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Architecture of the

SAP NetWeaver Application


Server

Release 7.1

SAP Online Help

03.09.2008

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Architecture of the NetWeaver Application Server 7.1

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SAP Online Help

03.09.2008

Content
Architecture of the NetWeaver Application Server 7.1 .............................................................. 4
SCS Instance...................................................................................................................... 4
Start Service ....................................................................................................................... 4
AS ABAP Only.................................................................................................................... 4
AS Java Only...................................................................................................................... 5
Dual-Stack: ABAP+Java .................................................................................................... 6
SAP Web Dispatcher.......................................................................................................... 7
High Availability with the Standalone Enqueue Server ...................................................... 7

Architecture of the NetWeaver Application Server 7.1

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03.09.2008

Architecture of the NetWeaver Application


Server 7.1
An SAP system consists of several application server instances, as well as one or more
databases.

SCS Instance
In addition to multiple dialog instances that execute user requests, there is a special instance
that contains the message server and the enqueue server - the SCS (System Central
Services) for the AS Java, the ASCS (ABAP System Central Services) for the AS ABAP. It is
used for lock administration, message exchange, and load balancing in the SAP system. It
cannot process any dialog requests.

Enqueue Server: The enqueue server is another critical part of the SAP transaction
concept. It manages locks on database entries while they are being used by business
programs. The SAP lock concept works independently from transactions offered by the
database management system.
Traditionally, this functionality was offered by a specialized work process of the central
instance. As of NetWeaver 7.1 a standalone enqueue server in a separate Central
Services instance is used, which offers a more flexible system layout. Since there must
be exactly one enqueue server per system, installing enqueue as part of the central
instance or standalone enqueue in a Central Services instance (both depicted in figure
1) are mutually exclusive. The same applies for the message server.

Message Server: The message server enables communication between the instances
of a system. It also keeps track of the instances that are running in a system and the
logon groups that each instance belongs to. It can balance the load between the
instances of a system by redirecting logon requests (for SAPGUI, RFC or HTTP
requests). It also provides the corresponding information to other load balancing
components, like the Web Dispatcher.

Start Service
As implied by the name, this service starts the entire instance. Every instance has a start
service although it is left out in some instances in figure one for simplicity. It also provides
monitoring information about the instance state. On Windows it is implemented as a service
that starts with the system. It is also integrated with the Windows Management Console and
offers a Java servlet which provide the user with a console to operate the instance manually.
In addition, all functions can be used non-interactively via a Web service interface.
You have the following installation options for the application server platform:

AS ABAP Only
The following graphic depicts an ABAP-only system with one dialog instance and the Central
Services (SCS) instance.

Architecture of the NetWeaver Application Server 7.1

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03.09.2008

Browser
Browser
Browser

SAP
GUI
SAP
SAPGUI
GUI

Internet Communication Manager (ICM)

(ABAP) Dispatcher

WP

WP

ABAP
VM

ABAP
VM

ABAP
VM

Gateway

WP

Start
Service

start
Message
Server

AS
ABAP

Enqueue
Server

Central
Services

SAP Database schema

The Application Server ABAP consists of the following major components:

The dispatcher handles communication with SAPGUI clients using the DIAG protocol.
It is also the central controller of an instance. It prepares shared memory data
structures, starts and controls the other processes and dispatches requests to the work
processes (also requests handled by Gateway or ICM). If all the processes are
occupied, the requests are stored in the dispatcher queue.

The work processes execute ABAP programs. A work process is controlled by the
taskhandler and contains the ABAP VM to execute ABAP programs.

The SAP Gateway provides the RFC interface between the SAP instances (within an
SAP system and beyond system boundaries). Both client and server functionality are
supported.

AS Java Only
The following graphic depicts a Java-only system (e.g. a CE system) with one dialog instance
and the Central Services instance.
The AS Java components include:

The Internet Communication Manager handles incoming requests (HTTP(S), IIOP, P4,
telnet) and forwards them to the appropriate server process.

The server processes execute Java requests.

The instance controller controls and monitors the life cycle of the AS Java instance.

Architecture of the NetWeaver Application Server 7.1

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SAP Online Help

03.09.2008

Client

HTTP(S), IIOP
P4, telnet
Internet Communication Manager (ICM)

Start
Service

Message
Server

Java
Java
Java
SP
SP
SP

Java
VM

Java
VM

Enqueue
Server

Instance Controller

start

Java
Java
Java
SP
SP
SP

Central
Services

AS
Java

SAP Database schema

Dual-Stack: ABAP+Java
The following graphic depicts a dual-stack system with one dialog instance and the Central
Services instance.

SAP
GUI
SAP
SAPGUI
GUI

Browser
Browser
Browser
R

Internet Communication Manager (ICM)

(ABAP) Dispatcher

WP

ABAP
VM

ABAP
VM

ABAP
VM

Start
Service
JCo
start

Java
Java
Java
SP
SP
SP

Java
Java
Java
SP
SP
SP

Java
VM

Java
VM

Message
Server

AS
ABAP

Enqueue
Server

Central
Services

SAP Database schema

Instance Controller

WP

Gateway

WP

Start
Service

AS
Java

SAP Database schema

A dialog instance with AS ABAP and AS Java share the following components:

Architecture of the NetWeaver Application Server 7.1

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03.09.2008

The Internet Communication Manager (ICM) sets up the connection to the Internet. It
can process both server and client Web requests. It supports HTTP, HTTPS und
SMTP protocols for the AS ABAP. In AS Java the ICM supports the HTTP(S), P4, IIOP
and Telnet protocols. The SAP NW AS can act as a Web server or a Web client.

Central services (message server and enqueue server)

The different stacks can share the database, but they need different DB schemas.

More information: SAP Library - Architecture of the SAP NetWeaver Application Server

SAP Web Dispatcher


For Web requests it is usually desirable to handle all requests to a system with one Web
server address. The Web dispatcher serves as single point of entry to the system for HTTP(S)
requests. It dispatches request between the instances of the system based on information
retrieved by the Message Server.
The Web Dispatcher is a standalone program which is ideally located in the networks DMZ.

Load Balancing and Configuration:


Information from
SAP Message Server

Message
Server

Enq.
Serv.

Central Services

http://shop.acme.com

http://....

SAP
Web
Dispatcher

SAP NW
AS (DI)

Client
SAP NW
AS (DI)
Single Access
Point: an
IP Address,
Port and URL

DMZ
(Demilitarized
Zone)

RDBMS

SAP NW
AS (DI)

Intranet

More information: SAP Web Dispatcher

High Availability with the Standalone Enqueue Server


The enqueue function is not just available in the classical ABAP central instance, it is also
available in a standalone server that is not part of AS ABAP. The standalone enqueue server
is used in the following scenarios:
AS Java provides a locking service based on the enqueue function. The standalone enqueue
server, which forms the SCS Instance together with the message server, is used for this.
You can use the standalone enqueue server as part of a high availability (HA) solution.

Architecture of the NetWeaver Application Server 7.1

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03.09.2008

The HA enqueue server consists of the standalone enqueue server and an enqueue
replication server. The replication enqueue server runs on another host and contains a replica
of the lock table (replication table).
The following graphic shows the HA configured Enqueue Server within the SCS of an ABAP
system. The high availability configuration with enqueue replication server is independent of
the system type.

Dispatcher

Dispatcher

WP1 WP2 WP3

WP1 WP2 WP3

Enqueue Client

Enqueue Client

Enqueue
Server

Replication
Server
Replication
Table

Lock Table

Enqueue
Host A

HA Software

Enqueue
Host B

High Availability Enqueue Server

The message server, which is also part of the SCS, has no critical data like the lock table and
can simply be restarted in case the server crashes. This is also done by the HA software.
More information: Standalone Enqueue Server in the Technical Operations Manual

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