H3 - 7)

2/- GiAng tlidng :

Khi xa.y dung cac nha bang g~ch dB. nrong d6i eao tr€m n~n deft yeu, cdn phai chu y tai kha nang do lun kh6ng d~u anh huong Uti ch6t h1Q'1lg cua tinrng, Vi tuuog' gach sau khi chiu keo phat sinh ra v6t mrt lam cho d¢ cirng' cua tuung se giam yeu co th~ dan t6'i 06 htilng. Do do ngoatblen phap gia c6 n~n mong, con dung h~ dAm tao thanh vanh dai kin bao xung quanh nha, d nlurng vi tri tirong d6i d~ m~t 6n dinh (di'nh tAng 1, mep du'£1i ke't cAu chju luc cua sim).D&ng thai giAng tmrng con lam tang them dO cirng t6ng th€ cua nha r~t t6t d6i viti loal nha tuCtng glitch san tAp ghep, (Hinh H3 - 8).

CAn cit dac di~m cua k6t diu, tinh hinh phan b6h/c, tinh hinh dat dai ; cong trinh co th€ phat sinh momem u6n b tr~n va b du'oi dAn tai dinh tucrng hay day tu'dng b] mit. Do db giang htCmg b6 tri 11 dinh tU<mg hay dmh m6ng (chan tiarng) - Khi tuirng tuong d6i cao, tuang rna nhi~u 10 eira, tang trfm t.ai trong thay d6i tuong d6i len, ddt khong d6ng nhit co thi; do stl phil hoai cua ltlc cAt g~y ra tU'dng bj mrt, hIC nay tal giiia tAng nha cling c~n co giAng tU'Ctng d~ tang th~m dQ cling t6ng th@ cua nha,

3/- Try. li~n htdng' :

Tru li~n tuang Is mOt bO phan tAng cU'Ctng kha Dang chiu luc cua tU'Ctng - N6 cung vi1i tui1ng true tiep chiu tHi trong tll dan mai boac ddm san chuy~n VaG - Chieu r¢ng va day cua bl) phan nho ra kho: tuCtng thtti1ng la bt)i 86 cua 1/2 gach, Chieu r¢ng thuang 1 -112 gach hoac Irrn hem. (Hinh 3 .... 9.)

ill - C~U tao tuimg xay :

Ttti1ng Is ke't c6u baa che (chu y6u tucmg ngoai). Ngoal y6u c!\u each 11m, phong hOB ... con co y~u cau ch6ng l~i cac tac hai lau dsi cua thisn nhlsn : mira, gio, nhiet de. ... Ctlu tao than tUCtng cAn thea man cac y~u cAu tren - Do do cA'u tao ttti1ng cAn chu y nhA:t Is ttti1ng ngoai. Tui1ng trong b nhirng ch6 d1)c bi~t nhir khu v~ sinh, be'p ... cling can co cau tao d1].e bi~t d~ du kha nang lam viec.

1/- Dinh tltdng :

Co 2 phirong phap cliu tao dinh tuang:

- Tnrong hop nha co ma! dua : l'1i dung mal dua lam b~ phan k~t thuc di nh tU'Ctng.

Mai dua kh6ng l&n co th6 xdy gach nho ra lam bO phan k6t ca:u do mai dua. Neu mal dua km thi ta dung conson hay ddm d~ lam kat eaiu do mM dUB.

- Tu'ang V11\ft; mai : n€u nha kh6ng co mai dua thi xAy tttitng cao vttQ"t khoi mal - d~ d~ phong mroc mua th4"m ttl' dinh vim tUOng, dinh tttangthuo-ng lam di~n:t bAng gach

45

limg vUa xlmang hoac bAng b~tltng c6t thsp lAp ghap, d~y ding lit rmi bao v~ than hiang - Dti mti baa ve thAn tuang lam bAng phirong phap nao thi tr~n cung cung phai lam d6c da thoat mrdc va cAn nhf. ra khol tttang 5 - 7 em thi vi~c thoat mroc m&i t6t. (Hinh lI3 -10).

2/- LA cua:

2-1 : Hai ben 16 cria.:

a - Cua cO khutm : Hai b~n 16 cita thinrng' lam phAng hoac Mi, lorn. B6 tri chon bach sAt hO$c gach gO IMn k6t khuen cira vao tlfdng.

b- Czta kh6ng khu6n : d rung khi hl)u lanh, hol)c do yeu coAu each Am, cira kh6ng khuon co th~ lam thsnh chu L hoac chu T nhir vfl.y che mira gio t6t, lai tAng th~m dQ klan c6, tranh duqc di dOng khi dong rna - Kich th1ioc 16i lorn thinmg r¢ng bang 1/2 gach, day 1/ 4 gach,

2-2: Phitn tren 10 cUo : (H v3 - 11a)

LO ella ra vao trong ngoal nha cAn lam mai hAt, thmrng lam bang betong - Khu6n cll'a lAp d mep trong tttang hot,c d gill'a noi chung ch6ng thA"rn t6t - Khi khu6n ctta lAp d msp ngoat thttcmg nsn lam gil moe nuac kdt hop vdi lanh tlt hoac mat hAt d~ ngan kheng cho nudc thAm vao nha .

.3-3 : Phan ciuVi /6 wa :

a - Bt csia 8d' : Thinrng lam bAng gach xAy nghisng va nh6 ra khoi tli'dng 50 - 70mm thuan lqi cho thoat m.t6'c va tranh lam bAn tuang, ciing co th~ xAy phAng nlnrng dung vti'a ximang trat d~ d~ phong D1.tc1e th4'm vao tltCrng co dO doc Ian hon 1/5. BQ phan nha ra khoi tliOng co th~ lam moe nlt6'e hoac trat vat, hai bAn co th~ trat cao hon m¢t it d~ d~ phong bAn. Ngoai ra each cfu tao tr~n con co th~ lam bAng da, b@tOng, kim loai, (H3 -11bl).

b- Nghaoh. eua di : Chi xtt ly cUa di ngoai nha d~ d~-phong nude hAt, gi6 lua vao trong nha dlfQ'C lam cao hctn hay thdp hon n~n nha 10 - 20 mm. Go nhe len co th~ xay bAng gsch hoac hAng wa ximang lam giJ co nhircc di~m quet don kh6. (Hs -11b2).

2-4 : Tam che cMn nang: (Ha - 12)

TAm che chan nAng bao g6m cac Mm chan nAng trEm hose ben 16 cira, co mAy loal chu y6u : Td"m chan nAng ngang, dirng, vira ngang vtl'a dang. Nghlen ciru ke't hcp vc1i vi~c thOng thoang gi6 fJ 'ngoai va ban trong 16 etta, ddng thai tuy theo 81/ tinh Loan ella v~t ly k.i6n true.

- Tlm chan nAng ngang : thU'Crng dung vcri huang Nam, ngAll tia nAng ttt tren xu6ng, co th~ clu tao t6m chAn d~c hol),c rOng (Ha -12).

46

- Ttlm chan nAng dU'ng : Thinrng dung vai huitng TAy, TAy N am, Dong Dong N am .. d(chan cac tia nAng.xien d hai ben, TAm chdn nAng dU'ng thing ho~c xien tuy theo hinh thirc kilin true va tinh toan ~f)t ly ki6n true.

- TAm chAn ngang - dirng' k6t hop : Tac dung cua lo¢ n.4y lit ngAn ca tis nang xiAn va trAn xu6'ng - Thttitng dung viti htti1ng Dong' N am va Tay N am.

4/- B~ tttO'ng : (Tuong mong)

B~ tttitng Ie doan thAn ttiang g4n viii m~t dtlt (tinrng' mong). DAy lit b¢ ph$,n gan m~t dtlt vi v$y ngoai ninrc mtta th6m thea tuang chay xu6'ng con b! Am tiO't do cac hat mnrc mira roi xu6ng n~n bAn l€m tinrng' va anh huang cua m.tCsc ngAm lam h~ tinrng b] phs hoal va anh birong d6n dO Am trang nha, dd tranh tinh trang bd't lol nay ngu'oi ta co bi~n phap ciu tao bao v~ than hidng, quanh nha con lam h~ th6ng ranh nuirc hO$c h~ th6ng n~n d6'c d4 thoat ruroc mua ra ngoai cong trinh,

a - Be tuang : Thinrng co 2 each lam;

- B~ tU'O'ng lam b~ng v~t 1i~u co kha nang chiu lire cao nhu esc phien de, betong va betOng c6t thep. Khi lam v~t li~u nay b~ tinrng' co th~ lam nhc hem than tUdng van khoang 30 - 50mm, lam thea ki~u n.4y co u'u di~m thoat mti1c mira t6t.

- B~ tuCtng lam bang v~t Ii~u thong thircng nhir g~ch cac loai, d~ tang cufm g kha nang chiu lire co th~ xtly dt1y hen than tttdng, tao thanh cac gCt nhe ra khoi than ttti1ng 30 - 50mm, phia ngoai trot vtra ximang - D~ tang them my quan, ben ngoai co th~ 6p b~ng dil, cac td'm granito due sAn vdi cac mau s~c khac nhau, (H3 ·17).

b - Riinh. thoat nude quanh nhiL : D~ dAn nuoc mira, m.tcrc bAn ra xa ceng trinh den h~ th6ng thoat m16'c chung n6i hay chim,

Thong thirong ranh thoat mroc quanh nha c6 th~ lam b~ng da, gach, betong, ngoal lang vCte ximang mac 80 #. N6i chung khong nen lam bang gach vi gach ngam trong nUdc d~ hi phil hoai va m.t<rc ban se thlm vao, d nhimg rung rmra it cung co th~ Jam via he co d¢ d6'c 5 %. (H3 - 18).

6/- cS:u ~o mt.t tuihlg :

LOp m~t tltCrng lam nhiem vu baa v~ than tUc1ng nhu chong anh hU'dng cua mira, gio va cac anh hinrng' co hal cua v~t ly, hoa hoc hoac phil hoai khac do can nginrl gay ra, Ngoai ra con lam nhiem V1,l trang tri cho c6ng trinh them d~p, sach se va doi hie con eo tac dung tang them each nhiet, each §In va quang hQC. V.v ...

6-1 : MQ.t tuOng ngocii :

M~t tuang ngoai co th~ chia ra lam 3 loai :

a - Mij,t tttdng kh6ng trtit ; XAy gach tr4n khong trat vCta - Ml}t tuang yeu c~u :phai

47

xdy thAng, gach t6t vu6ng thimh sAe canh, kh6ng cong, kh6ng slit me, mach vita phAng va d~11 - D~ d~ phong mrdc mira thim vao qua mach vira, nan lap vlta xAy phal dung vira ximang mac lam mach vii'a 16i hoac ldm. (H3 - 20)

b- MQ-t tuilng trot: Mt.t h1img ngoal trat thuGng co 2 l&p vira trat va lap mat, LCrp vita trat du'Q'c phAn ra lam 2 l&p d~ thi e6ng vi tttCtng xAy kh6ng phang, co ebb ldi ehb lorn: lap thir nhilt co tac dung lam phang m~t, lap thu hai ti6p tuc trot. M~t tUOng di;1c biet co th& trat them lop mra, T6ng chi~u day ciia cac }{tp la 16 - 20mm.

c - Mijt tztilng rip : Me,t tt1i1ng 6p thudng co th~ dung cac phig'n dB. hoac esc Ulm granite due sAn d~ 6p m~t ngoal eua tlJ'i1ng. (Hg - 21),

6-2: M(it tuO-ng trong :

Tu'dng trong do yeu cAu v~ sinh thuimg dung tttdng trat vita mol cau t:;10 cung gi6ng nhu htdng ngoai co trat vira, C~n chu y m§y di~m khi trat tttdng trong :

- Tttdng d khu VlJe cO m.tcrc nhu khu v~ sinh, tl1m, xi; nen dung vil'a ximang mac cao trat ttl' san l~n d6n d~ cao Im60, hoac co th~ dung gach trang men 6p m~t tttitng.

, .

- o goe ttti1ng phai trat hang Vlia ximang mac cao d~ tranh sire me khi va cham.

- d chan tu'dng nen trat Vlia ximang hoac 6p gach men hay nep g6. (H3 - 22a).

Ngoal ra do y~u Call trang tri, m:)t tU'Gng trong con duQ'c 6p gO van, lambris (H3 - 22b).

IV - Tuang da : (H3 - 23)

CAu tao tuang phai bilO dam chiu lire t6t, d~ xi\y, b~n dep. XAy tttdng de phai bao dam eac di~u :

- Xay thanh hang: Cac mach vli'a ngang phai cung nam tr~n m?t phang ngang d~ tranh dit chen nhau khi chiu hrc,

- Cac mach vlta dUng kh6ng diroc trung nhau tranh tirong bi mrt theo chieu dirng.

- Tho dB. xAy phai nAm ngang ; co nghia l<i thAng goc v&i huong tile dQng cua hIe

(d6i vO'i dB. sUe nan ngang tho t6t hon sue chiu nen doc thrr),

-Da cong va dai kh6ng dU'Q'c dung V! d~ hi gay, gf)P da lorn thi di)t chj~u lorn xu6ng dLtoi d~ vien dit 6n dlnh,

- d g6c tllO'ng nan dung nhirng vi~n da to d~ csu hai dau ttidng l~i dam hao lien kit dttqe chat che - ell thea dO cao 1m thi co mot vien de to d~ cAu ngang hal dau tu'<mg.

- Mach vita xdy khong nen d~y qua - d6i voi da hQc thi mach Wa xay 3em, doi veti da gia c6ng thi mach Vlia xay lem.

V~ nguyen tAc cAu tao :

Tuy theo kieh thirdc cua vien da rna quy6t djnh each xlly :

4X

- XAy theo hang: ap dung cho cac vien da co kich thirdc deu nhau

- XAy ng6t tAng: ap dung cho cac vi~n da co kieh thu'c1C khac nhau.

D6'i vdi de hOc be day cua tu'Ctng phai l&n hon hose bAng 40 cm. 13. - Vach ngAn

Vech ngan la kAt cAu khong chiu hrc, dung d~ ngan chia khong gian nha, I - y~u ~u cua vaeh ngan :

- V~ yeu cAu chlu luc : Phili chiu dttqc tai trong' ban than, co d¢ eirng va d¢ 6n dinh,

- Ve yeu cl1u each lim : Dam bao each Am tinrng doi t6t, dung cac lo~i v:iJ.t 1i~u nhe, co d¢ 1'llng nhiE1u d~ each Am nhu vo dam him ep ...

- V~ yeu cAu my quan : Kh6ng co khe mit Vl1a dam bao my quan, VU'e kh6ng cho Am truy~n qua dU'qc, kh6ng ngd"m nudc.

-V~ y~u cAu chidu day cua vach : Tuy theo v$t li~u va y~u cAu each Am rna quy~t djnh - Bao dam dung v~t li~u thich hop, ctu tao va thi c6ng don gian.

TI. C~U tao eac 10,"1 vach ngan :

TU'dng ngan 18 cau ki~n ngAn each khong chiu ltrc - YeU c~u trong hfQ'ng nhe, he day mong, m;)t tuimg bAng phAng, co d¢ cling nh't dinh va co kha nang each Am, each Am, phong m.tac - Can cO' vao k6t cAu, v~t li~u va phuong phap thi cong co th~ phan thanh cac loai tUdng nhu sau :

1/- TUang ngan tosi : (khung gll hoac tre trat vtJi rom). (H3 - 27)

V~t li~u thuilng dung la g6 h6ng sAc IOJj1i 5 dA lam cac tru dirng, thanh ngang, thanh xien ; ben ngoai dong lati hoac nep tre. Sau do mat ngoai trat vita va quet voi mau. Cau tao than tU'Crng: thltdng tr~n mat san va dU"Cti mi)t t1'4n dung gO 5 x 10 m lit dam ngang tren va dU"Cti, gi\i'a 2 d~m di)t cac eOt t1'\l3 x 7 ho~c 5 x 9 em, each nhau van khoang 40 • 50cm. Cung viti ti6t di~n tr~n each 150 em d;}.t cac thanh ngang d~ tang them dQ ctrng cho tuang; khung lam xong ti6n hanh dong lati = latl co 2 loai kich thutrc :

0,6 x 2,4 x 120cm 0,9 x 3,8 x 120cm

khoang each giita hai lati lit 6 - 10mm d~ sau khi trat, vita Him ket chat vi1i lati. Dliu lati phai nam tr~n trv dirng, khong nen dong lien tuc tr~n m¢t thanh dling

qua 500mm. D~ tang kha nang phong hoa va phong Am co th~ dung h.t6'i thep mat cao phu len lap lati va trat v\ta day 2cm. Luc ;1y co th~ :inb r(mg khoang each gill'a hai lati Is 8 - 15mm. D~ ti6t ki~m gO co th~ thay cac thanh g6 bang thep hinh nho, phu Judi

49

thep va trat vlia.

TttCrng tosi mong, trong lU\fIlg nhe, d~ lam n~n Ie loai tUdng ngiin dung r~t ph6 bif1'n iJ nhirng noi nhi~u gO, tre - D6i v6'i not it gO nsn han eh6 dung loai tinrng n~y.

2/- TUang ngan bang INch: (Ha - 28)

Tttdng ngan bAng gach day 6 va 11 em. Cac mach vita dUng chenh nhau ]/2 vien gach. D~ tttCfng diroc virng chac co th~ gia c6bAng thep hoac tru lien tuong - V&i tuiJng day 6cm thi lam try g6 B x Scm khoang each gh!a hai tru la 200cm hoac gia co trong mach vira bang esc thanh thep 6 dQC va ngang than tttdng. V di tUdng 11 em co th~ gia co hang tru gach 22 x 22cm khoang each gilta 2 tru : 250 • 400cm hoac gia co hang cac thanh thep ngang, cll' 5 himg gach them 2 thanh thep 06.

D6i vai 2 loai tuang tr~n khOng nsn xAy cao qua 400cm (d6i vcri nrong Ll.cm) va kh6ng xdy cao qua 200cm (doi veri tuang 6cm).

3/- Tttitng ngAn bAng eae blm due sAn: (H3 - 29)

Cac t6m dltqc due bang belong bot, belong nhe, betong than xi' d6i vdi cac tAm nho ciing co th~ gia c6 them e6t thep - Loai n:1y co u'u di~m trong hrong nhe, each am, each nhiet t6t - Chieu day cua cac tam tu 5 - 10em.

Kich thtt6'c cua cac tam n~y thttO'ng Co 2 loai :

- Loai nho dung nhieu tAm xay lap thanh tt.tang.

- Loai Ibn gdm nhting t~m co ehi~u day hAng ehi~u cao cua tAng nha dt1Qe dung

d~ lAp dtfng thanh tUOng.

Ngoai cac loai k~ trsn con co loai td'm dttc,;1c cau tao bltng each ket hop nhiau chung loal v~t li~u -tudng ngan va con co th~ dung tUdng ngan bang v~t li~u dia phirong nhu gO, tre, mra va tuang trinh bang dat set hoac dat d6i ; tinrng b~n dat nh6i rom tren smrn tre (tuang mimh tri).

4/- Wang ngan bing gil: (H3 - 30)

Co nhieu ki~u loai tuy thuoc vao kich thinrc cua go dung V80 viee c~u tao tttdng 13 gO thanh hay go van.

- Khi dung go vim d~ cifu tao tt1Ctng ngan thi phai thirc hien trttdc b~ khung stidn cua tltdng veti cac thanh dirng hoac thanh ngang dij.t each khoang ttt 0,50 - 2,OOm luy theo chi~u dai cua g6 van.

- Kich thinrc cua gO van day 2 ~ 2,5cm ban r(mg 10 -12em.

- Ki~u each dong gO van thong dung co 2 each:

• Dong ngang lien mi, chong mi hoac ghep mong,

50

• Dong dung li~n mf veri nep che, dong chdng mi hoac ghep mong.

Can Ittu y de'n vi~c dij.t vim g6 dung each theo sCi cay khi dong van VaG khung siron nham tranh tinh trang cong venh cua mat tinmg.

Trinrng hop dung g6 dan hoac van ep d~ cau tao tirong ngan thi trong ke't cS:u khung sinrn thircng d{lt thanh ngang nhldu hon thanh dirng.

Truong hop dong van ca 2 mat htitng thi cAn chua 10 thong hoi d~ ch6~g £m cho than tmrng.

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ChU'011g 4

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CAU TAO MAl NHA

§ 1. - Khal nl9m chung.

1.- YAu "'U chung: 1/- Chuc nAng :

Mai Iii m¢t b¢ phan bso che va chiu Iuc iJ tAng cao nhAt nha, cung 18. phAn tit;p t\1C cua ttlimg, dU'f/C cAu tao nhu mOt san co khii nang ch6ng thAm va each nhiet C80 f1 vi . th6 m~t nghitmg hoec nAm ngang d~t tr~n hI) phOn k~t c4'u chiu hrc dltqc gel chung la nee nha, Ng08.i ra nee nha con tao nan met khong gian d~m each nhiet dU'6"i mai tr€m tr4n va cling la hO ph~n vi~n dAu cho cOng trinh ki6n true v~ phutmg di~n thAm my. Do do cAu tao mai nha cAn dam bao cae y~u cAu d,"c tn.tng cua k6t cA'u bao che va k6t cA'u chiu 11iC nhu san:

I.I-Ket aru baa cbe: Y~u cAu chmh lil ch6ng thAm, ch6ng dot, che mira, chAn nAng, each nhi~t - gift nhlet, each Am d6ng thili v&i kha nAng ch6ng phat chay, ch6ng tac hai cua esc loai khi.

1.2- Ket cau chju 'ite: Y~u cAu dam bao ch]u I1./C dtti1i tac dOng cua tai tl"Qng tinh bao g6m t~i trong ban than, tai treng eua lap i'lP, cua k~"t cA'u dc'1 tifm lqp ; va tai trong d¢ng bao gdm sac gi6 (ch6'ng gi610t mal) mira tuy6t va bao tri. Ngoai ra no cung gOp phAn tang them dO 6n dlnh cho cac ttli1ng va tinh ki~n c6 cua i1g6i nha it phis duai.

N6i chung toan bl) k6t c6u cua mid nha clin bEw dam sll vitng ben dt1di anh ht1dng cua thO'i ti~t khi hau bao g.5m nAng, mua, gio. Cac thanh phdn, hI) phan cua mai nha can dU'qc cA'u tao bdi cac v$t 1i~u thfch hop d.5ng thai phai thong qua tinh toan d~ 1"0 nhirrig ti6t di~n theo YE!U cAu chiu hrc vai ki-~u each rap niSi dung each, dam bao stl chuy~n luc va chlu tai, dam bao khong hi bi6n dang (diSi v6"i gA, thep) dam bao s\f co gian chirng mire nht1't dinh cho phep (d6'i v6'i thep, b~tOng c6t thep) do sl/ thay d6i nhiet d¢ va tac dong ella gio. (H7-1)

2/- Be) ph;)n :

Mai nha dttQ'c cA:u tao vOi 2 hi) phan chinh g6m l&p lop (k6t cd"u bao che) va ket cau de) tAm 1'1Jl (k~t diu chiu lire). Ngoai ra khi co y~u cAu ml)t dl1ai cua mal cAn hAng phang

73

thi cAu tao tr4n nha du'di mai,

2.1- U;p lq-p: Nhiem vu chu yeu lit ch6ng dQt kh6ng ch~ nu'ac rmra tha'm qua m ai vao nha va y~u cdu bao che nol chung. V(tt Ii~u lam lap lop co th~ dung loai tam IQp nho nhu hi, tranh ra, ngol, gO, da, thuy tinh ; tam lop Ian nhu Pibro-cimant, kim loai, b~t6ng c6t thep, chAt deo, thuy tinh h.titi thep,

2.2- Kit cOu cJci. tam lq-p: Bao g6m cac h~ dl1m, dan vi keo val xa g6, cdu phong hose cac tArn toan khoi hay lAp ghep, Trong esc c6ng trinh hi~n dai dUQ'c dung k@t ca'u khong gian veri vo mong m~t xe'p, ke't cau day cang hoac sui1n kh6ng gian.

V.t 1i~u d~ lam k6t cau di1 tAm 1Q'p co th~ dung 18 g6 thep, b~t6ng c6t thep, Vai go thi d~ dung nhung lai d~ chay va cAn tu b6 thU'dng xuyen, vai thep hi v~t li~u thu'dng dung nhung phai diroc tr6ng nom bao tri d~ tranh ri set, boac co th~ dung ghep ph6i hop gO va thep vOi cac bQ phan bang g5, chu y6u d~ chiu l\fc nen va d~ dong dinh. Khi co y~u cau dam bao tmh toan kh6i, giarn thi~u vi~c phai bao tr! thi dung bEitong c6t thep,

.

2.3- Troll nhci : La k6t cAu dttiti mid, 18. b(l phan duq'c thuc hi~n nham tang kha

nang each nhi~t do do co yeu cAu cAu ~o each nhiet - gill' nhi~t d6ng thi1i se tuy theo y~u cau C\J th~ cua rn3i loai c6ng trinh kien true rna ket cAu tr~n doi hoi phai co kha nang each Am, phan quang, my quan va dam bao v~ sinh.

ll.- Phan Ioai m8.i :

Hinh thirc mal nha va ki~u each c~u tao dU'c;tc quyet dlnh bOi v~t lieu lam mal, hinh thuc kat cAu, di~u ki~n khi hau, m:)t bAng va tao hinh hop kh6i cua cong trinh, phong t1,1C ~p qusn cua rung xAy dung ky thust va phuong ti~n thi congo

Ngoai ra mal nha co anh hulrng rat Ian d6n hinh thirc ben ngoai IAn khong gian bsn trong cua c6ng trinh, do do khi chon hinh thirc mal nha, kh6ng th~ chi can cli ttt cac m4t dirng rna dong thai phai nghlen cU'u d~ dap irng thich dang m¢t each dong hI) cac dii kien nsu tren vai 8\1 hop Iy v~ ca'u tao, dam bao ben chac, dan gian, kinh le va my quan chung.

Theo hinh thuc ta co th~ phAn loai mat nha theo 2 loai : 1/- Hinh thu-c k6t ctlu: (H7-2)

1.1- Miti co ket cau ph~ng vai h~ chill luc chinh cua mai (sU'Ctn noc) hi dam! khung dan, vi kso.

1.2- Mai co kat cAu khong gian vai he chiu 111C Iii. dim vi keo khong gian j vo mong, vom cung, vorn cdu ; ban hron song, mat xep.

2/- Hinh thtre cau q,o :

74

Co quan he hiru co viti hinh thirc ke"'t cA'u rna trong kie'n true dan dung thu'dng diroc lam thee 2lo~i chmh Ie. mai bang VB mai d6c, Ngoai ra con phai k~ den loai mai co hinh thirc cham cAu, vorn c4u mai co hinh chop nhon cua mOt 86 cong trinb kie'n true cO d$c biet.

(H7-3)

m.- DO d6'c eua mai :

D~ thoat mroc duoc d@ dang, mid nha cdn pha! co mot dO d6c nh~t dinh, D¢ dd'c Ian hay nho Be tuy thuec vao v$,t lieu l® va nghe thuet tao hinb ki6n true, phuong each c6u tao va gia thanh xAy dung cho phep, khi h~u va phong tuc t~p quan cung hinh thirc k€t ct(u cong trinh.

V~ phutrng dien tao hinh kie'n true thinrng co y~u cAu v~ d¢ d6c phu hop vol n¢i dung va ki~u thirc kien true, v~ phirong dien kinh t6 co y~u cau d¢ doc cang be thi cang tiet giam Ct1<]c dien tich cua rna! lop. V~ phuong dien thich &1g viti khi hau, gio mira thi co y~u cAu de) doc cua rnai dAm bao mai nha du nang, vU"ng chac, chong dQt, chong thAm t6t, thoat rnroc nhanh.

DO doc cua mai co th~ xac dlnh bAng goc dQ giltB m:)t doc hop vai mQ,t nAm ngang, thong thU'Crng ducc chi dinh bang tang cua goo tao doc tinh bang met thea ty s6.

1/- D6i vi1i mai d6c :

Dt) d6c dlfc;1e chon ttt 1/1 (# 45°) den 1/2 (# 30°) cho t6m 1t1}> nho vi chb n6i tiep cung khe hd va 16 rbng nhi~u nen c6 yeu c~u d¢ d6c 16'n. Khi dung tilm 1<;1p l&n thi dQ d6c cua mai co th~ cbo thoai hon bAng 1/3 (II 20°).

2/- D6i vdi mai bltng :

D¢ d6c co th~ chon trong khoang 1/100 - 1/50 khi lop lop duqc thuc hian toan kh6i hoac bAng cac Ufm lop Ion toan kh6i hay lap ghep. (H7-4)

§ 2.- cau tao mal d6c .

.

1.- Hinh th uo mal d6'c :

Hinh thirc cua mai do mat bang cua nha quy6t dinh va co anh hu'Ctng d~n viee chon giai phap k6t c;'iu db lop nhir la sinm noc co dang vorn cung, stJdn nee vOi dim tam giae hoac dim hinh thang ...

Tuy thea hinh thirc giao tuy€n giii'a cac mat d6c va vj tri rna hinh thanh cac du'Ctng gCr song n6e lit dUCrng phan ranh ghia 2 hirong marc chay, duCtng ranh mal 13. dttemg khe

75

tv ntidC giii'a 2 m~t d6'c va a vi trf nay co etfu tao mang xOi dti thu mrec va ch6ng dOt.

Huong nuoe chay tr~n ~t d6'c se song song cling chi~u vai dttang d6c d~ cu6i cimg thoat ra khoi mid if duCtng giQt nude d dtt6'i cung cua mai d6c 14i V! trl nay co th~ c~ tao mai nha d~ dua gtot nU'C1c vu'Q't ra xa ngoai m~t b.rimg, va d~ thu m.rac doc thea duang giQt nude co thA c4"u tao mimg nude. (H7-5)

11- Hinh tbu-c mid d6c :

Co th~ phAn thanh cae loai sau :

1.1- Khi mi)t bAng nha cO hinh chit nh$.t khAu d¢ nhi> thttong lam mt)t mal. Blnh thirc nha co 2 mai cung de) d6c d6'i xirng qua dinh noc dUl{c dung ph6 bien nhat.

1.2- Hinh thuc nha co 4 mal (2 mal va 2 chai) v6'i 2 mai dQC chmh va 2 mal che 2 dAu nha co hinh tam giac duqc gQi 18. nha 4 mal bit d6e. Nha 2 mai co khu di (phong thuy) g6m 2 mai doc chinh va 2 mai che dau nba co hinh thang nham tao \0 thoang co hinh tam giac d noc dAu h6i nha,

1.3- Khl m~t bAng nha cO hinh vuong hay da gtac d~ll, mai d6c thudng co hinh tam giac chum fJ dinh. Trudng hf1p d¢ d6'c ciia mat IOn thi duoc gol 1.11 nha co mid hinh chop nhon,

1.4- Khi nha duQ'c che h;tp veti hinh thirc 2 mal d6c khong cung dQ doc, khong d6i xling qua dinh noc va dUQc n6'i ti6p nhi~u nhip nhu the dttQc gQi hi nha co mai hinh rang eu'a (Shed), thudng dttl1C dung cho xUdng ch~ tao thoang va l£y imh sang ttl mai xu6ng. N goa! ra cling nhAm muc dieh tao thoimg cho kh6ng gian dttili ll1ai trEm trdn eon co hinh thlcc mal em (chdng mal) hol)'c mid hAt (clla mai).

1.5-- TruOng hop eo yeu cAu tang khong gian dudi mai d~ stl dung thi co th~ irng dung hinh thirc mai gAy; (H7-6a.b)

2/- BQ phl)n WU !fo :

Noi chung co y~u cAu slt dung ta eo thA thi6t ke' mai nha theo nhi~ll hinh thuc mai khac nhau, nhirng v~ phuong di~n cAu tao co ban eho mai nha ta nen nghien ciru theo 3 b¢ phan chmh IS. : be) phan d~u nha, bQ phan giira nha VB b¢ phan noi tiep.

Trong do bl) phan dAu nha va gilta nha thuong co e6u tao drrn giRn va hinh thirc tuong d6i bi6n hoa it.

BO phan noi tie'p co cAll tao phirc tap va thttCtng co 4 hinh thtic noi tie'p ehinh Ia :

N6i Uep song song! n6i ti6p chii' T, n6i ti6p chir L va n6i ti6p chir Y. (H7-7a.b) ll.- Klt ca'u chiu l11C:

11- K~t cau tuitng thu h6i chju I1fC :

76

1.1- tJ(ic dilm :

Loi dung tuO'ng ngang chiu lire xAy thu hoi lam ket ea'u chiu hie chinh cua mal nha, La loal k9't clfu don glan, kinh t9' nlnrng khoimg rong gilta gian giifi han gilts 2 tUdng thu h~i thucng hi han ch6 < 4m, n6u c~n phai r(mg > 4m thi nsn dung ket cau vi keo.

1.2- COu t~ bp phQ,n tfO.. tam lq-p:

"_ Trim tUCmg thu h6i gee XB. g6 (don tay). Xa g6 co th~ lam bAng g6, d~ tie't klem g6 va khi co di~u ki~n j X8 g6 co th~ lam bAng thep hinh, bet6ng cot thep hoac ban betong c6t thep nhu leal pamen chir U.

- Xa g6 altqc bo trl nhu ddm cua san nha : d gilta noc trl!n cung Ie xa gd noc (don dong), d khoang gitta d~t cac xa g6 trung gian d dUdi cung doc theo du6i mal lit xa go mal dua. d cac vi tri di).t xa g6 cdn lam cac mieng d~m d~ dam bao luc phan b6 d~u len ddu tuemg.

_ Vi trl cua xa g6 mal dua phu thuoc vao kich thlfCJC wan ra khoi tlfCJng cua mal dua, khi mal dua ra < 30cm thi X8 g6 mal dua co th~ di)t true tiep len tU'd'ng doc ngoa}, khi mid dua > 30cm xii g6 mai dua phai cho tua tren eac dam con son dttqc liim ke't vao tuang bAng bu Ion neo gilt.

- D~ chju CIa- t~m l<,Jp tr~n xa g6 co 2 each lam 18 tren XB g6 se lat van g6 hoac tren ~a g6 gat cl1u phong (ren, rui) VB tren

diu phong dat cac lito (me, lach). (H7-8). 2/- Ket cau suim noc chiu luc : (H7-9) 2.1- Ket ctfu doan giiia nha :

a- Cdc dang suan noc : Tuy thea yeu cdu cau tao mil suan noc c6 thi lam bung gd, t}U!P hod: belong cot thep,

C6 tnrong hop suim noc lam bang ca thep Ian g6 trong do diu kien chiu keo lam bang thep, con cau kien chiu nen va chiu uon thi lam bang g6. Cac siren noc bang thep, betong cot thep phil hop voi ngoi nha rong 100, co yeu cau chiu lira va dq hen virng caD. SU(m noc co nhieu loai :

al- Theo hinh thac co dim VI keo tam giac, dan hinh thang, dan hinh da giac.

a2- Theo khftu de? : Tuy thuoc van hinh thirc ket diu va vat lieu rna khau do co th~ dat < Sm d6i voi tre, 6 - 10m d6i voi g6, 10 - ] 8m d6i vo; g6 thep ket hop, > 18m d6i v6i thep hoac betong cot thep,

a3- Thea cau true dac biet : c6 th~ ke cac dang dac biet nhu vi keo "Mansard, Polonceau, Palladio .. " va Vi¢t Nam. (H7 - IOa.b).

- Khi chon loai dim cho SWJn n6c din din err vao chieu dai ella nhip, y nghia Slr

77

dung cua phong 6c, tai trong tac dung Mn d~m, cac y~u cau v~ ki6n true khac cung voi yeu cau v~ ch6ng chay,

b- Cifu tao dan vi keo tam giac : Trong xAy dirng dan dung thi dim vi keo tam giac dl1'1c dung ph6 bi6n han ca ..

bl- Me. ts cau kien : Nhin chung vi keo tam giac dl1l1C cau tao bdi cac bQ phan g6m cac thanh keo (canh trim), thanh qua giang (canh dudi) thanh dirng (trong), thanh xien (chdng),

Glllam cac diu ki~n co th~ Is gA tron hose gA vuong rthanh hoac vim), g3 phal kho, khoe, khong co tho rieng va co mat, d~c bi~t d6i vifi thanh keo.

Dim vi keo bang thep diroc diu tao viti cac loai thep tron, thep hinh bo~c h5n hop. (H7-11).

bz- Yeu cau thi6t ke':

- Khoang each gilia cac vi kim se diroc chon ttt 3-6m tuy thuoc v~t lieu lam vi keo va xli gO Is go hay thep,

- Tie't dien cua cac diu ki~n cau tao n~n vi keo tuy thee kh::lu dQ cua VI keo (chieu dai cua nhip). D~ Hat ki~m dUQC v~t li~u thi can nghien ciru den viec tie't giam kh.1u d9 cua vi keo, do do khi b6 trl vi keo c~n chon kh~u d¢ ngan nhat, neu co tirong boac cQt lam g6i tva trung gian thi nsn h;ri dung.

- Cac vi kco can duqc lien k~t 6n dinh tung cap mOt bang cac thanh, h~ giang cheo. D6ng thdi phal c:fu tao liEm ke't gitia cac vi keo viti turIng chiu hoac c¢t chlu a d~m g6i tira nham tao thanh h~ khung ngang vtrng chaco

bz- Lien ke't cite cau kien :

- Cac m6i lien k6t giifa cac cfi"u ki~n cua vi keo dinrc gQi chung Iii mat keo, tuy thea v] trf rna diroc gQi ri€!ng Ia mAt gai, mAt trung gian, mnt dinh, m~t gitea dmn.,

- D6i viti vi kim g&, cae cau kien chlu keo duQ'c cau tao lien ke't ch6t bang g6 cirng, bang kim IOQ,i nhir bu Ion. dlnh hoac mOng ghep, cac cau kien chiu nen diroc cdu tao lien ke't m¢ng deo chinh dian vuong g6c hol),c phan giac co mQt rang, hai rang boac m9ng deo chinh di~n IOS;li ty. (H7-12a. b. c)

- D6i vrri vi kso thep, cac cAu ki~n dU'qc Call tao lien ke't va noi bang bu Ion, dinh tim hoac him true ti~p hay gian U6p val tam thep trung gian tuy theo vi tr i va sl1 him vi~c eua cac thanh til nut lien keto (H7-13 ; H7-14)

- Khi thie't kAlien ke't cac c4u ki~n ; can htu y esc dLtCrng true noi lyc cua cac thanb phsi hoi t'J. v~ mOt di4m nam trong pham vi cua nut lien ke't nham dam bao chiu hrc va chuy~n hIe tQ.I vi tri n~y.

7R

c- cau too b~ phQ,n dd tam fliP :

ci Xa g6 : D~t tren thanh keo (canh tr~n cua vi keo) va dircc 6n dinh bdi con bo, ti6t dien cua X8 g6 bang gO co th~ chon 6 x 12cm, ... 12 x 20cm. Khi mai dua < 60em thi xiI go mal dua co thd d~t tnlc ti6p len qua giang ; khi mal dua > 60cm thi xa go dQ_t trim con-son. Khoang each "gilta cac xa g6 thttangtu 100 - 200cm. D4 thanh kao khoi bi u6n, t6t nhat, xa go nen gat len mAt cua vi keo, khoang each giira cac mae keo thirong Ia 150 -200cm.

C2- Cdu phong : Khi dung tAm lop loai nho thi treD XB. go co d~t c~u phong d~ ch]u lit6 dd tam 1<;1p. Ti6t di~n cua cAu phong gb 5x5cm, 5x6cm d~t thea chieu d6c cua mal va each nhau tti' 50 - 60cm.

2.2- K6t ~u doan d&u h6i :

a- Nlui 2 mai Me : Co 2 ki4u each cau tao tuy thea mai dua ra khoi tttdng va mai khong dua ra khot nrong,

'I'rinrng hop mat khOng dua thi tuang d~u hdi dinrc nang cao d~ ehe mal, cAn luu y cau tao mii bao ve doc dAu tltang ddng thai cAu tao chang tham va chong dot doc thea dirong ti6p giap gilta mai va tinmg,

Tru<1ng hop miii dua ra khot tuang Iii ph6 bie'n nhAm bao v~ t6t tlti1ng di\u h6i, d~ edu tao chi can dtJ.t XB. go nhn ra khoi tinrng thea qui each c~u tao mal dua, con cac b<) phan khac dUQc c~u 11;10 gi6ng nhu doan gill'a nha, (H7-15)

b- Nhu 4 mai d6c : Trang trinrng hop nlly, k~t cA"'u doan dAu hdi dltc;tc goi chung lil k6t cAu khu noc bao g5m" k6t cAu chiu hlc d vi trr giao tuy6n cua 3 mat d6e ehe doan dAu hdi nha, K6t cAu chiu 111c cua khu noc 18. bim vi keo va dam xisn. Noi chung ket eiiu ki~u nAy co cau tao phuc tap nen hie:n nay trti' cac nha co yeu cAu my quan thea ki~u each 6.y, con thong thltCmg thi nen lam thea ki~u 2 mai.

Tuy thea khau dO I cua vi keo ma co th~ b6 trf theo 3 phuong an : - chi lam vi

keo g6e khi I < 6m.

- Vi keo gee k~t hew viti ban VI keo trung gian khi 6 < I < = 9m.

- vi keo g6c k6t hop vai ban vi keo hay dam xien khi 9 < I < 12m.

Cac VI kso g6c Call tao nhu vi kso thmrng, nhirng elin chu y cAu tao li4§n k6t giifa eac him vi keo, vi keo va cac thanh qua giang: Ngoai ra cAn hill Y b6 trf phan tim cac di~m g6i nra cua cac vi keo kh6ng d~ i4p trung nhidu tai mOt nut. (H7-16)

2.3- K€t c4u do,n n6i tie'p :

Phuong thirc b6 trf ke't c.4"u doan n6i tiep co nhieu, tuy nhisn ve can ban thi co th~ tham khao k6t cAu doan n6i tie'p hinh chir T theo 2 phuong each b6 tn' tuy thuoc khau

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.

xa g6 voi xa g6 nho hrrn gat l~n xa g6 Ion,

b- Khi hai khAu d9 bang nhau thi ap dung phirong each vi keo ke tren vi kso, vi keo a co met dgu gat len unrng, mot d§u con lai gat l@ vi keo b, d" vi tr i giao tuy6n gilta cac mat d6c d~t dam nghieng c ne'u khdu d¢ lim thi co th~ thay dam nghiang bang ban vi keo. (H7-17)

2.4- H~' giAng :

a- Tcic durig' eua ~ giang : Cac dan vi keo phang rieng Ie ngoai viec du'c;tc lien ke't v6'i nhau bang cac xa g6 rna con phal cdu tao li~n ket bang thanh giang, thanh chong, v.v ... duQ'c gO! chung hi h~ giang nham tao thanh m¢t h~ cgu k~t kh6ng gian 6n dinh, bao dam cac tac dung :

- Lien ke't kh6ng gian cac mat dim vi keo, baa dam 6n dinh ngoai m~t phang cha cac thanh canh chiu nen,

- Chiu cac hrc khong nam trong mat phdng cua dan vi keo, truyen dl esc lire di xu6ng cot, mongo

- Bao dam dung hip thuan ti$n, an toan.

a k€t ciu dan vi keo cua mal nha, thinrng dung 2 10l;1i giang: giang trong mat ph~ng mid va giang trong mat phang cac thanh dung cua dan VI keo.

b- H~ giang trong mrj,t pluing nuii : Day Ia h~ giang chu y~u nhdt bao dam tinh chat bie'n hinh cua c6ng trinh, bao dan 6n dinh cua toan dim vi keo cung nhir cua thanh canh OEm. Tuy theo chisu dal nha, dO lrrn cua dan vi keo va ket ca'u tuO'ng d~u hdi rna co th~ c~u tao h~ giang mai nhir sau :

br- Truong hop chleu dai nha < 20m va co tuO'ng dau hdi cirng co th~ chin dl1c;tc h!c ngang (urong gach > 22cm) thi co th~ dung ngay xa gd d~ him giang, veri di~u kien xa g6 phai dmrc cau tao lien k~t chat vao thanh kso (canh tren cus dim vi kso) cung nhu VaG tinrng' hdi.

b2- Truong hQP tuong h6i kh6ng du cling d@ chiu duoc hrc ngang ciing nhu khi nha da! qua (khoang each giua cac ttrong ngang cling> 20m) thi phai tao ra nhirng' khdi cling is hai dall nha va dQC chisu dai nha, each nbau kh6ng qua 20m d~ lam di~m tira cho cac xa g6 fin djuh cac dam vi keo khac (; khoang giira. Kha'i cirng gom 2 dim vi keo canh nhau, thanh keo diroc noi nhau bang cac thanh giang cheo chir thap, tao thanh mot dan nam nghleng, Thanh giang cheo dong dinh true tie'p vao thanh keo hose qua cac dai thep mong, ch6 giao nhau gilla giang cheo va xa g6 ciing cRn lien ke't chat. (H7-18).

c- H~ giang dzing :

99

H~ giang dung' co tac dung c6 ke't cha cac mat cua canh duoi (qua giang) kh6ng venh khoi mat phang cua dan vi keo, bao dam cho dan co vi trr th~ng dung, df.ie bi~t khi co gi6 1&11, nen cling ducc goi la giang gio. Giang d~t trong mat phang thiillg dung d gilfa dan vi kco n6i tung doi vi keo van nhau va co th~ each vai ba gian thi h6 rn' m()t he giang dirng. Kh6ng nen lam giang dung lien tuc suet chieu dai giang vi khi c1b n(u lTI9t dim vi keo chinh bi pha hoai vi nguyen nhan nEW (16 thi se ChUY@11 lire sang cac vi kco Ian can va co th@ gay pha hoai day chuyen.

Khi rihip cua dan vi keo kha Ion (> 15m) thi phai linn 2, 3 h~ giang dti'ng trong cac mat phang thanh dung khac ella dan vi keo,

H~ giang dling bao g6rn hai thanh thep clur thap vn mot t.hanli ngnng n6i r;1(~ (':l11h diroi (qua giang), Thanh cheo bat bu Ion van thanh c1l;'11g cua dR11 vi keo chmh (n6u thanh nay bong g6) hoac bat bu Ion vao X:l g6 vu vno crinh chtdi cua dim vi kno chmh, thanh cheo con dliqc linn bang thep trim, bat VIt vao canh dim vi keo.

Tilit di~n cua thanh giang dung duoc chon theo cau tao, kh6ng t.mh toan - thanh g6 co 09 mong < 20em, thanh thcp tron co duong kinh 12::_ 16cm (H7-19),

Noi chung vi~c b6 tri' va e:1u t:;10 dung each h~ giang cua mai nha co y nghia quys] dinh de'n stj lam vi~e an t0311 cua he mai, khi thie't ke' can quan tam d~e bi~t,

III- C5u tao bQ ph*ll. d~c biet

1/- Khu noel m{ll1g x6i : 1.1- Mo til:

a- Khu noc : La be) phan hop thanh boi 3 mai doc duoc ca'u tao 6 doan ftilll hAi nha, Cf v] tl'12 mid doc giao nhau se tao thanh gO' song nbc nho lsn vn nghieng thoo chi(~u d6e cua mai.

Tuy theo goc tan t.hauh gilla du21ng giQt nU'dc cua CRC mai : neu la goc vuong thi goi 13 khu nee thtmg, nell l3 g6c nhon hoac ttl thi goi h1 khu nne xien.

b- Mtiru; xiii : La b() phan 10m xuong i'r v] tri' gino tl.1y6n ducc cti'u tao d,~t m:lng dd thu mrcc tll' cac mai doc d6n den, Ki§u each Call t:;10 mang xoi dlfqC gifri thieu iJ ttl clurc thoat nucc mai doc. (H7-20).

1.2- Yell Call thiet k€.

a- Khi Cl-1C mai giao nhau eo de) dele bang nhau, du'O'ng gd song nee, dlfdng ranh mai duoc xac djnh tren mat bang mai each ve duong phnn giac cua gi>c tao nan bdi C;lC dtiCing giot mroc cua 2 mai:

b- Tie't dien ngang cua c:3.11 phong, thanh keo chju rnnng xo'i, gd song noc (h(~~c xnr: dinh tren bang va bang each ap dung qui tac d6ng dang vao each ve nhu Sl1U :

100

Mot m~t phang nalU ngang each noc se cat cac cau phong va thanh ,kea tai a, b, c, d. Dung mot bang giAy la'y di cac di~m a, b, c, d eha ta cac dean thang ab, be, ed dltge do tren mat bang thea chieu doc cua mai se kh6ng thay d6i doc thea cac canh hao qunnh cac mal nfim trong mat phiing cat. Tuy thea ke't cAu cua siren khu nee ma sf co 2 trirong hop ij mat cat cua cau phang va thanh keo hay dam xien tal riinh mai (mang x6i) va ga song noc do 1:1 tnnrng hop cac xa g6 diroc di)t trrn thanh keo, va trutrng hop cac xa go du'<;1C gall vao thanh kso. (H7-21aL

c- D6i v0i khu nee xian, tuy thea V?t li~u lrrp rna cau phang cua mai che dau hoi nha c6 th~ dirrrc d?t thAng goc veri tl1ang d~u hoi hoac d?t song song veri dUdng giqt. nuoc cua cac mal chmh doc nha,

d- DO d6c va chieu dili thanh keo ella ban vi keo goc co th@ xac dinh tren In?t bang thea so d6 hircng dAn d@ ch6 t:;10 san, truce khi dira VaD vi tTl rap dirng. (H7-21 b)

2)- etta s6 mal :

2.1- Yeu Call cau tf}-O : etta s6 mai 13 b¢ phan du(,1C cau tao trong miiit phang cua mid d6c nham muc dich lay anh sang, thoat hoi nong va thong gi6 cho khoang kh6ng

• '? II., ~

gran cua siren naco

Khi thi8't k6 cau tao cira s6 mal, can quan tam de'n cac yeu cau nhu sau :

a- Kh6ng gfty anh huang de'n siren noc va lam ye'u ke't c6 u da ta'm lop khi thuc hj~n ell'a s6 mai.

b.- Cua s6 mal chi nen b6 trf a knoang gill'a 2 X3 g6 k~ nhau va siren cira 86 mal dat a giva 2 cau phong, tuy nhien co th§ cat bo nhirng doan cdu phong nam trong pham vi cua cira s6 mal khi c:in rna rong di~n tich. Cac cau phang chiu sltdn ctta 86 mai coin diroc tang cUc1ng bang each ghep doi.

c- Can di;ic bi~t quan tam de'n diu tao ch6ng dot t6t a V! tri cac giao tuyfin gbla mai

.... ') )( ....

va cua so mal.

2.2- Hinh thuc : Co 4 ki&u IOJ;li cira s6 mai thu'dng du'<]c ap dung cho mai doc: a- Kidu cO dien : Cira s6 mal co 2 hoac 3 mai che - Hinh thirc nay, vi~c thi cong c6 phan phirc tap khi phai cat cac mal cho an khop nhau d6ng thoi can cau tao mang x6i d~ ch6ng dot d vi trl giao tuyen gitra mai che cua s6 va mai nha,

b- Kieu don gian : etta 86 mal co mOt mal che dat d6c nguoc van trong hay xuoi ra ngoai thea chieu doc cua mal nha,

c- CUB. 56 mai hinh tam giac, co 2 mid che, chu ytfu la d~ thong hoi,

d- Cua s6 mal khong co mid che, nham muc dich lfiy anh sang trirc ti@p. Hinh tlurc nay cdn d~t bi~t quan tam t6'i c~u tao ch6ng tham, chong dot thoat nude nhanh d 4

10]

canh chung quanh etta. (H7-22) 3{- Mai hien, ma i dua:

3.1- Cong duru; :·Mfli hisn, mai dua 1<3 ph an vurrn nho ra khoi tircng (tuong d9C~ turrng ngnng, tui1ng dau hoi nha) nharn IDIJC dich bao vQ dall tLtdng, che cac 16 thong giOl cac 16 etta. Ddng t.hrri cung nham tao khoang khong gian d~m gilta trong va ngoai nha, che chan mira hat nang choi va k6t hop t6 chuc t6t viec thoat mroc cho mnl nha,

3.2- ecru tgo :

a,- Diem truii : D~ baa v~ cac dau xa go hoac c;,\u phong ella. k6t cau dd b'fm Ir/p, c:5n dong diem mai bang tam ton kim loai, hoac vim g6 d:ly 2,5 - 3em cao 20 - 30cm.

b- Trtin. nuii dua : Khi co yell cau darn hao my quan eho cong t.riuh d.n dong tTAn thi dt1qc C:ill tao gi6ng nhu tran thi diroc cau t::10 gi6ng nlnr td.n uha va c() h6 trllb thong thoang cho khong gian dtroi mat tren tran.

c- Khoang nho ra cua mai hisn, mai dua thuong 13 60cm, truong hop can cho virou ra nhigu hem 60em, can phai b6 trf COll-SOO u@' chill ad XB go, dong thci Ul'm lcp d hang duai clmg doc thea dUdng gtot mrcc cua mid cAn d$t viron ra 3 - 5cm d~ t6 chirc thoat mrcc t6t cho mid, (H7-23)

IV.- Cau tao lap lop ella cac loai mal !

'I'ren ke't cau chiu luc mai hi lap/lam nhiem VlJ bao che each nhiet va ch6ng thdm, chu ye'u 10. ehe chan nang va ngan nuoc mira khong cho dot vao nha. V~t Ii{!u linn 16'p lop co nhieu : cac ta'm lop cd nh6 nhu cac loai ng6i, cac tfi'm lqp cd trung binh va c(; len nlur tilm Pibro ximang. tim kim loai, trfm bet.6ng cot thep, ..

1/- Mai 19p ngoi :

1.1- Qui each tam 19p : Ngoi diroc san xllat duoc nhieu 10?i ki~u va cd bang dR"t nung, vua ximang' hoac thuy tinh.

Thea hinh thirc th1 co th~ phan IOJ?i nhu :

~ Ng6i may: la 109-1 ngol co ranh thudng ducc ch6 tao thee 2 ca : Cd 340 x 245 x

17mm - 22 vien/m2

Ci1 410 x 245 x 13mm -13 viEm/m2

- Ng6i moe : La lcai ng6i phiing thLtangdtlng 70 vien/m2,

- N g6i mfmg am dUO'ng :

- Ng6i up song noc : ng6i bo hinh mang 1/2 tron hay chll' V.

1.2- Phuong each lop :

- Tren c~u phong dong cac lito 2x3em hoac 3x3em each nhau tuy thea clJ ng6i (co

l02

nho lit 26cm, ca Ion Ia 31 - 36em). Lito a dinh nee cdn b6 tri dam bao 2 vien ngoi n6e cua 2 rnai sat nhau d~ chiu ItJP ng6i up noc hoae xay song nee khot hi dot,

Lito cudi cung d du'ong giot nuoc cua mai ducc dong lito kep va each lito truce no la 16cm, d~ dam bao thoat m10C t6t va giam kha nang ng6i hi truct,

- Khi lop ngoi, can dam bao huong ella ranh thoat nuoc phai d~t song songvoi du·erng doc nhat cua mai, cac vien ng6i phai b6 tfl so Ie nhau, chieu T9ng ke l~n nhau cua 2 vian ng6i 5cm. f)@ d& phong gi6 him t6c ng6i, cdn hU9C ng6i vao lito, vOi oi&m buoc each khoang 2,3 vien ; hang eu6i cung theo duCtng giQt mroc tat ca cac vien deu phai bUQC vao lito. Hang ng6i bo up noc duoc lien ket bang vua xirnang cat 1/3. (H7-24)

- D@ de phorig hien tirong nircc mira co th~ len qua khe h6 dot VaG trong nha a nhtrng vur~g co gio manh, co th@ dung vira gan cac lop ng6i lai vci nhau hoa« 16t ml)t 16"p ch6ng dot thir hai bang vat li~u nhe nhu giay dau CJ phia dueti lop ng6i. £)9 doc cua mal lop ng6i co th& chon trong pham vi tLl 25° - 45°.

1. 3 - Tinh nang cua mai IQ"p ng6i :

Mid lop ngoi co kha nang phong hoa cao ctrcng d9 chong tac o9ng hoa cha't tOt, hen vltng, gia thanh ha nen duoc ap d\111g pho bien. Tuy nhien trong Iuong nang, t6n dat nong nghiep, kich thuoc nho khong phu hop viti cong nghlap hoa xay dung, goe nghisng cua mai Ion, do d6 lam cho ket cau vi kco them phuc tap.

2/- Mili lqp Fibro - xlmang :

2.1 - Qui each bim IQ'p : Tilm lop Fibroximang diroc ch€{ taobang s<Ji khoang amiang va ximang du6"i dang ph£ng, don song nho, Ian hoac don song di)c bi~t. T~m lqp thong dung co kich thucc dai : 100, 152, 225cm ... ngang : 92cm, day 3 - 5mm. Tam lop

c6 don s6ng dQ.c bi~t c6 chieu da! 4 - 6m va day 6 -lOmm. 2.2 - Phu'dng each 19p :

a - Tuy thea yell cau each nhiet va chong dot rna c6 th~ chon trang 3 phirong each

'.

sau :

a1- 'I'ren X:1 g6 d~t van va tral lop giay dau, ki~u each lop nay dam baa each nhiet va chong dQt t6t.

a2- Ki§u each don gran, tam lop d$t true tiep len xa go khong can cau phong vdi khoang each gil'ia 2 X3 g6 bang chieu dai tam lop tTtt di doan phu doc gnra 2 t5m lop d6i voi truilng hop m6i t5m lop g6i len 2 XR go hoac bang 1/2 khoang each do cho tntCtng

hop tam lop g6i l@n 3 xa go. "

as- Khi co yeu cau each nhiet cao thi co th~ d6ng van d mat dt1di xa g6 theo chieu . doc cua mai d~ t1)O them tra.n ap mai cho ki~u each don gian.

103

b- Dli baa dam viec ch6ng dot, cac tam lop cgn phai d~t chong ill { dil phu trum leu nhau mot doan thea b~ ngang tir 0,5 - 1,5 song thea chisu doc nr 14cm d.e'n 20cm tuy thea d¢ doc cua mat hi 35% hoac 25%. Co 2 giai phap d~t ta"m lop thea hang doc la tam lc,tp d:?t so Ie va t§m lop dij.t thAng hang. Tnt'dng hop d~t thang hang thi CaD phai cat goc tung cap cac tl'lm dat cheo nhau d~ loai tnr hien \uc,tng bon tam lop chong len nhau tai mot ch6 se gay ra khe h<\ mroc mira co th@' thea do hat vao nha, Hirong 19p se dl1C!c chon ngucc chidu v6'i hinrng gi6 chu dao trong mua mira,

c- T8'm lop duoc lien ke't vao xa go bang each khoan 16 d~ dong dinh (loai dac biet) hoac bat moe thep co b6 tri t8'm d~m cao SUo La khoan nen rong' hen mot it va kh6ng Dell dong chat ca 2 dAu tam lop d~ khi nhiet d¢ tang, tam fibroxirnang co th~ dan ncr hI do, tranh phat sinh ra cac irng' luc lam mrt ran ta"m lop. (H7 - 25a).

d- D¢ d6c ella mal hiP fibroximang ducc chon theo vung khi h~u th6ng dung ttr 15° - 60°, d~c biet c6 th~ 5° - 15° (9% - 25%)

2. 3 - Tinh nang:

Mai Iqp fibroximang co trcng hiQ'ng nha, kha nang chring an mon b6i acid va phong

hoa caa. Thfch hop vci mai co kh§u d9 Idn nhttng kha nang each nhi~t kern, d~ va.

3) - Mai 19p ton:

3. 1 Qui each tam ]qp :

Tam lop duoc chEf tao bang ton rna kem, hop kim nh6m, eh8't deo c6t sci thuy tinh ... thea 2 hinh thirc ton phang' va t6n den song.

3.2- PhUdng cach 19p :

Nhin chung vI! phirong each lqp tirong tv nhu mal lop flbroclment nhirng tan c6 de? dan nd lrrn hctn nen cdn nhidu 10 bdu due d9C thea song va dung moo thep d~ lien ke't ta"m I'll' vito xa g6. Cac tim lop phf trum len nhau thea chieu doc 16 - 30cm va thea chi~u ngang 2 - 3 song. Tuy thea vung khih$u d~ ch6ng gi6 lua va mua hat, gili'a 2 t~m lrrp d vi trf ch6ng len nhau va gan moe thep nan d:i\t mot lop soi day gai hoac xo dira b~n tam ddu h~c, bltum, (H7 - 26)

3.3- Tin h riang :

1Iai lop ton ben, nhe, thich hop vai mal c6 kh.iu d¢ len, thi cong nhanh gQD, thao ga d~ dang.

Tuy nhien khii nang each nhiet va each am kern, anh luning nong lanh va 6n kha 1'5 net VaG ben trang nha thea mua, thai tiEit khi hau do do min co bien phap c<1'u tao khac phuc nhuoc di~m nay khi ap dung,

4/- Miil Iqp tam b~t6ng cot thep :

I04

-.

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