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Global 8 Discipline

Agenda-G8D
Introduction

of participant
Overview of G8D
Understanding of Discipline D0-D8.
(Example & Case study)
Summary.

Introduction of participant

Type Of Problem Solving


Approaches
Rational

Fact & Logical Based


People Based Experiential (e.g Team,
employee involvement, participative
management, C&E diagrams.
Creative-e.g. Brainstorming

How G8D fit to an Organization


The world
Class
Company
Customer
Satisfaction

Product
Excellence

Lower Cost

G8D

Empowered
People

Overview G8D
G8D

is a Disciplined process which addresses


problem & problem solving in a methodical and
analytical way.
G8D process seeks to define and understand a
problem and It provides a mechanism for
identifying root cause and implementing an
appropriate corrective action.
G8D can also change system, so that the problem
and other problem similar to it are prevented from
happening again.

G8D-Learning Outcomes
Distinguish

between problem and problem


solving methodologies.
Describe the purpose and function of each
step of G8D.
Function as active team member.
Complete the Problem Description at D2.
Complete Root Cause analysis at D4.
Complete a G8D report.

Symptom
A quantifiable

event or effect, experienced


by internal or external customers.
Example:-Field Complaint, Customer
rejection, Warranty cost, Final Inspection
rejection, Process rejection.

Problem
A deviation

from an expectation, a special


cause, high variation, any unwanted effect.
Example:-Dim Not OK, Material Not OK,
Fitment Not OK, Rust, Capability Not OK.

D0 - Prepare For G8D Process


Purpose

In response to a symptom,evaluate the need


for the G8D process.
If necessary, provide emergency response
action to protect the customer and initiate the
G8D process.

D0 - Prepare For G8D Process


Application

Criteria-G8D

The symptom has been defined and quantified.


Who experienced, When it happened and who affected have
been defined.
Measurement taken to quantify the symptom demonstrate
that a performance gap exist.
The cause is unknown.
Management is committed to dedicate the necessary
resources to fix the problem at root cause level & prevent
recurrence.
Symptom complexity exceeds the ability of one person to
resolve the problem.

D0 - Prepare For G8D Process


Some

common Tools

Trend Chart
Pareto Chart
Check Sheet ( Paynter Chart )

D0 - Prepare For G8D ProcessExercise Page 78A time 15


Identify

Symptom.
Suggest Emergency Response Action.
Evaluate G8D requirement based on
application criteria.
IF G8D required fill in G8D form up to D0

D0 - Prepare For G8D Process


G8D Report

Title
Product / Process Information

Date Opened

Last Updated

Organisation Information

D0 Symptom(s)

D0 Emergency Response Action

% Effectiveness

Date Implemented

Verification / validation
D1 Team ( Name, Dept, Phone )

D2 Problem Statement

Problem Description

D0 Interim Containment Action (s)

% Effectiveness

Date Implemented

Verification / validation
D4 Root Cause(s)

Contribution

Verification
D5 Chosen Permanent Corrective Action(s)

% Effective

Verification
D6 Implemented Permanent Corrective Action(s)

Date Implemented

D1-Establish the Team


Purpose

To establish a small group of people (4 to 10)


with the process/product knowledge,
Allocated time, Authority, and skill in the
required technical discipline to solve the
problem and implement the corrective action.
The group must have Team leader
The group initiates the team building process.

D1-Establish the Team


Objective

You will be able to describe


The

guidelines for determining team membership


Team role
Team Operating procedure

D1-Establish the Team


Function

of the team role

Leader
Facilitating
Time managing
Scribing
Recording

D1-Establish the Team


Exercise time 10
Decide

on team roles
List your teams ground rules.
List what data you need to gather about the
problem.
Fill in G8D format.

D2-Describe the problem Purpose


Describe

the internal / external problem by

Identifying What is wrong with What


Detailing the problem in quantifiable terms

D2-Describe the problem Function


Identify

the object and the defect


Act as a database for describing the
problem
Define the problem as accurately as
possible
Drive the rest of the G8D process

D2-Describe the problem Objectives


Describe

the process for describing the

problem.
Practice developing a problem statement.
Practice developing a problem description.

D2-Describe the problem Remember


Any vagueness or inaccuracy can lead the
team to the wrong cause, followed by the
wrong corrective action.

D2-Describe the problem - Step


1-

Developing Problem Statement


2- Developing Problem Description

D2-Describe the problem


Developing Problem
Purpose
Statement.
Keep the team focused

Narrow

the search for the root cause


Serve as a starting point for the problem
description.

D2- Developing Problem


Statement - Exercise Page 78A
Identify the object and defect.
time 5
The

object is the name given to the


product or process.
The defect is the unwanted characteristic
present on a product or process.
Answering What is wrong with what?
identifies the specific object and defect for
which you want to know the root cause.

D2- Developing Problem


Statement - Exercise Page 78A
ASK:

What is wrong with what?


ASK NEXT: Do we know why this is
happening?
IF the answer is No the answer to. What is
wrong with what is your problem statement.
IF the answer is Yes repeat the question, What
is wrong with what until reaching the statement
the cause is unknown.
Fill in G8D format

D2-Describe the problem


Developing problem description
The

problem description is the output of a


process used to amplify the problem
statement in terms of what, where, when,
how big ( Is / Is Not method)
The problem description data provides the
basis for testing root cause of the problem.

D2- Exercise for Developing


Problem description
Purpose

To practice the technique for the Is / Is Not portion of the


problem solving work sheet
Key

to remember

Review the problem statement.


The first two columns of the problem-Solving work
sheet describe the problem in terms of what, where,
when and how big.
All Is / Is Not data must be fact.
All Is / Is not information should be similar in category,
shape, function, form and composition

D3-Develop the interim


Containment Action - Purpose
Define,

verify and implement the interim


containment action to isolate the effects of
the problem from any internal and external
customer until permanent corrective action
are implemented.
It is also validate the effectiveness of the
containment action.

D3-Develop the interim


Containment Action - Rationale
Buy

Time to solve the root cause of the


problem
Protect the customer from the effect of the
problem
Contain the problem from a cost, quality &
timing prospective.

D3-Develop the interim


Containment Action - Objective
You

will able to distinguish between


verification and validation.

D3-Develop the interim


Containment Action Key
Temporary works against the effect or problem.
Concept
An action that prevent the symptoms of one or more
problem.
ICA usually provides the opportunity for more
investigation.
An ICA may derived from an Emergency action.
Attack the symptom not root cause.
Is verified for effectiveness before implementation.
Is not a band Aid which may forgotten.
Adds cost.
Is replaced by permanent corrective action.

D3-Develop the interim


Containment Action
Proof developed before implementation
Verification ( Short term )

that the action do what is intended by


providing before and after comparison.
It does not introduce a new problem.

D3-Develop the interim


Containment Action
1.
Test
and
demonstrations
Verification method
1. 1 An example would be an engine dynamometer test
to verify that a change an engine components
design achieved the desired performance level.
2.

Comparisons of the new action with a similar


proven action.
1. An example would be the use of a new cutting oil in
a process that improved part surface finish.

D3-Develop the interim


Containment Action Validation
Ongoing evidence that the implemented
( Long term )
action doing what was intended without
introducing a new problem.

D3-Develop the interim


Containment Action Validation
Pre-customer validation - Ongoing
Method
evidence (data) that the implemented
action doing what was intended without
introducing a new problem.

Example- Test, inspection, observation and


other quality checks.

Customer Validation - Ongoing evidence


(data) received from the customer.

D4-Define and verify root cause


and escape point
Purpose

Isolate and verify the root cause by testing


each cause theory
Isolate and verify the place in the process
where the effect of the root cause could have
been detected but was not ( Escape Point)

D4-Define and verify root cause


and escape point
Objectives

You will able to describe how to


Use

the problem solving process and its work


sheet to identify the most likely cause of a
problem.
Identify the escape point of a problem.
Verify the root cause and escape point of a
problem

D4-Define and verify root cause


Terminology

related root cause

Possible cause any cause frequently


identified for the problem.
Most likely cause- Based on available data,
that best explains the problem description.
Root Cause-A verified cause that accounts for
the problem; Verified passively and actively,
by making problem come and go. ( Switch On
Off)

D4-Define and verify root cause


Problem

Solving Work Sheet

Review IS / IS NOT (Problem Statement and


Problem description) update if required
Comparative analysis
Root cause theories
Trial run of root cause theories

D4-Define and verify root cause


- Review of IS / IS NOT work
Review the problem statement.
sheet

The first two columns of the problemSolving work sheet describe the problem
in terms of what, where, when and how
big.
All Is / Is Not data must be fact.
All Is / Is not information should be
similar in category, shape, function, form
and composition

D4-Define and verify root cause


- Exercise Comparative
Analysis.
Root Cause

IS

IS Not

D4-Define and verify root cause


- Exercise Page 113
Comparative Analysis.

List differences / uncommon (Compare the IS


with its corresponding IS not )
Ask:-

What is unique, Peculiar, different,


distinctive, unusual about IS.
Consider :- People, method, material, machine and
environment.

List changes in differences


Ask:-

What has changed in, on, around or about


this difference

D4-Define and verify root cause


- Exercise

D4-Define and verify root cause


- Exercise
Develop

changes.

root cause theory based on the

ASK:- In what ways might changes the defect


on the object?
OR

ASK: How could this change create the defect


on the object?

D4-Define and verify root cause


- Verification
Passive

Verification
Active verification

D4-Define and verify root cause


- Verification
Passive

Verification is done by
observation
With passive verification. You look for the
presence of the root cause without changing
anything.
If you cannot prove the presence of the root
cause variable, then chances are great that this
most likely cause is not the root cause.

D4-Define and verify root cause


- Verification
Active

Verification is a process where

The problem solver uses the variable thought


to be the root cause to make the effect come
and go (Switch on Off).
Both coming and going are the important tests
to conform root cause.

D4-Define and verify Escape


point
Where

in this process could this root


cause have been detected, but was not?
The escape point is the earliest location
in the process, closer to the root cause,
where the problem could have been
detected, but was not.

D5-Choose and verify


Permanent Corrective Action
for
Root
cause
and
(PCAs)
Purpose
Select best point.
Escape
permanent corrective action to
remove the root cause.
Select the best permanent corrective action to
address the escape point.
Verify both decisions will be successful when
implemented.
Not cause undesirable effects.

D5-Choose and verify


Permanent Corrective Action
( PCAs ) for Root cause and
Rationale
Escape
point.
Making the best decision, based on benefits
and risks.
Not rushing into implementation.

D5-Choose and verify


Permanent Corrective Action
( PCAs ) for Root cause and
Objectives
Escape
point.
You will able to describe the basic styles and
steps in decision making
You will able to identify the G8D process
criteria for Permanent Corrective Action
(PCAs)

D5-Choose Permanent
Corrective Action
Criteria

Fixes a problem at the root cause level


Generates no additional problem
Has been verified to work.

D5-Choose Permanent
Corrective Action
Types

Unilateral ( eg. Boss making decision )

May affect large number of people

Polling (eg. Vote in which majority wins.)

It exclude as well as include.

Prioritization (eg. FMEA, QFD)

Based upon the nature of the situation

Compromise (eg. In families)

Can reduce the conflict

Consensus

Agreement of all team members 70% approval, 100% support.

D5-Choose Permanent
Corrective Action
Steps

Describe the end result.


List the decision criteria.
Given ( Essential )
Wants ( Important )

Decide on the relative important wants.


Identify choices.
Compare choices against decision criteria.
Analyze the risk.
Make a final balances choice.

D5-Choose Permanent
Corrective Action
Describe

the end result.

The end result is a brief statement that


describe the desired end result of the decision.
The end result is identified in order to define
the scope of the decision and provide a focus
for your thinking.
Describe the end result by identifying an
action and an objective.

D5-Choose Permanent
Corrective Action
Describe

the end result. - Example.

Buy a computer system,Machine, Equipment


Choose an administrative assistant
Select a supplier.

D5-Choose Permanent
Corrective Action
List

the decision criteria Givens


( Essential)
Givens are objectively measurable,
nonnegotiable, realistic features of the
decision.
Given are the minimum criteria
It

must be Mandatory, objectively measurable,


Realistic.

D5-Choose Permanent
Corrective Action
List

the decision criteria Givens.


Examples
Money

(eg. Not to exceed budget limit)


Deadline (eg. Meet Project time )
Company Procedure (eg.Machine capability,
Legislation (eg. Any Government regulation)
Any other mandatory requirements

D5-Choose Permanent
Corrective Action
List

the decision criteria Wants


( Important )
Wants are the desirable features of the
decision.
Wants enable you to determine which of the
remaining choices are preferable

DECISION MAKING WORK SHEET

1 OF 3

END RESULT: Select a Supplier for casting machining


CRITERIA
GIVENS: (Mandatory, Measurable, Realistic)
a. Cost must be lower than existing supplier
b. ISO 9000 certified
c. PPAP to be completed within 6 months from now.
d.
e.

WANTS: (Objective or Subjective)


a. Near to casting supplier
b. QS 9000 certification plan
c. Positive attitude
d. Financially sound
e. Good gauging facilitty
f. Air connectivity
g. Historical PPM must be low
h. Historical Delivery must be good

HOW
IMPORTANT
( 1-10 )
10
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7
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3
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