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H I G H S C H O O L

Sample Chapter
Welcome to History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals. This document
contains everything you need to teach the sample chapter “Defining and
Debating America’s Founding Ideals.” We invite you to use this sample
chapter today to discover how the TCI Approach can make history come
alive for your students.

Contents

See the History Alive! Letter from Bert Bower, TCI Founder and CEO 2

lesson demonstration! Benefits of History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals 3

TCI Technology 4

Program Contents 6

Program Components 13

How to Use This Chapter 14

Student Edition: Sample Chapter 2: Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 16
www.teachtci.com

Lesson Guide 24

Lesson Masters 33

Visuals 47

Placards 48
Welcome!

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
A s we began to develop History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals, I returned
to high school teaching—after a 20-year hiatus—to pilot lessons for the
program. For a month, I taught two periods of United States history at Mission
High School in the San Francisco Unified School District. During that time,
I discovered that my Mission High students were profoundly in need of an
alternative to the traditional textbook-based programs that dominate
U.S. history classrooms.

Today’s students face a barrage of realities more acute and vexing than students
of 20 years ago. Living in an age of standardized testing, high-stakes college
admissions, high school exit exams, and ever-present teenage angst, the students
I taught at Mission High had far greater educational, social, and emotional needs
than my classes in the 1980s. Many of them began the year certain that they
would hate their history class. Attendance was spotty. Aspirations were low.

I soon found that History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals gave both my students
and me a powerful reason to come to class every day. After just a month using
History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals, students began to understand how
history connects to their lives as they passionately debated issues surrounding
five fundamental American ideals: equality, rights, liberty, opportunity, and
democracy. With that understanding, they started to take an active role in their
own education. In short, the program was a lifesaver for my two demanding
history classes. I couldn’t imagine a day in the classroom without it.

My return to the classroom convinced me that today’s students need the most
interactive, cutting-edge curricular programs available. History Alive! Pursuing
American Ideals fits that requirement perfectly.
welcome

You have in your hands all the core materials you need to teach the featured
lesson. I urge you to try it out in your classroom and watch your students’
passion for history soar.

Enjoy!

Bert Bower, TCI Founder and CEO

2
Benefits of History Alive!
Pursuing American Ideals

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals
was created by teachers, for teachers.
The program is flexible and easy to use,
providing a variety of ways to meet diverse
student needs and curriculum configura-
tions. Teachers can
• modify instruction for English language
learners, learners reading and writing
below grade level, learners with special
education needs, and advanced learners.
• support language arts instruction in the
social studies curriculum with Reading
and Writing Toolkits.
• use Enrichment Resources to help
History Alive! Pursuing American students extend learning beyond the
Ideals centers on the five founding ideals lessons, including links to other web sites
from the Declaration of Independence: and essays related to U.S. history.
equality, rights, liberty, opportunity, and
History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals
democracy. Each generation has struggled
will help you ignite your students’ passion
with these ideals. Some have made little
for history—and re-ignite your passion for
progress toward achieving them. Others
teaching it!
have made great progress. This program
invites students to become engaged
in this struggle, from establishing an
American republic to the making of
modern America.
The TCI program enables students to better
understand the influence of U.S. history on
their current lives. For example, students
• create interactive dramatizations to show
how the Civil War affected Americans on
both sides of the conflict.
• play the role of CIA agents to examine
how the United States waged the Cold
War in different areas of the world.
• assume counterculture and mainstream
roles as they learn about the emergence
benefits

of the counterculture in the 1960s.

3
H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
TCI’s cutting-edge technology solutions for both teachers and students are designed to
enhance teaching and learning.

TeachTCI TeachTCI is the most dynamic social studies technology ever created for teachers.
It delivers a wealth of teaching materials directly to teachers via the Internet. Using
Technology for Teachers TeachTCI technology, you can plan, present, and manage your TCI lessons all in one
place. Access the technology online, at your convenience, at www.teachtci.com.

PLAN
Here you’ll find everything you need to conduct a memorable, knock-their-socks-off
lesson—Lesson Guides, Student Handouts, Visuals, and more—in pdf format, all in
one place, and organized by chapter. Other features include:
• Customized state correlations
• Easy-to-use assessment tool—use TCI’s assessments or customize your own
• Enrichment Resources to enhance instruction
• Discussion Groups—share best practices with teachers nationwide

TEACH
TCI’s state-of-the-art Classroom Presenter slideshows translate the printed
Lesson Guide into a visual format that teachers can use with students.
The Classroom Presenter has:
• Rich images that are the hallmark of TCI lessons
• Concise, step-by-step instructions for each chapter’s classroom activity
• A powerful toolbar to enhance presentations—zoom, draw, and write on slides
to emphasize important information

LEARNTCI
See what your students see in LearnTCI before assigning it to them.
LearnTCI includes:
• The Student Edition text
• Game-like Reading Challenges in which students show what they know
• A highlighter, Main Idea Viewer, in-text key term definitions, text-to-audio
features, and more
technology

MANAGE
In one easy-to-use place, you can:
• Set up digital classes
• Assign chapters
• View your students’ Reading Challenge results individually and by class
• Manage accessibility features for individual students

4
H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
LearnTCI LearnTCI—www.learntci.com —enables students to interact with content
online and apply what they’ve learned in a fun and engaging way. LearnTCI
Technology for Students motivates students to read—and they enjoy it more when it’s online!

As students read their Student Edition online, they can:


• Highlight the main ideas and then check their understanding using the
Main Idea Viewer
• Click on key terms and see their definitions, right in line with the text
• Have the text read to them

Reading Challenges use game-like settings to engage students’


interest through visuals, primary sources, maps, and audio cues.
Students are challenged to think about the content of each chapter
in ways that stimulate learning.

Students’ Reading Challenge scores are recorded in TeachTCI so teachers


can learn which topics may need reinforcement and which students may
need extra help. Assignments can be monitored from any computer at a
teacher’s convenience.
technology

5
Welcome!
Program Contents

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
In History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals, an Essential Question organizes each chapter
and its corresponding activity. By reading the Student Edition and participating in the
classroom activity, students gain a deeper understanding of the content.

3 Setting the Geographic Stage


How has geography influenced the development
of the United States?
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students label
features on thematic maps as they learn how
geography has shaped U.S. history.

Unit 2: A Nation and Its Ideals Emerge


4 The Colonial Roots of America’s
Founding Ideals
How did the colonial period help to shape
America’s five founding ideals?
Response Group activity: Students discuss three
provocative questions about the effects of the
colonial period on America’s five founding ideals.
Era 1: Establishing an American Republic 5 Americans Revolt
1492–1896 Were the American colonists justified in rebelling
against British rule?
Unit 1: Getting Oriented Experiential Exercise: Students assume the
1 What Is History? perspectives of four groups affected by colonial
What is history, and why should we study it? rebellion—King George III and Parliament,
Patriots, Moderates, and Loyalists—to debate the
Experiential Exercise: Students witness a staged
independence movement, using primary sources.
event that they reconstruct to help them
understand the challenges of interpreting and 6 Creating the Constitution
communicating information about the past. What is the proper role of a national government?
2 Defining and Debating America’s Visual Discovery activity: Students analyze
Founding Ideals images of a polling place after three events: the
What are America’s founding ideals, and why are Revolution, Shays’ Rebellion, and the signing of
they important? the Constitution. Students bring to live the sign-
Writing for Understanding activity: Students ing and read how the Constitution was ratified.
examine 18 placards depicting images and 7 An Enduring Plan of Government
quotes spanning American history and then write
Does the Constitution support the ideals in the
contents

a five-paragraph essay on whether Americans Declaration of Independence?


have lived up to the ideals of the Declaration of
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students participate
Independence.
in a game in which they analyze the Constitution
to learn about its key features.

6
Welcome!
Unit 3: The Growth of and Challenges to 13 The Age of Innovation and Industry

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
American Ideals Was the rise of industry good for the
8 Changes in a Young Nation United States?
Did changes in the young nation open the door to Social Studies Skill Builder: Students graph data
opportunity for all Americans? and analyze images about industrialism.
Response Group activity: Students discuss how 14 Labor’s Response to Industrialism
changes in the early 19th century opened or
Was the rise of industry good for
closed the door to opportunity for diverse groups American workers?
of Americans.
Experiential Exercise: Students play a game to
9 A Dividing Nation experience the historical choices involved in
Was the Civil War inevitable? deciding to form or join a labor union.
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students analyze a 15 Through Ellis Island and Angel Island:
selection of primary sources related to events The Immigrant Experience
from 1850 to 1861 and decide whether they What was it like to be an immigrant to the United
show a spirit of compromise or of conflict. States around the turn of the century?

10 The Civil War Experiential Exercise: Students discover what it


How did the Civil War affect the United States might have been like to be an immigrant passing
and its people? through Ellis Island or Angel Island at the turn of
the century.
Problem Solving Groupwork activity: Students
create interactive dramatizations to show how
Unit 5: The Progressive Era
the Civil War affected Americans on both sides
16 Uncovering Problems at the Turn of
of the conflict.
the Century
11 Reconstruction What social, political, and environmental
How was the nation’s commitment to its problems did Americans face at the turn of the
founding ideals tested during Reconstruction? 20th century?
Visual Discovery activity: Students interpret four Writing for Understanding activity: Students act
political cartoons to understand the issues and as muckrakers conducting primary source
events of the Reconstruction period. investigations and write newspaper reports
exposing problems in American society in the
early 20th century.

Era 2: Industrialism and Reform 17 The Progressives Respond


1840–1920 Who were the progressives, and how did they
address the problems they saw?
Unit 4: Growing Pains and Gains Visual Discovery activity: Students examine
12 Change and Conflict in the American West historical images to evaluate the actions taken
by progressives in addressing problems of the
What opportunities and conflicts emerged as
early 1900s.
Americans moved westward?
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students examine 18 Progressivism on the National Stage
primary sources to analyze how the opening of
contents

How well did Presidents Roosevelt, Taft,


the West affected various groups of people. and Wilson promote progressive goals in
national policies?
Response Group activity: Students take on the
roles of Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson
to debate who deserves the most credit for
promoting progressive goals.

7
Era 3: Expanding American Global Influence 24 The Home Front

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
1796–1921 How did Americans on the home front support or
oppose World War I?

Unit 6: Building an Empire Experiential Exercise: Student groups participate


in interviews to share the perspective of different
19 Foreign Policy: Setting a Course of
groups of Americans living on the home front.
Expansionism
Was American foreign policy during the 1800s 25 The Treaty of Versailles: To Ratify or Reject?
motivated more by realism or idealism? Should the United States have ratified or rejected
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students examine the Treaty of Versailles?
primary sources to analyze Americans’ views Writing for Understanding activity: Students take
on overseas expansion at the turn of the on the roles of internationalists and irreconcilables,
19th century. and then write a five-paragraph essay.

20 The Spanish-American War


Why did the United States go to war against Spain
in 1898, and why was the outcome significant? Era 4: The Roaring Twenties and the
Visual Discovery activity: Students examine Great Depression
and discuss images of events surrounding the 1920–1944
Spanish-American War and its aftermath.
Unit 8: The Twenties
21 Acquiring and Managing Global Power
Were U.S. interventions abroad between 1890 26 Understanding Postwar Tensions
and 1917 motivated more by realism or idealism? What effects did postwar tensions have on
America’s founding ideals?
Writing for Understanding activity: Students
write, illustrate, and explain metaphors for U.S. Visual Discovery activity: Students identify post-
foreign policy from the perspective of a region war tensions in various images and then bring
the United States became involved in and from to life a clemency hearing for Nicola Sacco and
the perspective of the United States. Bartolomeo Vanzetti.

27 The Politics of Normalcy


Unit 7: World War I
Did the Republican Era of the 1920s bring peace
22 From Neutrality to War
and prosperity to all Americans?
Was it in the national interest of the United States
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students analyze
to stay neutral or declare war in 1917?
political cartoons from the Republican Era and
Response Group activity: Students discuss the
identify each cartoonist’s point of view.
reasons for and against the entry of the United
States into war and then face off in a debate. 28 Popular Culture in the Roaring Twenties
What social trends and innovations shaped
23 The Course and Conduct of World War I
popular culture during the 1920s?
How was World War I different from previous
Experiential Exercise: Students enact a Roaring
wars?
Twenties party, dancing the Charleston and
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students analyze
learning about celebrities and popular culture of
primary sources and technical diagrams to
the 1920s.
contents

predict how new military technologies changed


the experience of war for combatants.

8
29 The Clash Between Traditionalism and Era 5: World War II and the Cold War

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
Modernism 1917–1960
How did social, economic, and religious tensions
divide Americans during the Roaring Twenties?
Unit 10: World War II
Response Group activity: Students debate
34 Origins of World War II
important social issues from the 1920s.
Could World War II have been prevented?
Unit 9: The Great Depression and the New Deal Experiential Exercise: Students play a game
30 The Causes of the Great Depression of negotiation to learn about aggression and
What caused the most severe economic crisis in appeasement in the events leading up to
American history? World War II.
Experiential Exercise: Students read about the 35 The Impact of World War II on Americans
stock market crash and discuss parallels between
What kinds of opportunities and hardships did the
the classroom game and history. They then read, war create for Americans at home and abroad?
discuss, and analyze images to understand major
Problem Solving Groupwork activity: Students
causes of the Great Depression.
create newsreels to understand the wartime
31 The Response to the Economic Collapse experiences of different groups of Americans.
How did the federal government respond to the
36 Fighting World War II
economic collapse that began in 1929?
What military strategies did the United States
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students classify and its allies pursue to defeat the Axis powers in
statements as representing the ideologies of World War II?
conservatives, liberals, or radicals.
Response Group activity: Students take on the
32 The Human Impact of the Great Depression roles of military analysts to examine the military
How did ordinary Americans endure the hardships strategies used to defeat the Axis powers in
of the Great Depression? World War II.

Writing for Understanding activity: Students 37 The Aftermath of World War II


analyze photographs of and letters from ordinary Did the United States learn from past mistakes at
Americans and then write a letter to Eleanor the end of World War II?
Roosevelt describing the hardships of the
Visual Discovery activity: Students analyze
Depression.
images from the end of World War II to learn how
33 The New Deal and Its Legacy the United States applied lessons learned from
How did the expansion of government during the World War I.
New Deal affect the nation?
Unit 11: The Early Cold War
Problem Solving Groupwork activity: Student
38 Origins of the Cold War
groups create mural panels to show how the
expansion of government during the New Deal How did the United States and the Soviet Union
become Cold War adversaries?
affected Americans.
Response Group activity: Students take on the
role of foreign policy advisers and discuss post-
war foreign policy challenges facing the United
contents

States in order to understand the development of


the Cold War.

9
39 The Cold War Expands Unit 13: The Civil Rights Movement

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
Were the methods used by the United States to 44 Segregation in the Post–World War II Period
contain communism justified?
How did segregation affect American life in the
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students play the role postwar period?
of CIA agents to examine how the United States Experiential Exercise: Students feel the sting of
waged the Cold War in different areas of the discrimination as two groups are treated very
world. differently. Students learn about the challenges
40 Fighting the Cold War at Home to segregation in the 1940s and 1950s.

How did the anxieties raised by the Cold War 45 The Civil Rights Revolution:
affect life in the United States? “Like a Mighty Stream”
Experiential Exercise: Students experience the How did civil rights activists advance the ideals
anxiety present in the United States during the of liberty, equality, and opportunity for African
early Cold War. Students play a game to help Americans?
them understand anticommunist hysteria and Visual Discovery activity: Students step into
then learn what to do in case of a nuclear photographs to learn how civil rights activists
explosion. advanced liberty, equality, and opportunity for
African Americans from 1955 to 1965.

46 Redefining Equality: From Black Power


Era 6: The Search for a Better Life to Affirmative Action
1945–1990 How did civil rights activists change their strate-
gies and goals in the 1960s and 1970s, and how
Unit 12: The Fifties successful were they in achieving racial equality?

41 Peace, Prosperity, and Progress Response Group activity: Students analyze


Why are the 1950s remembered as an age of statistical data to learn about the progress of civil
affluence? rights activists toward racial equality.

Experiential Exercise: Students attend a block 47 The Widening Struggle


party in a 1950s’ suburb to learn how the United Why and how did the civil rights movement
States changed in this time of prosperity and expand?
progress.
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students examine
42 Rebelling Against Conformity primary and secondary sources to discover how
How did some Americans rebel against the civil rights movement expanded to involve
conformity in the 1950s? other Americans such as women, Latinos, and
American Indians.
Experiential Exercise: Students explore currents
of conformity and nonconformity in American
society in the 1950s as expressed in the arts and
entertainment.

43 Two Americas
Why did poverty persist in the United States in an
age of affluence?
contents

Social Studies Skill Builder: Students focus on


the poverty experienced by millions of Americans
who did not share in the nation’s prosperity in the
years after World War II.

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Era 7: Tumultuous Times Unit 15: The Vietnam War

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
1954–1980 51 The United States Gets Involved in Vietnam
Why did the United States increase its military
Unit 14: The Sixties involvement in Vietnam?

48 The Age of Camelot Response Group activity: Students participate


in a national security meeting with President
Was John F. Kennedy a great president?
Lyndon Johnson to understand the beginnings
Writing for Understanding activity: Student
of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
groups analyze primary and secondary sources
and write a five-paragraph essay to understand 52 Facing Frustration in Vietnam
the successes and failures of John F. Kennedy’s What made the Vietnam War difficult to win?
presidency. Experiential Exercise: Students engage in a game
49 The Great Society of tug-of-war with constantly changing rules to
explore the frustrations of fighting the war in
What is the proper role of government in shaping
American society? Vietnam.

Response Group activity: Students evaluate the 53 Getting Out of Vietnam


proper role of government as they learn about What lessons for Americans emerged from the
President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society Vietnam War?
programs, the decisions of the Warren Court, and Visual Discovery activity: 5 analyze photographs
the conservative challenge to the liberal policies of Vietnam War events to learn about the end of
of the 1960s. the Vietnam War and its aftermath.
50 The Emergence of a Counterculture
Unit 16: The Seventies
What was the impact of the counterculture on
American society? 54 The Rise and Fall of Richard Nixon
What events influenced Richard Nixon’s rise to
Experiential Exercise: Students assume
and fall from power?
counterculture and mainstream roles as they
learn about the emergence of the counterculture Social Studies Skill Builder: Student pairs
in the 1960s. construct a graph of Richard Nixon’s presidential
approval ratings to examine the accomplishments
and controversies of the Nixon administration.

55 Politics and Society in the “Me Decade”


How should historians characterize the 1970s?
Problem Solving Groupwork activity: Students
create time capsules with artifacts that reflect on
politics and society in the 1970s.
contents

11
Era 8: The Making of Modern America Unit 18: Framing the Present

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
1980–Present 58 U.S. Domestic Politics at the Turn
of the 21st Century
Unit 17: The Reagan Revolution To what extent did George H. W. Bush, Bill
Clinton, and George W. Bush fulfill their domestic
56 A Shift to the Right Under Reagan
policy goals?
Was the Reagan Revolution good for the nation?
Problem Solving Groupwork activity: Student
Experiential Exercise: Students assume the roles groups create Janus figures to evaluate the
of liberal and conservative guests on a political domestic policies of Presidents George H. W.
news show to evaluate the merits of the Reagan Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.
Revolution.
59 U.S. Foreign Policy in the Post–Cold War Era
57 Ending the Cold War
How well did U.S. foreign policy decisions meet
Were the effects of President Reagan’s foreign the challenges of the post–Cold War era?
policy actions mostly positive or mostly negative?
Response Group activity: Students debate U.S.
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students analyze foreign policy choices in the post–Cold War era as
political cartoons as they learn about President they learn about issues of ethnic conflict,
Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy actions, including humanitarianism, terrorism, and globalization.
his efforts to end the Cold War.
60 9/11 and Its Aftermath: Debating America’s
Founding Ideals
What debates have arisen since 9/11 about how
to balance security while preserving American
ideals?
Social Studies Skill Builder: Students examine
primary and secondary sources and discuss the
challenges the nation faced in preserving
America’s founding ideals after 9/11.
contents

12
Program Components

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
All the components of History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals fit together to deliver
powerful and memorable learning experiences. These components can be purchased in
print format, digital format with a TeachTCI subscription, or a combination of both.

Lesson Masters
• Contain reproducible student and teacher
masters for classroom activities, organized
by chapter
• Include Student Handouts, Information
Masters, and assessments

Visuals
• Provide vibrant, colorful images
Student Edition • Build and enhance visual literacy skills
• Provides considerate text that is uncluttered • Offer data in visual and graphic formats to
and easy to navigate for students at all levels promote critical thinking skills
• Contains well-structured and manageable Placards
chapters to make U.S. history understandable
and relevant to students • Include full-color, laminated picture cards to
promote critical thinking skills
• Organizes each chapter around an Essential
Question to focus student learning • Support hands-on activities

• Includes powerful graphic elements that • Tap students’ visual skills during active learning
support visual learning and spark student sessions
interest Sounds of History Recorded Tracks
Lesson Guide • Stimulate learning with musical recordings and
• Provides simple, step-by-step procedures for sound effects
each lesson • Enhance the drama and realism of many
• Lists materials and objectives for each lesson student activities

• Includes answers to assessments and a Guide Digging Deeper Enrichment Activities


to Reading Notes for easy reference • Includes 24 complete lessons of hands-on
• Provides recommendations for differentiating extension and enrichment activities
instruction for English language learners, Mastery Guide
students reading and writing below grade level,
components

learners with special education needs, and • Includes pacing guides for six course
advanced learners configurations, chapter study guides, and a
practice final exam to assist teachers in
effectively implementing the program

13
How to Use This Chapter

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
1
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W r i t i n g f o r U n d e r s t a n d i n g C H A P T E R

Step 1
Defining and Debating
America’s Founding Ideals 2
What are America’s founding ideals, and why are
they important?

Overview Materials
Plan Instruction
Students learn about the significance of the founding ideals in the Declaration of History Alive! Pursuing
Independence and are introduced to the Essay Writing Program. American Ideals

Review the Lesson Guide (pages 24–32) to familiarize yourself with the chapter
Preview Students respond to and discuss a “Survey on American Ideals.” Transparency 2

Reading Students read about and discuss the origins and significance of the five Placards 2A–2R
founding ideals: equality, rights, liberty, opportunity, and democracy. Lesson Masters

Activity In a Writing for Understanding activity, students examine 18 placards, • Notebook Guide 2
which contain images and quotations spanning American history, to discover the (1 per student)
influence of the five founding ideals of the Declaration of Independence. Students • Information Master 2A

objectives, vocabulary, and step-by-step procedures for the classroom activity.


then write a five-paragraph essay on the question, Have Americans lived up to (1 per class or 1 per
the ideals expressed in the Declaration of Independence? student)
• Student Handout 2A
Processing The five-paragraph essay functions as this chapter’s Processing
(1 per pair)
assignment.
• Information Master 2B
(1 transparency)
Objectives • Student Handout 2B

Be sure to review the materials list (page 24), and prepare materials as needed.
(1 per student)
Students will
• investigate the Essential Question: What are America’s founding ideals, and
why are they important?
• read and analyze primary and secondary sources to understand the meaning
and significance of the five founding ideals.

Also, consider the options for differentiating instruction (pages 28–29).


• write a five-paragraph essay analyzing how well Americans have lived up to
the ideals in the Declaration of Independence.
• learn and use the Key Content Terms for this chapter.

Vocabulary
Key Content Terms equality, rights, liberty, opportunity, democracy
Social Studies Terms ideal, self-evident, social class, natural rights, monarchy,
dictatorship

Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 11

2
Step 2
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Preview the Chapter with Students


1:11 PM

Equality
Page 7

The condition Follow the steps under Preview in the Lesson Guide (page 25) to explain to
Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals

I n f o r m a t i o n

of being equal
students what they will be learning in this chapter.
M a s t e r
2 A
7

Step 3

3
Introduce the Essential Question and the Student Edition
Introduce students to Chapter 2 in the Student Edition by following the steps in the
Lesson Guide (pages 25–26). These steps prepare students with a clear question to
explore as well as a way to clearly organize their learning throughout the rest of
the lesson.

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Step 4

4
S t u d e n t H a n d o u t 2 A

Discovering American Ideals in Primary Sources


Work with a partner to record up to four details you observe in each placard’s photograph and caption.
Decide which of the five ideals the placard relates to, whether positively or negatively, and explain how.

Conduct the Writing for Understanding Activity


equality rights liberty opportunity democracy

Details we observed on Placard 2A:


1. 3.

2. 4.

This section of the Lesson Guide leads you step-by-step through the heart of a TCI
One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________
____________________________________________________________________.
Details we observed on Placard 2B:
1. 3.

classroom activity—in this case, a Writing for Understanding activity. Students


2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.
The Granger Collection, New York

Details we observed on Placard 2C:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


examine a series of images and quotations that span American history to discover
____________________________________________________________________.

the influence of the five founding ideals of the Declaration of Independence.


Details we observed on Placard 2D:
1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

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how to use

Chapter 2 © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

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How to Use This Chapter

H i s to ry A l i ve ! P u rs u i n g A m e ri c a n I d e a l s
5
Step 5
Debrief the Activity
Have students create a human timeline, demonstrating their views on
America’s progress toward its ideals. Facilitate the discussion by following
the steps in the Lesson Guide (pages 26–27).

Step 6

6
Direct the Processing Activity
Students are instructed to write a five-paragraph persuasive essay on
the question, Have Americans lived up to the ideals expressed in the
Declaration of Independence? This essay can be used as a baseline to
measure students’ writing abilities at the start of the year.

History Alive!
Pursuing American
how to use

Ideals will help you


ignite your students’
passion for history—
and re-ignite your
passion for teaching it!

15
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Chapter 2

Defining and Debating


America’s Founding Ideals
What are America’s founding ideals, and why are
they important?

2.1 Introduction
17
On a June day in 1776, Thomas Jefferson set to work in a rented room in
Philadelphia. His task was to draft a document that would explain to the world
why Great Britain’s 13 American colonies were declaring themselves to be
“free and independent states.” The Second Continental Congress had appointed
a five-man committee to draft this declaration of independence. At 33, Jefferson
was one of the committee’s youngest and least experienced members, but his
training in law and political philosophy had prepared him for the task. He
picked up his pen and began to write words that would change the world.
Had he been working at home, Jefferson might have turned to his large
library for inspiration. Instead, he relied on what was in his head to make the

The Granger Collection, New York


declaration “an expression of the American mind.” He began,
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that
they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that
among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.—That to
secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their
just powers from the consent of the governed.
In many ways Thomas Jefferson, shown
—Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence, 1776 here with his fellow committee members
In these two sentences, Jefferson set forth a vision of a new nation based Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, was
an odd choice to write the Declaration of
on ideals. An ideal is a principle or standard of perfection that we are always
Independence. Not only was Jefferson
trying to achieve. In the years leading up to the Declaration, the ideals that
young and inexperienced, he was also a
Jefferson mentioned had been written about and discussed by many colonists.
slaveholder. For all his fine words about
Since that time, Americans have sometimes fought for and sometimes ignored liberty and equality, Jefferson proved
these ideals. Yet, throughout the years, Jefferson’s words have continued to unwilling to apply his “self-evident” truths
provide a vision of what it means to be an American. In this chapter, you will to the men and women he held in bondage.
read about our nation’s founding ideals, how they were defined in 1776, and
how they are still being debated today.

An early edited draft of the Declaration of Independence 15



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2.2 The First Founding Ideal: Equality
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”

When Jefferson wrote these words, this “truth” was anything but self-evident, or
obvious. Throughout history, almost all societies had been divided into unequal
groups, castes, or social classes. Depending on the place and time, the divi-
sions were described in different terms—patricians and plebeians, lords and
serfs, nobles and commoners, masters and slaves. But wherever one looked,
some people had far more wealth and power than others. Equality, or the ideal
situation in which all people are treated the same way and valued equally, was
the exception, not the rule.

Defining Equality in 1776 For many Americans of Jefferson’s time, the ideal
of equality was based on the Christian belief that all people are equal in God’s
eyes. The colonists saw themselves as rooting this ideal on American soil. They
shunned Europe’s social system, with its many ranks of nobility, and prided
themselves on having “no rank above that of freeman.”
This view of equality, however, ignored the ranks below “freeman.” In
1776, there was no equality for the half million slaves who labored in the
colonies. Nor was there equality for women, who were viewed as inferior to
men in terms of their ability to participate in society.

Debating Equality Today Over time, Americans have made great progress in
expanding equality. Slavery was abolished in 1865. In 1920, a constitutional 18
In 1848, a group of women used the amendment guaranteed all American women the right to vote. Many laws today
Declaration of Independence as a model for
ensure equal treatment of all citizens, regardless of age, gender, physical ability,
their own Declaration of Sentiments on
national background, and race.
women’s rights. They declared that “all men
Yet some people—both past and present—have argued that achieving
and women are created equal.” Achieving
equal rights does not necessarily mean achieving equality. Americans will not
equality, however, has been a tremendous
struggle. This photograph shows a woman, achieve equality, they argue, until we address differences in wealth, education,
some 70 years later, still marching for the and power. This “equality of condition” extends to all aspects of life, including
right to vote. living standards, job opportunities, and medical care.
Is equality of condition an achievable goal? If so, how might it best be
achieved? These and other questions about equality are likely to be hotly
debated for years to come.

For much of our history, African Americans


were treated as less than equal to whites.
No one knew that better than these Memphis
sanitation workers when they went on strike
in 1968. Their signs reminded the nation that
each person in our society should be treated
with equal respect.

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2.3 The Second Founding Ideal: Rights
“They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights.”

The idea that people have certain rights would have seemed self-evident to
most Americans in Jefferson’s day. Rights are powers or privileges granted to
people either by an agreement among themselves or by law. Living in British
colonies, Americans believed they were entitled to the “rights of Englishmen.”
These rights, such as the right to a trial by jury or to be taxed only with their
consent, had been established slowly over hundreds of years. The colonists
believed, with some justice, that having these rights set them apart from other
peoples in the world.

Defining Rights in 1776 Jefferson, however,


was not thinking about specific legal or polit-
ical rights when he wrote of “unalienable
rights.” He had in mind rights so basic and
so essential to being human that no govern-
ment should take them away. Such rights
were not, in his view, limited to the privi-
leges won by the English people. They were
rights belonging to all humankind.
This universal definition of rights was
strongly influenced by the English philoso-
pher John Locke. Writing a century earlier,
Locke had argued that all people earned cer- 19

tain natural rights simply by being born.


Locke identified these natural rights as the
rights to life, liberty, and property. Locke
further argued that the main purpose of gov-
ernments was to preserve these rights. When
a government failed in this duty, citizens had
the right to overthrow it.

Debating Rights Today The debate over


what rights our government should preserve
began more than two centuries ago, with the
writing of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill
of Rights, and continues to this day. The
Constitution (and its amendments) specifies
many basic rights, including the right to
vote, to speak freely, to choose one’s faith, and to receive fair treatment and This celebration of the Bill of Rights was
equal justice under the law. However, some people argue that the government painted by Polish American artist Arthur Szyk
should also protect certain economic and social rights, such as the right to in 1949. It includes a number of Revolutionary
health care or to a clean environment. War–era symbols, such as flags, Minutemen,
Should our definition of rights be expanded to include new privileges? Or and America’s national bird, the bald eagle.
Szyk wanted his work to promote human
are there limits to the number of rights a government can protect? Either way,
rights. “Art is not my aim,” he maintained,
who should decide which rights are right for today?
“it is my means.”

Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 17


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2.4 The Third Founding Ideal: Liberty
“That among these [rights] are Life, Liberty and the
pursuit of Happiness.”

By the time Jefferson was writing the Declaration,


the colonists had been at war with Britain for more
than a year—a war waged in the name of liberty, or
freedom. Every colony had its liberty trees, its liberty
poles, and its Sons and Daughters of Liberty (groups
organizing against the British). Flags proclaimed
“Liberty or Death.” A recently arrived British immi-
grant to Maryland said of the colonists, “They are all
liberty mad.”

Defining Liberty in 1776 Liberty meant different


things to different colonists. For many, liberty meant
political freedom, or the right to take part in public
affairs. It also meant civil liberty, or protection from
the power of government to interfere in one’s life.
Other colonists saw liberty as moral and religious
freedom. Liberty was all of this and more.
However colonists defined liberty, most agreed
on one point: the opposite of liberty was slavery.
“Liberty or slavery is now the question,” declared a
colonist, arguing for independence in 1776. Such talk 20

raised a troubling question. If so many Americans


were so mad about liberty, what should this mean for
the one fifth of the colonial population who labored
as slaves? On the thorny issue of slavery in a land of
liberty, there was no consensus.

Every year, millions visit the Liberty Bell in Debating Liberty Today If asked to define liberty today, most Americans
Philadelphia’s Independence National Historic would probably say it is the freedom to make choices about who we are, what
Park. The huge bell was commissioned by the we believe, and how we live. They would probably also agree that liberty is not
Pennsylvania Assembly in 1753. Its every peal absolute. For people to have complete freedom, there must be no restrictions
was meant to proclaim “liberty throughout all on how they think, speak, or act. They must be aware of what their choices are
the land.” Badly cracked and battered, the
and have the power to decide among those choices. In all societies, there are
bell is now silent. But it remains a beloved
limits to liberty. We are not, for example, free to ignore laws or to recklessly
symbol of freedom.
endanger others.
Just how liberty should be limited is a matter of debate. For example, most
of us support freedom of speech, especially when it applies to speech we agree
with. But what about speech that we don’t agree with or that hurts others, such
as hate speech? Should people be at liberty to say anything they please, no mat-
ter how hurtful it is to others? Or should liberty be limited at times to serve a
greater good? If so, who should decide how, why, and under what circumstances
liberty should be limited?

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2.5 The Fourth Founding Ideal: Opportunity
“That among these [rights] are Life, Liberty
and the pursuit of Happiness.”

Something curious happened to John


Locke’s definition of natural rights in
Jefferson’s hands. Locke had included
property as the third and last right in his
list. But Jefferson changed property to
“the pursuit of Happiness.” The noted
American historian Page Smith wrote of
this decision,
The change was significant and very
American . . . The kings and potentates,
the powers and principalities of this world The Granger Collection, New York

[would not] have thought of including


“happiness” among the rights of a people
. . . except for a select and fortunate few. The great mass of people were Horatio Alger, author of Strive and Succeed,
doomed to labor by the sweat of their brows, tirelessly and ceaselessly, wrote more than 100 “dime novels” in the late
simply in order to survive . . . It was an inspiration on Jefferson’s part to 1800s. Many of these inexpensive books were
replace [property] with “pursuit of happiness” . . . It embedded in the about opportunity. They showed how a poor
opening sentences of the declaration that comparatively new . . . idea that a boy might achieve the American dream of
life of weary toil . . . was not the only possible destiny of “the people.” success through hard work, courage, and
—Page Smith, A New Age Now Begins, 1976 concern for others.
21
The destiny that Jefferson imagined was one of endless opportunity, or the
chance for people to pursue their hopes and dreams.

Defining Opportunity in 1776 The idea that America was a land of opportunity
was as old as the colonies themselves. Very soon after colonist John Smith first
set foot in Jamestown in 1607, he proclaimed that here “every man may be
master and owner of his owne labour and land.” Though Jamestown did not live
up to that promise, opportunity was the great lure that drew colonists across
the Atlantic to pursue new lives in a new land.

Debating Opportunity Today More than two centuries after the Declaration of
Independence was penned, the ideal of opportunity still draws newcomers to
our shores. For most, economic opportunity is the big draw. Here they hope to
find work at a decent wage. For others, opportunity means the chance to reunite
families, get an education, or live in peace.
For all Americans, the ideal of opportunity raises important questions. Has
the United States offered equal opportunity to all of its people? Or have some
enjoyed more opportunity to pursue their dreams than have others? Is it enough
to “level the playing field” so that everyone has the same chance to succeed in
life? Or should special efforts be made to expand opportunities for the least
fortunate among us?

Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 19


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2.6 The Fifth Founding Ideal: Democracy
“That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
their just powers from the consent of the governed.”

In these few words, Jefferson described the basis of a democracy—a system


of government founded on the simple principle that the power to rule comes
from the consent of the governed. Power is not inherited by family members,
as in a monarchy. Nor is it seized and exercised by force, as in a dictatorship.
In a democracy, the people have the power to choose their leaders and shape
the laws that govern them.

Defining Democracy in 1776 The colonists were familiar with the workings
of democracy. For many generations, the people had run their local govern-
ments. In town meetings or colonial assemblies, colonists had learned to work
together to solve common problems. They knew democracy worked on a small
The right to vote is so basic to a democracy scale. But two questions remained. First, could democracy be made to work in
that most Americans today think little about it. a country spread over more than a thousand miles? In 1776, many people were
For much of our history, however, that right not sure that it could.
was denied to women and most African The second question was this: Who should speak for “the governed”? In
Americans. Their “consent” was not con- colonial times, only white, adult, property-owning men were allowed to vote
sidered important to those who governed. or hold office. This narrow definition of voters did not sit well with many
Americans, even then. “How can a Man be said to [be] free and independent,”
protested citizens of Massachusetts in 1778, “when he has not a voice allowed
him” to vote? As for women, their voices were not yet heard at all.
22

Debating Democracy Today The debate over who should speak for the gov-
erned was long and heated. It took women more than a century of tenacious
struggle to gain voting rights. For many minority groups, democracy was denied
for even longer. Today, the right to vote is universal for all American citizens
over the age of 18.
Having gained the right to vote, however, many people today do not use
it. Their lack of participation raises challenging questions. Why do so many
Americans choose not to make their voices heard? Can democracy survive if
large numbers of citizens decide not to participate in public affairs?

The stars on the official American flag sym-


bolize the 50 states that make up our country.
The faces on this painting symbolize the many
peoples who have come together to create a
democratic society in the United States.

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2.7 In Pursuit of America’s Ideals
“Ideals are like stars,” observed Carl Schurz, a German American politician in
the late 1800s. “You will not succeed in touching them with your hands, but
like the seafaring man on the ocean desert of waters, you choose them as your
guides, and, following them, you reach your destiny.” In this book, the ideals
found in the Declaration of Independence will serve as your guiding stars.
You will come upon these ideals again and again—sometimes as points of
pride, sometimes as prods to progress, and sometimes as sources of sorrow.
Living up to these ideals has never been a simple thing. Ideals represent
the very highest standards, and human beings are far too complex to achieve
such perfection. No one illustrates that complexity more clearly than Jefferson.
Although Jefferson believed passionately in the Declaration’s ideals, he was a
slaveholder. Equality and liberty stopped at the borders of his Virginia planta-
tion. Jefferson’s pursuit of happiness depended on depriving the people who The front of the Great Seal features a bald
labored for him as slaves the right to pursue happiness of their own. eagle and a shield with 13 red and white
Soon after the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Indepen- stripes, representing the original 13 states.
dence, it appointed a committee to design an official seal for the United States. The scroll in the eagle’s beak contains our
The final design appears on the back of the one-dollar bill. One side shows national motto, E Pluribus Unum, which means
an American eagle holding symbols of peace and war, with the eagle facing “Out of Many, One.” The motto refers to the
toward peace. The other shows an unfinished pyramid, symbolizing strength creation of one nation out of 13 states.

and endurance. Perhaps another reason for the unfinished pyramid was to show
that a nation built on ideals is a work in progress. As long as our founding ideals
endure, the United States will always be striving to meet them.
23

Summary

Throughout their history, Americans have been inspired and guided by the ideals
in the Declaration of Independence—equality, rights, liberty, opportunity, and
democracy. Each generation has struggled with these ideals. The story of their
struggles lies at the heart of our nation’s history and who we are as Americans.

Equality The Declaration of Independence asserts that “all men are created equal.” During
the past two centuries, our definition of equality has broadened to include women and min-
ority groups. But we are still debating the role of government in promoting equality today.
Rights The Declaration states that we are all born with “certain unalienable Rights.” Just
what these rights should be has been the subject of never-ending debates.
Liberty One of the rights mentioned in the Declaration is liberty—the right to speak, act,
think, and live freely. However, liberty is never absolute or unlimited. Defining the proper
limits to liberty is an unending challenge to a free people.
Opportunity This ideal lies at the heart of the “American dream.” It also raises difficult
questions about what government should do to promote equal opportunities for all Americans.
Democracy The Declaration of Independence states that governments are created by people
in order to “secure these rights.” Governments receive their “just powers” to rule from the
“consent of the governed.” Today we define such governments as democracies.

Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 21


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W r i t i n g f o r U n d e r s t a n d i n g C H A P T E R

Defining and Debating


America’s Founding Ideals 2
What are America’s founding ideals, and why are
they important?

Overview Materials
Students learn about the significance of the founding ideals in the Declaration of History Alive! Pursuing
Independence and are introduced to the Essay Writing Program. American Ideals
Preview Students respond to and discuss a “Survey on American Ideals.” Transparency 2

Reading Students read about and discuss the origins and significance of the five Placards 2A–2R
founding ideals: equality, rights, liberty, opportunity, and democracy. Lesson Masters

Activity In a Writing for Understanding activity, students examine 18 placards, • Notebook Guide 2
which contain images and quotations spanning American history, to discover the (1 per student)
24
influence of the five founding ideals of the Declaration of Independence. Students • Information Master 2A
then write a five-paragraph essay on the question, Have Americans lived up to (1 per class or 1 per
the ideals expressed in the Declaration of Independence? student)
• Student Handout 2A
Processing The five-paragraph essay functions as this chapter’s Processing
(1 per pair)
assignment.
• Information Master 2B
(1 transparency)
Objectives • Student Handout 2B
(1 per student)
Students will
• investigate the Essential Question: What are America’s founding ideals, and
why are they important?
• read and analyze primary and secondary sources to understand the meaning
and significance of the five founding ideals.
• write a five-paragraph essay analyzing how well Americans have lived up to
the ideals in the Declaration of Independence.
• learn and use the Key Content Terms for this chapter.

Vocabulary
Key Content Terms equality, rights, liberty, opportunity, democracy

Social Studies Terms ideal, self-evident, social class, natural rights, monarchy,
dictatorship

Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 11


Note: TCI uses the terms “visual” and “transparency” interchangeably.
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P r o c e d u r e s

Preview
1 Before class, prepare materials.
• Post Information Master 2A: Ideals and Definitions in the classroom or
make copies to be distributed to the class.
• Arrange Placards 2A–2R: Introduction to History about 3 to 4 feet apart,
either on the classroom walls or someplace with more room, such as a
hallway or the cafeteria.
2 Distribute a copy of Notebook Guide 2 to each student. Give students time
to complete the Preview assignment in their notebooks.
3 Discuss student responses to the Preview assignment. Have volunteers
share their responses with the class or have students pair up and share with a
partner. This Preview is not designed to lead students to any predetermined Information Master 2A
conclusions but to encourage discussion and debate.
4 Review the five ideals and their definitions on Information Master 2A.
Tell students that each question on the “Survey on American Ideals” relates to
one of the five ideals on Information Master 2A. Review each ideal. Explain
that an ideal is different from an idea: an idea can be just about anything that
pops into one’s head, whereas an ideal is something truly outstanding that
25
one strives for.
5 Explain the purpose of Chapter 2. Tell students that in this chapter they will
learn about the five ideals, including where they came from and why they are
so important to Americans. Students will also begin the Essay Writing Pro-
gram for this course by writing a five-paragraph essay in response to the
question, Have Americans lived up to the ideals expressed in the Declaration
of Independence? Placards 2A–2R

Reading
1 Introduce the Essential Question. Project Transparency 2: Draft of the
Declaration of Independence. Have students locate the photograph and
Essential Question at the beginning of Chapter 2. Ask,
• What do you see here?
• What are some observations you can make about the document?
• Why are parts of the document scratched out? What do the scratches tell
you about the document?
• What document is this?
Notebook Guide 2
• Where in the document can you find references to each of the five
founding ideals: equality, rights, liberty, opportunity, and democracy?
(Note: All of these ideals are referred to in the quotation in Section 2.1.
They can also be located on Transparency 2.)

12 Chapter 2
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P r o c e d u r e s

2 Read aloud the Essential Question: What are America’s founding ideals,
and why are they important? Discuss, explain, or clarify the question as
appropriate.
3 Introduce the Key Content Terms and social studies terms for Chapter 2.
Preteach the boldfaced vocabulary terms in the chapter, as necessary, before
students begin reading.
4 Have students read Sections 2.1 to 2.7 and complete the corresponding
Reading Notes. Use Guide to Reading Notes 2 to review the answers as a
class. (Note: You might want to assign the reading as homework.)
Transparency 2

Writing for Understanding


1 Introduce the activity. Tell students that they will examine a series of images
and quotations that span American history, from colonial times to today.
Each image and quote relates to the ideals of the Declaration of Independence:
they demonstrate either a belief in an ideal, a struggle for an ideal, or a con-
flict over an ideal. The placards provide an overview of the importance of the
ideals throughout American history. They also preview the content students
will study in this course. Explain that after they examine the images and
quotations, they will write their five-paragraph essays. 26

2 Put students in mixed-ability pairs.


3 Distribute Student Handout 2A: Discovering American Ideals in Primary
Sources and review the directions.
4 Monitor students as they work on Student Handout 2A. Before students
begin working independently with their partners, you might want to model
how to complete the notes for one placard. To encourage students to work
quickly and with purpose, consider imposing a time limit for each placard
and for the entire activity. If class time is limited, students do not need to
complete all the placards. Tell students that after a specified time, they will
become an “expert” on the most recent placard they completed. As such, they
might be asked to share their expertise with the class.
5 Use a human timeline to debrief the activity. After the specified time, ask
students to complete their notes for their current placard and then have them Student Handout 2A
remove the placard from the wall. Assign one student from each pair to be
the “expert” for that placard. Everyone else should sit down. Tell the student
experts to organize themselves in chronological order, holding the placards in
front of their chests so everyone in class can see them. Have the experts per-
form the following tasks, as appropriate:
• Ask students to step forward if their placard relates to equality in any
way. Repeat this for each remaining ideal: rights, liberty, opportunity, and
democracy. Discuss why some ideals appear more often than others.

Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 13


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P r o c e d u r e s

• Ask students to step forward if their placard illustrates events or ideas


that moved the nation toward the ideals in the Declaration. Ask several
students to explain how it shows this.
• Ask students to step forward if their placard illustrates events or ideas
that moved the nation away from the ideals in the Declaration. Ask several
students to explain how it shows this.
• Ask students to step forward if they believe their placard shows that
Americans do live up to the ideals in the Declaration. Ask several students
to explain how it shows this. Repeat with examples of how Americans do
not live up to the ideals in the Declaration.
6 Introduce the Essay Writing Program and the first writing assignment.
Tell students that during the course of the year, they will learn and practice
the elements of writing a five-paragraph essay. They will write four essays in
conjunction with four particular chapters and will practice key elements of
essay writing throughout the rest of the year. Project Information Master 2B:
Writing an Essay About American Ideals Today and introduce the essay
requirements. (Note: The results of this assignment can be used as a baseline
to measure individual students’ writing abilities at the start of the year.)
7 Distribute Student Handout 2B: Graphic Organizer for a Five-Paragraph 27
Essay. Explain that this graphic organizer will help students organize their Information Master 2B

thoughts and ideas for their essays. Briefly review the graphic organizer with
students and make sure they understand what to do for each step. Give stu-
dents time to complete their graphic organizers.
8 Have students use notes from their graphic organizer to write a draft of
their essays. Have students complete their drafts either in class or for home-
work. (Note: Depending on how much time you want to spend on this first
essay, you may want to teach or reinforce specific steps in the writing process,
such as revising and editing. The Writing Toolkit has specific handouts you
can use to guide this process.)

Student Handout 2B
Assessment
Masters for the unit assessment appear in the Lesson Masters. Unit 1 Assessment
scoring information appears after Chapter 3 in this Lesson Guide.

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D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n

English Language Learners


Emerging Reader
Provide an alternative Preview assignment. Vocabulary
• Before beginning the Preview, bring students’ attention to Information ceaselessly: something that
Master 2A. Ask them to write each word and its definition on one of five continues for a long time
separate cards, which you provide or which they make from notebook paper. without stopping
• On index cards, create a class set of simple, clear symbols for each word.
inferior: not as good as
Have students match the symbols with the words and then have them draw
something or someone else
the symbols on their cards.
pursue: to continue an
• Put students into mixed-ability pairs. Ask each pair of students to rank the
activity or try to accomplish
ideals according to how important they are to Americans. Ask, Which ideal is
something over a long time
most important? Least important? (Note: There are no right or wrong answers.
Students should base their rankings on their own beliefs and experience.) specify: to state something in
• Discuss and debate the following questions, using student cue cards: Which a detailed way
of these ideals does America stand for most? Least? Do you think some Amer-
icans would fight and die for any of these ideals? If so, which ones? Which
ones would you be willing to die for? Allow some students to respond
nonverbally by choosing cards, pointing, or using short phrases. Encourage
students who are more fluent to respond in complete sentences.
28
Learners Reading and Writing Below Grade Level
Option 1 Create a transparency of Student Handout 2B. Review the graphic
organizer and provide a concrete example for each step. Have students brainstorm
additional evidence in small groups or as a class. List student responses on the
transparency and edit as necessary.
Option 2 Instead of completing the entire graphic organizer on Student Hand-
out 2B, have students write a thesis statement and complete the steps for body
paragraph 1. Modify the requirements on Information Master 2B, and have stu-
dents write a paragraph that answers this question: Have Americans lived up to
the ideals expressed in the Declaration of Independence? Tell students their
paragraph must include (1) a strong topic sentence that states their view and tells
the reader what the paragraph is about, (2) at least two pieces of evidence sup-
porting their view, and (3) at least two sentences explaining how their evidence
supports their topic sentence.

Learners with Special Education Needs


Concentrate on those placards with the strongest visual components. Make
sure all students can view the placards well enough to complete the activity.
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D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n

Advanced Learners
Scholastic Aptitude Test
On April 3, 1917, William Tyler Page, a clerk of the U.S. House of Represen- Vocabulary
tatives, wrote “The American Creed” (reprinted below) as part of an essay writing
consensus: when everyone in
contest. Provide “The American Creed” for students to read. Define a creed as a
a group agrees on something
statement of belief. Ask students to use what they learned in this chapter about
the Declaration’s ideals to write their own creed for all Americans. Then ask tenacious: when someone is
them to think beyond the Declaration to how Americans act and behave today. determined to accomplish
Have them write a second creed that answers this question: What does America something
really stand for? Require students to write a paragraph explaining the difference
between their two creeds.

The American Creed


I believe in the United States of America as a government of the people,
by the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the con-
sent of the governed, a democracy in a republic, a sovereign Nation of
many sovereign States; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established
upon those principles of freedom, equality, justice, and humanity for which
American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes.
I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, to support its
Constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it against 29
all enemies.
—William Tyler Page,
clerk for the U.S. House of Representatives, 1917

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E n h a n c i n g L e a r n i n g

Online Resources
For related research materials on America’s founding ideals, refer students to
Online Resources at www.teachtci.com.

Primary Sources for Civic Learning


You may wish to have students investigate primary source documents relevant
to this chapter. The “Our Documents” initiative is a cooperative effort of the
National Archives and Records Administration, National History Day, and the
USA Freedom Corps. At its Web site, www.ourdocuments.gov, you can download
images and transcripts of the 100 milestone documents chosen for the initiative,
along with teaching tools and resources. The documents most relevant to this
chapter are the following:
The Declaration of Independence, 1776 On July 19, 1776, Congress ordered
an engrossed, or handwritten, copy of the Declaration on parchment. It is now
one of our treasured Charters of Freedom on display at the National Archives.
Original Design of the Great Seal of the United States, 1782 It took three
committees to develop the winning design for the Great Seal, which is still in
use today. The seal appears on official government buildings and on the back of
the one-dollar bill. 30

Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 17


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G u i d e t o R e a d i n g N o t e s 2

Following are possible answers for each section of the Reading Notes.

Section 2.1
1. These ideals are found in the following phrases:
Equality: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are
created equal.”
Rights: “That they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalien-
able Rights.”
Liberty: “That among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness.”
Opportunity: “That among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness.”
Democracy: “That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted
among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the
governed.”
2. The Declaration expresses important ideals that have inspired and chal-
lenged Americans for more than 200 years.
3. The ideals were familiar to Americans of the time and had been written
about and discussed in the years leading up to the Declaration. 31

Sections 2.2 to 2.6

Ideal and Excerpt from the Influence of the Ideal


Declaration of Independence Definition in 1776 and Today
Equality The ideal situation in which 1776: Christianity taught that all people are
“All men are created equal.” all people are treated the equal in God’s eyes. The colonists rejected the
same and valued equally inequality found in Europe. Still, some held
slaves, and women were treated unequally.
Today: Progress has been made in expanding
equality, but some argue that “equality of con-
dition” needs to be provided to all.

Rights Powers or privileges granted 1776: Jefferson argued in favor of natural, or


“They are endowed by their to people either by an agree- universal, rights belonging to all humankind.
Creator with certain unalienable ment among themselves or Today: Americans have many rights that are
Rights.” by law found in the Constitution and the Bill of
Rights. However, some people still argue for
an expansion of rights.

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G u i d e t o R e a d i n g N o t e s 2

Ideal and Excerpt from the Influence of the Ideal


Declaration of Independence Definition in 1776 and Today
Liberty Liberty can mean different 1776: Liberty was extremely important to the
“That among these [rights] are things: colonists, and they fought for freedom from
Life, Liberty and the pursuit of • political freedom Great Britain. However, one fifth of the popu-
Happiness.” lation was enslaved.
• civil liberty
Today: Americans agree that liberty provides
• moral and religious
the ability to make choices and that limits must
freedom
be placed on those choices. Americans debate
• the opposite of slavery
about where to set those limits.

Opportunity The chance for people to 1776: Americans held a strong belief in
“That among these [rights] are pursue their hopes and opportunity from the early colonial period.
Life, Liberty and the pursuit of dreams Opportunity encouraged new settlers.
Happiness.” Today: Opportunity still brings newcomers,
but some wonder whether true opportunity is
available to all.

32

Democracy A system of government 1776: Americans used democracy on a local


“That to secure these rights, based on the consent of the level throughout the colonial period. Yet some
Governments are instituted among governed wondered whether democracy could work on
Men, deriving their just powers a larger scale and who should speak for “the
from the consent of the governed.” governed.”
Today: All citizens over the age of 18 can now
vote, yet not everyone participates.

Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 19


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N O T E B O O K G U I D E C H A P T E R

Defining and Debating


America’s Founding Ideals 2
What are America’s founding ideals, and why are they important?

4. All Americans have the same opportunities to succeed


K e y C o n t e n t T e r m s
in life.
As you complete the Reading Notes, use these a. strongly disagree
Key Content Terms in your answers: b. mildly disagree
c. mildly agree
equality liberty democracy
d. strongly agree
rights opportunity
5. Wealthy people have a more powerful voice in
American democracy than do others.
a. strongly disagree 33
P R E V I E W
b. mildly disagree
c. mildly agree
Survey on American Ideals
d. strongly agree
Write the following five statements in your notebook,
and record the answer that best represents your views
on each.
R E A D I N G N O T E S
1. All Americans are equal.
a. strongly disagree
Section 2.1
b. mildly disagree
Answer the following questions in your notebook.
c. mildly agree
1. Where in the Declaration of Independence can
d. strongly agree
you find references to equality, rights, liberty,
2. Some Americans have more rights than others. opportunity, and democracy?
a. strongly disagree 2. Why is the Declaration of Independence an
b. mildly disagree important document?
c. mildly agree 3. Where did founders like Thomas Jefferson get
d. strongly agree inspiration for the ideals in the Declaration of
Independence?
3. Americans have all the freedoms they deserve.
a. strongly disagree
b. mildly disagree
c. mildly agree
d. strongly agree

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 5


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N o t e b o o k G u i d e 2

Sections 2.2 to 2.6


Copy the table onto a full page of your notebook. Then
read Sections 2.2 to 2.6 and complete the table.

Ideal and Excerpt from the Influence of the Ideal


Declaration of Independence Definition in 1776 and Today

Equality
“All men are created equal.”

Rights
“They are endowed by their
Creator with certain unalienable
Rights.”

34

Liberty
“That among these [rights] are
Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness.”

Opportunity
“That among these [rights] are
Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness.”

Democracy
“That to secure these rights,
Governments are instituted among
Men, deriving their just powers
from the consent of the governed.”

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I n f o r m a t i o n M a s t e r 2 A

Equality
The condition
of being equal
35

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36

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© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


to each person
guaranteed
Basic conditions
Rights
2 A
M a s t e r
I n f o r m a t i o n

Chapter 2
8
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I n f o r m a t i o n M a s t e r 2 A

unnecessary force
The freedom to

without being
think or act
Liberty

limited by
37

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38

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© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


and dreams
their hopes
chance to attain
should have the
The promise that people
2 A
M a s t e r

Opportunity
I n f o r m a t i o n

Chapter 2
10
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I n f o r m a t i o n M a s t e r 2 A

Democracy
government that

of the people
in the hands
places power
A form of

39

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S t u d e n t H a n d o u t 2 A

Discovering American Ideals in Primary Sources


Work with a partner to record up to four details you observe in each placard’s photograph and caption.
Decide which of the five ideals the placard relates to, whether positively or negatively, and explain how.

equality rights liberty opportunity democracy

Details we observed on Placard 2A:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.
Details we observed on Placard 2B:
1. 3.

40
2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.
The Granger Collection, New York

Details we observed on Placard 2C:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

Details we observed on Placard 2D:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

12 Chapter 2 © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


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S t u d e n t H a n d o u t 2 A

equality rights liberty opportunity democracy

Details we observed on Placard 2E:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.
Details we observed on Placard 2F:
1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________. 41

Details we observed on Placard 2G:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

Details we observed on Placard 2H:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 13


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S t u d e n t H a n d o u t 2 A

equality rights liberty opportunity democracy

Details we observed on Placard 2I:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.
Details we observed on Placard 2J:
1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________. 42

Details we observed on Placard 2K:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

Details we observed on Placard 2L:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

14 Chapter 2 © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


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S t u d e n t H a n d o u t 2 A

equality rights liberty opportunity democracy

Details we observed on Placard 2M:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.
Details we observed on Placard 2N:
1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________. 43

Details we observed on Placard 2O:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

Details we observed on Placard 2P:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute Defining and Debating America’s Founding Ideals 15


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S t u d e n t H a n d o u t 2 A

equality rights liberty opportunity democracy

Details we observed on Placard 2Q:


1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________.
Details we observed on Placard 2R:
1. 3.

2. 4.

One ideal this placard relates to is ______________ because __________________


____________________________________________________________________. 44

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I n f o r m a t i o n M a s t e r 2 B

Writing an Essay About American Ideals Today


Write a five-paragraph essay that answers the following question:
Have Americans lived up to the ideals expressed in the Declaration
of Independence?

Your essay must include the following elements:

An introduction, including
• a hook that creates interest in the topic of your essay.
• a thesis statement that clearly states your perspective on the essay question.

Three body paragraphs that each include


• a topic sentence that clearly states one argument supporting your thesis
statement.
• at least two pieces of evidence (visual details, facts, data, examples, or
quotations) that support the topic sentence. For the first two body paragraphs,
use evidence from Placards 2A through 2R. For the third body paragraph, use
evidence from current events or from your own experience.
• a one- or two-sentence explanation of how each piece of evidence supports
45
the topic sentence or thesis statement.

A conclusion that includes


• a reworded version of your thesis statement.
• a brief summary of your main arguments.

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S t u d e n t H a n d o u t 2 B

Graphic Organizer for a Five-Paragraph Essay


Topic:

Paragraph 1 Hook:
Introduction
Thesis statement:

Paragraph 2 Topic sentence:


Body
Evidence:
Use evidence
found on Explanation:
Placards
2A–2R. Evidence:

Explanation:

Paragraph 3 Topic sentence:


46
Body
Evidence:
Use evidence
found on Explanation:
Placards
2A–2R. Evidence:

Explanation:

Paragraph 4 Topic sentence:


Body
Evidence:
Use evidence
from current Explanation:
events.
Evidence:

Explanation:

Paragraph 5 Reworded thesis:


Conclusion
Summary:

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V i s u a l 2

Draft of the Declaration of Independence

47

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P l a c a r d 2 A

Getting Oriented

48

By 1673, when this map was drawn, European nations had estab-
lished colonies in North America. They wanted colonies to increase
their wealth and power. The people who crossed the Atlantic
Ocean to settle the English colonies came for a wide range of
reasons—religious freedom, escape from debt, the opportunity to
own land, the chance to start a new life. Some, however, did not
come by choice.

1607
Colonial settlement begins in Jamestown, Virginia

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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P l a c a r d 2 B

A Nation and Its Ideals Emerge

49

After defeating the French in North America in 1763, the British started
tightening control over their colonies. The colonists believed these actions
violated their rights. For example, Great Britain raised taxes, limited trade,
and forced colonists to house British soldiers in their homes. In 1770, a
crowd began taunting some of these soldiers with snowballs. The soldiers
fired on the mob and killed five colonists. Known as the Boston Massacre,
this event helped fuel the resistance to British rule that led to the American
Revolution.

1770
The Boston Massacre

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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P l a c a r d 2 C

The Growth of and Challenges to American Ideals

The Granger Collection, New York


50

Less than a century after winning independence from Great Britain, the United
States almost split in two. The Civil War divided the nation because of questions
about states’ rights and equality. In the battle shown here, black Union soldiers
of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment attack Confederate troops at Fort Wagner,
South Carolina, in 1863.

Four months after this battle, President Abraham Lincoln dedicated the military
cemetery at Gettysburg with a renewed commitment to American ideals:

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new
nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created
equal . . . [W]e here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that
this nation shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by
the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.

—Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, 1863

1861–1865
The Civil War

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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P l a c a r d 2 D

Growing Pains and Gains

51

After the Civil War, tens of thousands of people streamed west-


ward to settle the vast American heartland. Many believed it was
America’s “manifest destiny” to occupy North America from the
Atlantic to the Pacific. John Gast painted American Progress in
1872, capturing that spirit. Trains, wagons, farmers, miners, the
telegraph—all moved west in the late 19th century. What was
progress to these pioneers, however, meant the end of the
Indian way of life.

1872
John Gast paints American Progress

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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P l a c a r d 2 E

The Progressive Era

52

In the late 19th century, American cities rapidly progressed with the growth of
industry. Needing more and more workers, factories hired immigrants, and
even children, at low wages. Child labor was one of the problems caused by
industrialization. Many people were outraged by these problems and called for
reform. This photograph shows two girls at work in a textile mill early in the
20th century. Lewis Hine, the social reformer who took this photograph, urged
American industry to change:

Perhaps you are weary of child labor pictures. Well, so are the rest of us, but
we propose to make you and the whole country so sick and tired of the whole
business, that when the time for action comes, child labor pictures will be records
of the past.
—Lewis Hine, 1911

1890–1920
The Progressive Era

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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P l a c a r d 2 F

Building an Empire

53

In this cartoon, Uncle Sam is being fitted for a new suit of clothing. He has
grown very large and is getting larger—a reference to the new territories the
United States was acquiring in the late 19th century. Some Americans believed
the United States should acquire the new territories. Others disagreed. The
tailor is President William McKinley, who generally supported expansion abroad.
The figures on the left want Uncle Sam to go on diet medicine. They think
Uncle Sam is too large already. They are opposed to U.S. expansion.

1867: Alaska acquired


1898: Hawaii annexed; Philippines,
Guam, Puerto Rico acquired

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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World War I

54

In 1914, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and attacked France. The


Allied powers of Europe fought back in what would become World
War I. The United States entered the war in 1917 to support its allies.
This recruiting poster echoes President Woodrow Wilson’s stirring
appeal to American ideals when he explained why the United States
chose to fight:

The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted
upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends
to serve . . . We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind.

—Woodrow Wilson, Declaration of War Address to Congress, 1917

1917–1918
U.S. troops fight in World War I

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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P l a c a r d 2 H

The Twenties

55

The 1920s are often referred to as the Roaring Twenties


because of the economic growth, social changes, and
cultural events that took place during this decade. New
styles of literature, music, dance, and clothing swept the
country. The 1920s also witnessed a flowering of black
culture called the Harlem Renaissance. Bessie Smith,
shown here in the stylish dress of 1923, was the most
famous blues singer of the decade. She was also the
highest paid black entertainer of her time.
1923
Bessie Smith gains national fame singing the blues

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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The Great Depression and the New Deal

56

This woman and her children were impoverished by the


Great Depression, an economic collapse in the 1930s.
The photograph, called “Migrant Mother,” was taken by
Dorothea Lange. Sadly, the woman pictured here was not
alone. Millions of Americans suffered through years of
poverty during the 1930s.

1936
Dorothea Lange photographs “Migrant Mother”

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

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World War II

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The United States entered World War II in 1941 to help defeat the
dictatorships of Germany, Italy, and Japan. The entire nation came
together to fight the war. Any smaller effort might have meant the
end of the American way of life. As part of this effort, American
industry was converted to manufacture weapons, supplies, ships,
tanks, and aircraft.

1941–1945
U.S. troops fight in World War II

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The Early Cold War

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This photograph shows an American transport plane carrying food and supplies
to the war-torn city of Berlin, Germany, in 1948. After World War II, the commu-
nist armies of the Soviet Union attempted to take control of the city through a
blockade. American planes supplied Berlin’s citizens with supplies for more than
a year and broke the blockade. The Berlin Airlift was one of the first incidents in
the decades-long Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
President Harry Truman stated the reasons why the United States should fight
the Cold War:

I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples
who are resisting attempted subjugation [takeover] by armed minorities or by
outside pressures.

I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their
own way.
—Harry Truman, March 12, 1947

1948–1949
The Berlin Airlift

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The Fifties

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The growth of suburbs like this one symbolized the economic boom that
the United States experienced after World War II. During the war, Americans
had saved more than $100 billion. In the 1950s, they spent that money on
new homes, cars, and televisions. The boom created jobs and opportunities
for millions.

1950s
Economic Boom

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The Civil Rights Movement

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This photograph was taken in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, at the


height of the African American civil rights movement for equal rights.
Images like this one alerted the nation to racial injustice in the United
States. Civil rights leader Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. was jailed in
Birmingham for nonviolent protest. Below is an excerpt from a letter he
wrote while in jail.

Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for


freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the
American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of
freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained.

—Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from a Birmingham Jail, 1963

1963
Birmingham demonstrations

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The Sixties

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During the 1960s, some American youth had a very free-spirited


attitude. These young people expressed their disappointment in the
traditional ways of life through their clothing, music, food, and even
transportation, such as the painted bus shown here.

1969
Woodstock music festival held

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The Vietnam War

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Etched on the polished black granite of the Vietnam War Memorial in


Washington, D.C., are the names of the more than 58,000 Americans who
died or went missing during the war. The Vietnam War divided the nation more
than any war since the Civil War. Some Americans believed the United States
had to block the spread of communism in South Vietnam. Others believed the
United States was propping up an undemocratic government to protect its own
power and reputation. Lyndon Johnson, one of six presidents to deal with
armed conflict in Vietnam, explained why he was committed to the war:

We fight because we must fight if we are to live in a world where every country
can shape its own destiny. And only in such a world will our own freedom be
finally secure.

—Lyndon Johnson, Address at Johns Hopkins University, 1965

1973
U.S. signs peace treaty
1965
First U.S. combat troops land at Da Nang

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The Seventies

The Fourth of July had special meaning in 1976. Not only was it the bicen-
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tennial (200th anniversary) of the signing of the Declaration of Independence,
but it was also a time to celebrate the wisdom of the Founding Fathers in
building a democratic government that could withstand the massive chal-
lenges the nation endured in the 1970s—political scandal, military defeat,
and an energy crisis. In this photograph, a float of patriotic symbols takes
part in the Bicentennial Parade in Washington, D.C.

In his Bicentennial Address at Philadelphia’s Independence Hall, President


Gerald Ford explained the importance of that day:

Each generation of Americans . . . must strive to achieve these aspirations


anew. Liberty is a living flame to be fed, not dead ashes to be revered . . .

It is fitting that we ask ourselves hard questions even on a glorious day like
today. Are the institutions under which we live working the way they should?
Are the foundations laid in 1776 and 1789 still strong enough and sound enough
to resist the tremors of our times? Are our God-given rights secure, our hard-
won liberties protected?

—Gerald Ford, Bicentennial Address, July 4, 1976

1776 1976
Declaration of Independence Bicentennial

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The Reagan Revolution

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Ronald Reagan became president in 1981 and set out to make


government smaller by cutting taxes and encouraging individual
responsibility. A former actor, President Reagan was an inspiring
speaker.

History is a ribbon, always unfurling . . . Now we hear . . . the


echoes of our past: a general falls to his knees in the hard snow of
Valley Forge; a lonely president paces the darkened halls, and pon-
ders his struggle to preserve the Union; the men of the Alamo call
out encouragement to each other; a settler pushes west and sings
a song, and the song echoes out forever and fills the unknowing air.

It is the American sound. It is hopeful, big-hearted, idealistic,


daring, decent, and fair. That’s our heritage; that is our song.

—Ronald Reagan, Second Inaugural Address, 1985

1981–1989
Ronald Reagan’s presidency

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Framing the Present

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This view of the New York City skyline includes the Statue of
Liberty and two bright pillars of light representing the World Trade
Center buildings, which terrorists destroyed in 2001. On the day
of the attack, President George W. Bush spoke to the nation:

Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest


buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America.

America was targeted for attack because we’re the brightest


beacon for freedom and opportunity in the world. And no one
will keep that light from shining.

—George W. Bush, Address to the Nation, September 11, 2001

2001
Terrorist attacks destroy the World Trade Center

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