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Workshop on

Low GWP Alternative Refrigerants

26th January 2016

Session 5

Session Five
Session
Introductions
Background - Montreal Protocol and HCFC phase
out it Moldova
Outline of the workshop and Brief Q&A session
Initial Assessment questionnaire
Break
Introduction to Alternative Refrigerants - safety,
efficiency, reliability and good practice
Lunch
System design using alternative refrigerants and
Tewi Analysis
Containment and leak detection of alternative
refrigerants
Break
Maintenance and repair of alternative refrigerant
systems
Retrofitting existing systems with low GWP
alternatives
Finish

Start
9:00

Finish
9:15

9:15

9:30

9:30
10:30
11:00

10:30
11:00
11:15

11:15

13:15

13:15

14:00

14:00

15:00

15:00

16:00

16:00

16:15

16:15

17:15

17:15

17:45

17:45

17:45

Retrofitting Existing Systems


Only options for replacing R404A or R507
and other high GWP refrigerants with
lower GWP alternatives in existing systems
should be considered
The retrofit of existing systems to
Ammonia, Hydrocarbon and Carbon
Dioxide is not recommended due to safety
and incompatibility of components,
lubricants and pipework.

Retrofitting Existing Systems


The phase down percentage is based on CO 2 equivalent. For
example in 2016/2017, if suppliers continue to sell the same
weight of refrigerant as in 2015 its average GWP would have
to reduce. Alternatively a greater weight of HFC could be sold
if its average GWP is lower.
The likely impact of the quota is that the higher GWP
refrigerants will not be available or will be in short supply by
2018. This includes R404A, R507, R422D, the R407 series
and R410A.
These refrigerants (with the exception of R422D) are all still
used in new systems, so these systems will be difficult to
service, especially in the event of a leak, well before their
end of expected life.

HFC Recovery
It is a legal requirement in the EU that HFC refrigerants being disposed of at
endoflife must undergo a recovery process.
Refrigerant must be recovered by a certified technician.
Recovery machines should be able to remove well over 95% of the
refrigerant in an existing system. Recovered F Gases can either be:
Sent for destruction by incineration at a licensed waste facility;
Sent to a specialist plant that can reprocess the old refrigerant into a gas
with properties identical to virgin refrigerant, to create reclaimed
refrigerant;
Given a basic cleaning process, to create recycled refrigerant for reuse.
HFC refrigerant sent for reclamation may have a residual value however if
the refrigerant is contaminated it cannot be reclaimed and must be sent for
destruction.
It is also important not to mix different gases in the same recovery cylinder
as this would render them unsuitable for reclamation.

Retrofitting
Most of the alternative refrigerants discussed
so far are not suitable for retrofit in existing
systems because of their flammability,
toxicity and/or high operating pressures.
Refrigerant suppliers are developing a range
of blends based on HFO refrigerants
(R1234ze and R1234yf) which are suitable
for the conversion of existing systems.
The range of HFO blends is increasing as
more suppliers develop different blends.

Retrofitting
Each blend has been developed for specific applications and
to replace specific existing refrigerants in that application.
For example there are refrigerants available to replace:
R134a in medium temperature applications;
R404A in medium and low temperature stationary applications;
R404A in medium temperature transport applications;
R404A in low temperature applications.
R404A in air conditioning and heat pump applications

Those blends which are suitable as R404A replacements are


likely to also be suitable to replace the R407 series of
refrigerants.

Main Refrigerants

GW
P

A1 non
flammable

>4,00
0

R425A

A3 highly
flammable

R407A/
F

<1,50
0

R134
a

R450A

<700

R453A

Similar
to:

A2L mildly
flammable

R22

<2,50
0

<150

R404
A

R1233
ZD
R1336mz
zz

R123

R127
0
R600
a
R1234
ze

R134a

R410
A

B2L Toxic lower


flammable

R449

Old reference
refrigerant

R448

New and on the market

N20
DR7
L40

Not yet on market


R32
R458B

R444B
DR3

HDR11
0

R290

R404A
R22

R744
R717

R410A

Other

Retrofitting
When selecting a replacement refrigerant the following criteria
must be considered:

Flammability some of the HFO blends are low flammable (safety


classification A2L) and may therefore not be suitable for most existing
applications for more information about safety classifications is
available in Chapter 1 Introduction to Alternative Refrigerants;
Performance if the existing system is oversized then a small
reduction in cooling capacity might be acceptable. A reduction in energy
efficiency should never be acceptable;
Pressure if the operating and standstill pressures are higher with the
new refrigerant this will have an impact on the PS (maximum allowable
pressure) of the system. Pressure relief devices, where fitted, would
need replacement and the high pressure switch set point would need to
be changed. More importantly, the system would need to be re assessed
under the Pressure Equipment Directive as the change of refrigerant
would be a major change in the system;

Retrofitting
When selecting a replacement refrigerant the following criteria must be
considered:

Discharge temperature for many blends the discharge temperature will


be higher than for the existing refrigerant and this may cause problems in
particular with low temperature systems;
Temperature glide many of the blends have a high temperature glide so
expansion valves will need to be checked and readjusted;
Oil it is usually necessary to check that the oil used within the existing
system will be compatible with the replacement refrigerant;
Component compatibility the original equipment manufacturer should be
consulted prior to undertaking a retrofit to ensure compatibility of
components such as compressor, condenser, heat exchanger etc, in order not
to invalidate any warranty and to ensure that the original performance and
cooling capacity changes are taken into account.
Software is available to help simulate the impacts of changes from a potential
replacement of refrigerant and is a useful aid to decision making.