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Electromagnetic Fields

Review: Time–Dependent Maxwell’s Equations


G
G ∂B ( t )
∇ × E(t) = −
∂t
G
G ∂D ( t ) G
∇ × H(t) = +J
∂t
G
∇ ⋅ D( t ) = ρ
G
∇ ⋅ B( t ) = 0
G G
D( t ) = ε E ( t )
G G
B( t ) = µ H ( t )

© Amanogawa, 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 1


Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetic quantities:
G
E Electric Field
G
H Magnetic Field
G
Vector D Electric Flux (Displacement) Density
quantities G
in space B Magnetic Flux (Induction) Density
G
J Current Density
G
∂D
Displacement Current
∂t

ρ Charge Density
ε Dielectric Permittivity
µ Magnetic Permeability
© Amanogawa, 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 2
Electromagnetic Fields

In free space:
ε = ε 0 = 8.854 × 10 −12 [ As/Vm] or [ F/m]
µ = µ 0 = 4 π × 10 −7 [ Vs/Am] or [ Henry/m]

In a material medium:
ε = ε r ε0 ; µ = µ r µ0
ε r = relative permittivity (dielectric constant)
µ r = relative permeability
If the medium is anisotropic, the relative quantities are tensors:
 ε xx ε xy ε xz  µ xx µ xy µ xz 
   
ε r =  ε yx ε yy ε yz  ; µ r = µ yx µ yy µ yz 
   
 ε zx ε zy ε zz   µ zx µ zy µ zz 
© Amanogawa, 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 3
Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetic fields are completely described by Maxwell’s


equations. The formulation is quite general and is valid also in the
relativistic limit (by contrast, Newton’s equations of motion of
classical mechanics must be corrected when the relativistic limit is
approached).

The complete physical picture is obtained by adding an equation


that relates the fields to the motion of charged particles.

The electromagnetic fields exert a force F on a charge q, according


to the law (Lorentz force):

G G G G G G G
F(t) = q E(t) + q v ( t ) × B ( t ) = q  E ( t ) + v ( t ) × B ( t )
Electric Force Magnetic Force

where v(t) is the velocity of the moving charge.

© Amanogawa, 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 4