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Giao Trinh Quan Ly Du an Dau Tu - Quyen 1

Giao Trinh Quan Ly Du an Dau Tu - Quyen 1

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TBtfONG BoP B~ KINH TE QIJOC DAN BQ MON KINH TE DAU Ttl

Chu bien: TS. TV QUANG PHUONG

, ...

GIAOTRINB

QOA" LY Dq A" DAO ru

NHA. XUAT BAN LAO DONG - xA HQI HA NQI- 2005

Phat trie'n nen kinh tt thi truimg nhieu thanh. ph/in. theo dinh. hztang xii hQi ehu nghia, co sl! qtuin Iy eua Nha nuitc if nztdc ta, doi hoi mot Slf dOL mdi manli me d nhieu. linli vue, trong d6 c6 linli uuc quan. Iy hoat ai)ng aau tu. Quan Iy ctau tu thea dlj an la mi)t yeu c6u rat quan trong. Nang cao hieu qua adu tu, ca tren phuang dieti tai chinh ciing nliu hieu qua kinh te' - xii h(Ji, doi hoi phdi qudn [y tot qua trinh dau tu baa g(s'm trit cd cdc giai doan tit nghien cuu co hi)i ddu tu den giai doan. odn. hanh. cdc ket qua adu tu: Vc,iy, quart Ij ddu tzt thea du an la st. ni)i dung va cdc phucng phap qudn. Iy d1f an adu ut ra sao ... la nhiing udn. d~ dztqc If giai va trinli bay mot each khoa h9C trong Gido trinh "Quan If di: an ctdu tu".

. Di aap ung yeu cau quan Ij aau tzt trong nfn kinh te: man hoc "Qudn Iy dl/ an elau tun da ra ddi vii duoc guing day tit niini 1996 den nay cho cae h~ dai h9C chink quy, tai cluic, h~ crip bdng dai h9C thu hai, cao h9C ... thuQc chuyen nganh. Kinh te: Bau tu va m9t srI ngdnh kinh doanh tai Trueing Dgi h9C Kink tt QUQe dan. Cung vdi qua trinh. giang dr;ty, mon. hoc ngay cang aU<;IC hoan. thien. va auqc ddnh. gici Ia nit can thitt va bo'ich phuc Vl! vi~c qudn. If hieu. qua aau tu.

Giao trinh "Qudn If du an dau tu" la mot trong nhiing giao trinh chinh dung lam tai lieu giang day cho sinh uien. ch.uyen nganh. Kinh te' elau tu tai Truimg Dai h9C Kinh te' Quae dan. Ben canli nhftng guio trinh dii xtuit ban nhic Kinh tt elau tu, Liip du an aau tll va mot so'mon h9C b6 ire hhric nhu Thdm dinh. d¢ an aau tu, Bau thdu ... thi gido trinh. Quan lj dlj an dau tu la slj ke'tiep logic, khaa hoc nhitng kien

thitc lien quan den dc1u tu dd trinh bay trong nhilng man h9C nay.

Gitio trinh Quan [y dIj an dau tu dlifjC sit dung lam tai [i~u giang dg,y eua gido uien. va h9C tap cho sinh oien. ch.uyert nganh. Kinh tt nau tu va cdc ch.uyen. nganli Qudn tri kinh doanh cua Truimg Dai h9C Kinh tt Quae dan. Guio trinh la tai li~u tham khdo cho gido uien, nghien cuu sinh, thuc t¢p sinh cdc chuyen. nganli kinh tt va qudn tri kinh doanh, cho can bg qudn ly kink tt va qudn tri doanh. nghiep d cdc cd quan qudn. [y va kink doanh.

B9 man Kinh tel fJau tu xin chan thanh. cam dn cdc anh (chi) dang nghiep, cdc nha khoa hoc va qudn [yeta co nhilng gop j quj btiu ve' noi dung gido trinh. Tuy nhien, ady la man hoc mdi duoc xay dung, gicio trinh 19,i auqc bien socn lan ctau nen. kh6ng trdnh. khoi nhftng thieu. sot. B9 man mong mu(s'n tiep tuc nhtin. duoc va chan thanh. cam on nhftng gop y va be/ sung cua ban. doc dlgiao trinh dU{1c hoan thien hitn.

,,~ ... l A:-

BQ MON KlNH TE DAU TV'

CHUONG 1

.' _."

TONG Q(JfiN VE QOfiH LY

DII AN ORO TU

Trang nhung nam gAn day khai niem "du an" tro nen than quen d6i vdi cac nha quan 1y cac cap. Co nIt nhieu heat dqng trong t6 chirc, co quan, doanh nghiep ducc thuc hien thea hmh thuc du an. Phuong phap quan 1y du an cang tro nen quan trong ya nhan duoc s1;i chu y ngay cang tang trong xii hoi. Dieu nay mQt phan do tAm quan trong cua dl;i an trong viec thuc hien cac ke' hoach phat tri€n kinh te, san xuat kinh doanh va doi song xli hoi, Do vay, can thie't phai xa~ dinh ro quan ly du an 18. gi, nc)i dung cua quan If du an ra sao va no khac voi cac phuong phap quan ly khac the' nao. Chuong nay se ttjl.p trung giai quye't nhirng cau hoi tren.

1. KHAI NI~M DT! AN vA QUAN LY nlj AN

1. Kh6i ni~m dV 6n

Co nhieu each dinh n&?Ia du an. Tuy thea muc dfch rna nhan manh mot khia canh nao do. Tren phuong dien phat tri~n! co hai each hi~u ve du an: each hi~u "tinh" va each hi~u "dong". Thea each hi~u "tinh'' thi du an la hinh tuong ve mot tinh huang (mot trang thai) rna ta muon dat toi, Thea each hi~u thu hai "dong" co th~ dinh nghia du an nhu sau:

Thea nghia chung nh/it, dlj an la mot linb. uuc hoat d(Jng diic thu, ml)t nhiem. u~ cdn pluii duoc thuc hien. vdi phlidng pluip rieng, nguon luc rieng va thea m(Jt ke' hoacli titn d(J nhdm t(LO ra rruit thuc thi rruti.

Nhu vay, theo dinh nghia nay thi: (1) Du an kh6ng chi 1a mot y dinh phac thao rna e6 tinh cu th€ va muc tieu xac dinh: (2) Du an kh6ng phai 13. ffi9t nghien ctru triru tuong rna tao nen mot thuc th€ mdi,

Tren phucng dien quan ly, co th~ dinh nghia dl,i an nhu

sau:

DzJ an la nhiing n6ll/c c6 thai han. nham tao ra mgt san phdm hoiic dicli v¥ duy nhdt.

Dinh nghia nay nhan manh hai dac tfnh: (1) N6 luc tarn thai (hay co th(ji han). Nghia la, moi du an dAu ttl deu c6 di~m bAt dAu va ke't thuc xac dinh, Du an ket thuc khi muc tieu cua du an eta dat duoc hoac du an bi loai bo; (2) San ph Am hoac dich vu duy nhfit. San ph&m hoac dich vu duy nhE(t 1a san pharn hoac dich vu khac biet so voi nhimg san pham tuong tv: da co hoac du an khac,

Tit nhimg dinh nghia khac nhau co th~ rut ra mot so d<}c trung co ban cua du an nhu sau:

- DzJ an c6 m¥c dich, ket qua xac dinh, Tat cac cac du an deu phai c6 k€t qua duoc xac dinh ro. Ket qua nay co th~ la met toa nha, mQt day chuyen san xU/it hien dai hay Ia chien thang cua mQt chien dich van dQng tranh c\.t vao mot vi

tri chinh trio M6i du an lai bao g6m ffiQt t~p hop nhieu nhiem vu cAn dttQc thuc hien, M6i nhiem vu cu th~ lai co mot ke't qua rieng, dqc l~p. Tap hop cac ke't qua cu th~ ciia cac nhiern vu hinh thanh nen kat qua chung cua du an. Noi each khac, du an la mi)t h~ thong phuc tap, duoc phan chia thanh nhieu h9 phan, phan h~ khac nhau d~ thuc hien va quan 19" nhung d~u phai thong nha't dam baa cac muc tieu chung ve thoi gian, chi phi va viec hoan thanh voi chat lucng cao.

~ D¢ an eo chu ki pluit trie'n rieng va co thiti gian t6n tai hftu han, Du an Iii met su sang tao. Giong nhu cac thuc th~ s5ng, du an cling trai qua cac giai dean: hinh thanh, ph at tri~n, co thdi di8rn b:it d§.u va ke't thiic ... Du an khong keo dai mai mai. Khi du an kat thuc, ke't qua du an duqe chuyen giao cho bQ phan quan ly van hanh, nh6m quan hi du an giai tan.

~ San pluim. eua dTj an mang tinh. chat adn chitc, a9c ddo (nuti 1(1). Khac vdi qua trinh san xuat lien tuc va gian doan, kat qua cua du an khong phai Iii san pharn san xuat hang loat, rna c6 tinh khac biet cao. San pham va dich vu do du an dem lai Iii duy nhat, hftu nhu kh6ng li;l.P Iai nhu Kim tv thap b Ai C?P hay de chan Hi Song Thames d London. Tuy nhien, b nhieu du an khac, tinh duy nhat it ro rang hen va bi che d~y bdi tfnh tuong tv gifra chung, Nhung dieu khang dinh lit chung vAn co thi~~ ke khac nhau, vi trf khac, khach hang khac ... Dieu fly Cling t00 nen net duy nhat, dQc dao, mdi 10 cua du an.

~ DlJ an lien quan den nhieu ben va co slJ tuang tdc phuc tap giila cdc b9 pluin qudn ly chile nang vdi qudn If dlj an. Du

an nao cimg co su tham gia cua nhieu ben huu quan nhu chu d&u hi, ngu'di huong thu d\1 an, cac nha hi van, nha thau, cac co quan quan 1y nha nude. Tuy thea tfnh chat ella dv an va yeu c&u cua chu d~u tu rna su tham gia cua cac thanh phan tren ding khac nhau. Giua cac bt) phan quan Iy chuc nang va b9 phan quan ly du an thuong xuyen co quan h~ vdi nhau va cling phoi hop thuc hien nhiem vu nhung muc dq tham gia ella cac bQ phan khong giong nhau. D§ th1,1C hien thanh cong muc tisu cua du an, cac nha quan Ii du an can duy tri thuong xuyen moi quan h~ vdi cac bo phan quan ly khac.

- M6i truitng hoat a9ng "ua cham". Quan h~ giUa cac du an 13. quan h~ chia nhau cung ffit)t nguon luc khan hiem cua t6 chue. D\1 an "canh tranh" IAn nhau va vdi die hoat dQng t6 chuc san xuat khac ve tien von, nhan Iuc, thiet hi ... Trong quan ly, nhieu trucng h9P, cac thanh vien ban quan ly dt;! an lai co "hai thu trufmg" nen kh6ng biet phai thuc hien menh lenh cua cap tren true tiep nao neu hai lenh lai mau thujin nhau ... Do do, moi truong quan 1y du an co nhieu quan h~ phuc tap nhung nang dqug.

- Tinh b({t dinli va ac} rui ro cao. Hau het cac dlj an doi hoi qui rna tign von, V?t tv va lao dQng rat IOn <if thuc hien trong mot khoang thoi gian nhat dinh. M?t khac, thui gian d:iu tu va van hanh keo dai nen cac du an dftu hi phat trifn thuong eo dq rui ro cao.

2. Quan Iy dl;f 6n

Phuong phap quan 19" du an Mn dAu duoc ap dung trong llnh vtf.c quan stf. ella My VaG nhirng narn 50 cua the ky

(.

20, den nay no nhanh chong duoc ung dung rQng rai van cac llnh V\1c kinh te, qu6c phong va xa hQi. Co hai luc ludng co ban thuc dtly su phat trien manh me cua phuong phap quan ly du an Ia: (1) nhu cau ngay cang tang v~ nhung hang hoa va dich V\1- san xuat phuc tap, chat lucng cao trong khi khach hang cang "kho tinh"; (2) kien thuc cua con nguoi (hi~u biet tu nhien, xii hoi, kinh te, ky thuat. .. ) ngay cang tang.

Quan li du an In qua trinli lap he' hooch, dieu. pho" thiti gian, nguon luc va giam sat qua trinh phiit trien. eua du an nh&ni dam baa cho du an hoan thanli clung thai han, trong pham vi ngtiti sach. duoc duy¢t va dat duac cac yeu. cdu dii

. dinh. ve' kj tluuit va chdt ll1cjng san pluim dich. V1,l, b&ng nhiing phuaru; phdp va clie'u ki¢n tot nluit cho phep.

Qwin ly du an bao gam ba giai doan chu yeu. Do la viec lap ke hoach, dieu phoi thuc hien rna noi dung chu yeu la quan Iy tien d(l thoi gian, chi phi va thuc hien giam sat cac cong viec du an nham dat duoc nhimg muc tieu xac dinh.

L¢p hi hooch, Day la giai dean xay dung muc tieu, xac dinh cong viec, du tinh nguon luc c<in thiet d~ thuc hien du an va la qua trinh phat tri~n mQt ke hoach hanh dong thong nhat, thea trinh tt;t logic, co th~ bi~u di~n dudi dang cae so do h~ thong hoac thea cac phuong ~hap l$.p ke hoach truyen thong,

ou: pho" thuc hien. dlj an. Day la qua trinh phan ph5i ngudn luc bao gam tign von, lao dong, thiet bi va dac biet quan trong la digu phfii va quan ly tien dQ thci gian. Giai doan nay chi tiet hoa thoi gian, I~p lich trinh cho tung cong

viec va toan hI} du an (khi nao btit dau, khi nao ket thuc), tren co s6 do, bo tri tieri von, nhan luc va thiet bi phil hop.

- Guim. sat 13. qua trinh thea doi kiSm tra tien trinh du an, phan tich tinh hinh thuc hien, bao cao hien trang va de xuat bien phap giai quyet nhung vudng m&c trong qua trinh thuc hien. Cling vdi hoat dQng giam sat, cong tac danh gia du an giira ky va cuoi ky cung duqc thuc hien nham t6'ng ke't nit kinh nghiern, kien nghi cac pha sau cua du an.

Cac giai doan cua qua trinh quan Iy du an hinh thanh mi)t chu trinh nang d9ng til viec lap ke hoach den dieu phoi thuc hien va giarn sat; sau d6 phan h5i cho viec tai lap ke hoach dlj an nhu trinh bay trong hinh l.1.

Lap k€hoach

• 'I'hiet l?p muc tieu

• Du tinh ngudn luc

• Xay dung ke hoach

Giam sat

• Do htdng ket qua

• So sanh vdi muc tieu

• Bao cao

• Giai quyet cac van d~

Dietl ph6i thac hien

• B6 tri tien dQ thoi gian

• Phan phoi ngudn luc

• Ph6i hop cac hoa t d!)ng

• Khuyen khich dQng vien

Hinh 1.1. Chu trinh qutin. If du an

.

Muc lieu cua qudn l.v du an

M\1c tieu co ban cua quan ly dl,f an noi chung hi hoan thanh cac cong viec dv an thea dung YEm cAu ky thuat va chat Iuong, trong pharn vi ngan sach duoc duyet va thea tien dQ thdi gian eho phep. Ve mat toan hoc, ba muc tieu nay lien quan chat che vdi nhau va co th~ bieu dien theo cong thuc sau:

C = f(P,T,S)

Trong do: C: Chi phi

P: Muc d<) hoan thanh cong viec (ket qua) T: Yeu to thoi gian

S: Pharn vi dV an

Phuong trinh tren cho thay, chi phi 13. mot ham cua cac yeti to: rmrc dq hoan thanh cong viec, thoi gian thuc hien va pham vi du an. N6i chung, chi phi cua du an tang len khi chat luong hoan thien cong viec tot hen, thoi gian keo dai them va pham vi du an duoc rnd rt)ng. Neu thoi gian thuc hien du an hi keo dai, g?P trucng' hop gia nguyen vat li~u tang cao se phat sinh tang chi phi mot so' khoan muc nguyen vat lieu. Mat khac, thoi gian keo dai dAn den tinh trang lam viec kern hieu qua do cong rihan met moi, do cho dci va thoi gian may chet tang thea ... lam phat sinh tang mot so khoan muc chi phi. Thoi gian thuc hien du an keo dai, chi phi IAi yay ngan hang, chi phi gian tiep cho bq phan (chi phi heat dt)ng cua van phong du an) tang thea thai gian va nhieu

truong hop, phat sinh tang khoan ti&n phat do khong hoan thanh dung tien d(> ghi trong hop d6ng.

Ba yeu to': thoi gian, chi phi va muc dQ hoan thien cong viec co quan h~ chat che vdi nhau. T:im quan trong cua tung muc tieu co th~ khac nhau giua cac du an, giua cac thoi ki d6i vdi cling mQt du an, nhung noi chung, dat duoc k€t qua tOt d6i vdi muc tieu nay thuong phai "hi sinh" mot hoac hai muc tieu kia. Trong qua trinh quan ly du an thuong dien ra hoat dQng danh d6i muc tieu. Danh d6i muc tieu du an la viec hy sinh rnfit muc tieu nao do d4 thuc hien t6t hon muc tieu kia trong dieu kien thoi gian va kh6ng gian cho phep, nham thuc hien t6t nhat tat ca. cac muc tieu dai han cua qua trinh quan ly du an. Neu cong viec du an dien ra theo dung ke hoach thi khong phai danh d6i muc tieu. Tuy nhien, ke hoach thuc thi cong viec du an thuong co nhirng thay d6i do nhieu nguyen nhan khach quan va chu quan khac nhau nen danh d6i la mot kg nang quan trong cua nha quan ly du an. Vi~c danh d6'i muc tieu di~n ra trong suot qua trinh quan ly, tu khi b~t dfiu de'n khi ket thuc du an. 6 mc31 giai dean cua qua trinh quan ly du an, co th~ mot muc tieu nao do trd thanh yeu t6 quan trong nhat c:1n phai tuan thu, trong khi cac muc tieu khac co th~ thay d6'i, do do, viec danh d6'i -muc tieu d&u co anh hirong den ket qua thuc hien cac muc tieu khac,

Danh d5i muc tieu phai luon dua tren cac dieu kien hay cac rang buoc nhat dinh. Bang 1.1. trinh bay cac tinh hu6ng danh d6i. Tinh huong A va B Ia nhung tinh huong

danh d6i thuong g~p trong quan ly du an. Theo tinh huong A, tai mt}t thai di~m chi co mt}t trong ba muc tieu c6 dinh, trong tinh hu6ng B, co hai muc tieu co dinhcon cac muc tieu khac thay d6i. Tinh huong C 121. truong hop tuyet doi. Ca ba muc tieu deu co dinh nen kh6ng 'th~ danh d6i hoac ca ba muc tieu cung thay d6i nen ciing kh6ng can phai danh d6i.

Loai tinh Ky Thai Hoan
huong hi~u gian Chi phi thi~n
Al Co dinh Thay d6i Thay d6i
A2 Thay deli CO'dinh Thay d6i
A A3 Thay d6i Thay deli Co dinh
Bl C6 dinh Co dinh Thay d6i
B B2 C6 dinh Thay d6i C6 dinh
B3 Thay d6i Co dinh C6 dinh
C CI CO'dinh CO" dinh Co dinh
C2 Thay d5i Thay d6i Thay deli Bang 1.1. Cae tinh hucfng danh. dili

Trang qua trinh quan ly du an, cac nha quan 1y mong muon dat duoc mqt each tot nhat tat ca cac rnuc tieu d$.t ra. Tuy nhien, thuc te' kh6ng don gian, Du phai danh d6i hay khong danh d6i five tieu, cac nha quan 1y hy vong dat duoc s\l ket hop tot nh8't giua cac muc tieu cua quan 1y du an nhu th~ hien trong hinh 1.2.

Hinh 1.2. Ma'i quan h~ giita ba muc tieu: thiti gian, chi phi va ket qua

Cung vdi su phat tri~n va yeu c1lu ngay cang cao dOl vdi heat dQng quan If du an, muc tieu cua quan If du an cung thay d5i thea chieu huang gia tang vg hrong va thay d6i vg chat. TU ba muc tieu ban dau (hay tam giac rnuc tieu) vdi st;l tham gia cua cac chu th~ g6m chii dAu tu, nha thau va nha tu van dB. duoc phat tri~n thanh tu giac, ngii giac muc tieu vdi su tham gia qun If cua Nha nude nhu th~ hien trong hinh 1.3.

Chat IUQng

Chat ItlQng

Chi phi

• Chu dau ttl

• Nha thau

• NM ur van

• Nha ntldc

ThCJi gian

• Chu dau ttl

• Nha thau

• Nha ttl van

• Nha n110C

Chi phi

ThCJi gian An toan An toan V$ sinh

Hinh 1.B. Qua trinh pluit trie"n ella cac muc tieu qusin ly dl! an

3. Tac dVng CliO quon 1'1 dV an

• M~c du phuong phap quan 1y du an doi hoi 8\1' nti luc, tinh t*-p th€ va yeu c:iu hop tac, nhung tac dung cua no r<lt IOn. Phuong phap quan Iy du an c6 nhirng tac dung chu yeu sau day:

• Lien ket tat ca cac heat dqng, cac cong viee cua du an.

• Tao dieu kien thuan IQi eho viee HEm h~ thuong xuyen, g.1n b6 giua nhorn quan ly d\i an voi khach hang va cac nha cung dip dAu VaG cho du an.

• Tang cuong 8\1 hop tac giua cac thanh vien va chi r6 trach nhiem cua cac thanh vien tham gia du an.

• Tao dieu kien phat hien sam nhung kh6 khan vuong m.1c nay sinh va dieu chinh kip thoi trtrdc nhimg thay d6'i hoac dieu ki~n khong du doan duoc, T~G diE1u kien cho viec dam phan true tiep giira cac ben lien quan d~ gia i quyet nhimg bat dong.

• Tao ra san phAm va dich vu co chat luong cao hen. Tuy nhien, phuong phap quan ly du an cfmg co mat han ehe cua no. Nhung mau thuan do cung chia nhau mot

"

ngudn l\ic cua don vi; quyen luc va trach nhiern cua nha quan 19 dV an trong m9t s5 truong hop kh6ng ducc thuc hien dfty du; van de hau (hay "benh") cua dv an 13. nhirng nhuoc di€m c:1n duoc khac phuc d6i vdi phuong phap quan IS' du an.

II. NQI DUNG eVA QuAN LY DV AN

1. Quan Iy vi mo va quan Iy vi mo doi voi ccc dV an. a) Qucin Ij vi rna do'i vui dlf lin

Quan ly vi mo hay quan ly nha nudc doi vdi du an baa g6m t6ng th~ cac bien phap vi rna tac dQng den cac yeu to' cua qua trinh hinh thanh, thuc hien va ke't thuc du an.

Trang qua trinh tri~n khai du an, Nha nude rna dai dien la cac co quan quan 1y nha nude ve kinh te luon theo doi chat che, dinh huong va chi phoi hoat d9ng cua du an nham dam bao cho du an d6ng g6p tich eve VaG viec phat tri~n kinh te - xa hoi, Nhirng cong C1,1 quan ly vi rna chinh cua Nha nude d~ quan ly du an bao g6rn cac ehinh sach, ke' hoach, quy hoach nhu chinh sach ve tai chinh, tien t$, ty gia, lai suat, chinh. sach d&u ttl, chinh sach thue, h¢ thong luat phap, nhirng quy dinh v€ che' aQ ke'toan, bao hi&m, tien luong ...

b) Qucin ly vi rno do'i vui hoqt d9ng dlf an

QUEm ly du an d tAm vi rna la quan 1y cac hoat dQng C\1 th~ cua du an. N6 bao g6m nhieu khau cong vi¢c nhu l~p ke hoach, dieu phoi, kicfm soat ... cac hoat d{)ng cua du an, Quan 1y du an bao g6m hang loat van de nhu quan ly thoi gian, chi phi, ngutin von dflu tu, rui TO;' quan Iy hoat dqng mua ban ... Qua trinh quan ly duoc thuc hien trong su6t cac giai doan tir chuan hi dAu tu den giai doan van hanh cac ket qua cua du an. Trang tung giai dean, tuy doi tuong quan ly cu th~ c6 khac nhau nhung deu phai gAn vdi ba muc tieu co ban cua

heat d¢ng quan 1y du an 18.: thdi gian, chi phi va ket qua hoan thanh.

2. Linh v'Jc qucn Iy dV an

Thea dBi tuong quan ly, quan 1y du an bao gom cac noi dung nhu trong bang 1.2. Quan ly d1,1 an baa g6m chin lmh vue chinh can duoc xern xet, nghien cuu (theo Vicn Nghien cuu Quan tri D1,1 an Quae te - PMI) la:

M Liip he' hooch. tflng quan. Lap ke hoach tSng quan cho du an Ia qua trinh tS chirc du an thea mot trinh tt.i logic, Ia viec chi tiet hoa cac ID\lC tieu cua dt! an thanh nhirng cong viec cu th~ va hoach dinh mdt chuong trinh thuc hien nhirng

.cong viec d6 nharn dam bao cac Iinh vue quan ly khac nhau cua du a~ da dUQc ket hep mQt each chinh xac va d&y duo

M Quan ly phgm vi. Quan ly pham vi du an la viec xac dinh, .giam sat viec thuc hien muc dich, muc tieu cua du an, xac dinh cong viec nao thuoc ve du an va c&n phai thuc hien, cong viec nao narn ngoai pham vi cua du an.

M Quan lj tha! gian. Quan ly thci gian la viec lap ke' hoach, phan phBi va giarn sat tie'n d(J thci gian nham dam bao thoi han hoan thanh d\1 an. No chi ro mBi cong viec phai keo dai bao Iau, khi nao bAt dau, khi nao ket thuc va toan hi? du an baa gio se hoan thanh. 0,

M Quan lj chi phi. QUEm Ii chi phi cua du an la qua trinh d1;L toan kinh phi, giam sat thuc hien chi phi thea tien dQ cho tung cong viec va toan bQ du an, 1ft viec tt5 chuc, phan tfch so Iieu va bao CaG nhirng thong tin ve chi phi.

- Qulin ly chfit lu{ing. Quan 15' chat, luong du an la qua trinh trien khai giam sat nhirng tieu chuan chat luong cho viec thuc hien du an, dam bao chat luong san pharn du an phai clap ung mong muon cua chu dftu tu.

- Quan ly nhiin luc. Quim 15' nh an luc la viec huang d&n, phoi hop nhfing no luc cua moi tha nh vien tham gia du an VaG viec hoan th anh muc tieu du an. N6 cho thay viec su dung Iuc luong lao d9ng cua du an hieu qua de'n muc nao?

- Qulin ly thong tin. Quan ly thong tin la qua trinh dam bao cac dong thong tin thong suot mot each nhanh nhat va chinh xac giua cac thanh vien du an va vdi cac cap quan 15' khac nhau. Thong qua quan ly thong tin c6 th~ tra lei 3 cau hoi: ai can thong tin v~ du an? muc d9 chi tie't va cac nha quan ly du an d.n bao cao cho ho bang each nao?

- Quan ly rui roo Quan ly rui ro la viec nhan dien cac nhan to' rui ro cua du an, luong hoa mire d9 rui ro va c6 ke hoach dai ph6 ding nhu quan ly tung loai rui roo

. Qulin lj hap d6ng va hoqt df)ng mua ban. Quan ly hop d6ng va heat dong mua ban cua du an la qua trinh lua chon nha cung cap hang hoa va dich vu, thuong hrong, quan 15' cac hop d6ng va dieu hanh viec-rnua ban nguyen vat lieu, trang thi€t bi, dich vu ... can thiet cho du an. Qua trinh quan ly nay nham giai quyet van d~: bang each nao du an nhan duoc hang hoa va dich vu cftn thiet cua cac t6 chuc ben ngoai? tien d9 cung, chat luong cung ra sao?

l~p ke hoach tong
quan
• L~p ke noacn
• Thuc hi$n ke
ho~ch
• Quan Iy nhung
thaydoi
1
Quan Iy chi phi
• L~p ke hoach
ngu6n(l,fc
• Tinh toan chi phf
• L~p du toan
• Ouan Iy chi phi
I
Quan Iy thong tin
• L~p ke hoach
quan Iy th6ng tin
• Xay dlfl1g kenh
va phan ph6i
thong tin
• BaD CaD tien d~ Quan Ij pham vi
• xac dinh pham vi
dl! an
• L~p ke hoach
pharn vi
• Quim Iy thay doi
jl_ham vi
I
Quan Iy chat hlc;tng
• L~p ke hoach chat
Illqng
• Dam bao chat
luqng
• Quan Iy chat luqng
I
Quan Iy heat d{mg
cung ling, mua bim
• Ke hoach cung
(rng
• Lua chon nM
cung, t6 chec dau
thau,
• Quan Iy hqp dong,
tien do cung (rng Quan Ij thai gian
• Xac dinh cong
viec
• Dlf Ifnh thai gian
• Quan Iy tien d¢
I
Quan Iy nhan Illc
• L~p ke hoach
nhan Ilfc, tien
luang
• Tuy~n dyng, dao
t':1O
• Phat tden nh6m
I
Quan Iy rui ro dl,f an
• Xac dinh rui ro
• Danh gia rmrc dt?
. ,
nn ro
• Xay dl,Jng chuang
trinh quan Iy rvi
ro dau lu Bang 1.2. Cae linh cue eua qtuin. If du an

. .

3. Quan Iy theo chu ky cue dV 6n

Dl,1 an Ia mot thuc th.~ thong nhat, thci gian thuc hien dai va co d9 bat dinh nhat dinh nen cac t6' chirc, don vi thuong chia du an thanh mot s6 giai doan d€ quan 1y thuc hien. M6i giai doan duoc danh dau bdi viec thuc hien mQt hoac nhieu cong viec, T6'ng hop cac giai dean nay duoc goi la chu ky cua du an, Chu ky cit! an xac dinh thdi di~m b.1t dau,

thai di~m ket thuc va thai han thuc hien du an. Chu ky du an xac dinh nhung cong viec nao se duoc thuc hien trong tirng pha va ai se tham gia thuc hien. N6 cimg chi ra nhimg cong viec nao con lai a giai dO?B cuai se thuoc ve va khong thuoc ve pharn vi du Em. Thong qua chu ky du an c6 th~ nhan thay met so dac di~m: Thz:t nh/it, muc chi phi va yeu c:1u nhan luc thuong la thap khi mdi biit dftu du an, tang cao hon VaG thai ky phat tri~n, nhung giam nhanh chong khi du an budc vao giai doan ket thuc. Thz:t hai, xac suat hoan thanh du an thanh cong thap nhat va do do dt? rui ro la cao nhat khi b:it dftu thuc hien du an. Xac suat thanh cong se cao hon khi du an budc qua cac pha sau. Tiui ba, kha nang anh huong clla chu dftu tu tai d~c tinh cuoi cung cua san pharn du an va do do toi chi phi 1a cao nhat VaG th(ji ky bat dau va giam manh khi du an dtiQc tiep tuc trong cac pha sau.

Tuy theo muc dich nghisn ciru, co th~ ph an chia chu ky du an thanh nhieu giai doan khac nhau. Chu ky cua met du an" san xuat cong nghiep thong thuong duoc chia thanh 4 giai doan nhu da trinh bay trong hinh 1.4.

Xay dl!f1Q Giai dean Giai doan Giai dean

y tuang pMt tri~n tri~n khai k~t thuc

Hinh 1.4. Cae giai doon eua chu ky dl! an

Giai doqn x<iy dung y tUdng

Xay dung y tUdng du an 13. viec xac dinh birc tranh toan canh ve muc tieu, ket qua cu6i cling va phuong phap thuc hien ket qua d6. Xay dung y tUdng du an duoc bAt dAu ngay khi du an bat dau hinh thanh. Tap hop so lieu, xac dinh nhu cau, danh gia d9 rui ro, du tfnh nguon luc, so sanh lua chon du an ... lao nhung cong viee duoc tri~n khai va cAn duoc quan ly trong giai doan nay. Quyet dinh chon Iva du an la nhirng quyet dinh chien luoc dua tren muc dich, nhu cau va cac muc tieu lau dai cua tfi chuc, doanh nghiep. Trong giai doan nay, nhung n9i dung duoc xet den la muc dich yeu cau cua du an, tinh kha thi, IQi nhuan tiem nang, muc d9 chi phi, de? rui ro va uoc tinh ngudn luc can thiet. Dong thdi cimg can lam ro hen nfia y tudng du an bilng each phac thao nhfing ket qua va phuong phap thuc hien trong dieu kien han che' ve ngudn IVc. Phat tri8n y tudng du an kh6ng can thiet phai IUQng hoa het bhng cac chi tieu nhung n6 phai ng~n gon, duoc dien dat tren co sa thuc teo

Trong nhieu t6' chuc va doanh nghiep, d{ic biet 0 giai doan nay, du an duoc quan ly bdi nhfmg ngiroi co nhiern vu, chuc nang khac nhau. Ho la nhtmg nguoi biet quan ly du an, co du thdi gian va sue luc d~ quan ly du an trong khi v§.n lam t6t cac nhiern vu khac cua minh.

Giai doqn. philt trie"n

Giai doan phat tri€n la giai doan chi tie't xern du an can diroc thuc hien nhu the nao rna n<)i dung chu ye'u cua no tap trung VaG cong tac thie't ke va l~p ke' hoach, Day la giai doan

chua dung nhfing cong viec phuc tap nhat cua mot du an. Noi dung cua giai doan nay bao g6m nhung cong viec nhu sau:

• Thanh I~p nh6m d1;t an, xac dinh cau true t6 chuc d1;l an.

• Lap ke hoach t6ng quan.

• Phan tieh cong viec ella du an.

• Lap ke hoach tien d9 thdi gian.

• L~p ke hoach ngan sach,

• Thiet ke san pham va quy trinh san xuat.

• Lap ke hoach nguon luc can thiet,

• Lap ke hoach chi phi va du bao dong ti&n thu.

• Xin ph€! chuan thuc hien.

Ket thuc giai doan nay, tien trinh thuc hien du an eo th~ duoc biit d~u. Thanh cong cua du an phu thuoc kha Idn VaG chat luong va su chutin hi ky ludng cua cac ke hoach trong giai doan nay.

Giai doon th,!c hi~n

Giai dean thuc hien la giai doan quan Iy du an haa g6m cac cong viec cAn thuc hien nhu viec xay dung nha xudng va cong trinh, lua chon cong C\!, mua sam thiet bi va l.lp d$,t ... Day 13. giai doan chiern nhieu thoi gian va no luc nhat. Nhimg van dg cAn xem xet trong giai doan nay 13. nhirng yeu cau ky thuat cu th~, van dg so sanh, danh gia lua chon cbng C\!, thiet bi, ky thuat l.lp rap, mua thiet hi chinh.

Ket thtic giai doan nay, cac h~ thong duoc xay dung va ki~m dinh, day chuyen san xufft duoc van hanh.

Giai doan kit tluu:

Trong giai doan ket thuc cua chu ky du an, din thuc hien nhung cong viec con lai nhu holm thanh san pham, ban giao e6ng trinh va nhimg tai lieu hen quan, danh gia du an, giai ph6ng nguon luc. M9t s6 cong viec cu th~ cftn duoc thuc hien d~ ket thuc du an la:

• Hoan chinh va citt giu ho so lien quan de'n du an.

• Ki~m tra lai s6 sach ke toan, tien hanh ban giao va bao cao.

• Thanh quyet toan tai chinh.

• Dbi vdi san xuitt can chuan bi va ban giao s6 tay huang dftn Hip d~t, cac ban ve chi tiet.

• Ban giao du Em, lity chu ky cua khach hang vg viec holm thanh.

. • Bb tri lai lao d9ng, giai quyet cong an viec lam cho nhimg ngirci timg tham gia du an.

• Giai ph6ng va bb tri lai thiet hi.

III. DOl Tu'QNG vA PHudNG PHAp NGHIEN CUu ellA MONHQC

1. Doi tu'<1ng nghien ctru

Quan 19' du an dftu tu 18. men khoa hoc kinh te nghien cuu nhung vitn dg phuong phap Iuan va phuong phap cu th4 vg quan ly cac du an dAu tu.

Khac vdi cac mon khoa hoc khac cung nghien cuu llnh vue dftu tu, man hoc Quan ly du an dftu tu khong di sau vao

nghien ciru phuong phap luan vg l<}p du an d§.u tu hoac nghisn cuu nhirng quy luat d§.u tu phat trien trong ngn kinh te' qucc dan. QWln ly du an d&u tu Ia mon hoc nghien cuu nhirng van de ve dOl tuong va noi dung quan ly, xem xet cac phuong phap va cong cu duoc sU' dung trong quan ly du an cua doanh nghiep cimg nhu trong cac tel chuc di)c lap khac, nghien cuu nhiing phuong phap quan ly hoat dong du an noi chung va quan ly tung nhiern vu noi rieng nhu phucng phap phan phoi ngudn luc tai chinh, may moe thiet bi, lao dong, nghien cuu phuong ph ap quan ly tien dQ thoi gian, chi phi. ..

2. Nhi~m VI.,J cue man hoc

D~ lam ro doi tuong nghien cuu, mon hoc quan ly du an d§.u tu co cac nhiem vu chu yeu sau day:

• Luan giai co co Sd khoa hoc ttnh tfi't yeu cua viec quan ly hieu qua cac du an d&u tu.

• Trinh bay co h$ thong phucng phap luan va nhung phuong phap quan ly khoa hoc ap dung trong linh vue quan ly du an.

• Lam ro nQi dung, co Sd khoa hoc xac dinh d6i tuong quan ly, phucng phap quan ly nhimg yeu to' co ban tronghoat dQng du an nhu quan ly thoi gian, chi phi, nguon luc, rili ro ... Lam ro co Sd khoa hoc va dieu ki~n ap dung cac rna hinh tel chirc quan If du an phil hop vdi tinh hmh cu th~ cua cac don vi.

VOi dOl tucng nghien c(t.~ va nhiem V\1 nghien cuu nhu tren, man hoc Quan If du an d§.u tu rat can thiet cho sinh vien cac chuyen nganh kinh te va kinh doanh. Giao trinh duoc sU' dung d~ giang' cho sinh vien sau khi da dUQC trang bi nhimg kien thuc thuQc man hoc kinh te' d§.u tu va l~p du an dAu tu.

3. Phuong phep nghien cCru men hoc

La mQt trong nhilng mon khoa hoc kinh te', mon hoc Quan If du an dftu tu lay chu nghia duy vat bien chung lam co sO phuong phap luan. Dbng th.di mon hoc cung slt dung tang hop nhieu phuong phap khac nhu phuong phap phan tich va quan 1y h~ thong, phuong phap phan tich va tang hQP, phuong phap thcng ke, phuong phap toan kinh te' ... d~ thuc hien nhiern vu nghien cuu cua minh.

D~ nghien ciru mon hoc c6 hieu qua doi hoi nguoi hoc phai duoc trang bi trudc cac kien thuc ve kinh te' hoc, cac phuong phap quan If khoa hoc, tin hoc, d?c biet la nhung kien thuc ve kinh te'dftu tu va lap du an dftu tu.

IV. PHAN BI:¢T QUAN LY mr AN VOl QuA TRiNH

? ~"? ,.,.", '"' ~ '" OJ ,..io

QUAN LY SAN XUAT LIEN TlJC <QUAN LY SAN XUAT

THEODONG)

Quan ly du an 1a mqt dang dac biet trong hoat dqng quan If. Giila quan If hoat dqng san xuat HEm tuc trong cac doanh nghiep va quan ly du an co nhieu di~m gi6ng nhau vi deu dua tren nhimg nguyen tilc quan trong va cac phuong phap cua khoa hoc quan ly. Tuy nhien, giua chung ciing co nhieu di~m khac nhau.

1. Cac phuong phap quan Iy ling dVng trong quan Iy dl/6n

Co nhieu phuong phap quan 1y ung dung trong quan 1y du an. Dudi day 1a mot sO' phucng phap chinh:

Phan tich h~ thf{ng (hay phan tich mang). Phan tich he thong la phucng phap trinh bay ti€n de.> heat d9ng cua toan b9 du an thong qua viec su dung cac sd d6 mang, Vi du, viec l;itp k€ hoach du an.

Quan If thea muc tieu, Quim ly thea muc tieu la phuong phap quan ly tien hanh xac dinh muc t.ieu can dat va su dung cac phuong phap dt1 do luong viec hoan thien so vci muc tieu, Phuong phap nay thuong ung dung trong viec lap k€ hoach va giam sat du an.

Phuong phap tol thilu hod chi phi. Day la phucng phap duoc su dung dt1 rut ngAn thoi gian thuc hien du an vdi chi phi tang them toi thit1u.

Phuong pluip pluui bo' eMu nguo'n luc. Day la phuong phap dieu phol cac cong viec du an tren co sCi dam baa nhu cAu nguon luc tuong dOl d6ng deu trong m9t thdi ky sao cho chi phi 19. ti€t kiem nhat rna vAn dam bao dung thrri gian hoan thanh du an.

2. DQc diem cua quem Iy dV 6n

Quan ly du an co mQt so d?c dit1m chu yeu sau:

Tiui nluit, t6 chirc quan ly du an Ia mQt t6 chuc tarn thdi. T6 chirc quan ly du an duoc hinh thanh d~ phuc V1,l du an trong mot thci gian hiiu han, Trang thoi gian t6n tai du an, nha quan ly du an thuong hoat dQng dQc l~p vdi cac phong ban chuc nang. Sau khi k€t thuc du an, d.n phai tien hanh phan cong lai lao dQng, bO' trf lai may moe thiet hi.

ThZt hai, quan h~ gnra chuyen vien quan ly d1,1 an voi phong chuc nang trong t6 chuc. Cong viec cua du an doi hoi co su thalli gia cua nhieu phong chuc nang. Nguoi dung diu d1,1 an va nhimg nguoi tham gia quan ly du an la nhirng nguci co trach nhiern ph6i hop moi nguon luc, moi nguui tu cac phong chuyen mon nham thuc hien thang lei muc tieu cua du an. Tuy nhien, giua ho thuong nay sinh mau thuan ve van d~ nhan su, chi phi, thoi gian va mire d9 thea man cac yeu ciu kg thuat,

3. MQt so cJi~m khac nhau co oon gilia quan Iy dV 6n voi quan Iy qua trinh san xuOt lien f\lc cue doanh nghi~p

Quan Iy rui ro mot each thuimg xuyen. QWin 1:9' du an thucng phai dOl pho vdi nhieu rui ro co dq bat dinh cao trong cong tac lap ke' hoach, du tinh chi phi, du doan su thay d6i cong nghe, su thay d6i co cau t6 chuc ... Do vay, quan 1:9' du an nhat thi€t phai dac biet chu trong cong tac quan ly rui ro, ciin xay dung cac k€ hoach, tri~n khai thuong xuyen cac bien phap phong va chong rui roo

Qudn Iy slj thay dOl. D6i vdi quan 1:9' heat dong san xuat kinh doanh thuong xuyen cua doanh nghiep, cac nha quan ly thucng nhin VaG muc tieu lau dai cua t6 chuc d~ ap dung cac phuong phap, ki nang quan ly phu hop. Nguoc lai, trong quan ly du an, van de duoc dac biet quan tam la quan ly thdi gian va quan ly s1,1 thay d6i. Moi truong ella du an la moi truong bi€n d9ng do anh huong cua nhieu nhan to'. Quan 1:9' tO't s\l' thay d6i gop phan thuc hien t6t muc tieu cua du an.

Quan If nhtin su: Chirc nang t6 chuc giu vi tri quan trong trong quan ly du an. Lua chon mo hinh t6 chirc phu hop se c6 tac dung phan ro trach nhiern va quyen luc trong quan ly du an, do do, dam bao thuc hien thanh cong du an. Ngoai ra, giai quyet van dg "hau du an" cung la diem khac biet giiia hai lmh vue quan lY.

Su khac nhau giua quan ly qua trinh san xuat lien tuc trong doanh nghiep voi quan ly hoat dQng du an biit nguon tu su khac nhau giUa hai loai heat dong nay. Bang 1.3 trinh bay nhiing di~m khac nhau chu yeu giira qua trinh san xuat lien tuc vdi heat dqng phat tri~n va quan ly du an.

Qua trinh quan Iy san xuat theo dong

• Nhi$m vu co tinh I~p I~i, lien fuc

Quan Iy dl! an

• Nhi$m v~ kh6ng c6 tfnh I~p l<,li, lien tuc ma co tfnh chat mrJi me

• TY 1$ SLr d~ng nguon Ilfc cao

• T~p trung VaG mot lo~i hay mot 56 ILfqng nhat djnh hang hoa ho~c dich vI) (san xuat don chiec)

• ThcJi gian ton t~i cua dlf an c6 giai h~n

• Cac 56 li$u thong ke ft co nan kh6ng duqc SLr dl)ng nhleu trong cac quy€t d!nh va dl,f an

Phai Ira gia dat cho cac quy€t d!nh sailam

• Nhan su mdi cho mOi du an

'. Phan chia frach nhi$m thay doi tllY thucc VaG tfnh chat cua terng dl,f an

• TY 1$ SLr d~ng nguon It,rc thap

• M¢t kh61111qng Ian hang hca dlch Vl,I duqc san xuat trong mot thcJi ky (san xuat hang 109t)

• Thai gian t6n t<,li cua cac cOng ty, daanh nghi$p lau dai

• Cac s6 li$u th6ng ke san co va hChl ich d6i vai vi$c ra quyet dlnh

• Kh6ng qua t6n kern khi chuoc lal IOi • lam

• T 6 chnc thea t6 nhom la hlnh thac pho bien

• Traeh nhiern ro rang va dLfC;1C dieu chinh qua thOi gian

• MOi trudng lam vi$c tuang d6i on dinh

• M6i trllang lam vi$c thuang xuyen thay doi

Bang 1.3. Nhiing khcic nhau co ban giita quiin Ij san xuat thea dong va hoat dong pluit triln dzt an

. . .

CAU HeH THAo LU~N

1. Ma tao ngAn gon nhiing dac di~m chu ye'u cua mot du an dftu hi. Lay mdt vi d1,1 C\1 th~ d~ phan tich nhung dac di~m nay.

2. Phan tich moi quan h~ giua ba muc ticu co ban cua quan ly du an: chi phi, thai gian va muc dQ hoan thien. Lay vi du C\1 th~ d~ minh hoa cho cac tinh huang phan tich danh d6i (hoac khong danh d6i) muc tieu.

3. Trinh bay uu di~m va nhuoc di~m cua phuong ph ap quan ly du an.

• •

4. Hay phan biet nhirng di~m khac nhau chu yeu giira quan ly du an vci quan ly qua trinh san xuat lien t\1-C cua doanh nghiep,

5. Gia dinh Anh (Chi) duoc giao nhiern V\1- tham gia ban quan ly du an "D.lu tu phat tri~n san pharn mdi cua doanh nghiep". Hay xay dung ke' hoach quan ly nhimg cong viec chinh dai vdi du an nay.

6. Binh luan y kien "Quan ly du an 13. viec chuyen quyen luc tu nha quan ly day chuyerisang nha quan ly du an".

Tinh hu6ng thao luiftn

Tinli huang thit nhiit: Anh (Chi) dUQC phan cong phu trach du an BM, du tinh thoi han keo dai mqt nam, Cap tren

vira quyet dinh lui thoi di€m bat diiu du an tir thang 2 thanh thang 4 vi thieu tai chinh nhung thoi di~m ket thuc du an lai kh6ng thay d6i. Kha nang danh d6i ldn nhat la tinh huang nEW dudi day? Vi sao Anh (ChD lua chon tinh huang do?

a. Tien dq thoi gian,

b.Chiphi.

c. Chat hrong.

d. Chi co tinh huang a va b.

e. ca. 3 tinh huang a, b, c.

Tinh huang thit hai: Nha may A trien khai du an thay the' mqt s6 may che bien che den theo cong nghe cu va da khau hao het bang nhtrng chiec may cong nghe moi, hien dai, Nha may se mua 6 chiec may mdi vdi t6ng chi phi du toan la 2 trieu USD. Nhiing chiec may nay phai duoc lap dat, chay thu dung han va sit dung trong day chuyen san xuat mdi, du kien se hoat dong sau 6 thang nita. Vi day la mot du an quan trong nen Ph6 Giam d6c nha may mu6n danh nhieu thdi gian va cong sire d@ quan Iy du an nay nhung hien tai ang v§.n la Chu nhiern cua ba du an niia. Co 3 kha nang lua chon: (1) Ong Pho Giam doc se true tiep lam Chu nhiern du an; (2) cit met can b9 dudi quyen true tiep quan ly du an; (3) thue cong ty ban may quan ly d\t. an l.1p d?t vdi gia uu diii hen khach hang khac,

Cdu hoi: Anh (Chi) Iva chon gia: phap nao d~ thuc hien du an trong 3 giai phap tren? Vi sao? Neu du an thuoc loai nho (khoang 40.000$) thi su lua chon co thay d6i khong?

Tinh huang thit ba: Ba Hang, Giarn doc C6ng ty Banh keo HH, vira ket thuc dot t~p huan 2 ngay vg quan ly du an. Buc xuc truce tinh hinh cua don vi, ba rat muon ap dung kg thuat mdi van viec giai quyet kh6 khan hien nay cua e6ng ty.

La met nha may chuyen san xuat banh keo, khoang 70% tang doanh thu cua don vi do ban cac san pham keo. Cac san pham vg keo duoc cong ty tung ra thi trucng 8 nam trtrdc va thci ky d<iu doanh so' ban hang nam tang binh quan 15%. C6 den 121o:;ti keo, nhung tat ea deu cling mau sAc va kich cd.

Do ban chil"t mua VlJ- cua san ph&m nen may narn g<in day, neu truce tet am lich rna chua ban duoc g<in het thi chac chan bi 16. Giarn doc UDC tfnh, neu nam nay khong ban cac loai keo duoc nhieu hon narn Lrudc 10% thi lai bi 16. Day thuc su la met van dg kh6 khan vi nha may 16 kh6ng phai do thieu nang luc. Theo ba, du bao ban hang dii kh6ng chinh xac va Trudng phorig san xuat chua quan tam dung mire den viec han che' toi thi~u mire d&u tu vao hang t6n trii, Ba Harig tin rAng kg thuat quan ly du an c6 th~ giup khac phuc tinh hinh rna khong lam phat sinh tang qui rna hang t6n trir.

M¢t tuftn sau khi t:;tp huan ve, ba HAng b6 nhiem ang An - Ph6 Giam doc phu trach san xuat cua cong ty va ong Phong - Trudng phong marketing lam Truong va Ph6 ban quan ly du an, d~ giai quyet tinh trang thua 16. Ba da cung Truong va Ph6 ban quan ly du an xern xet, tim phuong huang khac phuc van de, d6ng thoi, Ba HAng cling trao cho

ho 56 lieu ban hang dii duoc phan tt5 thee tung loai keo va khu vue tieu thu trong tam nam qua. Muc tieu cua du an la giam muc thiet hai ban hang xuong muc 0.5% trong 3 nam, sau d6 bi'it d.1u tang doanh thu nhu .nhung narn d.1u.

Ciiu hoi: Anh (ChD suy nghi gi ve d1.1 an nay?

CHU'dNG2

...... 'to _, •

HO HlttH TO cfiac

VA CAC "HA QORrt LY DC! RN

T6 chuc la mQt nhan to dQng. Cac mo hinh t5 chuc luon thay d5i phil hop vdi su thay d6i cua moi truong hoat dQng, canh tranh, cfmg nghe va yeu cau quan IY. Nhirng narn gtin day, mo hinh t6 chuc quan ly doanh nghiep noi chung va quan ly du an noi rieng co nhimg thay d6'i tich cue theo hudng phat tri~n nhieu rna hinh t6' chuc mdi nang d(lng va hieu qua. Trong m6i truong t6' chirc ay, vai tro cua nha quan ly du an ngay cang quan trong. Khac vdi cac nha quan ly chirc nang, nha quan ly du an can co nhirng kg nang t6ng hQP, kha nang ra quyet dinh, kg nang thuong luong ...

Trong chuong nay se trinh bay nhimg rna hinh t6' chirc quan ly du an ph6' bien hien nay va nhiing chuc nang. yeu cau va quyen han cua nha quan ly du an.

, "'oil ",,'? ~ ~

I. CAC MO HINH TO CHl1c DV AN

Co nhieu rna hinh t6 chile quan ly du an. Tuy thuoc muc dieh nghien cuu rna phan loai cac rna hinh t6 chuc du an

cho phu hop, Can cu vao dieu kien nang luc cua ca nhan, t6 chuc va din cu vao yeu cdu cua du an co th.§ chia hinh thuc t6' chirc quan ly du an thanh hai nhorn chinh la hinh thuc thue hi van quan ly du an (g6rn rna hinh t6 chuc thea hinh thuc Chu nhiern dieu hanh du an va rna hinh chia khoa trao tay) va hinh thirc chu dEiu til true tiep thuc hien quan ly du an. D6i voi hoat dong dau til trong doanh nghiep, din cu vao d~c di.§rn hinh thanh , vai tro va trach nhiern cua ban quan ly du an, cac rna hinh t6 chuc quan ly du an duoc chia Ct.I th.§ hen thanh: rna hinh t6' chuc quan ly du an theo chuc nang, t6' chirc chuyen trach dtt an va t6' chirc quan ly du an dang rna tran. Dudi day trinh bay cu th.§ tung loai hinh t6' chuc nay.

1. Me hinh chu dau fu true tiep quan Iy du an

Mo hinh chu ddu til true tiep quan 15' du an la hinh thirc t6 chuc quan 15' rna chu dAu til hoac tu thuc hien du an (tu san xuat, tu xay dung, tu t6 chirc giam StH va tt;! chiu trach nhiem trttoe phap luat) hoac chu ddu tu lap ra ban quan 15' du an d~ quan 15' viec thuc hien cac cong viec du an thea su uy quyen,

Mo hinh t6 chirc "chu dau tu true tiep quan ly du an" duoc th~ hien trong hinh 2.1. Hinh thirc chu dau tu tu thuc hien dt;i an thuong du"qc ap dung cho cac du an quy rno nho, kg thuat don gian va gAn voi' chuyon rnon sau cua chu dEiu tu, d6ng thdi chu d&u tu co du nang luc chuyen mon va kinh nghiern d~ quan 15' du an. Trong truong hop chu dAu tu thanh l~p ban quan 15' du an d~ quan ly thi ban quan Iy dt,i

an phai chiu trach nhiem trirdc phap Iuat va chu d<iu tu v~ nhiem vu va quyen han duoc giao. Ban quan Iy du an duoc d6ng thoi quan ly nhieu du an khi co du. nang I\1C va duoc chu ddu tu cho phep, nhung khong duoc thanh lap cac ban quan Iy du an true thuoc d~ thuc hien viee quan ly du an.

Co bq may

Chu dau iL(
du nang fife ... CM dau til f~p ra

" "
Tlfthlfc hi~n Ban quan Iy dlf an
1
~ ~
T6 ch((c thlfC hi~n T6 chU'c thlfc T6 chltc thlfC
dlfanl hi~n dlf an II hi~n dlf an III Hinh 2.1. M6 hinh chu diiu tu true tiep qucin lj d,! an

2. Me hinh Chu nhi~m dit1u hanh dV 6n

Mo hinh t5 chtrc "Chu nhiem dieu hanh du an" Ia mo hinh t6' chirc quan Iy trong do chu dclu tu giao cho ban quan ly du an chuyen nganh hoac thue mot t5 chtrc tu van quan ly co dii dieu kien, nang luc chuyen mon phil hop voi qui mo, tinh chat cua du an lam Chu nhiern dieu hanh, quan ly viec thuc hien du an. Chu nhiern dieu hanh du an la mQt phap nhan de)c l~p, co nang luc, se la nguci quan Iy, dieu hanh va chiu trach nhiern trudc phap luat ve toan be) qua trinh thuc

thuc hien toan bQ du an. Khac vdi hinh thuc Chu nhiern di~u hanh du an, gi21 day moi trach nhiem thuc hien du an duoc giao cho ban quar; ly du an va ho phai chiu trach nhiem truoc phap luat doi voi viec thuc hien du an. Ngoai ra, 1£1. tang thau, ban quan ly du an khong chi duoc giao to an quyen thuc hien du an rna con duoc phep thue thau phu d~ thuc hien tung phan viec trong du an da trung thau. Trong truong hop nay ben nhan th§.u kh6ng phai 18. m9t ca nhan rna phai 18. mot t6 chuc quan 1y du an chuyen nghiep. M6 hinh ta chuc dv an dang chi a khoa trao tay duoc trinh bay trong hinh 2.3.

Chu dau ttl
To cnuc dau thau tuye'n c
T8ng thau th&!c hi~n toan bi? d&! an
Thue /{1i
I I
Thau phyA Thau phl;l B hQn

Hinh 2.3. Md hinh. tii chuc dong chia khon trao tay 4. To cmrc quan Iy dV 6n theo cmrc nang

Hinh thtrc t6 chuc quan Iy du an thea chuc nang co dac di~m la: (1) du an duoc d~t van rn9t phong chuc nang nao do

trong co cau t& chuc cua doanh nghiep (tuy thuoc vao tinh chat cua du an) va (2) cac thanh vien quan ly du an duoc dieu d(mg tarn thoi tu cac phong chirc nang khac nhau den va ho v§.n thuoc quyen quan ly cua phong chuc nang nhung lai dam nhan phan viec chuyen mon cua minh trong qua trinh quan If di~u hanh du an. Mo hinh t6 chirc du an theo chile nang duoc trinh bay trong hinh 2.4.

Mo hinh t6 chuc quan ly du an thee chuc nang e6 nhung uu di~m sau day:

Thli nh/it, linh hoat trong viec si.'i dung can b9. Phong chirc nang e6 du an dat vao chi quan ly hanh ehinh va tarn thci m9t so mat doi vdi cac chuyen gia tham gia quan If du an. HQ se trb ve vi tri cii cua minh tai cac phong chuyen mon khi ke't thuc du an.

Thli hai, m9t nguoi c6 th~ tharn gia vao nhieu du an d~ sit dung tai da, hieu qua van, kien thuc chuyen mon va kinh nghiern cua cac chuyen gia,

Giam doc
+
+ + + +
Phong Phong ky thu~t Phong ke toan cse phong
kinh doanh <, Uti ehinh khiic
- - t-- ~
- - L.......-- Hinh 2.4. T{l chitc du an thea chitc nang

Nhu9C di~rn cua mo hinh t6 chtrc du an theo chuc nang: • Day la each t5 chuc quan ly khong thea yeu cau cua khach hang.

• Vi du an dU9C dat dudi su quan ly cua mot phong chuc nang nen phong nay thuong co xu huang quan tam nhieu hon den viec holm thanh nhiem vu chinh cua no rna khong tap trung nhieu n6 11,iC vao viec giai quyet thea dang cac van de cua du Em. Tinh trang tuong tu cling dien ra d6i vdi cac phong chire nang khac cling thuc hien du an. Do do, du an khong nhan duoc du su uu hen can thiet, kh6ng du nguon Iuc d~ hoat dong hoac bi coi nhe.

5. Me hinh tc5 chuc chuven trach qucn Iy du an

Mo hinh t6 chuc chuysn trach quan Iy du an l a hinh thuc t6 chuc quan ly rna cac thanh vien ban quan ly du an tach hoan toan khoi phorig chuc nang chuyen mon, chuyen thuc hieri quan 19 dieu ha nh du an theo yeu cau d uoc giao. M6 hinh t6' chuc nay co da ng nh u hinh 2.5.

Mo hinh t6' chuc chuyen trach quan ly du an co nhirng uu di~m sau:

• Day la hinh thirc t6 chuc quan ly du an phu hop voi yeu cau cua khach hang nen co th~ phan ling nhanh trudc yeu cau cua th; truong.

• Nha quan 1y du an co dAy du quyen luc hon dOl vdi du an .

• Cac thanh vien trong ban quan 19 du an chiu su dieu hanh true tiep cua Chu nhiem du an (chu khong phai nhung nguoi dung dAu cac bi) phan chtrc nang dieu hanh).

• Do du an tach khoi cac phong chuc nang nen duong thong tin duoc rut ngan, hieu qua thong tin se cao hen.

Giam doc I

r

Ban quan Iy dlfan

Phong ta chirc hanh chlnh

r

I

Phong ke toan-tal chinh

Ph6ng khac

I

1

I

Chuyen vien quan Iy tal chinh

Chuyen vien marketing

Chuyen vil~n quan Iy san xuat

Hinh 2.5. Mil hinh 16 chuc chuyen tracb qudn Ii du an

Tuy nhien, mo hinh t6 chirc dang chuyen trach quan ly du an cling co nhung nhuoc diem sau:

Tiui nhiit, khi doanh nghiep hay chu dftu tu thuc hien d6ng thoi nhieu du an ij nhung dia ban khac nhau va phai dam bao du sbluqng can bQ can thiet cho tung du an tht co th~ d§.n den tinh trang lang phi nhan luc,

Thu hai, do yeu CftU phai hoan thanh t6t muc tieu v& hoan thien, thoi gian, chi phi cua du an nen cac ban quan ly du an co xu huang tuy~n hoac thue cac chuyen gia gioi trong tung Iinh vue vi nhu cau du phong hen la do nhu cau thuc cho hoat dQng quan ly du an.

6. yeS crurc qucn Iy du an theo ma trQn

Loai hinh t6 chuc quan ly du an dang rna tran 13. su ket hop giua rna hinh t6 chuc quan ly d1:1' an thea chuc nang va rna hinh t6 chuc quan ly chuyen trach du an. Til su ke't hop nay hinh thanh hai loai rna tran: rna tran manh va rna tran yeu. MOt trong nhimg rna hinh t6 chuc du an dang rna tran duoc trinh bay trong hinh 2.6.

I Tang Giam doc I
I
J I 1 I I I
Chu nhi~m Giam doc Giam doc Giam doc Giam doc Giam doc
chLfdng trlnh san xuat klnh doanh lal chinh ky Ihu~t nhan Sl/
I 1 I 1 ! 1
Chu nhi~m o Thang Ong Hung 6ng Tai Ong Dinh Co Hi~n
dl/ an A sa Lan C6 HlIcmg Ong Dan
C6 Vinh
I I I I I I
Chu nhi~m CO Thanh Ong Tam Ong DOng Ba Ha CO Hi~n
dl/an B Ong Minh Cng rai
I I 1 I I
Chu nhi~m o Thang Ong Tam Ong Dong Cng Cuang I COHi~n I
dl/an C 6ng Dan ..

Hinh 2.6. M6 hinh t6~ chuc du an dang rna trtin.

.. .

Uu die"'rn

• Gi6ng nhu hinh thirc t6 chuc chuyen trach quan ly du an, mo hinh t6 chuc nay trao quyen cho Chli nhiern d1:1' an

. :-::..". N~"'··· ..

quan ly, thuc hien du an dung tien dQ, dung yeu cau ky thuat, trong pham vi chi phi duoc duyet,

• Gi6ng nhu mo hinh t6 chuc quan ly du an dang chuc nang, cac tai nang chuyen mon duoc phan phoi hop 1y cho cac du an khac nhau.

• Kh<1c phuc duoc han che cua rna hinh quan ly thee chtrc nang. Khi ke't thuc du an cac nha chuyen man· nhimg thanh vien ban quan Iy du an co th~ trCi ve tiep tuc cong viec cii tai cac phong chuc nang cua minh.

• Tao dieu kien d~ doanh nghiep phan ling nhanh hen, linh hoat hon trtroc yeu cfru cua khach hang va nhirng thay d6i cua thi trucng.

NhuCjC diem

M6 hinh t6 chile du an dang rna tran c6 nhirng nhuoc di~m sau:

Thli nhiit, neu viec phan quyen quyet dinh trong quan ly du an khong ro rang, hoac trai nguoc, trung cheo se anh huong den tien trinh thuc hien cua du an.

Thlt hai, ve ly thuyet, cac Chu nhiem du an quan Iy cac quye't dinh hanh ehinh, nhirng nguoi dung dau b~ phan chirc nang ra quye't dinh kg thuat. Nhung tren thuc te quyen han va trach nhiern kha phuc tap, Do d6, ky nang thuong luong la mot yeu to' rat qw;m trong d~ dam bao thanh cong cua du an,

Thu ba, rna hinh quan Iy nay vi pharn nguyen t<1c t?P trung trong quan 15'. Vi mot nhan vien c6 hai thu trudng nen se gap kh6 khan khi phai quyet dinh thuc hien lenh nao

trong trudng hop hai l¢nh tir hai nha quan ly cap tren rnau thuan nhau.

Nhitng can cu di If/a choti mti hinh to' chsic qtuin.

Ij du an

Phuong phap quan ly du an c6 th~ ap dung hieu qua cho nhiing truong hop sau: (1) Du an co muc tieu cu th~; (2) Mang tinh don chiec, khong lien tuc, khong than quen voi t6 chuc hien tai; (3) Cong viec cu the, tuong tac phuc tap.

D~ lua chon mot. mo hinh t6 chuc quan ly du an phu hop e<ln dua VaG nhimg nhan to co ban nhu: quy rno du an, thoi gian thuc hien, cong nghe stt dung, d9 bat dinh va rui ro ella du an, dia di~m thuc hien du an, nguon lire va chi phi eho du an, so luong du an thuc thi trong cung thoi ky va tarn quan trong cua no ... Ngoai ra, khi xem xet Iua chon met mo hinh t6 chuc du an, cling c<ln phan tich bon tham s6 rat quan trong khac la phuong thirc thong nhat cac n6 luc, cd cau quyen luc, muc d9 anh huong va h~ thong thong tin. M6i mo hinh t6 chtrc quan ly du an co th~ up dung hieu qua trong m9t so truong hop nhat dinh. Mo hinh t6 chuc quan ly du an theo chuc nang thich hop vdi nhirng du an rna muc tieu chinh Ia ap dung cong nghe chu khong phai la chi phi toi thieu hoac phai phan ling nhanh truce nhung thay d6i cua thi truong hoac d6i vdi nhimg du an doi hoi d<lu tu IOn VaG may moe thiet bi, Mo hinh t& ~huc chuyen trach du an ap dung co hieu qua trong truong hop co mot s6 du an tucng tu nhau duoc thuc hien hoac trong trucng hop thuc hien nhung cong viec mang tinh dBng nhat, yeu cAu cu th~ cao, doi hoi quan ly ty mi. chi tie't, lai khong phu hop vdi llnh vue chuc nang nao.

M6 hinh tS chuc quan If du Em dang rna tran ap dung kha thieh hop doi vdi nhung du an e6 yeu cau cong nghe phuc tap, doi hoi e6 su tharn gia thudng xuyen cua nhieu bQ phan chuc nang chuyen men nhung lai eho phep cac chuyen gia e6 thJ cung luc d6ng thoi tham gia van nhieu du an khac nhau.

II. cAN BQ QuliN LY nu AN

1. Chuc nang cue can bQ quem Iy du an

Quan If hien dai c6 xu hirdng xac dinh trach nhiern va kg nang quan If theo nhfing nguyen d.c va chuc nang rna truong phai c6 di~n da neu len. Nhiing chuc nang co ban cua cac nha quan ly la l?p ke hoach, t6 chuc, giam sat, chi dao, hudng dftn, dao tao va tuy~n dung can b9. M:itc du nhung chuc nang nay duoc nhan manh chu yeu doi voi cd cau t6 chuc quan ly truyen thong, nhung g:in day chung duoc d6i mdi noi dung d~ ap dung eho cac t6 chirc quan ly tarn thoi nhu t6 chuc du an. Y nghia cd ban cua n6 nhu nhau nhung viec ap dung trong hai moi truong e6 khac nhau.

Can bQ quan ly du an giu mot vai tro nlt quan trong trong co cau tS chuc du an. Nhfrng chuc nang co ban cua nha quan ly du an la:

1. Lg,p he hooch. dlf an. Muc dich cua l?p ke hoach la dam bao thuc hien dung muc tieu cua du Em va chi ra phuong phap phu hop d~ dat muc tieu-do mot each nhanh nhat, Cac nha quan If phai quyet dinh cai gi ctln lam, muc tieu va cong cu thuc hien trong pham vi gidi han ve ngu6n luc.

2. Til cluie th1fc hi~n d1f an. Can b9 quan ly du an co nhiem V1,l quyet dinh cong viec duoc thuc hien nhu the nao.

A4

H<;> co trach nhiern lua chon, dao' tao cac thanh vien cua nhom du an, bao cao ke't qua va tien trinh thuc hien du an cua nhom cho cap tren, thong tin cho ca nhom d~ moi nguoi cung biet va co ke hoach cho giai -doan sau nham huy dong va s£p xe'p hop 15' cac nguon nhan luc, vat tu thiet bi va nguon v6n. T6 chirc thuc hien du an nham phoi hop hieu qua giua cac ben tharn gia, phan dinh ro vai tro va trach nhiern cho nhimg nguoi tham gia du an.

3. Chi doo huang dan. Sau khi nhan nhiern vu, can bQ quan Iy du an chi dao va hirong dan, uy quyen, khuyen khfch dQng vien, phoi hop moi thanh vien trong nhorn thuc hien t6t du an, phoi hop cac luc luong tu tu van, nha th au, khach hang, den cac cd quan quan 15' nha nUDC co lien quan ... nharn dam bao thuc hien thanh cong du an.

4. Kilm tra gitim. sat. Can bt? quan 15' du an co chuc nang ki~m tra giam sat san pharn du an, chat hrong, ky thuat, ngan sach va tien dt? thdi gian. Trude tien, nha quan ly du an phai am hi€u cac tieu chuan, chinh sach, thu tuc quan ly, phai co du nang luc ky thuat d~ giam sat cong viec, danh gia dung hien trang va xu huong tuong lai. Mot nh a quan ly du an se khong co uy tin cao doi vdi khach hang neu ho khong tra ldi duoc nhimg thac mac ve ky thuat,

Kiern tra giarn sat la met qua trinh, bao gom viec do luong, danh gia va sua chfia, Can xay dung cac tieu chu an thuc hien, cac m6c thoi gian va dua vao do d~ so sanh danh gia tinh hinh thuc hien du an, dong thoi, phai xay dung mot h~ thong thong tin hiru hieu d~ thu thap va xu ly so lieu di kern vdi tien trinh bao cao.

5. Chuc nang thich itng. Trong hoat d(mg thuong ngay, nha quan ly thudng xuyen phai d6i d:1u vdi nhung thay dBi. Do do, nhung ke hoach, cac hanh dong, chuan muc thuc hien cung thay dBi thea. Linh hoat thich ling vdi moi trunng ca ben trong va ben ngoai (quan di~m ·ve quan ly ngftu nhien) 18. mot doi hoi tat yeu,

2. Troch nhi~m cue Chu nhi~m (Giam doc) dV an

Trach nhiem cua Chu nhiern du Em ve co ban co th~ duoc chia thanh ba nhom ldn. Do lao trach nhiern do'i vdi t8 chuc cap tren, d6i vdi du an va doi vdi cac thanh visn du an.

Doi vdi cfip tren

Chu nhiem du an phai dam baa baa ton moi nguon luc va quan 15' hieu qua du an duoc giao. Can bao cite dfty du trung thuc nhiing thong tin ve tinh trang hien tai, chi phi, tien dq va tri~n vong cua du an cho cap tren,

DOL vdi drj an

Chu nhiem du Em can phai thuc hien nhirng nhiem V\1 sau: • Dieu hanh, quan 15' thoi gian, chi phi, nhan luc, thong

tin, quan ly chat hrong du Em ... Dam baa hoan thanh du an dung muc tieu, thci han da quy dinh trong pham vi nguon luc va chi phi duoc duyet .

• Lanh dao nhorn quan ly du an, phoi hop no luc cua moi thanh visn thea hudng phat huy t6i da kha nang va tinh chu dong sang tao cua tung thanh vien nham thuc hien thanh cong muc tieu cua du an.

• Co trach nhiern phuc vu khach hang .

• Quan Iy nhung thay d6i. fJf/i viii cac thank uien. dlj an

T6 chuc quan Iy du an Ia mot t6 chuc tam thdi va co thoi han nen Chu nhiern du an din di[ic biet quan tam den rnoi thanh vien trong nhom. Khi du an slip ket thuc, Chu nhiem du an co ke hoach giup dd, t~1.O dieu kien cho moi nguoi tim cong viec mdi hoac trd ve don vi cii thea nguyen vong cling nhu yeu cfru cong viec,

3. Ky nang can co cue Chu nhi~m du 6n

Mot s6 kg nang quan trong rna Chu nhiern du an can

co la:

Ky nang liinli dao

Lanh dao Ia ky nang co ban d~ Chu nhiern du an chi dao, dinh huang, khuyen khfch va ph6i hop cac thanh vien trong nhom cling thuc hien du an. Day la ky nang quan trong nhat. N6 doi hoi cac nha quan Iy du an co nhirng phftm chat cAn thie't, co quyen Iuc nhat dinh dti thuc hien thanh cong muc tieu eua du an.

Ky nang giao tie'p va thong tin trong quiin lj di: an

Chu nhiem du an c6 trach nhiem ph6i hop, thong' nhat

-,

cac hoat d(>ng giua cac be) phan chirc nang va .nhung co quan

lien quan (nhu trinh bay trong hinh 2. 7) d~ thuc hien cac cong viec cua d1,1 an nen rat efrn thiet phai thong thao ky nang giao tiep. Chi! nhiern du an phai than quen, hi~u biet

cac cong viec cua cac phong chirc nang va co kien thuc rong vg mot so Iinh vue kg thuat, Nha quan ly du an cung can gioi kg nang thong tin, kg nang trao ci6i tin tuc giua cac thanh vien du an va nhung ngufri lien quan trong qua trinh tri@n khai du an.

Cae phong ban, chec nang (kien thirc, dO' Ii~u, kinh nghi~m dieu himh)

Chu dau hJ (cae quyet dinh va von)

LVe llfc1ng lao d9n9 true tiep

Cae co quan quan Iy nha nllC1e lien quan

Caeta ehltc djeh vI:!

Cgng d6ng (h~tae, dadau)

Nhil tllvan (kien thlte, nguon h/c)

Cae nhathau x§y dl/l1g, eung cap hfmg hca..

Cil nhi! eung cap v~t tll, nguyeni~u

cse th~ ehetill ehfnh

Hinli 2.7. Cae nh6m duac lien ket bdi vi~e qucin lj dl/ an Ky nang thuang luang viigidi quye: kh6 khan vuang m&c

Chu nhiern du an trong qua trinh thuc hien trong trach ella minh co quan h~ voi rat nhieu nh6m nguo! nhu chi ra d hinh 2.7. Ngoai ra, cling voi da phat tri~n ella ttl chuc,

trach nhiern cua Chu nhiem du an ngay cang tang, nhung quyen luc cua ho hinh nhu chua tuong xung, D~ phoi hop moi co' g:1ng trong va ngoai tel chirc nharn thuc hien thanh cong d1,1' an. Do thieu quyen luc, buoc cac nha quan If d1,1' an phai co kg nang thucng luong gioi vdi cac nha quan If cap tren va voi nhung nguci dung dAu cac phong chuc nang chuyen mon, tranh thu to'i da su quan tam cua cap tren d~ gianh du nguon I1,1'c can thiet cho hoat dong du an.

Cac ba't d6ng thuong' nay sinh giua Chu nhiern du an vdi cac thanh vien tham gia, gifra cac can bQ quan If du an vdi cac nha quan If chuc nang... Nguyen nhan c6 nhieu nhung c6 th~ k~ ra m¢t s6 nguyen nhan chinh sau: (1) Do thu tuc hanh chinh, (2) Muc tieu va thu tu uu tian, (3) Tranh chap cung mot nguon luc, (4) Do quan di~m kg thuat va chinh kien khac nhau, (5) Nhirng vuong mac con ton dong ... Do vay, cAn co phuong phap giai quyet dung, d?t muc tieu, quyen lei cua tap th~ tren Ioi ich ca nhan d~ gi3.i quyet nhung bat dong.

Ky nang tiep thi va quan h~ vm khdch hang

MQt trong nhung nhiern vu quan trong nhat cua can b9 quan Iy du an Iii tro giup don vi, doanh nghiep trong heat d9ng marketing. Lam tot cong tac tiep thi se giup cho doanh nghiep giu duoc khach hang .hi~n tai, tang them khach hang tiern nang.

Ky nang ra quyiit dinh.

Lua chon phuong an va each thuc thuc hien cac cong viec du Em la nhung quyet dinh rat quan trong, d?c biet,

...... ,..... . . .. _ .. , ir ;; ..

; . Truong £>Qi hoc KinFr t~:Quoc dan .: ; '.'

49

trong nhiing dieu kien thieu thong tin va co nhieu thay d6i. D~ ra duoc quyet dinh dung va kip thoi can de'n nhieu ky nang t6ng hop cua nha quan ly.

Ngoai nhiing ky nang quan trong neu tren, nha quan ly du an gioi can trang bi cho minh nhung ky nang can thiet khac nhu lap ke' hoach, quan ly thoi gian, du toan ngan sach va ki~m soat chi phi, kg nang quan ly nhan su va kg thuat.

4. Nhling di~m kh6c nhau co ban gilia nhe quan Iy dV 6n voi nhe quan Iy cturc nang

Nha quan ly du an 15' tudng phai la nguoi co dii cac to' chat can thiet lien quan den ky nang quan trio trinh de? chuyen mon kg thuat va tinh each ca nhan. Giira nha quan ly du an va quan ly chirc nang co nhiing d?c di~m khac nhau co ban nhu trinh bay trong bang 2.1.

Nha quan Iy chCtc nang Nha quan Iy dtf an
La m!)t chuyen gia gioi trang linh vl/c La nguai cO ki~n thrrc tong hcp, hi~u
chuyen mOn he quan Iy bi~t nhiliu linh vl/c cbuyen men, c6
kinh nghi~m phong phu
Thao ky nang phan Uch (each UBp M9nh ve ky nang tong hqp (sa dl:ln9
c~n phan Uch) each Mp ~n h~ thong)
Nhu m¢t doc cOng, m!)t nguai giam La rnot nha t6 chlfc, ph6i hqp mQi ngum,
sat ky thu~t vli linh vue chuyen sau mQi b¢ ph~n cung thlfC hi~n dL! an
Chlu trach nhi~m lua chQn "Chlu trach nhi$m doi vOi cong tac t6
chec, tuyen dl:lng can bl), I~p k~
c6ng ngh~ hoach, huong dan va quan Iy dl/ an Bang 2.1. 8'1 hhiic nhau co ban giita nhd qutin If d'l an vui nhd quan If chitc nang

cAu HOI THAa LU!N

1. Phan tich dieu kien ap dung thanh cong tung mo hinh t6' chuc quan ly du an.

2. Hay phan tich cac chuc nang quan trong can c6 cua can be) quan Iy du an.

3. Vi sao nha quan Iy du an phai la nguoi gioi ky nang tang hop hon gioi ky nang phan tich? Theo anh (chi) nhirng ky nang nao 18. cftn thiet cho mot chuyen gia quan ly du an Iy tudng lam viec trong mo hinh t6 chuc quan Iy dang ma trari?

4. Hay binh luan y kien: Giarn d6c du an phai la nguoi cftn mfin trong cong viec va nhieu truong hop Iai gi6ng nhu mot nha chinh trio

5. Trinh bay su anh huang cua viec lua chon dung mo hin:h ta chuc quan ly du an den su ph6i hop va tuong tac trong ne)i he) nh6m du an va giua nh6m vdi cac don vi quan ly chuc nang trong doanh nghiep.

6. Binh luan y kien sau day: "Cung vdi da phat tri~n cua t6 chuc, trach nhiern cua Chu nhiem du an ngay cang tang nhung quyen luc cua ho lai chua tuong xung",

7. Gia dinh lop ban duqc giao nhiern vu lam dap an tra Idi cac cau hoi va xiiy dung cac chi dfin tinh hu6ng thao luan cho cuon sach nay. Ket qua phai duoc bao cao vao thang toi, Ban hay liet ke nhfing tieu chuan, ky nang, rna theo ban, can

phai co cua nguoi duoc chon lam trudng nh6m - truong ban du an. 80 sanh danh muc tieu chuan rna ban neu ra vdi nhirng ky nang can c6 cua mot Giarn doc du an duoc trinh bay trong chuong nay. Su khac nhau d nhirng di~m nao? Vi sao c6 st;i khac nhau do? Su khac nhau se nhu the nao neu ban dang ciS gang d~ duoc chon la trudng ban du an nay?

Tinh huang thao Iuan,

Tinli hu6ng thit nhtit: Benh vien tinh A da dude phe duyet ke hoach xay dung m9t toa nha lam trung tarn dich vu cap cuu. Du tinh khdi cong van thang 9. Phong Ke hoach - Diiu tu cua benh vien thuong chiu trach nhiern gidi thieu ngu'CJi van vi trf Chu nhiern du an cho cac du an cua b~nh vien, Hien tai, Phong khong co nguoi nao du kinh nghiern trong viec quan ly xay dung nha chuyen dung dong bQ, hien dai, Do vay, Giam d6c benh vien dang din nhac kha nang d€ nghi don vi tu van thiet ke toa nha d€ clt mqt nguni lam Chu nhiem du I'm. Tuy nhien, Truong Phong Ke hoach - Dfru tu lai tin ding trtidng nh6m quan Iy dfru tu cua ong co du kha nang quan Iy du an vi anh ta: (1) co kien thuc ky thuat rat gioi, (2) la ngirci rfft cAn than lai nang dqng, (3) c6 kinh nghiern lam Chu nhiem du an m9t so' cong trinh trudc do.

Ciu: hoi: Neu ban la Giarn doc benh vien thi ban lua chon giai phap nao? Vi sao? Thong tin b6 sung nao ban cfrn biet them tnioc khi ra quyet dinh cu6i cung?

Tinb hu{/ng thit hai: Doanh nghiep B la nha san xuat mo to co uy tin tren thi truong ca nude. Cho den nay ho da san xuat va ban rAt thanh cong die loai mo to e6 cong suat

til 30 de'n 40 rna luc, Ban Giam doc dang xern xet kha nang san xuat loai mo to IOn t:ong suat, tit 50 den 150 rna luc, Kg thuat san xuat loai mo to IOn tuong tu nhu loai mo to nho loai trit m<)t chi tie't rat quan trong la b<) phan truyen IV-c. Doanh nghiep co du tai chinh, cong nghe, phucng tien va ky nang tiep thi c&n thie't d~ san xuat va ban loai mo to IOn. Muc tieu cua doanh nghiep la sau 2 narn nita se thiet ke' thanh cong chi tiet truyen luc va san xuat hang loat loai mo to IOn nay.

Ctiu hoi: Theo anh (chi) mo hinh t6 chuc quan ly du an nao la phu hop nhat d~ thie] ke' va che' tao loai chi tiet truyen luc?

Tinh,hu{i'ng ~ btu Ong Hung la Giam d6c mQt doanh nghiep vita va nho, Cong' ty ong da co 10 nam kinh nghiem, tang trudng kha nhanh trong mQt thoi gian dai, Sau cuoc khung hoang kinh te tai chfnh khu vue, thoi ky 1997- 1998, tang trudng cua cong ty hi giam sut.

Ong Tam duoc b6 nhiem vao vi trf Truong ban Ke hoach d&u tu cua Cong"ty, Q thang trudc day. Khi nghien cuu ... nguyen nhan tang trudng' cua Cong ty giam sut vai nam gfin day, ong Tam cho r&ng tai chfnh kh6ng phai la nguyen nhan chinh. Theo ~ng, san phtim ~tia Cong ty da 16i thoi, Cong ty khong phan ung k~7'l thoi, linh hoat truce cac co hQi va thach thuc tu thi truong moi la nguyen nhan cua van de. Ong cung tin d.ng do t6 chuc theo co cau chuc nang manh nen da kh6ng tao ta duoc nhfing hanh dQng du cftn thie't d8 giai

quyet tinh hinh. Do vay, ong kien nghi Giam d6c: can phai b6 nhiem mQt chuc danh rndi, quan ly cac hoat dQng dac biet, d~ khuyen khich va ap dung kg thuat quan ly du an. Nha quan ly mdi duoc b6 nhiern phai quan 1y mot sO' du an quan trong thea chuc nang cua Giam d6c du an.

Ong Hung d&n do suy nghi. Ong tin, cac be) phan chuc nang trong doanh nghiep dgu duoc dieu hanh bdi cac nha chuyen rnon gioi. Nhung tai sao ho lai khong th~ lam viec ding nhau d~ giai quyet van dg me)t each hieu qua? ang nghi, co th8 chi ra cho cac nha quan ly chuc nang huang giai quyet cac van dg: lam gi, khi nao va ai thuc hien, sau do b6 nhiem mQt nha quan ly chirc nang lam trucng nhorn du an, Khi do, co may se chuyen dQng dung huang.

Ctiu hoi: Y kien cfln m9t nha quan ly du an chuyen nghiep co hop ly hay khong? Neu ban d vi tri ang Tam, ban thuyet phuc ang Hung nhu the nao d~ ong ta nga theo y kien cua minh?

CHUONG 3

Lap ke' hoach du an Ia mQt trong nhfrng chuc nang quan trorig nhat cua cong tac quan ly du an. Lap ke hoach tot cho phep hoan thanh cac muc tieu dg ra va thuc h ien du an th anh congo Cong tac l~p ke hoach du an bao gdm nhieu nQi dung. Ttl' viec l~p ke hoach t6ng th~ du an den nhiing ke' hoach chi tiet, ttl' ke hoach huy dQng von, phan phdi v6n va cac ngujin luc cAn thie't cho du an de'n ke hoach quan ly chi phi, quan ly tien dQ ... tu ke hoach tri~n kh ai thuc hien du an den ke hcach "hau

d ' "

\1 an ...

Phuong phap l~p ke hoach du an rat da dang. Ngoai nhtmg phirong phap chung ducc ap dung d~ l~p ke' hoach trong nhieu Irnh vue thi llnh v\1c quan ly du an con co nhfing phucng phap d~c thu nhu phucng phap PERT/CPM,

..

phuong phap bi~u dd GANTT, phuong phap phan tach cong

viec ...

Chuong nay trinh bay nhung n9i dung co ban cua cong tac ke hoach du an.

I. KHAI NI~M, Y NGHlA vA N(n DUNG eUA KE uoxcn Dl!AN

1. Khoi ni~m, toc d'-:lng cue I¢p ke hooch dlj on

Kluii ni~m. Lap ke hoach du an la viec lap tien de? t6' chuc du an thee mot trinh tu logic, xac dinh muc tieu va cac phuong phap d~ dat muc tieu cua du an, du tfnh nhimg cong viec clln lam, nguon luc thuc hien va thoi gian lam nhirng cong viec d6 nham hoan thanh t6t muc hell dil xac dinh cua du an. Lap ke hoach du an la tien hanh chi tiet hoa nhirng muc tieu cua du an thanh cac cong viec cu th~ va hoach dinh mot chuong trinh bien phap d~ thuc hien cac cong viec do.

T6c dung "-:

Lap ke hoach giil vi trf quan trong trong cong tac quan

ly du an. Ke hoach du an c6 tac dung:

• La co sCi tuy~n dung, dao tao, b6 tri nhan Il,1C cho du an. '. La can cit d~ du toan t6'ng ngan sach cling nhu chi phi cho tirng cong viec cua du an.

• Ke hoach du Em 13. co sd d~ cac nha quan ly dieu 'phoi ngudn luc va quan ly ti~n dQ cac cong viec cua du an.

• Lap ke hoach du an chinh xac co tac dung lam giam thi~u rmrc de? rui ro kh6ng thanh cong cua du an, tranh dircc tinh trang khong kha thi, lan~ phi ngudn lue va nhirng hien tuong tieu cue .

• La can cit d4 ki4m tra giarn sat, danh gia tien trinh thuc hien du an ve cac mat: thoi gian, chi phi, chat hrcng..;

2. Phon IOQi ke hooch dV 6n

Ke' hoach du an gam nhieu 10?i, tu ke' hoach don Ie theo tirng linh v\lc den ke hoach t6'ng hQP, tu k€ hoach trong giai doan lap du an den giai doan ket thuc du an, tu ke hach thoi gian de'n ke' hoach nh an luc, von. .. Dudi day se trinh bay mot so Ioai kEf hoach chinh:

Ke' hoach. pham. vi. K€ hoach nay chi r6 pharn vi cua du an tren cac phucng dien tai chinh, thoi gian, nguon Iuc, khong gian... Sit dung phuong phap phan tach cong .viec, kEf hoach pharn vi can chi r6 cong' viec nao se thuoc du an va cong viec nao khong thuoc du an. Day la nhirng din cu d~ lap cac 10?i ke' hoach thuc hien sau nay.

Ki hooch. thiti gian. Nqi dung chu yeu cua ke hoach thoi gian la xac djnh t~ gian bAt dau, ket thuc, oQ dai thoi gian thuc hien toan be) du an ciing nhu tung cong viec; Xac dinh quan h~ giira cac cong viec, xay dung so do h$ thong phan anh quan h~ nay.

Ki hooch. chi phi. Ke hoach chi phi du tinh tang von dAu tu, chi phi cho cac cong viec true ti€p va chi phi gian tiep; xac dinh chi phi theo cac khoan m\1C; du toan chi phi thea tung giai doan va cho cac hang muc cong' viec chfnh.

Ke' hoacli nhtin luc. Ke hoaeh nhan I\iC phan anh s61ao dqng cftn thiet cho du an g6m ca true tiep va gian ti€p; ke hoach tuyen dung, dao tao (neu co), ke hoach tien lucng gom hrcng cua lao de)ng trong nude va chuysn gia nude ngnai (neu co) va duoc phan b5 cho cac-hang rnuc dftu tu, cac don vi thuc thi du an thea cac thoi ky dAu tu.

s« hoach. qtuin ly chdt luang. Ke hoach nay neu ra nhfmg tieu chuan chat IUQng can phai dat duoc dDi vdi tung

phan viec, hang muc d.lu tu; cong tac dam bao chat hrong duoc tien hanh the' nao va cac phuong phap, cong cu kiern soat cha't luong duoc van hanh ra sao.

M6i quan k¢ gitta cac loai ke' hoach du an co th~ tom tAt qua hinh 3.1.

!
! Toan bo du an I TOng Giam d6c
.. ...
i_ • + ~ +_ ~

H~ng H~ng Hanq Giam doc Ph6ng t6 Ph6ng
nuc A ml:lc B rnuc C du an chuc khac

+
... ... .. ...

Cong Cong ChiJ ChiJ ChiJ
nhi$rn dl,l' nhi$m dl,l' nhiern
vi~c X viec Y an A an 8 dl,l' an C

Ke hoach phan tlch cong viec Ke' hoach to chire quan Iy dl! an

Cong Thang Thang Thang Cong Thang Thang Thang Tang
vi~c 1 2 3 vi~c 1 2 3
a a 20tr.d 20
0
b b 80 80

50 100 150
C c
d d 80 80

Ke hoach tien dt} thM glan 16ng 20 130 180 330
Keho,chchiphichot~ngcong
viec va theo thang Hinh 3.1. Mii'i quan hf giua m9t sf; IOlJi he' hoqcb eua dl!an

2. Yeu eau co bOn doi voi eong toe IQp ke hooch dt,lon Qua trinh lap ke hoach du an phai dap ling duoc nhirng yeu cau co ban sau day:

• Ke hoach phai toan dien, ra rang tuan thu dung yeu cau cua Nha nuoc va su th6ng nhat giira cac ben lien quan den du an.

• Ke hoach nen co su tham gia thuc su cua cac chu th~ lien quan den du an, d~c biet cua cac co quan t6 chuc chiu trach nhiem quan ly du an va don vi khai thac su dung du an nay.

• Ke' hoach phai dua tren nhfing thong tin dAy du, chinh xac.

3. NQi dung co bOn eua ke hocch t6ng the va dlJ an

Ke hoach du an bao g6m nhieu loai ke hoach nhu ke hoach tang th~ yg du an, ke hoach tien dQ, ke hoach ngan sach, ke' hoach phan phoi nguon luc ... Phan nay chi gidi thieu nhimg net co ban cua ke' hoach tang th@ vg du an. Duoi day la nhfing nQi dung chfnh,

GiIJi thifU t6'ng quan vi d¥ an

Gidi thieu t6'ng quan vg du an la gioi thieu nhung net khai quat nhat vg du an dinh thuc hien, Ph:1n nay trinh bay nhfmg nQi dung sau day:

• Muc tieu ccln dat cua du an (trinh bay rnuc tieu cua du an trong moi quan h~ vdi muc tieu chung cua doanh nghiep).

• Trinh bay ly do ra doi cua du an.

• Trinh bay pham vi cua du an.

• Co cau tel chuc quan ly du an.

• Liet ke nhirng moe thai gian quan trong trong qua trinh thuc hien.

Lap ke' hoach du an, truck tien phai xac dinh ro muc tieu d.n dat. Phan nay cu th~ hoa nhirng muc tieu c6 tfnh chit dinh tinh da neu d tren, Mot s6 muc tieu cu th~ la:

• Mire lei nhuan do d1J an tao ra .

• ~i phan cua doanh nghiep du kien tang them ne'u

thuc hien du an.

• Nang luc canh tranh cua doanh nghiep,

• Muc tieu kinh te' . xa h{)i khac, Thhi gian va tien dp

Ke' hoach tie'n de? phai lam ro .duoc lich trinh thuc hij,n du an, 18. can cu d~ ban quan 19' d1J an quan If dieu hanh, cho phep xac dinh d~ dang cac cong vi~c then chot, xac dinh ngay bat dciu, ngay ket thtic, thoi gian thuc hien tirng cong viec, xac dinh cac moc thoi gian quan trong .. : Ke hoach tie'n de? phai duc;lc lap gAn chat che, dong thai ciirrg la co sd d~ l?p cac be) phan ke' hoach khac, Me)t 86 noi dung chinh can duoc lam ro nhu: xac dinh trinh tv cac cong viec, so sanh danh gia su

phil hop cua tie'n dQ thoi gian vdi chi phi, nguon Iuc phan phoi cho chung, ki~m tra danh gia, phe duyet chinh thuc ti~n dQ chung, xay dung, phan tich cac phucng an d~y nhanh, digu kien thuc hien va tinh kha thi cua chung ...

Xem xet khia canh. ky thtuit va quiin ly clla du an Vg ky thuat: so sanh ky thuat du an vdi kha nang ky thuat hien c6.

Vg quan Iy: cho bie't nhirng di~m khac biet can chu y trong quan IY. Vi du, su dung hop d6ng thau phu.

ss hooch. phan ph(/i nguon luc

Tren co sa cac dinh rmrc kinh te' ky thuat, cac qui dinh cua Nha nude, d$.c di~m rieng cua m6i du an ... d~ lap ke' hoach phan phoi cac ngu6n luc mot each hop 12" . .Trong phan ke" hoach phan phoi ngu&n luc cAn lam ra: cac ngu6n luc su dung, xac dinh t6ng nhu cau tung loai nguon Iuc danh cho du an, xac dinh thir tu uu tien phan phdi nguon luc cho du an va tung cong viec du an, xay dung so bQ phuong an phan phoi nguon luc, danh gia rmrc dQ clap ung nhu cau, tim kiem cac kha nang giai quyet thieu hut.

Ngiin. stich. va dl! totin. kinh phi du an

Ngan sach cua du anphan anh toan bQ cac heat dong cua du an, bao gom ca heat dQng thu va chi. Ngan sach du an co nhieu loai nhu ngan sach dai han, trung han va ngan han, ngan sach cua cac dan vi, ke' hoach ngan sach thea cac hang

~. ..";".

( ..

. .... ,.;"

muc dftu ttL. K€ hoach ngan sach la mot tap hop nhieu Ioai k€ hoach nhu ke hoach xac dinh t6ng nhu cau vg von, ke" hoach huy dQng von, ke' hoach phan bo ngan sach trong cac thoi ky, thea cac don vi thi cong, thea hang muc cong viec va c6ng viec, thea cac khoan rnuc chi phi... Phfrn ke" hoach ngan sach cling dua ra cac thu tuc quan ly chi phi (thu tuc thong thuong, thu tuc rieng d~ quan ly cac nguon luc nhu may chuyen dung, thiet bi ki~m tra, h¢ thong van chuyen ... ) trong su6t qua trinh thuc hien du an.

Nhiin 811

• Trinh bay nhirng yeu cau rieng ve cong tac nhan su

du an.

• Nhu cfru tuy~n dung, dao tao cho du an.

• Nhitng han che cua luc Iuong lao dQng danh cho du an.

• Ke hoach lao dong. ti~n luong. Khia conh. lutp d6'ng cua dll an

M6 ta va liet ke tilt ca cac loai hop dong lien quan nhu: '

• HQp dong cung cftp chfnh ve may m6c thiet bi, nguyen lieu,

• Hop d6ng thftu phu,

• Hop ddng phan pho'i san pham,

• Hop dbng tu van,

Phuong pluip kie"m tra va dtinh. st« dlf an

Trinh bay nhung phudng phap thu thap s61i~u, phuong phap danh gia va giarn sat qua trinh thuc hien du an .

.... : >~" ..

'"y\',:,i;;,; ">'

Nhftng kh6 khan tiim tang

Khi lap ke hoach du an cling can xac dinh nhung kh6 khan tigm .In, nguyen nhan co th€ anh hudng den tien dQ, tharn chi lam du an that bai. Nhirng nguyen nhan c6 th€ xay ra la: su vi pharn hop d5ng, th'at bai vg kg thuat, do anh hudng cua thoi tiet, han che nguon luc, do quyen luc cua can hQ du an khong dfty du, do nhieu cong viec cua du an kha mdi me hoac rat phuc tap ... Tuy nhien, thoi diem xay ra cac rui ro kh6ng phai cling mQt 11k. Do d6, c<1n xac dinh rmrc dQ rui ro cua tung nhan to' va xay dung ke' hoach d6i ph6 voi tirng loai rili ro trong su6t vong doi cua du an.

4. Qua trinh I{lp ke hooch dV an

Lap ke hoach du an Ia mot qua trinh g5m nhiing budc chinh nhu sau:

1) Xac lij,p m{lc tieu dlf an

Qua trinh l~p ke hoach bAt dfru bang viec thiet lap rnuc tieu cu th~ cua du an. Nhfmg muc tieu nay phan anh ro: (1) Khi nao du an biit dfru va khi nao duoc hoan thanh; (2) Mire chi phi du toan; (3) Cac ket qua can dat. D~ xac lap chinh xac muc tieu du an can thuc hien nhfing budc sau:

• Tuyen b6 muc tieu

Liet ke nhung m6c thbi gian quan trong trong khuon kh6 thdi gian hoan thanh du an.

B6 nhiem nhung ca nhan hoac bQ phan c6 trach nhiem d~ thuc hien du an. HQ la nhirng nhan to rat quan trong d~

thuc hien thanh cong du an. HQ c~n duoc lua chon sdm trong giai dean l;itp ke hoach.

2) Pluit triin he'hogch

Trong giai doan phat tri~n ke hoach, tien hanh xac dinh cac nhiem V1,l chinh d~ thuc hien muc tieu. Lap ke hoach du an tra nen thuc su hieu qua khi c6 d~y du, ra rang cac thong tin can thiet ve nhiern V1,l phai thuc hien ngay ttt khi biit d:1u du an. NQi dung giai doan phat trien ke hoach bao g6m mQt s6 cong viec nhu lap danh muc va rna h6a cong viec du an, trinh bay so d6 co cau phan tach cong viec (WBS) ... trong d6, WBS la nhiern vu quan trong nhat .

• Lap danh muc va rna hoa cong viec. Budc dau tien trong viec phat tri~n ke hoach la viec xac dinh va lap danh muc cac cong viec phai duoc thuc hien d~ hoan thanh du an, sau do rna h6a cac cong viec nay.

~ Phat tri~n met co cau phan tach cong viec (WBS).

WBS la viec phan chia cac cong viec du an thanh nhimg phan viec nho hon d~ de dang kiem soat va quan ly. Co. th~ ket hop nhieu cong viec lai thanh met nh6m tuy thee tinh chit cua chung hoac thee cac don vi thuc hien du an.

3) Xiiy dzJng sa do he' hoqch. dzJ an

Sau khi xac dinh quan ~ va thu tv truce sau gifra cac cong viec du an can thiet l~p mQt so d6 ke hoach d~ phan anh quan h¢ logic giua cac cong viec, Co hai phuong phap chu yeu d~ thiet l~p so d6 ke hoach la phuong phap lap sd d6 theo thu

.... 0: .....

tl;t (hay AON) va phucng phap l~p so db thee miii ten (hay theo AOA). Ca hai phuong phap nay duoc trinh bay chi tiet trong Chuong 4.

4) Lijp lich. trinh thuc hi~n dl! an

Lich trinh thuc hien du an la mot ke hoach tien dq sd bq chi r6 khi nao cac c6ng viec bat dftu, khi nao ket thuc, dq dai thoi gian thuc hien tung c6ng viec va nhung moe thoi gian quan trong. Yeu cau nay co th~ thuc hien bang each su dung bi~u db GANTT.

5) Dlf toan. kinh phi va phiin. b6'> ngu6'n luc cho m6i c6ng vi~e ke' hoqcn

D~ l~.p ke hoach du Em t6ng th~ can du toan chi phi cho tung cong viec va tung khoan muc cung nhu du tinh nhirng nguon luc cfrn thiet khac nhu lao dqng, may moe thiet bi ... Thuc chat day la heat dqng lap ke hoach ngan sach du an gAn lien vdi viec l?p Itch trinh thuc hien du an trudc do.

6) Chudn b] bao cdo va he! thuc du an

Bao cao tien de? thoi gian, chi phi la nham ki~m scat ke hoach thoi gian ciing nhu du toan chi phi. Chuan bi tot h~ thong bao cao, ki~m tra giam sat la mqt trong nhilng khau cAn thiet d~ thuc hien thanh cong ke hoach du an.

Tom lai, qua trinh l~p ke hoach du an g6m co nhieu n9i dung. Trong chuong nay chiing t6i chi trinh bay hai ph&n dAu cua qua trinh lap ke hoach du an. Nhirng muc sau th~ hien cac ke hoach C\1 th~ nhu ke hoach tien dq, du toan ngan

sach, phan b6 ngudn luc ... se duoc trinh bay trong cac Chuong 4,5 va 6.

'" , ...... "",?,

II. PHAN TACH CONG VI~C CVA mr AN

C6 nhieu cong cu d~ th~ hien ke hoach, tuy nhien, trong linh vue ke hoach du an c6 3 cong cu kha d~c trUng d~ trlnh bay ke hoach du an la phuong phap phdn tach cong viec, so d6 mang va bi~u d6 GANTT. So d6 mang va bi&u do GANTT duoc trinh bay chi tie't trong Chuong 4, nen phan nay chi trinh bay n9i dung cua phucng phap phan tach cong viec du an.

Sau khi xay dung duoc y tuong du an, viec tiep theo la xac dinh, liet ke, lap bi&u bang giai thfch can thiet cho cac nhiern vu va ccng' viec cEln thuc hien, nghla Ia d.n phat tri&n nhimg .ke hoach dAu tien cho du an. Phan lap ke' hoach nay gqi Ia ke hoach quan tr] pham vi.

Quan tri pham vi du an la viec phan dinh cac cong viec thuoc va khong thuoc du an. No bao gom nhieu qua trinh thuc hien d8 khang dinh du an da bao quat duoc ta't ca cac cong viec cEln thie't va chi gom nhirng cong viec d6. MQt trong nhung phucng phap quan trong d& xac dinh pham vi du an Ia phucng phap "Co cau phan tach .~ong viec",

1. KhOi niE;!m va phllong phop thuc hiE;!n phon tach cong vi~c

Co cau phan tach cong viec (goi ngan gon 18. phan tach cong viec) Ia viec phan chia thea cap bac rndt du an thanh cac

nhom nhiem vu va nhirng cong viec C1,l th~, la viec xac dinh, liet ke va lap bang giai thich cho tung cong viec cAn thuc hien cua du an.

Vg hinh thuc, so d6 co cau phan tach cong viec du an giong nhu mot cay da h$ phan anh theo cap b?c cac cong viec can thuc hien cua du an. M9t so d6 phan tach cong viec co nhieu cap bac, Cap bac tren cling phan anh muc tieu can thuc hien, Cac cap bac thap dan th~ hien muc de) chi tiet cua muc tieu, Cap dq thap nhat la nhimg corig viec C1,l th~. 86 lucng cac cap bac cua so d6 phan tach cong viec phu thuoc VaG quy rna va de) phuc tap cua du an.

Co th~ phat tri~n so do co cau phan tach cong viec theo nhieu phuong phap, Ba phuong phap chinh thuong duoc si'1 dung la phuong phap thiet ke dong (phuong phap logic), phuong phap phan tach thea cac giai doan hinh thanh phat tri~n (chu ky) va phuong phap phan tach thea mo hinh t6 chuc (chuc nang). Trong thuc te sit dung, cac nha quan Iy du an co th8 sit dung ket hop cac phuong phap tren, Tuy nhien, khong nen ket hop nhieu phuong phap trong cling met 'cap bac, Bang 3.1. trinh bay y nghia cua tirng dip bac theo ba phuong phap, Thong thuong co th8 sit dung sau cap dq d8 phan tach cong viec, trong d6 ba cap dQ dAu phuc vu cho yeu cAu quan If, ba cap de) CUOl phuc VlJ. cho yeu cau ky thuat, 6 cap dQ cuoi cling c6 th8 la mot cong viec cu th~ hoac mot nh6rn nhieu viec lam chi tiet. Tuy nhien, mire dq chi tiet cua cac cong viec i':J muc dQ cuoi chi nen vita du d~ lam sao c6 th€ phan phfii chinh xac ngucn Iuc va kinh phi cho tUng cong viec lai cho phep giao nhiem vu dung nguoi d~ nguoi nhan

trach nhiern v~ mot cong viec nEW d6 co th~ tra Idi ro rang diu hoi "cong viec d6 da hoan thanh hay chua?", va neu hoan thanh roi thi "co thanh cong hay khong?",

Phan tach corig viec can dt!Qc tien hanh ngay tit khi xac l?p xong y tUdng du an. Nguoi thuc hien Ia doi ngu can bQ chu ch6t tharn gia quan ly du an trong tilt ca. cac Iinh vue, Cac nha quan ly thao luan, xern xet tung giai dean chu yeu, tung Iinh vue lien quan khi thuc hien phan tach cong viec. Phan tach cong viec can dam baa yeu cAu: de quan Iy, cac cong viec dQc lap tuong d6i nhung v~n lien quan vdi nhau va phan anh duoc tien dq thuc hien du an.

Ca cau pMn tach Phlf<1ng phap
cong vi~c
Th« Th4 hi~n PMn tfch Chu ky Te) ch((c
b~c h~thong
1. Mac dO tOng quat Toan bO dl[ an T oan bO dl[ an Toan bO dlf an
(chlIOng trinh) (nh6m dl[ an) (nhorn du an) (nhorn dq an)
NhO'ng giai Cac b<) ph~n cau
2. Mac dO dqan H~ th6ng IOn doan chfnh thanh chinh
(cac chu ky)
Cac nh6m nhi~m Cac phong, ban,
3. Cac pMn h~ Cac h~ th6ng lem cac don V!
VI,! chfnh thanh vien
4. Nhi~m V!,l bO ph~n Nhj~m Vl,J bO ph~n Cac ohan h~ TOdqi
5. Nh6m cOng vi$c Nh6m cOng ~i~c Nh6m cOng vi~c Nh6m cOng vi$c
6. GOng vi$c C!,l tha COng vi~c C!,l tha GOng vi$c c!,l the GOng vi¢c Cl,J the Bang 3.1. Thit bg,c phiin. tieh cong vi~e thea cae phudng philp

Vi du, thu bac phan tach cong viec ffi9t du an xay dung duoc trinh bay nhu d bang 3.2. Bang 3.2. trinh bay cac dip d9 cong viec, thu tu truoc sau va tinh hinh chi phi ke hoach va thuc te cho tung cong viec.

IT WBS Ten nhi~m v~ Cong Ke Thirc Ghi
vi~c tru'ac hOi;1ch t~ chu
1 1 Chu~n bi m~t bang
2 2 Xay nha
3 2.1 Do mong
4 2.2. Xay tUClng va tran tang 1
5 2.3. xa.y tlIClng va tran tang 2
6 2.4 Lam san thuQng va tum
7 3 N¢i that
"---
8 3.1 Di~n
9 3.2 Nuoe
10' 4 Hoen thi~n Being 3.2. Phiin. tach cong vifC cua d'l an xay d'lng vdnphong

2. Toe dVng cua phon tach cong vi~c

Phan tach cong' viec la cd sCi d~ t~\1c hien cac nhiern vu quan If khac cua du an. No co nhiing tac dung chinh sau day:

• Tren co Sd so dfl phan tach cong viec, c6 th& giao nhiem vu, xac dinh trach nhiern cu th& cua tung ca nhan, bl) phan dOl vdi m6i cong viec du an. WES lam cho moi nguoi dgu quan tam hon den du an va lam cac nh6m du an hi~u duoc YElU cflu cua nhau.

• Phan tach cong viec la co sCi phat tri~n trinh tv va thu t1,1 quan h~ trudc sau giua cac cong viee, 13. co sCi lap so do mang PERT/CPM.

• So do phan tach cong viec la ed s6 xay dung cac ke hoach chi tiet va dieu chinh cac ke' hoach tien de) thoi gian, phan b6 cac ngutin luc eho tung cong viec du an. Vi du, viec bel tri lao d9ng, may moe thiet bi cung nhu lap du toan chi phi thea phuong phap tu duoi len ... deu din cu vao so do phan tach cong viec du an.

• La cd sO d.§ danh gia hien trarig va kE1t quit thuc hien cac cong viec du an trong tung thoi kyo

• Voi so do phan tach cong viec, cac nha quan ly du an trong qua trinh dieu phtii k€ hoach tieri dg, nguon luc va chi phi se tranh duoc nhfing sai sot hoac bo quen mgt so cong viee nao do.

3. LQp nhling chu gi6i can fhief

D~ phat tri~n mot ke' hoach du an, dOl voi mlii cong viec trong so do phan tach cong viec efrn l$p chu giai chi tie't. Ban chu giai cho so do phan tach cong viec bao gom nhimg thong tin sau:

• Liet ke nhimg ye'u t6 dfru van cftn thiet, nhirng ban ve kj thuat, cac ke't qua CUOI cungcan dat ... cho tUng cong viec. Vi du, khi trinh bay ke't qua cua mQt du an phat tri.§n may tinh co th~ li~t ke san pham phan cimg, phan mem, cac bao cao ...

• Chi ra die nha cung cap, nha thau phu Iisn quan (chi ra xem can doi hoi nguoi khac dieu gi d~ bat dau cong viec").

• Xac dinh nhu cau ve can b9, lao d9ng d~ thuc hien tung cong viec. Xac dinh qui mo thie-t bi, he thong nha xudng, dien nude, nguyen lieu, tien von ... cho cac cong viec du an .

• l10c tfnh thdi gian thuc hien tung cong viec (Nhiern vu d6 keo dai bao lau, biit dftu va k6t thuc khi nao), Day la co sa d~ xay dung k€ hoach tien d9 du an) .

• Liet ke trach nhiem ca nhan va tel chirc doi vdi tung nhiem vu, Vi du, xac dinh trach nhiem cua can b9 cac cap trong quan ly du an th~ hien 0 bang 3.3.

Cap Giam Chu Tnidng TnJdng TrutIng
nh~ P.Thiet P. Kinh P.San
tren doc
DA ke doanh xuat
L~p ke hoach dl! an 5 2 1 3 3 3
Phan tach GOng vi~c 4 1 3 3 3
lfoc tfnh chi phf
L~p ke h09ch thi tnrang
Xay dl/flg tien d¢ du an
Ghi chli: 1. Trach nhj~m trvc tiep; 2. Giam sat chung; 3. PhBi dllqc insm khao
y kien; 4. ChI d~o va pM duy~t; 5. PM duy~t cuoi cimg Bang 3.3. Xac dinh. trach. nhifm eua can bl) cdc cap trong quan lj d¥ an

Cac ca nhan hoac t6 chuc chiu trach nhiem xay dung , hoac tro giup xay dung sd do phan tach cong viec cfln ki~m tra lai so do da thiet H}.p, cac UDC luong thoi gian va ngan sach, Muc dich la lam ro tinh chinh xac cua so do phan tach cong viec, cua cac d1,1 toan va kiem tra tinh lien he lfin nhau giua cac cong viec,

CAU HOI THAo LU!N

1. Phan tich cac nguyen nhan vi sao phai l?p ke hoach du an?

2. Bat cu mot ke hoach dlj an thanh c6ng nao cung chua dung 9 yeu to co ban. Hay li~t ke nhung yeu to do va trinh bay ng~n gon noi dung cua tung yeu to nay.

3. Hay l?p ke hoach cho du an "Tel chuc lien hoan chia tay giang duong cua lap". Nhirng dieu kien d~ lap ke hoach du an chinh xac la gi?

4. Vi sao nguoi ta lai cho rAng SJf ket hop cac yeu t6 khac nhau cua du an la kh6 khan nhat trong khi thuc hien du an?

5. Ph an tich uu, nhucc di~m cua tung phuong phap phan tach c6ng viec du an. Vi sao lai can ket hop nhieu phuong phap khi thuc hien phan tach cong viec?

6. Vi sao noi rAng: Phan tach cong viec la mqt tai lieu cue ky quan trong d~ quan ly va dieu hanh du an?

7. Anh (chi) hay phan tach cong viec cho du an a cau

...

hoi 3, lap nhung chu giai coin thie't cho nhung cong viec nay.

8. Anh (chi) cho 3 vi du - ba du an thuoc cae Ilnh vue khac nhau, tren co sO do, hay lap ke hoach cho tung du an va phan tach cong viec cho rn6i du an nay.

'I'inh huang thllO lu~n Tinh hu{/ng thu nhiit

Cong ty lap nip xe may HD. da duoc phe duyet du an mua mot day chuyen lap nip xe moi 6 thang trtroc day. Loai xe mdi nay co xu hudng duoc ua chuong cao tren thi truong. Cong' ty b6 nhiem trudng' ban du an va thanh I?p ban quan Iy du an. Trudng ban quan Iy du an da nhan nhiern vu va dang I?p ke hoach thuc thi du an. Ba nQi dung quan trong cua ke hoach ducc ong rAt quan tam Ia van de tien d9 thoi gian, von va nhan S1,:l cho du an. Ve ke hoach thoi gian, ong xay dung tien dg thuc hien thea nhirng mac thdi gian rna ong cho Iii. quan trong, Doi vdi ke hoach von, ang du tmh tang nhu cau v6n cho tung hang muc cong viec, u'oc tinh chi phi cho nhirng cong viec chinh cua du an. Voi ke hoach nhan su, ong du tinh so lao dgng chuyen man tung loai can thiet d rn6i thci ky trong su6t vong ddi du an.

V?y, neu Anh (ChD la tru'ong ban quan ly du an thi Anh (ChD se lap 3 ke hoach tien d(> thdi gian, nguon Iuc va nhan su gio'ng hay khac vdi n9i dung ke hoach rna' ang Truong ban quan 15' du an dB. lam? Hay giai thich y kien cua minh,

Tinb. huang thu hai

"

Cang ty c6 phan T&P da 5 nam ap dung phuong phap

l?p ke hoach mdi. 6ng BAc - mot uy vien HQi d6ng quan tri rat vui mung vg ket qua cua phuong phap lap ke hoach nay. Ke hoach kha logic, khoa h9C g:ln vdi moi truong kinh doanh

cua cong ty. Tuy nhien, cong tac thuc hien ke' beach con mQt s6 digu din ban, Ong BAc cho rAng do Giam d6c cong ty du tinh so luong ngucn luc, thoi gian din thiet. d~ thuc hien cac du an chien lucc da duoc ke' hoach hoa con chua hop lY.

Narn tai chinh toi cong ty du dinh thuc hien 11 du an chien hroc, Cac du an thuoc 6 linh vue chinh la: phat tri~n san pham mdi, cai tien san pham hi~n tai, nghien cuu ap dung cong nghe moi D&R, cai tien qui trinh san xuat va t6 chuc lai h~ thong ban hang. M6i du Em se duoc giao eho mot truong phong chuc nang thuc hien phan tich loi feh . chi phi va xay dung bi~u do GANTT nharn ucc tfnh t6'ng thci gian can t.hiet d~ thuc hien du an, Nhung nguiri duoc giao nhiern vu thuc hi~n cac buoc cong viec tren thuong se la Chu nhiern du an sau nay.

Ngay mai la han cuol cung nop ban ke hoach thuc hien cac du an chien hroc, Ong B:1c quyet dinh phai tac dQng manh d~ Giarn d6c c6 phuong phap xac dinh dung thu tu iru tien cac du an, nhfing du an quan trong nhat can phai du<;1c uu tien truce. Vi trong qua khu mot s6 du an thucng bi cham tre" khi van de thieu nguon luc nay sinh. Trong tuong lai, ong B:1c muon Giarn doc lam r6 du an nao se dude tiep tuc, du an nao se phai cham tien d(J khi xay ra tinh trang thieu nguon luc.

Ciiu hoi: Phuong phap '"phan tich lei Ich . chi phi c6 phai la phudng phap slip xep thu tu uu tien cac du an hay khong? Hay trinh bay mQt phuong phap sAp xep uu tien rna Anh (Chi) biet.

CHl1dNG4

QUArt LY TttOI GIArt VA TIErt DQ Dq Art

Quan Iy thoi gian va tien dQ du an Ia qua trinh quan ly bao gom viec thiet lap mang cong viec, xac dinh thoi gian thuc hien tung cong viec cling nhu toan bQ dl,i an va quan ly tien trinh thuc hien cac cong viec du an tren co Sd cac nguon luc cho phep va nhimg yeu cau vg chat lucng da dinh.

Muc dich cua quan ly thdi gian la lam sao d@ du an hoan thanh dung thci han trong pham vi ngan sach va nguon luc cho phep, clap ling nhiing yeu cAu da dinh vg chat luong.

Quan Iy thci gian la co so dti giarn sat chi phi ciing nhu cac nguon luc khac c1:ln cho cong viec d1.,1 an. Trong moi truong du an, chuc nang quan Iy thoi gian va tie'n dt) quan trong hon trong moi trudng' hoat dt)ng kinh doanh thong thuong vi nhu cAu ket hop phuc tap va thucng xuyen lien tuc giua cac cong viec, d~c biet trong truong hop d\f Em phai clap ung mQt thdi han cu th~ cua khach hang.

Chuong nay se giai quyet nhirng va'n dg lien quan den viec thiet l:itp mang cong viec, phudng phap xac dinh thdi gian thuc hien tung cong viec du an, xac dinh thoi gian du tru cua cac cong viec cling nhu su kien,

75

I. ~G CONG Vl~C

1. Khai ni~m va tcc dlJng

Mang cong viec la ki thuat t.rinh bay ke hoach tien dQ, rna ta dudi dang so d5 moi quan h~ lien tuc giua cac cong' viec da duoc xac dinh ca. v& thai gian va thu tu trudc sau. Mang cong viec 1:\ su n6i ket cac cong viec va cac st;i kien.

Mang cong viec co nhung tac dung chu yeu sau:

• Phan anh mei quan h~ tuong tac giira cac nhiern vu, cac cong viec cua du an.

• Xac dinh ngay b:it d~u, ngay ket thuc, thdi han hoan thanh du an. Tren co sa do, xac dinh cac cong viec gang va ducng gang cua du an.

• La co s6 d~ tfnh toan thdi gian du trir cua cac su kien, cac cong viec,

• No eho phep xac dinh nhirng cong viec nao phai duoc thuc hien ket hop nharn tiet kiern thoi gian va nguon luc, cong viec nolo e6 th€ thuc hien d6ng thai d€ dat duqc muc tieu ve thci han hoan thanh du an.

• La co sCI d~ l~p ke hoach, kiem scat, thea doi ke hoach tien dq va dieu hanh du an.

D~ xay dung mang cong vi.~ cftn xac dinh mOl quan h$ phu thuoc l&n nhau giiia cac cong viec cua du an. C6 mqt so loai quan h~ phu thuoc chu yeu giira cac cong viec du an nhu sau:

· PhI! thuijc bdt buijc Iii moi quan he phu thuoc, ban chat, ta't yeu (chu yeu Iii Hit yeu kI thuat) khong th~ khac

dU9c, giua cac cong viec du an, d day co bao ham ca y gioi han ve nguon lire vat chat. Vi du, cong viec xay tuong nha khong th~ bat dciu neu chua d6 xong mong nha. Xay tuong se keo dai 2 ngay neu do 4 tho xay thuc hien nhung phai keo dai hon neu chi co 2 nguoi thuc hien cong viec,

- Phu. thuoc tuy y la mOl quan h~ phu thuoc duoc xac dinh bdi nhorn quan If du an. McSi quan h~ nay duoc xac dinh dua tren co sa hi~u biet thuc ti~n ve cac Iinh vue kinh te, xli hQi, kl thuat lien quan den du an va tren co sa danh gia dung nhiing rui ro va co giai phap dieu chinh m6i quan h~ cho phu hop. Vi du, cong viec B co th~ xep sau cong viec A khi A da hoan thanh nhung cling co th~ bo tri cung thuc hien song song vdi cong viec A. Nhu vay, Iva chon phuong phap nao, tuy thuoc vao su bo tri cua can he) quan Iy du an .

. Phu. thu§c ben ngoai la m6i quan h~ phu thuoc giua cac cong viec du an vdi cac cong viec kh6ng thuoc du an, la su phu thuoc cua cac cong viec du an vdi cac yeu to ben ngoai, Vi du, do trdi mua nen hom nay kh6ng th~ tiep tuc xay tuong nha (cong viec cua du an). Vi du khac, viec lap di.it dien nuoc cho toa nha vira xay tho xong (mot trong nhtrng cong v~c cua du an xay nha) phu thuoc vao tien dQ cung ung v~t tu cua phong v~t tu kg thuat thuoc T6ng cong ty (nhiern vu thuong xuyen cung cap dciy du yeu cau vat tu cua cac du an).

'.

2. Phuong phap biEtu dien mQng cong vi~c

Co hai phucng phap chinh d~ bi~u dien mang c6ng viec. Do la phuong phap "d~t c6ng viec tren mui ten" (AOA - Activities on Arrow) va phuong phap "dat cong viec trong cac

nut" (AON - Activities on Node). Ca 2 phuong phap nay deu co chung nguyen d.c la: de' co the' bilt dau m9t eong vi~c mci thi eac cong uiec sdp xep trudc no phdi duf/e hoan. thanh, cdc miii ten duoc ve theo chieu. tit trtii sang phsii, phdn dnh quan h~ logic truttc sau giiia cdc cong vi~e nhung d9 dai miii ten 19.i khong co y nghia pluin dnh r19 dai thoi gian.

Phuong phap AOA

Xay dung mang cong viec thea AOA dua tren mot so khai niem sau:

- Cong viCe (hanh dQng - activities) lit mot nhiern vu hoac nh6m nhiem V1.,l cu th~ can duoc thuc hien cua du an. N6 doi hoi thci gian, nguon lire va chi phi d~ hoan thanh.

- Sl,I ki~n la di~m chuyen tiep, danh dau mQt hay mQt nh6m cong vi¢c dii hoan thanh va khdi dAu cua mQt hay met nh6m ·cong viec ke tiep.

- DuiJng la su ket nollien tuc cac cong viec thea huong di cua miii ten, tinh tu 8V kien dAu den 8\1 kien cudi,

Xay dung mang cong viec theo phuong phap AOA dua tren nguyen tAc: (1) Sit dung mQt miii ten co huang d~ trinh bay mQt cong viec, MBi cong viec duoc bi~u di~n bang mQt miii ten n5i 2 su kien, (2) Dam baotfnh logic cua AOA tren co sa xac dinh ro trinh t1,i thuc hien va moi quan h¢ giira cac cong viec (cong viec nao phai thuc hien trudc, cong viec nao thuc hien sau, nhiing cong' viec nao co th~ thuc hien dong thoi), Nhu vf},.y, theo phuong phap AOA, mang cong viec 18. su ket

n6i lien tuc cua cac su kien va cong viec, Xay dung mang cong viec theo AOA co uu di~m la xac dinh ro rang cac su kien va c6ng viec, duoc ky thuat PERT S11 dung. Tuy nhien, phuong phap nay thucng kh6 ve, dfrn den n1Qt s6 truong hop mat kha nhieu thoi gian d~ ve so d6 mang c6ng viec cua du an

Vi du 1: Xay dung mang cong viec theo phuong phap AOA cho du an K bao g6m nhimg cong viec nhu trong bang 4.1

Cong vlec Thai gian thirc hi~n (ngay) ConlJ_'Yi~!?_!!~ac_
a 2 -
b 4 -
c 7 b
d 5 a,c
e 3 b Bang 4.1. C6ng vifC va thai gian th.uc hi~n cua dl/ an K Gidi: So d6 mang cong viec cua du an K trinh bay thee

phucng phap AOA nhu sau:

d(5)

Hinh 4.1. Xay dlfng mqng cong vifC cho dlf an K thea phuong pluip ADA

Phuong phap AON

Xay dung mang cong viec theo phuong phap AON can dam bao cac nguyen d.c:

Thii nh/ii, cac cong viec 'duoc trinh bay trong mot nut (hinh chir nhat). Nhiing thong tin trong hinh chir nhat geSm ten cong viec, ngay bat dau, ngay ket thuc va d(J dai thoi gian thuc hien cong viec.

Thit hai, cac mui ten chi thuan tuy xac dinh thtr tu truce sau cua cac cong viec,

Thit ba, tiCt ca cac di~m nut, trrr di~m nut cu6i cung, d~u c6 it nh{(t mot di~m nut dung sau. Tat ca cac di@m, trir di8m mit dftu tien, d€u co it nhat mot di@m nut dung truce.

Thli tu, trong sd deS mang chi co mot ditim nut (su kien) dftu tien va mqt di~m nut (su kien) cuoi cung.

Vi du, hinh 4.2 trinh bay mang cong viec thea phuong phap AON d6i vdi du an K So deS nay duoc ve theo chuong trinh quan If d1.,1 an Winproject 9.0 (Microsoft Project 2002) .

SI.vt, 3/1,,05 10, J '~""·lI1B/05 C>.ir: 1<1.0,.. lies.

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lies'

Start: 4/[l/~ m· 5 f~lSI'1:. -4/13/05 Dur J ~ nes.

duoc nhuoc di~m nay va chu y diiy du hon Wi nhirng moi quan he cong viec sau day:

1. Quan h¢ "bat diiu vdi bat dau''

A

B

Cong viec B chi co th~ biit dau khi cong viec A da thuc hien it nhat 5 ngay,

2. Quan h¢ "hoan thanh vdi hoan thanh"

A I

~--------------~

B

..

Cham nhat la 6 ngay k~ til thci di~m c6ng viec A hoan thanh, cong viec B cling phai xong.

3. Quan h~ "bAt diiu vdi hoan thanh"

A

B

C6ng viec B chi co th~ duoc bat d§.u khi c6ng viec A da hoan thanh it nhat 3 ngay.

4. Quan h~ " ket thuc vdi biit d<1u"

B

A

10

Thai gian phai hoan thanh hai cong viec A va B Iii 10 ngay, tinh tu khi bat d<1u c6ng viec A cho den khi ket thuc

cong viec B.

Nhirng phuong phap xay dung so do m~ng khac, tuy c6 chu y d<1y du hon den nhung m6i quan h~ neu tren nhung lai c6 nhung nhuoc di~m rna hai phuong phap AOA va AON khong mac phai, Tinh uu viet cua hai phucng phap AOA va AON Iii hen hAn. Mat khac, trong m(lt so' truong hQP, khi thiet ke so do mang theo AOA va AON vfin co th~ thoa man ducc mQt so' quan h~ neu tren. Do d6, giao trinh nay t?P trung trinh bay hai phuong phap co ban AOA va AON.

II. Ki THU~T TONG QUAN vA DANH GIA nl)' AN (PERT .. PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE) vA PHUONG PHAp otroxo GANG (CRITICAL PATH METHOD .. CPM)

MQt trong nhimg kg thuat co ban d~ quan Iy tien dQ du an la kg thuat tang quan va danh gia du an (PERT) va phucng phap duong gang (CPM). Kg thuat tang quan va danh

gia du an l<1n d£u tien duoc stt dung trong hai quan My vao nam 1958 d~ l(l_p kg hoach va quan ly chuong trinh phat tri~n ten Ilia xUYEm luc dia, Tharn gia chuong trinh c6 khoang 200 nha cung ling, 9000 nha thau, hang ngan nha bac h9C va cong nhan ky thuat bac cao. Dl,1 kien thuc hien chuong trinh trong 7 narn. Nho ap dung kl thuat quan Iy du an nen thai gian thuc hien du an da giam xuong chi' con 4 narn.

Phuong phap dircng gang (CPM) duoc Cong ty Dupont va Remington Rand phat tri~n trong cling rnQt thai ky d§ tro giup viec quan Iy xay dung va bao tri cac nha may hoa chat. Tuy co nhimg net khac nhau, vi du, PERT xern thai gian thuc hien cac cong viec du an la mot dai IUQng bien d6i nhung co th8 xac dinh duoc nho ly thuyet xac suat con CPM lai sit dung cac uoc Iucng thai gian xac dinh, nhung ca hai ky thuat deu chi ro moi quan h¢ lien tuc giua cac cong viec, deu dAn den tinh toan duong gang, cung chi ra thai gian du tru cua cac cong viec, Do vay, trong cac sach bao khi de cap de'n phuong phap quan ly tien dQ ngudi ta thuong viet crong thoi ten cua hai phuong p.hap (PERT! CPM). V8i muc dich ehinh la gioi thieu ban cha"t cua ky thuat quan ly tien dQ du an nen phan duoi day trinh bay nhirng nQi dung co ban, nhirng uu

? ? II)

diem nOI trQi cua hai phuong phap rna khong di sau phan

biet slJ. khac nhau giira phuong phap nay va phuong phap kia trong qua trinh sit dung.

Ve phuong phap thuc hien, co 6 bUGC cd ban duoc ap dung chung cho c? PERT va CPM:

1. Xac dinh cac cong' viec (nhiem vu) c~n thuc hi$n cua du an.

2. Xac dinh moi quan h~ va trinh tu thuc hien cac cong

viec,

3. Ve so db mang cong viec.

4. Tinh toan thoi gian va chi phi Lioc tinh cho tung cong

viec du an.

5. Xac dinh thci gian du tru cua cac cong viec va S1,i kien,

6. Xac dinh duong gang.

Dudi day trinh bay mot s6 nQi dung co ban cua hai phucng phap,

1. xev dllng so do PERT/CPM

PERT la mQt mang cong viec, bao gbm cac su kien va cong viec, Theo phircng phap ADA, m6i cong viec duoc th8 hien bang mot doan th~ng nol 2 dinh (su kien) va co miii ten chi huong, Cac sukien dU'Qc bi~u di~n bang vong tron (nut) va duoc danh s6 lien tuc thea chieu tu trai sang phai va tren xuong dudi, do do, d~u mfii ten c6 so IOn hen duoi miii ten. MQt so db PERT chi co mQt di@m dAu (su kien dAu) va mQt di~m cu6i (su kien cu6i).

Phirong phap trinh bay PERT

- Hai cong vi~c noi tiep nhau. Cong viec b chi co th8 b.it dc1u khi cong viec a da hoan thanh.

(0f---_a_(5_n_ga_' y_) -.-.!0 b (3 ngay) ~

- Hai cong vi~c hiji tu: Hai cong vi~c a va b c6 th@ bitt dAu khong cling thdi di@m nhung lai cling hoan thanh tai mqt thoi di~m (sir kien 3)

(0

- Hai cong vi~c thuc hifn d6ng thai. Cong viec a va b dgu bitt dAu duoc thuc hien cling met thoi di~m (til S1j kien 2)

b (2 tuan>-----,

. - Cong vi~c (Bien) gia. Cong viec gia Ia mqt cong viec khong co thuc, khong doi hoi thdi gian va chi phi d~ thuc hien nhung no co tao dung chi ro m6i quan h~ trudc sau giua cac cong viee va su kien trong so db PERT. Vi du, bie'n X trong hinh d1..toi cho biet cong viec d chi bAt dAu duoc thuc hien khi ca 2 cong viec a va b dii hoan thanh.

a (4 tuan) ~, c (2 tuan) ~ .! X

~,

b (3 tuan) ~

d (6 tuan)

Khi thiet lap so db mang, g?P tinh huong S11 dung bien gia, neu kh6ng duoc chu y dung muc se dan den tinh trang ve sai va hau qua la nhimg noi dung quan ly du an dua tren co sCi so db mang nhu quan ly nhan luc, chi phi... cung se bi sai lech, Dudi day la m9t so trucng hop xay dung so db mang c6ng viec co su dung bien gia thucng hay bi sai sot.

Truong hap 1.- Sa do' rnang sit dung mot bien gid

Cong Cong
vi~c Vasai Va dung
vi~c tn/de
A A ~
B ~t 0
c A,B
B B~ Truong hop 2: Sa do' mang sit dung hai bien gid

Cong Cong
vi~e Vasai Va dung
vi~c tntac
A
B
C
0 A
F C
E A,B
: .:.
·87"
Truong hop 3: Sa ad mang kh6ng nen. szl dung nliieu bien gia neu c6 thi rut bat

Vesai

Cong vi~c tntcc

Cong vj~c

Ve dung

A C

B A,C o C

E A

Truimg hop 4: Mf)t so d6 mang chi c6 mot die'm ctc1u

va die"m cuoi
Cong Cong
vi~c vi.c Vesai Vi! dung
tn/ac
A
B
C
D A.B,C
E A,B Hinh 4.3. M9t s6~ trztiJng hC/p sri: d,!ng bien gia

..

Nguyen t~e danh so cac s1f. ki~n

Dimh s6 dung thu tl,l' cac s-.:J kien se co tao dung quan trong khi xAp xep trinh tl,l' cac c6ng viec va kh6ng bi thieu hoac sai sot khi phan b6 nguon luc cho cac c6ng viec du an.

D~ danh so dung cac su kien trong so do PERT, cftn twin thu nhirng nguyen t~c sau:

• Danh so thea trinh ttj cac su kien til tren xuong dudi, til trai qua phai.

• Su kien (; d§_u rnui ten mang so lOn hon su kien a duoi mui ten.

• Khi g<',lp su kien co nhieu mui ten den thi quay ve danh so cac su kien binh thuong nam tren cac dudng khac, Chi danh so cac s1,1 kien c6 nhieu mui ten cung den khi cac su kien d duoi nhimg miii ten nay da duoc danh so.

Vi d1,1 so do 4.4 trinh bay thu tv danh so cac su kien cua du an KM thea nhimg nguyen t:ic neu tren,

g

a

f

e,

Hinh 4.4. Thit tu danh so' cdc su kien eua du an KM

l1li ..,.

Vi du v~ phuong phap xay dy'ng sd dB PERT

Hay xay dung so do PERT cho chuong trinh binh thttdng cua du {m M voi soli$u cho trong bang 4.2.

Cong Cong vi~e Chtld'ng trinh binh thl.lCfng ChLfdng trinh d&y nhanh
ThCfi glan Chi phi ThCfi gian Chi phi
vi~e tn/de (tuan) (trieu dong) (tuan) (tri~u dong)
a · 5 30 3 50
b · 7 40 4 55
c · 6 45 5 60
d a 5 30 4 38
e b 4 20 2 32
t b 3 20 2 37
g c 6 50 3 71
h d,e 8 55 6 63
i d,e 5 30 4 33
k g, t, h 7 10 4 37
m i, k 3 10 3 10
T5ng 340 486 Biing4.2. Chuang trinh binb thuiJng va chunng trinh day nhanh eua d¥ an M

So db PERT eho chuong trinh binh thucng cua du an M duoc trinh bay trong Hinh 4.5.

d(5)

i(5)

a(5)

e(4)

h(8)

b(7)

c(6)

L..._,....-_ ....... ~ Thai gian thirc hien cong viec L....----- .. Ten cong viec

Hinh 4.5. Ba d6 PERT cho cliuang trinh binh. th.uitng eua d¥anM

Tuy nhien, theo phuong phap AON eo th~ ve duoc mot so d6 mang cong viec cua du an M nhu hinh 4.6 (Hinh 4.6 18. so d6 mang cong viec do phan mern quan ly du an Microsoft Project 2002 ve).

'Stw!:']o/1",ijlD: j ~:lll.l,'l:Dur.~1iar'

H:...·,.""·rn,.

~·~I~,.,.[ OUr. ~~

.... '------'

~:l_J.'VllIIJ: ~ .FlIIII.I.,·tlnIl:Dur:1~

...

....

Y :....,'''' ....

1'tIw/I(~t:¥)1WJII.

...

SlIM: H:nIG I): ~. ~:'UiI'M Durl!-~ .. ,

Hinh. 4.6. Sa de) mq,ng cong vi~c cho chuang trinh binh thuimg cua d'l an M ve thea phuang phtip AON

2. DtJ tinh thai gian thuc hi~n tling cong vi~c

C6 hai phuong phap chinh d~ du tinh thoi gian thuc hien cac cong viec: phuong'phap tat dinh va phudng phap ngAu nhien, Phuong phap ta't dinh bo qua ye'u to bat dinh trong khi phuong phap ng&u nhien tfnh den su tac d¢ng cua cac nhan to ng§.u nhien khi du tinh thci han thuc hien cac cong viec.

Phuong phap ngAu nhien

Trong khi l$-p ke hoach tien dQ. viec du an hoan thanh vao mot ngay nao do la mot yeu to' bat dinh vi no chiu tac dQng cua nhieu yeu to' ng§.u nhien .. Mac du kh6ng th~ biet chac chan ngay cu th8 nao la ngay hoan thanh du an nhung cac nha quan ly du an co th8 du tinh duqc ngay sam nhat va ngay muon nhat tung c6ng viec va do d6 toan b<) cac c6ng viec du an phai hoan thanh, Tren co Sd nay, S11 dung cac phucng phap toan hoc co th8 xac dinh tuong dOl chinh xac ngay du an se hoan thanh. Gia S11 thoi gian hoan thanh tung cong viec nhu sau: thoi gian cue dai . thoi gian du tinh bi quan tuong (tng trucng hop c6ng viec tien hanh trong digu kien kh6ng thuan lei la a, thoi gian cue ti~u - thoi gian du tinh lac quan tuong (tng truorig hop tien hanh thuan lei la b va thoi gian hoan thanh cong viec . tucng ling truong hop du an ti~n hanh binh thuong la m. Ghi dinh thoi gian hoan thanh tung cong viec du an twin theo quy luat phan phci p thi gia tri trung binh (thoi gian trung binh d8 Lhuc hien tung cong viec) duoc tinh nhu sau:

Te = a + 4m + b 6

GiS. s11 thoi gian hoan thanh cua cac c6ng viec du an bien dQng tuan theo quy lu<itt· chuan va gia tri trung binh trong phan ph6i chuan (tuong ung voi thdi gian trung binh d day) lit thdi gian hoat dQng ky vong theo duong gang thi dai luong z trong phan phol chuan duoc tinh nhu sau:

S-D z=-a

Trong d6:

S : Thci gian du kien hoan thanh toan b(J du an.

D : D(J dai thoi gian hoan thanh cac cong viec gang.

a : Dg lech chuan cua thci gian hoan thanh cac cong viec gang.

Khi d6:

i 13. cong viec gang.

Nhu vay, khi phuong sai cang Ion thi tinh khong chao chan ve thoi gian hoan thanh du an tang.

Gilt 8U cac cong viec d(Jc lap nhau thi thoi gian hoan thanh cit! an lit tang thoi gian ky vong thuc hien cac cong viec tren tuyen gang va phuong sai hoan thanh cit! an cimg lit t6ng phuong sai cua cac cong viec tren tuye'n gang d6.

n

a2(TJ == L a;

i

Trong do:

02 (T): Phuong sai hoan thanh du an.

i : la cac cong viec gang.

a}: Phuong sai cua cac cong viec gang va duoc tinh

nhu sau:

2_(b-a )2 a - --

I 6

Vi du, cho du an nhu hinh 4.7. Ba udc luong thci gian cua mlii cong viec eho trong bang 4.3. Hay tim xac suat hoan thanh du an trong vong 14 ngay.

d

a

g

e

b

c

h

f

Hinh 4.7. Sa do' PERT eua d,! an K Gilti: Trttac tien tinh Te va 0-2

Thai gian Thai gian Thai gian Thai gian
c~c cl/c , thOng
trung binh PhLfC1ng sal
Cong d~i ti~u thlblg
vi~c (ngay) (ngay) (ngay) (ngay)
(a) (b) (m) - (Te) if
---~
DlIOng a-dog, daj 11, 16 ngay
a 5 1 3 3 0,444
d 6 2 4 4 0,444
9 6 3 4 4,166 0,25 Dl!ong b-e-q, dai 13,16 ngay
b 7 1 4 4 1
e 8 2 5 5 1
9 8 1 4 4,166 1,361
f)l!ong c- f- h, dai 10,83 ngay
c 4 2 3 3 0,111
---
f 5 3 4 4 0,111
h 5 3 4 3,83 0,25 Being 4.3. Tinh thai gian tliuc hi¢n c6ng vi~c thea ph.uang phap ngdu nhien.

Duong gang la ducng noi cac cong viec b-e-g co t6ng chieu dai la 13,16 ngay. Phuong sai cac cong viee tren duong gang 1a 3,36 ngay.

Tinh Z:

14 -13.166

z:;------

0,4545

1,833

Tra bang phan ph6i chuan (bang 4.4) nhu sau: Theo cQt z tim gia tti 0,4, sau do tim gia tr] narn tren giao di~m cua dong co gia tri 0,4 vdi cQt 0,05 ta tim duqc p la 0,6736 tire 67,36%. Vf!y xac suat holm thanh d1J' an trong thoi han 14 ngay 13. 67,36%.

z 00 0,01 0,02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
00 0.5000 0.5040 0.5080 0.5120 0.5160 0.5199 0.5239 0.5279 0.5319 0.5359
0.1 0.5398 0.5438 0.5478 0.5517 0.5557 0.5996 0.5635 0.5675 0.5714 0.5753
0.2 0.5793 0.5832 0.5871 0.591 0.5948 0.5987 0.6026 0.6064 0.6103 0.6141
0.3 0.6179 0.6217 0.6255 0,6293 0.6331 0.6368 0.6406 0.6443 0.648 0.6517
0.4 0.6554 0.6591 0.6628 0.6664 0.67 0.6736 0,6772 0.6808 0.6844 0.6879
0.5 0.6915 0.695 0.6985 0.7019 0.7054 0.7088 0.7123 0.7157 0.7191 0.7224
0.6 0.7257 0.7291 0.7324 0.7357 0.7389 0.7422 0.7454 0.7486 0.7517 0.7549
0.7 0.758 0.7611 0.7642 0.7673 0.7704 0.7734 0.7764 0.7794 0.7823 0.7852
0.8 0.7881 0.791 0.7939 0.7967 0.7995 0.8023 0.8051 0.8078 0.8106 0.8133
0.9 0.8159 0.8186 0.8212 0.8238 0.8264 0.8289 0.8315 0.834 0.8365 0.8389
1 0.8413 0.8438 0.8461 0.8485 0.8508 0,8531 0,8554 0.8577 0.8599 0.8621
1.1 0.8643 0.8665 0.8686 0.8708 0.8729 0.8749 0.877 0.879 0.881 0.888
1.2 0.8849 0.8869 0.8888 0.8907 0.8925 0.8944 0.8962 0.898 0.8997 0.9015
1.3 0.9032 0.9049 0.9066 0,9082 0.9099 0.9115 0.9131 0.9147 0.9162 0,9177
1.4 0.9192 0.9207 0.9222 0.9236 0.9251 0.9265 0.9279 0.9292 0.9306 0.9319
..
1.5 0.9332 0,9345 0.9357 0,937 0.9382 0.9394 0.9406 0.9418 0.9429 0.9441
1.6 0.9452 0.9463 0.9474 0.9484 0,9495 0.9505 0.9515 0.9525 0.9535 0.9545
1.7 0.9554 0.9564 0.9573 0.9582 0.9591 0.9599 0.9608 0.9616 0.9625 0.9633 1.8 0.9641 0.9649 0.9656 0.9664 0.9671 0.9678 0.9686 0.9693 0.9699 0.9706

1.9 0.9713 0.9719 0.9726 0.9732 0.9738 0.9744 0.975 0.9756 0.9761 0.9767

2 0.9772 0.9778 0.9783 0.9788 0.9793' 0.9798 0.9803 0.9809 0.9812 0.9817

2.1 0.9821 0.9826 0.983 0.9834 0.9838 0.9842 0.9846 0.985 0.9854 0.9857

2.2 0.9861 0.9864 0.9868 0.9872 0.9875 0.9878 0.9881 0.9884 0.9887 0.989

2.3 0.9893 0.9896 0.9898 0.9901 0.9904 0.9906 0.9909 0.9911 0.9913 0.9916

2.4 0.9918 0.992 0.9932 0.9925 0.9927 0.9929 0.9931 0.9932 0.9934 0.9936

2.5 0.9938 0.994 0.9941 0.9943 0.9945 0.9946 0.9948 0.9949 0.9951 0.9952

2.6 0.9953 0.9955 0.9956 0.9957 0.9959 0.996 0.9961 0.9962 0.9963 0.9964

2.7 0.9965 0.9966 0.9967 0.9968 0.9969 0.997 0.9971 0.9972 0.9973 0.9974 2.8 0.9974 0.9975 0.9976 0.9977 0.9977 0.9978 0.9979 0.9979 0.998 0.9981

2.9. 0.9981 0.9982 0.9982 0.9983 0.9984 0.9984 0.9985 0.9985 0.9986 0.9986

3 0.9987 0.9987 0.9987 0.9988 0.9988 0.9989 0.9989 0.9989 0.999 0.9989
3.1 0.9990 0.9991 0.9991 0.9991 0.9992 0.9992 0.9992 0.9992 0.9993 ~ 0.9993
3.2 0.9993 0.9993 0.9994 0.9994 0.9994 0.9994 0.9994 0.9995 0.9995 0.9995
3.3 0.9995 0.9995 0.9995 0.9996 0.9996 0.9996 0.9996 0.9996 0.9996 0.9997
3.4 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0:9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9998
. ___ ._._----_.--
Bang 4.4. Xac suat ticli luy cua phiit» ph6~ chuiin (difn
tick duol duimg cong tinh. tit - OCJ den z) Khi tinh xac suat hoan thanh du an dua tren thoi gian hoan thanh duong gang, nguoi ta da gia dinh: thoi gian hoan thanh toan bq du an chi phu thuoc VaG dq dai thoi gian hoan thanh cac c6ng viec gang. Tuy nhien, trong thuc te', d nhimg du an ldn, ngoai duong' gang la duong dai nhat, co ra't nhieu dirong khac rna dq dai g:ln bang' dircng gang. Trong nhirng dieu kien nhat dinh no co th4 trd thanh duong gang. Do vay, quan ly tie'n dq du an, can quan ly chat che kh6ng chi thdi gian thee duong gang rna con quan ly chat che ca. nhimg duong g:ln vdi duong gang. Tren phuong dien nay, khi tinh xac suat thoi gian hoan thanh du an, nguoi ta tfnh tich xac sua't thoi gian hoan thanh cua ca ducng gang va cac duong gAn vdi duong gang. Theo vi du tren, xac suat hoan thanh dirong' gang la 0,6736, dufmg a-dog la 0,996 va duong c-f-h Ia 1,0. V$-y xac suat hoan thanh du an thee phucng phap tfnh nay la 67,09% (0,6736 x 0,996 x 1,0 x 100%).

Trong vi du tren, each tinh xac suat hoan thanh du an thee duong gang va theo mqt t$-p hop nhieu dUdng gom ea dUdng gang va du'dng khong gang cho ke't qua gAn bAng nhau. Nhu vay, co th~ sit dung m9t trong hai phuong phap d4 tinh xac suat. Tuy nhien, kh6ng phai moi truong hQP deu dftn de'n ke't qua tucng tv. Vi~e sit dung phuong phap nao tuy thuoc VaG nhieu nhan to' nhu kinh nghiern quan ly cua can be) du an, dac di~m cua tUng loai hinh du an ...

Phuong phap tat dinh

Trong nhieu trucng hop, sO'li~u ve thoi gian thuc hien mot cong viec tucng tu nhau d nhieu du an duoc lap lai nhieu

M.n. Khi d6, thoi gian hoan thanh tung cong viec la gia tri trung binh cua tap hop s6li~u nay. Phuong phap xac dinh thoi gian thuc hien tung cong viec nhu vay goi la phuong phap ta't dinh.

Trong thuc te', ca phuong phap tat dinh va phuong phap ngau nhien thuong khong c6 slin so lieu ve thoi gian hoan thanh cac cong viec, Trong truong hop do nguoi ta co th~ s11 dung mc)t trong cac ki thuat sau:

• Phuong pluip rna dun: Theo phuong phap nay cac hoat dong duoc chia nho thanh cac thao taco T6ng thci gian thuc hien cac thao tac phan anh gia tri g§.n dung cua thoi gian can thie't thuc hien cong viec. Thoi gian thuc hien thao tac dttqc xay dung dua vao kinh nghiem thuc hien n6 trudc d6.

• Ki thugt dtinh. dtiu. c6ng vi~c: Khi thuc hien mot hay nhieu du €m se c6 nhieu cong viec chufrn duoc l~p lai. Tren co sa th6ng ke nhimg s6 lieu nay nguoi ta co th~ tinh diroc thoi gian trung binh thuc hien cong viec chuan va do d6, tinh duoc thoi gian hoan thanh cac cong viec du an.

• Ki thug,t tham so: Day 13. phuong phap ling dung cac mo hinh toan hoc, Tren co Sd xac dinh bien dqc l~p,,·tim mOl quan h¢ giira bien dQc lap va bien phu thuoc. MQt k"i thuat quan trong dung d~ xac djnh mOl quan he nay la phuong phap h6i quy. D\1a ~ao phucng phap h6i quy, xac dinh dude cac tham s6 ve thci gian hoan thanh cong viec.

Phirong phap dlj tinh thai gian cho tung cong vi~c

D~ du tinh thdi gian thuc hien tung cong viec mQt each co din cu khoa hoc, co th8 thuc hien cac buoc sau:

• Xay dung cac gia thiet lien quan den ngu6n luc, den holm canh tac dQng binh thuong,

• Du tinh thoi gian thuc hien cong viec dua vao ngu6n luc co th8 huy d9ng trong ke hoach.

• Xac dinh tuyen gang va d9 co dan thoi gian cua tung cong viec,

• So sanh thdi gian hoan thanh theo du tinh vci moe thdi han eho phep,

• Digu chinh cac yeu celu ngu6n luc khi d.n thiet,

3. Thai gian dt! trli cuo cec sl! ki~n (diem nut). Thai gian sam nhat va thai gian mu¢n nhat dct tai m¢t SI! ki~n

Cong thuc xac dinh thai gian sam nhat va thoi gian muon nhat dat tdi met su kien:

Ki hieu:

• tjj: dQ dai cung ij hay thdi gian thuc hien cong viec rna keo dai tu su kien i toi j (i la s1,1 kien truce, j la slf kien sau).

• Eij: thai gian sdm nhnt d8 dat toi su kien j tfnh til khi b&t dc1u du an (quang dircng dai nhat tinh tir su kien dc1u tien den su kien j).

• Ljj: thai gian cham nhat slj kien j phai xU11t hien rna khong lam cham tre viec hoan thanh d1,1 an.

Cong thuc tinh E,

E· = Max. (E· + t.)

J I I f

Vi du, tinh E; cho du an P ducc trinh bay trong Bang 4.5.

Chien dai toan tuyen lien tuc Thai gian
Slf Tinh Mn Tinh den su sum nhat
klen C6ng Thai sir kien dan kien cu6i cua dat Wi
( j ) viec gian cua cong viec c6ng viec su kien J
(ngay) nghlen cuu nghien ciiu (ngay)
1 0 0 0 0 0
2 1-2 5 0 5 5
3 1-3 7 0 7 7
-
4 1-4 6 0 6 G
--
2-5 5 5 10
5 11
3-5 4 7 11
5-6 8 11 19
.6 3-6 3 7 10 19
4-6 6 6 12
5-7 5 11 16
7 26
6-7 7 19 26
8 7-8 3 26 29 29 Bang 4.5. Tinh thai gian 80m nhiit dot tili cdc Sf! ki~n cua du an P

Cong thuc tinh L:

L· = Min, (L. - t.)

• J J f

Lcuo1 cung = DQ d al thai gian th\l'C hi~n d\l' an

Vi du, tinh L; cho du an P dUQc trinh bay trong Bang

4.6.

Chieu dai tcan tuyen !illn tl:le
Thai gian
SI! Tfnh den sl! Tfnh den sl! rnuen nhat
ki~n Thai ki~n euoi ella ki~n dau eua
Cong gian d~ttdi sl!
(1) vi~e (ngay) eong vi~e eong vi~e ki~n J (ngay)
nghilln eUu nghilln eCtu
8 0 0 0 - 29
7 7-8 3 29 26 26
6 6-7 7 26 19 19
5-7 5 26 21
5 11
5-6 8 19 11
4 4-6 6 19 13 13
3-5 4 11 7
3 7
3-6 3 19 16
2 2-5 5 11 6 6
1-2 5 6 1
1 1-3 7 7 0 0
1-4 6 13 7
-.-- Bang 4.6. Tinh tha! gian muon. nhfit dq.t tiJi cdc slf ki~n cua dlf an P

Y nghia eua vi~c tinh E va L

Vi~c tinh toan thoi gian sdm nhat va thoi gian muon nhat co tac dung:

.... ., ~:=??

.: ~ : <

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