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chuyen de boi duong hoc sinh gioi hoa 12

chuyen de boi duong hoc sinh gioi hoa 12

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Chuyªn ®Ò båi dìng ho¸ häc khèi 12.
VÊn ®Ò 1: rîu - phªnol- !in
1"1: #îu:
1"1"1: $h¸i ni%!: Rîu lµ hîp chÊt hu c! trong ph"n t# c$ m%t
ha& nhi'u nh$m hi(ro)&l *+,-. li/n k0t tr1c ti0p 23i ngu&/n t#
cacbon no c4a g5c hi(rocacbon.
C6ng th7c ph"n t# t8ng 9u:t c4a rîu; #&'()
*
+ *≥1 nguyªn"
-a& C
n
(
2n,2-2-*
&'()
*
trong ($ a lµ <5 li/n k0t pi 2µ 2=ng *a ≥>?
)≥@ ngu&/n..
@+ A0u a B > ta (îc rîu no;
+ ) B @ c$ rîu no (!n ch7c; C
n
-
CnD@
+,- * gEi lµ Fnkanol..
+ ) G @ c$ rîu no (a ch7c; C
n
-
CnDC+)
*,-.
)
.*gEi lµ poliankol..
C+ A0u a G > ta (îc rîu kh6ng no;
+ ) B @ c$ rîu kh6ng no (!n ch7c; C
n
-
CnD@+Ca
,-.
+ )

G @ c$ rîu kh6ng no (a ch7c; C
n
-
CnDC+Ca+)
*,-.
)
.
C$ thH 2i0t CIIJ; C
)
-
&
,
K
23i &≤C)DC? & chLn.
V- d.1:
@+ F 2µ M lµ C hîp chÊt hu c! ch7a CN,N- trong ph"n t#.
Irong F 2µ M ('u ch7a OP?QRCST ,)i 2' kh5i lîng. -U& ):c (Vnh
CICI c4a F 2µ M bi0t I
>
<6i c4a F lµ QR?O
>
C? c4a M lµ +PS
>
C.
C+ W5t ch:& hoµn toµn S gam m%t rîu F cXn @>?>R lYt o)i
*(ktc. 2µ thu (îc Q?C gam -
C
,. -U& ):c (Vnh CIZI c4a rîu tr/n[
H íng dÉn ; dÔ t×m ®îc CT§GN lµ (C
3
H
8
O)
n
v× 8n≤ 3n.2+2 = n≤
! = CT"T c#$ %î& lµ C
3
H
8
O = C
3
H
'
OH.
V- d. 2; \%t rîu no (a ch7c c$ <5 ngu/n t# cacbon b]ng <5
ngu&/n t# o)i trong ph"n t#. ^:c (Vnh CIZI c4a rîu tr/n bi0t t_
kh5i c4a rîu <o 23i kh6ng khY nh` thua O?C.
/- d.0; C$ m%t rîu (a ch7c no F c$ CIZI lµ C
)
-
&
,
K
23i & B C)DK
c$ d
Fabb
c O. -U& ):c (Vnh CIZI c4a rîu F[
H íng dÉn : ( lµ %î& n) = CT"TT* c#$ ( lµ C
n
H
2n+2+,
(

OH)
,
-=
C
n
H
2n+2
O
,
. T./) 0µ1 %$ 2= 2,+3 = 2n+2 = 2n+, = ,=2 = (
lµ C
n
H
2n+2
O
2
. 4
(
= 3.25 = 8' = n - 36'
+ n=2 = C
2
H
7
O
2
= CH
2
(OH)+CH
2
(OH).
+ n=3 = C
3
H
8
O
2
= CH
2
(OH)+CH(OH)+CH
3
.)8c CH
2
(OH)+CH
2
+
CH
2
(OH).
@
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V- d. 1: CIZI c4a m%t rîu F lµ C
n
-
m
,
)
. -U& ):c (Vnh mdi 9uuan
he c4a m?n (H F lµ rîu no[ If ($ rgt ra CIIJ chung c4a c:c rîu
no bÊt kh[
H íng dÉn 9 ( c: t.; v1<t C
n
H
m+,
(OH)
,
. CT"T c#$ %î& n) lµ C
n
H
2n+2+,
O
,
= §; ( lµ %î& n) -= m+, = 2n+2+, -= m=2n+2.
V- d. 2: \%t rîu no (a ch7c c$ <5 ngu&/n t# cacbon b]ng <5
ngu&/n t# o)i trong ph"n t#. -U& ):c (Vnh CIZI c4a rîu tr/n[
Mi0t d
Rîuabb
c O?C.
V- d. 3: @+ W5t ch:& hoµn toµn i thH tYch rîu no ^ cXn C?ji thH
tYch o)i trong ckng (i'u kien.
C+ W5t ch:& hoµn toµn @ mol h!i rîu no F cXn 2fa (gng O?j
mol o)i trong ckng (i'u kien. -U& ):c (Vnh CIZI? CICI c4a F[
H íng dÉn 9 G=1 > lµ C
n
H
2n+2
O
,
t%)ng ®: n ≥ ,6 n vµ , ng&2?n d@ng.
".@ng t%×n. A.Bn Cng C
n
H
2n+2
O
,
+ (3n+!+,)D2 O
2
++++ nCO
2
+
(n+!)H
2
O .
T./) 0µ1 %$ vµ "T"E c:9 (3n+!+,) = 36F = , = 3n+7 ≤ n = n≤
3.
+ n=! = ,=+3 l)G1.
+ n=2 = ,=H l)G1.
+ n=3 = ,=3 = ( lµ C
3
H
8
O
3
= CH
2
(OH)+CH(OH)+CH
2
(OH).
Mét sè chó ý khi gi¶i bµi tËp ®èt ch¸y r îu :
C
n
-
CnDC+Ca
,
)
D *OnD@+a+).aC ,
C
+++G nC,
C
D *nD@+a.-
C
,.
Iheo ptp ta c$;
+ A0u n-
C
,anC,
C
G@ cBG *n+aD@.an G @ cBG aB> BG rîu (em
(5t lµ rîu no.
+ A0u n-
C
,anC,
C
B @ cBG *n+aD@.an B @ cBG aB@ BG rîu (em
(5t lµ rîu kh6ng no ch7a @ li/n k0t pi holc rîu no ch7a @ 2=ng.
Iheo ptp ta lu6n c$; n,
C
anC,
C
B *OnD@+)+a.an ≤ @?j 23i mEi n≥)
≥@ nguu&/n? a ≥ >.
+ A0u n,
C
anC,
C
B @?j cBG *OnD@+)+a.an B @?j cBG aB> 2µ )B@
BG rîu (em (5t lµ rîu no (!n ch7c.
Rîu kh6ng no (!n ch7c
*aB@? )B@.
+ A0u n,
C
aC,
C
c @?j c$ thH lµ;++ Rîu no (a ch7c *aB>?
)G@.
Rîu kh6ng no (a ch7c
*aG@? )G@..
C
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bhi c$ hdn hîp rîu ta gEi c:c rîu ($ b]ng m%t CIIW C
n
-
CnDC+Ca+K
*,-.
K
ta c$;
n
tb
B n
@
)
@
Dn
C
)
C
D... n
i
)
i
.
a
tb
B a
@
)
@
D a
C
)
C
D ... n
i
)
i
.
K
tb
B K
@
)
@
D K
C
)
C
D ... K
i
)
@
.
trong ($; n
@
? n
C
? ...n
i
lµ <5 ngu&/n t# C c4a rîu @?C...i.
a
@
? a
C
? ...a
i
lµ <5 li/n k0t pi 2µ 2=ng c4a c:c rîu t!ng 7ng
@?C?...i.
K
@
? K
C
? ... K
i
lµ <5 nh$m *+,-. c4a c:c rîu t!ng 7ng
@?C?...i.
)
@
? )
C
?...)
i
lµ thµnh phXn T <5 mol ha& thH tYch c4a c:c rîu t+
!ng 7ng @?C...i.
V- d. 1: W5t ch:& hoµn toµn CO gam rîu F (îc PP gam C,
C
2µ CQ
gam -
C
,. ):c (Vnh CICI c4a F[
H íng dÉn 9 nH
2
ODnCO
2
! = ( lµ %î& n).
mC=!2.nCO
2
= !2(g)I mH=2nH
2
O = 3(g)I mO= 23+!2+3 = 8(g).
G=1 CT"T c#$ ( lµ C
,
H
2
O
3
= ,9293 = !2D!293D!98D!7 = 2979! = (
lµ (C
2
H
7
O)
n
. J× $ lµ %î& n) = 7n=2.2n + 2 = n=! = CT"T
c#$ ( lµ C
2
H
7
O = CH
3
+CH
2
+OH.
V- d. 2: -dn hîp ^ gmm C rîu ckng (mng (nng. W5t ch:& h0t C
thH tYch ^ cXn P?j thH tYch o)i thu (îc O thH tYch C,
C
o ckng
(k. ^:c (Vnh CIZI c:c rîu trong ^. Mi0t rîu c$ nhi'u ngu&/n t# C
h!n chi0m khopng P>T (0n j>T thH tYch hdn.
H íng dÉn 9 G=1 2 %î& 0Kng ! %î& t@ng ®@ng C
n
H
2n+2+2$
O
,
.
C
n
H
2n+2+2$
O
,
+ (3n+!+$+,)D2O
2
++++ nCO
2
+ (n+!+$)H
2
O.
T./) 0µ1 %$ c:9 nO
2
DnCO
2
= L6FD3 = !6F = > gMm 2 %î& n) ®@n
c.Cc ($=H6 ,=!) = nCO
2
Dn> = J
CO2
DJ
>
= n
t0
D! = 3D2 = !6F = n
t0
= !6F = c: mNt %î& lµ CH
3
OH.
G=1 %î& O1$ lµ C
m
H
2m+!
OH (m≥2 ng&2?n) c: PQ m)l t%)ng ! m)l
.Rn .îA lµ , = nCH
3
OH =(!+,)m)l t$ c:9 n
t0
= m, + !(!+,) = !6F
= ,=H6FD(m+!). T./) 0µ1 %$ H6L-,-H6F = !6F-m-262F -=
m=2 = C
2
H
F
OH.
1"1"2: 4ång ph5n: c$ P loqi (mng ph"n;
+ Wmng ph"n 2' mqch cacbon; Ihnng? nh:nh? 2=ng.
+ Wmng ph"n 2' 2V trY li/n k0t b%i.
+ Wmng ph"n 2' 2V trY nh$m ch7c ,-.
+ Wmng ph"n 2' cÊu tqo *Ete? )eton? an(/hYt..
O
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V- d.: @+ W5t ch:& hoµn toµn >?QP gam m%t rîu r cXn @?OPP lYt
o)i *(ktc. thu (îc >?s gam -
C
,.ii0t c:c (mng ph"n c4a rîu r[
C+ii0t c:c (mng ph"n c$ thH c$ c4a hîp chÊt c$ CIZI lµ C
P
-
R
,.
a+ Wmng ph"n rîu; C-
C
BC-+C-
C
+C-
C
+,-N C-
O
+C-BC-+C-
C
+,-N
C-
C
BC-+C-*,-.+C-
O
N C-
C
C-
C
C-
C
C-+C-
C
+
,-
C-
C
+++++C-+++,- C-
C

...
b+ Wmng ph"n cÊu tqo;
+ Dqng an(ehit C-
O
+C-
C
+C-
C
+C-,N C-
O
+C-*C-,.+C-
O
.
+ Dqng )eton C-
O
+C*,.+C-
C
+C-
O
.
+ Dqng ete C-
O
+,+C-
C
+C-BC-
C
.
V- d. 2; -U& 2i0t c:c (mng ph"n c4a C
P
-
@>
2µ c4a hîp chÊt hu
c! c$ CIZI C
P
-
@>
,? <o <:nh <5 (mng ph"n c4a chgng 2µ gipi
thYch[

V- d. 0: bhi (5t ch:& h0t s gam -C-C F ch7a *C?-?,. cho toµn
b% <pn phtm 2µo dung dVch n3c 26i trong d thÊ& kh5i lîng bunh
tvng l/n CS?S gam 2µ )uÊt hien P> gam k0t t4a.
+ ^:c (Vnh CIZI c4a F[
+ ii0t c:c (mng ph"n c4a F? bi0t F lµ rîu[
H íng dÉn ; SÔ dµng t×m ®îc CTN c#$ ( lµ (C
2
H
F
O)n = Fn ≤
2.2n + 2 v× PQ ng&2?n tT H t%)ng ( A.B1 c.Un = n=2 = CT"T
c#$ ( lµ C
L
H
!H
O
2
.
1"1"0: 6ªn gäi:
a+ Danh ph¸p th«ng thêng; I/n rîu BrîuDI/n g5c hi(ro cacbon
t!ng 7ng D ic.
iY dw; C
C
-
j
,- ; rîu et&licN C
O
-
Q
,-; Rîu prop&licN C
j
-
@@
,-; Rîu
pent&lic....
b+ Danh ph¸p !"#$; I/n rîu B I/n hi(rocacbon t!ng 7ng D ol.
iY dw; C-
O
,-; \etanol C
C
-
j
,-; EtanolN C
O
-
Q
,-; ZropanolN
C
O
-
j
,-; Zropenol.
A0u o dqng CICI; ChEn mqch cacbon dµi nhÊt ch7a nh$m ch7c *+
,-. 2µ li/n k0t b%i lµm mqch chYnh. W:nh <5 th7 t1 tf phYa nµo
<ao cho nh$m *+,-. gxn 2µo ngu&/n t# C c$ <5 chy nh` nhÊt.
P
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zEi 2V trY mqch nh:nh? t/n mqch nh:nh? 2V trY li/n k0t b%i? t/n
mqch chYnh? 2V trY nh$m ch7c.
iY dw;
C-
O
+ C-
C
+C-
C
+,- ; Zropanol +@N
C-
O
+C-
C
*,-.+C-
C
+C-
O
; Mutanol+CN
C-
C
BC-+C-
C
+,- ; C+Zropenol+@
C-
C
+ C-*,-.+C*C-
O
.

*C-
O
.+C-
O
; O?O+ Wimet&l butanol+C.
C-
O
+C-*C-
O
.+C-BC-+C-
O
+,-; P+\et&l j+Zropenol+@.
iY dw;+ zEi t/n c:c (mng ph"n rîu c$ CIZI lµ C
P
-
@>
,.
c+ %Ëc c&a rîu; Ah$m ch7c ,- gxn 23i ngu&/n t# cacbon b{c nµo
thu gEi lµ rîu b{c ($.
+ Rîu b{c @; C-
O
+,-N C-
O
+C-*C-
O
.+C-
C
+,-N C-
C
BC*C-
O
.+C-
C
+,-...
+ Rîu b{c C; C-
O
+C-*,-.+C-
O
N C-
O
+C-*C-
O
.+C-*,-.+C-
O
.
+ Rîu b{c O; C-
O
+ C*C-
O
.*C-
O
.+,-N C-
C
BC-+C*C-
O
.*C-
O
.+,-...
d+ $¸c trêng hîp rîu kh«ng b'n;
+ Rîu c$ nh$m ch7c ,- gxn 23i ngu&/n t# C kh6ng no *ngu&/n t#
C li/n k0t b%i. o (i'u kien th|ng chgng kh6ng tmn tqi? mµ
chu&Hn thµnh an(hit holc )eton.
iY dw; C-
C
BC-+,- ++++++++G C-
O
+C-,N C-
C
BC-*C-
O
.+,- +++G C-
O
+
C*,.+C-
O
.
+ Rîu c$ C nh$m ch7c ,- li/n k0t 23i ckng m%t ngu&/n t# C chgng
kh6ng tmn tqi o (i'u kien th|ng 2µ t1 chu&Hn ho: thµnh <pn
phtm b'n lµ an(ehit? )eton holc a)it.
iY dw; R+C-+,- +++G R+C-, D -
C
,.
,-
,-
R+ C +,- +++++G R+C,,- D -
C
,.
,-
,-
R
@
+C+,- +++G R
@
+C*,. +R
C
D -
C
,.
R
C
1"1"1- 6-nh chÊ7 ho¸ häc c8 rîu:
1- 6¸c d.ng /9i ki! lo:i kiÒ!:
CR+*,-.
)
D C)\ ++++G CR+*,\.
)
D )-
C
.
A0u dung dVch rîu thu c$ th/m phpn 7ng; C\ D C-
C
, +++G
C\*,-. D -
C
.
j
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-olc CC
n
-
CnDC+Ca+)
*,-.
)
D C)\ +++G CC
n
-
CnDC+Ca+)
*,\.
)
D )-
C
.
+ A0u n-
C
B @aCnRîu B @aCn\ BG rîu phpn 7ng lµ rîu (!n ch7c.
+ A0u n-
C
≥ nRîu BG rîu phpn 7ng lµ rîu (a ch7c.
() *+,: + Cho s?C *g. rîu no F t:c dwng 2fa (4 23i natri kim loqi
thu (îc O?OS lYt khY *(ktc..
+ Wem j?R rîu kh6ng no M t:c dwng 23i kim loqi kali d? thu (îc @?@C
lYt khY *(ktc..
-U& ):c (Vnh CIZI?CICI c4a F 2µ M. Mi0t F c$ t_ kh5i <o 23i -
C

PS. M c$ t_ kh5i <o 23i metan lµ O?SCj.
H íng dÉn ; n
(
Dn
H2
= !D!6F - ! = ( lµ %î& n) ®$ c.Cc = ( c:
CT"T C
n
H
2n+2
O
,
= !Ln+2+!7, = 52 ®O n≥,.
+ ,=! +++ n='LD!L l)G1.
+ ,= 2 +++ n=F8D!L l)G1
+ ,= 3 +++ n=3 = C
3
H
F
(OH)
3
= CH
2
(OH)+CH(OH)+CH
2
(OH).
T@ng tV W lµ C
3
H
F
(OH) = CH
2
=CH+CH
2
+OH.
V- d. 2: Chia CC gam hdn hîp C rîu no (!n ch7c k0 ti0p nhau
thµnh C phXn b]ng nhau. phXn @ t:c dwng 2fa (4 23i kim loqi
natri thu (îc O?OS lYt khY *(ktc.. -U& ):c (Vnh CIZI C rîu 2µ
thµnh phXn T kh5i lîng c4a hdn hîp ban (Xu[
ZhXn C (5t ch:& hoµn toµn thu (îc i lYt C,
C
*(ktc. 2µ m gam
-
C
,. IYnh i 2µ m[
H íng dÉn ; G=1 CTT§ 2 %î& lµ C
n
H
2n+!
OH.
C
n
H
2n+!
(OH) + N$ ++++ C
n
H
2n+!
(

ON$) +!D2 H
2
.
nXî& = 2 nH
2
= 3637D226L.2 = H63 m)l = 4
Xî&
= !!DH63 = n
t0
=
LD3 = 2 %î& O< t1<A lµ CH
3
OH vµ C
2
H
F
OH.
TYn. t.µn. A.Zn [9
C\c. !9 G=1 , lµ PQ m)l c#$ CH
3
OH c: t%)ng ! m)l .Rn .îA = PQ
m)l c#$ C
2
H
F
OH lµ (!+,) m)l6 c: n
t0
= ,.! + 2(!+,) = LD3. =
,=2D3. = [ CH
3
OH = 2D3.32D4
t0
= H6F8!8 = [ C
2
H
F
OH =
H6L!8.
C\c. 29 G=1 PQ m)l c#$ CH
3
OH c: t%)ng .Rn .îA lµ , = nC
2
H
F
OH
lµ H63+, = 32., + L7(H63+,) = 22D2 +++ ,=H62. = [ CH
3
OH=...
[C
2
H
F
OH= ...
0+ T$ c: J
CO2
=H63n
t0
. 226L= ....
m
H2O
= H63(n
t0
+!).!8 = ...
V- d. 0; -dn hîp ^ gmm rîu et&lic 2µ @ rîu M ckng (mng (nng 23i
rîu et&lic? c$ kh5i lîng m
^
B @R?R *g.. ^ t:c dwng 23i Aa d tqo ra j?S
lYt khY *(ktc.. ^:c (Vnh ctpt 2µ ctct c4a rîu M 2µ T kh5i lîng hdn
hîp ^[
S
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V- d. 1: Chia hdn hîp hai rîu no mqch ho F 2µ M lµm C phXn b]ng
nhau.
ZhXn @; I:c dwng h0t 23i Aa d thu (îc >?RsS lYt khY *(ktc..
ZhXn C; W5t ch:& hoµn toµn thu (îc O?>S gam n3c 2µ j?CR gamkhY
C,
C
. ^:c (Vnh CICI c4a C rîu bi0t r]ng khi (5t i thH tYch c4a
F holc M ('u thu (îc kh6ng 9u: Oi thH tYch C,
C
o ckng (k.
H íng dÉn ; G=1 ( vµ W 0Kng CTT§ C
n
H
2n+2
O
,
. T./) 0µ1 %$ vµ At t$ c:
(n
t0
+!)Dn
t0
= nH
2
ODnCO
2
= H6!'DH6!2 = n
t0
= 26L. T./) AtA n
Xî&
=
nCO
2
Dn
t0
= H6!2D26L = H6HF = n
H2
= H6HF,
t0
D2 = H6HL = ,
t0
=
!67. S) 3 n
t0
= 26L = c: mNt %î& lµ C
3
H
8
O
$
vµ c: mNt %î& c: PQ
ng&2?n tT C n.] .@n 26L = CH
3
OH .)8c C
2
H
F
OH .)8c
C
2
H
L
(OH)
2
.
+ N<& 9 HRn .îA CH
3
OH vµ C
3
H
8
O
$
. n
t0
=!2 + 3(!+2)=26L =
2=H63 = ,
t0
= !67 = !.H63 + $.H6' = $ = !3D' l)G1.
+ N<& .Rn .îA C
2
H
F
OH vµ C
3
H
8
O
$
. n
t0
= 23 + 3(!+3) = 26L = 3
=H67 = ,
t0
= !67 = !.H67 + $.H6L = $=26F l)G1.
+ N<& .Rn .îA lµ C
2
H
L
(OH)
2
vµ C
3
H
8
O
$
. J× ,
t0
=!67 - 2 = $-!67
= $=!.
(.)8c9 n
t0
= 26L = 2t + 3(!+t) =t=H67 = ,
t0
= !67 = 2.H67 +
$.H6L = $=!.)
J^2 2 %î& ®: lµ 9 C
2
H
L
(OH)
2
vµ C
3
H
'
OH.
V- d. 2: Cho hdn hîp ^ gmm S?P gam rîu met&lic 2µ b mol hdn
hîp hai rîu no (!n ch7c (mng (nng li/n ti0p nhau. Chia ^ thµnh
hai phXn b]ng nhau.
ZhXn @; Cho t:c dwng h0t 23i Aa thu (îc P?PR lYt khY -
C
.
ZhXn C; W5t ch:& hoµn toµn rmi cho <pn phtm ch:& lXn lît 9ua hai
bunh kYn; Munh @ (1ng Z
C
,
j
? bunh C (1ng dung dVch Ma*,-.
C
d. Zhpn 7ng k0t thgc nh{n thÊ& bunh @ nlng th/m a gam? bunh
C nlng th/m *aDCC?Q. gam.
@+ ii0t ph!ng trunh phpn 7ng.
C+ ^:c (Vnh CIZI c4a C rîu. ii0t CICI c:c (mng ph"n lµ rîu c4a
hai rîu n$i tr/n[ zEi t/n[
O+ IYnh T kh5i lîng c:c chÊt trong hdn hîp ^[
(§H T.@ng 4G1 2HH!).
2- ;h<n =ng ®Òhi®r7 ho¸ &lo:i n9c):
a+ _)G1 níc t` mNt A.an tT %î&; Spn phtm lµ anken.

-CS,P ((? I G@Q>C
C
n
-
CnD@
,- +++++++++++++++++G C
n
-
Cn
D -
C
,.
iY dw;
-CS,P? I G @Q>C
C-
O
+C-
C
C-
C
+,- +++++++++++++++++++G C-
O
+C-BC-
C
D -
C
,.
Q
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^I?I
C-
C
BC-+C-
C
+C-
O
*<pp. D-
C
,
C-
O
+C-*,-.+C-
C
+C-
O
+++++++
C-
O
+C-BC-+C-
O
*<pc.D -
C
,
(bA t%$nP lµ c.# 2<&)
>ui 7?c @i*Ap9 c.1 l)G1 níc c#$ %î& t.× n.:m (+OH) & t1?n t\c.
cdng ví1 ng&2?n tT H c#$ c$c0)n 0^c c$).
$hó ý; Zhpn 7ng t:ch loqi n3c theo 9ui txc }ai)ep rmi c%ng hîp n3c
theo 9ui txc \a<kopnhikop lµ ngu&/n txc chu&Hn rîu b{c @
thµnh rîu b{c C 2µ rîu b{c@? b{c C thµnh rîu b{c b{c O.

^I? I
iY dw @; C-
O
+C-
C
+C-
C
+,- +++++++G C-
O
+C-BC-
C
D -
C
,.

^I? I
C-
O
+C-*,-.+C-
O
. *<pc.
C-
O
+C-BC-
C
D -
C
, ++++++
C-
O
+C-
C
+C-
C
+,- *<pp..

^I? I

iY dw C; C-
O
+C-+,- +++++++G C-
O
+ CBC-
C
D -
C
,.


C-
O
C-
O

^I? I
C-
O
+ CBC-
C
D -
C
, +++++++G C-
O
+ C*,-.+ C-
O




C-
O
C-
O
b+ ~oG1 níc t` .$1 A.an tT %î&; Spn phtm lµ ete.
D A0u tf C ph"n t# rîu gi5ng nhau;

-CS,P((? IB@P>C
R+,- D -,+R +++++++++++++++G R+,+R D -
C
,.

-CS,P((? IB@P>C
iY dw; C-
O
+,- D -,+C-
O
+++++++++++++G C-
O
+,+C-
O
D -
C
,.
A0u C rîu kh:c nhau;

-CS,P((? IB@P>C
R
@
+,+R
@
D -
C
,
R
@
+,- D-,+R
C
+++++++++++++++++++++ R
@
+,+R
C
D -
C
,
R
C
+,+R
C
D -
C
,.
iY dw; ~oqi n3c hdn hîp C rîu C-
O
+,- 2µ C
C
-
j
,- b]ng -
C
S,
P
(( 2µ
o @P>
>
C.
CC-
O
,- ++++++++++G C-
O
+,+C-
O
D -
C
,.
C-
O
+,- D -,+C
C
-
j
++++++++G C-
O
+,+C
C
-
j
. D -
C
,.
CC
C
-
j
+,- ++++++++G C
C
-
j
+,+C
C
-
j
D -
C
,.
N.^n ,et9 + Zhpn 7ng loqi n3c -
C
, c4a rîu tqo anken o nhiet (% I
G @Q>
>
C
R
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+ Zhpn 7ng loqi n3c c4a rîu tqo ete o nhiet (% I B
@P>
>
C.
+ W'u dkng -
C
S,
P
(( lµm chÊt )gc t:c 2µ hgt n3c.
+ A0u c$ ) rîu kh:c nhau thu <5 mol ete tqo ra t5i (a lµ )*)D@.aC
trong ($ c$ ) ete (5i )7ng. bhi ($ cXn chEn <5 mol c:c ete lµm
tn <5 ;
CR
@
,- ++++++++G R
@
,R
@
D -
C
,.
C) ) )
CR
C
,- +++++++++G R
C
,R
C
D -
C
,
C& & &
R
@
,- D -,R
C
++++++++G R
@
+,+R
C
D -
C
,
K K K K
" I8ng <5 mol Ete B I8ng <5 mol -
C
, B )D&DK B @aC n
rîu phpn 7ng
.
+ A0u <5 mol c:c ete b]ng nhau *)B&BK. BG <5 mol c:c rîu tham
gia phpn 7ng b]ng nhau. nR
@
,R
@
B nR
C
,R
C
B nR
@
,R
C
B)B&BK BG
nR
@
,- B nR
C
,- B O)BO&.
" Iheo (Vnh lu{t bpo toµn kh5i lîng;
m
Rîu bV ete ho:
B m
C:c ete
D m
-C,.
+ A0u rîu bV loqi n3c cho anken thu rîu ($ lµ no (!n ch7c c$ <5
ngu&/n t# C kh6ng nh` h!n C.
+ A0u loqi n3c boi hdn hîp C rîu c$ <5 ngu&/n t# C kh:c nhau mµ
chy cho ta @ anken thu m%t trong C rîu lµ C-
O
,-. BG C rîu c$
ckng <5 ngu&/n t# C khi bV loqi n3c *f !'H
H
C6 H
2
bO
L
®®) thu cho ta
ckng @ anken.
iY dw; C-
O
+C-
C
+C-
C
+,- ++++++++++G C-
C
BC-+C-
O
D -
C
,.
C-
O
+C-*,-.+C-
O
+++++++++++G C-
C
BC-+C-
O
D -
C
,.
ChB C: - Ih6ng th|ng phpn 7ng c%ng hîp -
C
, c4a anken 2µ loqi n+
3c c4a rîu )t& ra kh6ng hoµn toµn n/n <pn phtm t:ch loqi c4a n3c
rîu th|ng lµ hdn hîp; Fnken? ete? n3c 2µ rîu c=n d.
- A0u (mng th|i 2fa (/hi(rat ho: *t:ch -
C
,. 2fa (/hi(ro ho:
*t:ch -. thu <pn phtm lµ Fnka(ien.

FlC,O? IBPj>C.
iY dw; CC
C
-
j
,- ++++++++++++++++G C-
C
BC-+C-BC-
C
D C-
C
, D -
C
.
V- d. 1: (§g t.1 §H O.Q1 ( nhm 2HHL).
V- d. 2; W5t ch:& hoµn toµn @?@C lYt hdn hîp C anken (mng
(nng k0 ti0p *(ktc.? thu (îc S?SS gam n3c.
a+ -U& ):c (Vnh CICI c4a C anken tr/n? bi0t an ken c$ <5 ngu&/n
t# C l3n h!n mqch kh6ng thnng.
s
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b+ -i(rat ho: m%t lîng C anken tr/n b]ng )gc t:c thYch hîp (îc
hdn hîp rîu ^ (.1i& P&jt A.Bn Cng !HH[) .
D ii0t ph!ng trunh phpn 7ng )t& ra[
D Irong hdn hîp ^ t_ le <5 mol c4a rîu b{c C <o 23i rîu b{c O lµ
@;ON I_ le <5 mol gia rîu b{c @ 23i nhau lµ @;@. -U& ):c (Vnh
thµnh phXn T kh5i lîng c:c rîu trong hdn hîp ^[
c+ A0u trong hdn hîp ^ rîu b{c @ 2µ b{c C c$ t_ le kh5i lîng <o 23i
rîu b{c O lµ @SPa@Rj. S5 mol c4a c:c rîu b{c @ b]ng nhau. IYnh T
kh5i lîng mdi rîu trong hdn hîp ^[
H íng dÉn 9 SÔ dµng t×m ®îc 2 $nO/n9 CH
3
+CH=CH
2
(H63m)l) vµ
CH
3
+C(CH
3
)=CH
2
(H6'm)l) t%)ng ! m)l .Rn .îA.
J1<t "T cNng .îA níc 6 g=1 , lµ PQ m)l %î& 0^c 2 = PQ m)l %î& 0^c
3 lµ 3,I PQ m)l %î& 0^c ! lµ 2 = ,+2=H63 vµ 3,+2=H6' =
,=H62I2=H6! = [ O.Q1 lîng...
c) \A dkng ®ln. l&^t 0B) t)µn O.Q1 lîng m
.Rn .îA %î& >
= m
$nO/n
+ m
níc
.
T./) 0µ1 %$ [ O.Q1 lîng %î& 0^c 3 lµ !8FD(!8F+!7L) =F36H[ =
O.Q1 lîng c#$ %î& 0^c 3 = PQ m)l %î& 0^c 3 = PQ m)l CH
3
+
CH(CH
3
)+CH
2
+OH =H6'+PQ m)l %î& 0
3
= PQ m)l %î& 0
!
CH
3
+CH
2
+CH
2
+
OH =$ =bQ m)l c#$ CH
3
+CH(OH)+CH
3
= H63+ $. = [ O.Q1 lîng
c\c %î&.
V- d. 0: \%t hdn hîp ^ gmm C rîu F 2µ M khi bV kh# n3c chy tqo
ra C anken c$ t_ kh5i h!i <o 23i m/tan lµ C?OOO. Cho bi0t \
M
B \
F
D CR.
-U& ):c (Vnh CIZI c4a F? M 2µ thµnh phXn T kh5i lîng c4a hdn
hîp ^[
H íng dÉn 9 J× O.1 l)G1 níc ( vµ W c.) t$ 2 $nO/n = ( vµ W lµ 2 %î&
n) ®@n c.Cc c: PQ ng&2?n tT C O.mng 0e .@n 2. G=1 ( v$ W 0Kng
mNt %î& T§.
C
n
H
2n+!
OH ++++++++++ C
n
H
2n
+ H
2
O. C
n
H
2n
= 26333.!7 = n
t0
= 267'
= c: mNt %î& lµ C
2
H
F
OH. 4
W
=4
(
+28 = C
m
H
2m+!
OH =L7+28='L
= !Lm+!8='L = m=L = C
L
H
5
OH. G=1 PQ m)l c#$ C
2
H
F
OH
t%)ng ! m)l .Rn .îA lµ , = PQ m)l c#$ C
L
H
5
OH t%)ng .Rn .îA lµ
(!+,) = n
t0
=267'=2,+L(!+,) = ,= H677' = [ O.Q1 lîng c#$
C
2
H
F
OH = H677'.L7D4
t0
= H67'.L7DFF638 = FF67F[ = [ C
L
H
5
OH
V- d. 1: \%t hdn hîp ^ gmm O rîu (!n ch7c ckng (mng (nng.
W5t ch:& m*g. hdn hîp ^ thu (îc P?P gam C,
C
2µ C?Q gam n3c.
a+ ^:c (Vnh CIIJ c4a O rîu tr/n[
b+ IYnh m B [
c+ IYnh thH tYch -
C
thu (îc khi cho P?S gam ^ phpn 7ng 23i natri
d[
@>
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d+ ^:c (Vnh CICI c4a c:c rîu trong hdn hîp ^ bi0t khi (un n$ng
^ 23i -
C
S,
P
(( chy thu (îc m%t anken c$ <5 ngu&/n t# C kh6ng
l3n h!n O.
H íng dÉn 9 0) n
CO2
- n
H2O
= 3 %V@& t.&Nc ®Mng ®nng n) ®@n
c.Cc c: CTT* lµ C
n
H
2n+!
OH c: PQ m)l lµ ,. bQ m)l C
n
H
2n+!
OH =,=
n
H2O
+ n
CO2
= H6HF(m)l). n
CO2
= n
t0
., = n
t0
= 2. n
O2
= 3n
t0
,D2 =
H6!F (m)l). \A dkng §_WTc_9
m
,
= m
CO2
+ m
H2O
+ m
O2
= L6L + 26' + H6!F.32 = 263(g).
c) T./) t%?n c: 4
>
= 263DH6HF = L7 = n
>
= L67DL7 = H6!. J× cB 3
%î& ®g& ®@n c.Cc = n
H2
= !D2n
%î&
= H6!D2 = H6HF = J
H2
=
H6HF.226L = !6!2(l).
d) T$ c: n-n
t0
=2-m = n = ! = CH
3
OH. CH
3
OH l)G1 níc O.mng
c.) t$ $nO/n 2 %î& con lG1 l)G1 níc c.) t$ ! $nO/n d&2 n.jt = 2 %+
î& ®: A.B1 c.C$ cdng ! ng&2?n tT C. J× $n O/n tG) %$ c: PQ
ng&2?n tT C≤3 = ng.1im .îA lp lµ m=3 = 2 %î& con lG1 lµ9 CH
3
+
CH
2
+CH
2
+OH vµ CH
3
+CH(OH)+CH
2
.
V- d. 2: -dn hîp ^ gmm C rîu C-
O
,- 2µ C
C
-
j
,- c$ <5 mol t_ le
C;O.
a+ ^:c (Vnh T kh5i lîng mdi rîu[ Mi0t khi hdn hîp t:c dwng 23i Aa
d thu (îc j?S lYt -
C
*(ktc..
b+ ~Ê& hdn hîp ^ (em loqi n3c b]ng )gc t:c thYch hîp chy cho ete
*gip <# phpn 7ng )t& ra hoµn toµn.. IYnh T <5 mol mdi ete[ Mi0t
c$ C ete c$ <5 mol b]ng nhau.
V- d. 3: Wun n$ng hdn hîp gmm C rîu no (!n ch7c 23i a)it -
C
S,
P
(( o @P>
>
C thu (îc C@?S gam -
C
, 2µ QC gam hdn hîp O ete. ^:c
(Vnh CIZI c4a C rîu[ Mi0t r]ng O ete c$ <5 mol b]ng nhau.* c:c
phpn 7ng )t& ra hoµn toµn..
H íng dÉn 9 X
!
OH + X
2
OH ++++++++ X
!
OX
2
+ H
2
O.
2X
!
OH ++++++++ X
!
OX
!
+ H
2
O .
2X
2
OH

++++++++++ X
2
OX
2
+ H
2
O.
nH
2
O= 2!67D!8 = !62 (m)l) = nX
!
OH = nX
2
OH =
!62.3D3=!62(m)l) = ∑ PQ m)l 2 %î&= 26L. \A dkng §_WTc_ m2%î&
= 2!67+'62 =5367(g) = 4
t02%î&
=5367D26L=35 = X
t0
= 22 =
X
!
-X
0
=22

-X
2
= X
!
lµ CH
3
+ = c: mNt %î& lµ CH
3
OH. m
3 /t/
=
(mCH
3
OX
2
+ mCH
3
OCH
3
+ mX
2
OX
2
) =
(3!+X
2
+L7+2X
2
+!7).H6L='2 = X
2
=25 = X
2
lµ C
2
H
F
+ =
C
2
H
F
OH.

V- d. D; Cho PQ gam hdn hîp h!i C rîu (i 9ua Fl
C
,
O
nung n$ng
thu (îc hdn hîp F gmm ete? 6le•in? rîu d 2µ h!i n3c. I:ch h!i n3c ra
@@
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kh`i hdn hîp F (îc hdn hîp khY M. ~Ê& n3c t:ch ra o tr/n cho t:c
dwng 23i Aa thu (îc P?Q>P lYt -
C
*(ktc. lîng 6le•in trong M phpn
7ng 2fa (4 23i @?Oj lYt Mr
C
>?C\. ZhXn ete 2µ rîu trong M chi0m
thH tYch @S?@CR *lYt. o @OS?j
>
C 2µ @ atm.
a+ IYnh hieu <uÊt rîu bV loqi n3c thµnh 6le•in[ Mi0t hieu <uÊt phpn
7ng c4a c:c rîu lµ nh nhau 2µ <5 mol c:c ete trong F ('u b]ng
nhau.
b+ ^:c (Vnh CIZI? 2i0t c:c (mng ph"n ch7c rîu c4a C rîu ban
(Xu.
H íng dÉn 9 §8t CTT§ c#$ .Rn .îA lµ9 C
n
H
2n+!
OH (n
t0
2).

(l2O3 6 T
C
n
H
2n+!
OH+++++++++++ C
n
H
2n
+ H
2
O. (!)
C
n
H
2n+!
OH ++++++++++ (C
n
H
2n+!
)
2
O + H
2
O (2).
N$+ H
2
O ++++++++ N$OH + !D2 H
2
(3)
C
n
H
2n
+ W%
2
+++++++ C
n
H
2n
W%
2
(L).
nH
2
O = 2nH
2
= H6L2(m)l) I nC
n
H
2n
= nW%
2
= H62'(m)l). nqt/ + nX+
î& = H6L8(m)l) nH
2
O(!) = nC
n
H
2n
=H62' = nH
2
O(2) = H6L2+ H62'
= H6!F = nXî& d = H6L8 + H6!F = H633. nXî& 0® = nXî&(!) + nX+
î&(2) nXî& d = H62'+H6!F.2+H633 = H65(m)l). = H1i& P&jt A.Bn
Cng H = H62'DH65 = 3H[.
0) TYn. ®îc 4
t0
= L'DH65 = n
t0
= 26L. = c: mNt %î& CH
3
OH(,
m)l)6 C
m
H
2m+!
OH(2 m)l) = ,+2=H65
L7,+(!Lm+!8)2 =L' = 2=H6LD(m+2)
ví1 m2. T./) t%?n c: nC
m
H
2m+!
OH 01<n t.µn. $nO/n lµ H632. bQ
m)l mR1 /t/ = H6!FD3=H6HF(m)l)
J× PQ m)l c\c /t/ 0Kng n.$& = PQ m)l %î& tG) /t/ n. n.$& =
nC
m
H
2m+!
OH = H63D2 = H6!F. b$& A.Bn Cng C
m
H
2m+!
OH d ng.r$ lµ9
2H632 + H6HF = H652H6L -= H6L-H6LD(m+2)-H65 =
26L-m-365 ng&2?n d@ng -= m=3 = C
3
H
'
OH.
V- d. E; Wun n$ng >?@SS *g. hdn hîp C rîu 23i -
C
S,
P
(( o @Q>
>
C
thu (îc hdn hîp C 6l/•in (mng (nng k0 ti0p. Ir%n C 6le•in ($ 23i
@?POOS *l. kh6ng khY *(ktc.. Sau khi (5t ch:& h0t 6le•in ngng tw
h!i n3c thu hdn hîp khY F c=n lqi lµ @?j *l. (o o CQ?O
>
C 2µ >?sRjS
:t.
a+ Ium CIZI 2µ thµnh phXn T kh5i lîng c:c rîu trong hdn hîp
(Xu[
b+ IYnh kh5i lîng n3c (U bV ngng tw[
c+ IYnh t_ kh5i c4a F <o 23i kh6ng khY[
* Mi0t kh6ng khY ch7a C>T,
C
2µ R>TA
C
2' thH tYch..
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H íng dÉn 9 H$1 %î& ®g& t.&Nc l)G1 n) ®@n c.Cc O< t1<A (v× ®g&
tG) %$ )l/s1n O< t1<A) = g=1 CT"T c#$ c.tng 0Kng cmng t.Cc t+
@ng ®@ng C
n
H
2n+!
+OH.
C
n
H
2n+!
+OH +++++++++++C
n
H
2n
+H
2
O.
C
n
H
2n
+ 3nD2O
2
++++++++ nCO
2
+ nH
2
O.
nO
2
= !6L337D226L.F=H6H!28 m)l. nN
2
= H6HF!2 m)l. bQ m)l .Rn
.îA P$& O.1 ngng tk .@1 níc= H6H7 m)l. G=1 PQ m)l %î& 0$n ®Z& lµ
$ = PQ m)l $nO/n =$ = nO
2
A = !6Fn$ = nO
2
d = H6H!28+
!6Fn$. nCO
2
= n$. T./) 0µ1 %$ t$ c:9 H6H!28+!6Fn$ +n$ + H6HF!2
= H6H7 =n$ = H6HH8 =$=H6HH8Dn. T./) 0µ1 %$ c:
(!Ln+!8).H6HH8Dn = H6!77 = n
t0
= 26' = C
2
H
F
OH vµ C
3
H
'
OH....
0- ;h<n =ng FG7A ho¸ &7¸c d.ng /9i *i7 7:o FG7A)
a+ i3i a)it 26 c!;

-CS,P ? I
R+,- D -Cl +++++++++++G R+Cl D -
C
,.
iY dw; C
C
-
j
,- D -Cl +++++++G C
C
-
j
+Cl D -
C
,.
$hó ý; i3i a)it iothi(ric -€? ngoµi phpn 7ng tqo E<te c=n c$ phpn
7ng kh# ancol thµnh ankan t!ng 7ng.

Zh5t pho? @j>C

C
n
-
CnD@
,- D C-€ ++++++++++++++G C
n
-
CnDC
D €
C
D -
C
,.
b+ i3i a)it hu c!;

-CS,P? I
R
@
+,- D -,,C+R
C
R
@
+,,C+R
C
D -
C
,.
iY dw; C-
O
,- D -,,C
C
-
j
++++++++++G C
C
-
j
C,,+C-
O
D -
C
,.
-hËn ./t:
+ C:c phpn 7ng E<te ho: ('u thu{n ngVch? kh6ng hoµn toµn.
\u5n phpn 7ng thuu{n )t& ra hoµn toµn phpi c$ -
C
S,
P
lµm )gc
t:c 2µ hgt n3c (H lµm chu&Hn dVch c"n b]ng 2' phYa phpi. WH
tvng c|ng phpn 7ng ngVch *Za• thu_ ph"n E<te. phpi th/m ki'm
(H trung hoµ a)it lµm chu&Hn dVch c"n b]ng 2' phYa tr:i.
+ bhp nvng phpn 7ng; Rîu b{c @ G Rîu b{c C G Rîu
b{c O.
*phpn 7ng ch{m? kh6ng hoµn toµn. * RÊt ch{m.
*-Xu nh kh6ng phpn 7ng. .

V- dw 1; \%t hdn hîp ^ gmm C rîu no F 2µ M c$ ckng <5 ngu&/n t#
C c$ kh5i lîng m
^
B@R?C gam 2µ t_ kh5i h!i d
^a-C
B OS?P. Chia ^
lµm hai phXn b]ng nhau.
+ W5t ch:& phXn @ 2µ cho toµn b% C,
C
(i 9ua dung dVch Ca*,-.
C
d thu (îc Oj?Q gam k0t t4a.
@O
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+ ZhXn C phpn 7ng 2fa (4 23i CCj ml dung dVch -Cl.
a+ ^:c (Vnh CIZI c4a F 2µ M ? 2i0t c:c (mng ph"n ch7c rîu c4a
chgng[
b+ IYnh C
\
c4a dung dVch -Cl[
H íng dÉn 9 G=1 3 lµ PQ n.:m OH t%&ng 0×n. c#$ 2 %î& = C
n
H
2n+2+
3
(OH)
3
. c: PQ m)l lµ $. C
n
H
2n+2+3
(OH)
3
+(3n+!+3)D2O
2
++++++++ nCO
2
+ (n+!)H
2
O.
nCO
2
= n$ = nC$CO
3
= H63'F
u
. 4
t0
=2.376L = '268 = $
=!862D2.'268 = H6!2F t.$2 vµ) u c: n = 3 = !L.3 + 2 + !73
='268 = 3 =!68. J^2 c: mNt %î& ®@n c.Cc C
3
H
'
OH %î& con lG1 lµ
C
3
H
7
(OH)
2
.)8c C
3
H
F
(OH)
3
.
NMng ®N HCl9 C
3
H
8+3
(OH)
3
+ 3HCl ++++++ C
3
H
8+3
Cl
3
+ 3H
2
O. nHCl =
3$ = !68.H6!2F = H622F m)l = C
4
HCl = H622FDH622F = !4.
V- d. 2; Cho C rîu (!n ch7c? no t:c dwng 23i a)it -Mr (îc hdn
hîp C ank&nbr6m mua t!ng 7ng c$ kh5i lîng gÊp (6i kh5i lîng rîu
ban (Xu. Zh"n hu_ C an k&lbr6mua (H chu&Hn thµnh Mr
+
2µ cho
t:c dwng 23i FgA,
O
d thu (îc j?CSP gam k0t t4a.
@+ IYnh kh5i lîng C rîu ban (Xu[
C+ ^:c (Vnh CIZI 2µ <5 mol c4a c:c rîu trong hdn hîp (Xu. Mi0t
r]ng t8ng <5 ngu&/n t# C trong C rîu b]ng S.
O+ A0u (em (5t ch:& h0t hdn hîp rîu tr/n rmi cho tÊt cp <pn
phtm hÊp thw 2µo CR> ml dung dVch b,- OCT *dB@?Ogaml. thu
thu (îc dung dVch F. IYnh nmng (% c:c chÊt trong F[
V- d. 0: Cho hdn hîp F gmm @ rîu no (!n ch7c 2µ @ rîu kh6ng no
*ch7a @ li/n k0t (6i. (!n ch7c. Chia F lµm C phXn b]ng nhau?
mdi phXn a gam. ~Ê& phXn @ cho 2µo bunh kYn M dung tYch @C
lYt cho ba& h!i o @OS?j
>
C. bhi rîu ba& h!i h0t :p <uÊt trong bunh
lµ >?@P :t. Wem e<te ho: phXn C 23i O> gam a)it a)etic *hieu <uÊt
phpn 7ng lµ h..
@+ IYnh t8ng kh5i lîng e<te thu (îc theo a 2µ h[
C+ M!m ti0p 2µo bunh M? R gam o)i. W5t ch:& h0t rîu 2µ (a bunh
2' @OS?j
>
C thu :p <uÊt trong bunh lgc nµ& lµ >?sR atm. Cho <pn
phtm ch:& hÊp thw h0t 2µo dung dVch Aa,- d? <au ($ th/m
MaCl
C
d 2µo thu tqo thµnh CO?SP gam k0t t4a. ^:c (Vnh CIZI+
CICI 2µ gEi t/n c:c rîu[
H íng dÉn 9 G=1 2 %î& 0Kng ! %î& T§ C
n
H
2n+!+2,
(OH)6 , lµ PQ l1?n O<t A1
t%&ng 0×n.. bQ m)l .$1 %î& t%)ng U .Rn .îA = H6HF m)l.
C
n
H
2n+!+2,
OH + CH
3
+COOH +++++ CH
3
+COOC
n
H
2n+!+,
+ H
2
O.
(H6HF). (H6HF). (H6HF)..
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(A dkng ®ln. l&^t WTc_ c: $. +H6HF..7H + H6HF..!8 = ($ +
26!). g$m = m
qPt/
.
0+ "T"E C
n
H
2n+!+2,
OH + (3n+,)D2 O
2
++++ nCO
2
+ (n+!+,)H
2
O. nO
2
=8D32 =H62F t./) A.@ng t%×n. nO
2
A = H6H2F(3n+,) = nO
2
d =
H62F+H6H2F(3n+,).
CO
2
+ 2N$OH +++++ N$
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O.
N$
2
CO
3
+ W$Cl
2
++++ W$CO
3
+ 2 N$Cl. nCO
2
= nW$CO
3
=H6!2 m)l
= H6HFn
t0
= n
t0
= 26L = PQ ng&2?n tT C %î& n) =! .)8c 2. PQ
m)l O.Y P$& A.Bn Cng lµ 9 !2.H658DH6H82(2'3+!376F) = H63F m)l.
T./) A.@ng t%×n. A nH
2
O = H6HF(n+!+,) = H62F+H6H2F(3n+,) +
H.!2 +H6HF(n+!+,) = H63F = ,
t0
=H6L = G=1 2 lµ [ PQ m)l c#$
%î& n) = (!+2) lµ [ PQ m)l %î& O.mng n) t$ c: H.2 +!(!+2) = H6L
= 2 = H67. \A dkng c.) ng&2?n tT C t$ c:
+ !.H67 + n
2
(!+H67) = 26L = n
2
= L6F l)G1.
+ 2.H67 + n
2
(!+H67) = 26L = n
2
= 3 =9 CH
3
+CH
2
OH vµ
CH
2
=CH+CH
2
+OH

V- d. 1; Ir%n m
@
gam m%t rîu (!n ch7c 23i m
C
gam m%t a)it
(!n ch7c rmi chia hdn hîp thµnh O phXn b]ng nhau.
+ ZhXn @ t:c dwng h0t 23i Aa thu (îc O?OS lYt khY -
C
*(ktc..
+ W5t ch:& h0t phXn C thu (îc Os?S gam C,
C
.
+ Wun phXn O 23i -
C
S,
P
(lc thu (îc @>?C gam e<te. *hieu <uÊt
phpn 7ng e<te ho: lµ @>>T.. W5t ch:& h0t j?@ gam e<te thu thu
(îc @@ gam C,
C
2µ P?j gam -
C
,.
@+ ^:c (Vnh CIZI c4a rîu 2µ a)it[
C+ IYnh gi: trV m
@
2µ m
C
[
1- ;h<n =ng cHng hîp c8 rîu khIng no;
Rîu kh6ng no tham gia phpn 7ng c%ng hîp nh hi(rocacbon kh6ng
no.
+ C%ng hîp 23i -
C
; C
n
-
CnDC+Ca+)
*,-.
)
D a-
C
++++G C
n
-
CnDC+)
*,-.
)
.
+ C%ng hîp 23i -alogen; C
n
-
CnDC+Ca+)
*,-.
)
D a^
C
+++++G C
n
-
CnDC+Ca+
)
^
Ca
*,-.
)
.
+ C%ng hîp 23i a)it;C-
C
BC-+C-
C
+,- D -^ ++++G C-
O
+C-*^.+C-
C
+,-
*<pc..
+ C%ng hîp 23i n3c ; C-
C
BC- +C-
C
+,- D -,- ++++++++G C-
O
+C-*,-.+
C-
C
+,-.
V- d.: \%t hdn hîp ^ gmm O rîu F?M?C trong ($ c$ C rîu c$ ckng
<5 ngu&/n t# C? kh5i lîng m
^
B O@?P gam. bhi cho ba& h!i ^
chi0m m%t thH tYch C>?@S lit *o @OS?j
>
C 2µ @atm.. WH bi0n ^
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thµnh hdn hîp r gmm C rîu no cXn P?PR lYt -
C
*(ktc.. bh# n3c hoµn
toµn hdn hîp r thu (îc C anken k0 ti0p nhau.
@+ ^:c (Vnh F?M?C 2µ thµnh phXn T <5 mol c4a hdn hîp ^[
C+ A0u hdn hîp C anken tr/n *hdn hîp }. 9ua C lYt dung dVch Mr
C
>?j\? tYnh nmng (% dung dVch brom c=n lqi 2µ (% tvng kh5i lîng
bunh br6m[
H íng dÉn 9 c.T níc c#$ v ®îc .Rn .îA .$1 $n O/n O< t1<A n.$& =
v lµ .$1 %î& n) ®@n c.Cc O< t1<A n.$& = (6W6C ®g& lµ %î& ®@n
c.Cc.
G=1 3 %î& (6W6C 0Kng ! %î& t@ng ®@ng9 C
n
H
2n+!+2$
(OH).
C
n
H
2n+!+2$
(OH) + $H
2
++++++++ C
n
H
2n+!
(OH). (!)
C
n
H
2n+!
OH +++++++ C
n
H
2n
+ H
2
O. (2)
T./) 0µ1 %$ c: n
>
= H67 m)l6 t./) AtA n
>
=n
v
= H67 m)l6 m
>
+ m
H2
= m
v
=3!6L + L6L8.2D226L= 3!68(g) = 4
t0v
= 3!68DH67 =F3 =
n
t0
= 26F =v gMm C
2
H
F
OH vµ C
3
H
'
OH ví1 tw li m)l lµ !9!.
J^2 .Rn .îA > c: t.; lµ9
!) C
2
H
F
OH6 CH
3
+CH
2
+CH
2
+OH6 CH
2
=CH+CH
2
+OH.
2) C
2
H
F
OH6 CH
2
=CH+CH
2
+OH6 CH
+
= CH
2
+CH
2
+OH.
3) C
2
H
F
OH6 CH
+
= C+CH
2
+OH 6 CH
3
+

CH
2
+CH
2
+OH.
T./)AtA (!) c: $
t0
= H62DH67 =H6333.
G1B PT lj2 ! m)l .Rn .îA >
T%..!9 $
t0
=H.H6F + H., + !(H6F+,) =H6333 = , =H6!7'=
[C
2
H
F
OH=FH[I [CH
2
=CH+CH
2
OH =!76'[I [CH
3
+CH
2
+CH
2
OH
=3363[.
T%.. 29 $
t0
= H6333 = H.H6F +!., + 2(H6F+,) = , = H677' H6F
l)G1.
T%.. 39 $
t0
= H.H6F +H., + 2(H6F+,) = H6333 = , = H6333 = [
C
2
H
F
OH = FH[I [CH
+
=C+CH
2
+OH = 3363[ I [CH
3
+CH
2
+CH
2
OH
=!76'[....
2- ;h<n =ng o*i ho¸:
a+ ,)i ho: hoµn toµn; * Zhpn 7ng ch:&..
b+ ,)i ho: kh6ng hoµn toµn;

‚,ƒ ‚,ƒ
a+ Rîu b{c @ +++++++++++G an(hit +++++++++++G a)it.

,C. CuaI

,C? \n*C-OC,,.C

iY dw; R+C-
C
,- ++++++++++++G R+C-, +++++++++++++++G RC,,-.

‚,ƒ ,)i ho: mqnh
b+ Rîu bÊc C +++++++++++++G )eton ++++++++++++++++ G c:c a)it.

,C? CuaI

R+C-*,-.+R
C
+++++++++++++G R+C*,.+R
C
.

„,…
@S
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R
@
+C*,.+C-
C
+R
C
+++++++++++++++++G R
@
+C,,- D R
C
+C,,-.
c+ Rîu b{c O b'n 23i chÊt o)i ho: trong m6i tr|ng trung tYnh 2µ
trong m6i tr|ng ki'm? trong m6i tr|ng a)it bV o)i ho: ph"n c:ch
mqch cacbon thµnh hdn hîp a)it cacbo)&lic 2µ )eton.
iY dw;
+ Agoµi ra c$ thH o)i ho: rîu b]ng )gc t:c men;

\en giÊm
C-
O
+C-
C
+,- D ,
C
++++++++++++++++G C-
O
+C,,- D -
C
,.
+ D1a 2µo <pn phtm o)i ho: kh6ng hoµn toµn c4a c:c rîu mµ c$
thH ph"n biet rîu c$ b{c kh:c nhau.
V- d. 1; \%t hdn hîp ^ gmm C rîu no (!n ch7c mqch ho. W5t ch:&
m gam hdn hîp ^ thu (îc P?Q gam gmm C,
C
2µ -
C
,. A0u (em o)i
ho: m gam ^ (0n C a)it t!ng 7ng rmi (em trung hoµ C a)it b]ng
dung dVch Aa,- >?@\ thu cXn C>> ml dung dVch Aa,-. Mi0t
m%t trong C a)it tqo ra c$ klpt b]ng klpt c4a m%t trong hai rîu.
-U&cho bi0t;
+ CIZI c4a C rîu[
+ CICI c:c rîu (mng ph"n[
+ Ihµnh phXn T kh5i lîng c:c rîu trong hdn hîp ^[ C:c phpn 7ng
('u hoµn toµn.
H íng dÉn 9 G=1 > 0Kng ctt® 9 C
n
H
2n+!
+CH
2
+

OH.
C
n
H
2n+!
+CH
2
OH + (3n+2)D2O
2
+++++++ (n+!)CO
2
+ (n+2)H
2
O. (!)
C
n
H
2n+!
+CH
2
OH + O
2
+++++++++ C
n
H
2n+!
+COOH + H
2
O. (2)
C
n
H
2n+!
+COOH + N$OH ++++++++ C
n
H
2n+!
+COON$ + H
2
O (3)
n
,
= n
N$OH
= H62.H6! = H6H2. T./) AtA (!) c: nCO
2
= H6H2(n+!)6
nH
2
O = H6H2(n+2) t./) 0µ1 %$ c: 9 H6H2(n+!).LL + H6H2(n+2).!8
= L6' = n = 26F = n-26F-m. T./) 0µ1 %$ O.1 ),1 .)\ %î& c.)
$,1t t@ng Cng c: 4
$,1t
4
%î&
. §; c: ! t%)ng 2 $,1t c: O.Q1 lîng
A.an tT 0Kng O.Q1 lîng A.an tT c#$ ! t%)ng 2 %î& -= $,1t c#$
%î& ( c: OlAt 0Kng OlAt c#$ %î& W = !Ln+L7 = !Lm+32 -= m
= n+! n-26F-n+! = n = 2. H$1 %î& n) ®@n c.Cc O.1 ),1 .)\
c.) 2 $,1t t@ng Cng = .$1 %î& t%?n ®g& lµ %î& 0^c ! = ( lµ CH
3
+
CH
2
+OHI W lµ C
3
H
'
CH
2
OH.
0+ C\c ®Mng A.an %î& c#$ (6W9 ...
c+ n
t0
= 26F = nC
3
H
'
OH = H6!m)lI nC
L
H
5
OH = H6! m)l = [Ol...
V- d. 2; \%t hdn hîp ^ gmm etan 2µ propan.
@+ W5t ch:& h0t ^ thu (îc C,
C
2µ h!i n3c c$ t_ le thH tYch lµ
@@;@j. -U& tYnh T thH tYch mdi chÊt trong hdn hîp ^[
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C+ Wun n$ng hdn hîp ^ trong bunh kYn 23i )gc t:c thYch hîp? )t& ra
phpn 7ng (/hi(r6 ho: *chy tqo ra anken.. Sau phpn 7ng thu (îc
hdn hîp khY r c$ t_ kh5i (5i 23i -
C
b]ng @O?j.
D IYnh hieu <uÊt phpn 7ng (/hi(ro ho:? bi0t etan 2µ propan
d/hi(ro ho: 23i hieu <uÊt nh nhau.
D I:ch hdn hîp anken tr/n (em hi(rat ho: 23i -
C
S,
P
loUng lµm
)gc t:c thu (îc hdn hîp rîu }. ~Ê& m gam hdn hîp } cho t:c dwng
23i Aa d c$ PPR ml khY ba& ra*(ktc.. †)i ho: m gam hdn hîp }
b]ng o)i o nhiet (% cao c$ Cu lµm )gc t:c (îc hdn hîp <pn phtm
D. Cho D phpn 7ng 23i FgA,
O
aA-
O
d thu (îc C?R>R gam Fg kim
loqi.
IYnh T <5 mol c:c rîu trong hdn hîp }[ zip <# c:c phpn 7ng )t&
ra hoµn toµn? hdn hîp D chy gmm an(ehit 2µ )eton.
H íng dÉn ; $+SÔ dµng tYn. ®îc [C
2
H
7
= 2F[I [C
3
H
7
= 'F[.
0+ G=1 . lµ .1i& P&jt A.Bn Cng ®?.1®%) .)\9
C
2
H
7
+++++++ C
2
H
L
+ H
2
.
. . .
C
3
H
8
++++++ C
3
H
7
+ H
2
3. 3. .
n
v
= nC
2
H
7
d + nC
3
H
8
d +nC
2
H
L
+ nC
3
H
7
+ nH
2
= L+L. + 8. =
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v
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>
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C
2
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2
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2
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3
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2
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3
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3
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2
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3
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3
+ H
2
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3
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2
+CH
2
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2
++++++ CH
3
CH
2
+CHO + H
2
O.
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3
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3
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3
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2
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3
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NO
3
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3
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[C
2
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F
OH = 2F[I
[CH
3
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3
=7'6F[I [CH
3
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2
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2
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V- d. 0; \%t hdn hîp \ gmm hai hi(rocacbon F 2µ M hîp n3c thu
thu (îc hdn hîp C gmm hai rîu t!ng 7ng. Wem o)i ho: hdn hîp C
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C
C,
O
d thu (îc C?CP lYt khY.
ZO cho t:c dwng 23i dung dVch FgA,
O
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O
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O
C?j\ thu thu (îc P?PR lYt khY A,
C
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(o o (ktc 2µ c:c phpn 7ng kH tf thY nghiem (5i 23i M lµ )t& ra
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@+ -U& 2i0t ZIZ• )t& ra[
C+ ^:c (inh CICI c4a rîu F 2µ c4a an(/hit 2µ a)it trong M[
O+ IYnh T kh5i lîng rîu (U bV o)i ho: thµnh an(/hit 2µ a)it t!ng
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b-S,P b‡m b'n

C-
C
*,-.+C-
C
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b-S,P b‡m b'n

C-
C
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C
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C
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C
BC-+C-,
D C-
C
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40 "h¶n 1ng ®5c trng; C:c rîu (a ch7c c$ c:c nh$m +,- k'
nhau c$ khp nvng phpn 7ng 23i dung dVch Cu*,-.
C
tqo ph7c mµu
)anh lam.
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C
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C
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G n
^
. Ch7ng minh r]ng M lµ rîu (a
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n
H
2n+2
O
2
6 4
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2
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2
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3
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2
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2
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2
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2
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H2
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thu thH tYch khY hi(ro <inh ra tf M b]ng @Sa@Q thH tYch khY
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C
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n
H
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T./) 0µ1 %$ c: d
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W
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"tA9 C
n
H
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OH + N$ ++ C
n
H
2n+!
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2
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H2
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(
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m
H
2m+2+3
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3
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m
H
2m+2+3
(ON$)
3
+ 3D2H
2
. (2) n
H2
= 3D2n
W
= 3.$D24
W
= $.3D2.L62F4
(
. T./) 0 %$ c: n
H2(W)
= !7D!'n
H2(()
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$.3D86F4
(
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c: dGng C
m
H
2m+2
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. 4
W
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(
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m = L62Fn+H6'F.(u)
48t O.\c 9 C
n
H
2n+2
O + 3nD2O
2
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2
+ (n+!)H
2
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2m+2
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L
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2
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(
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W
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(
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(
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768D4
(
I n
W
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(
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CO2(W)
= 768mDL62F4
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∑ n
CO2
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H
8
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1"1"3- 4iÒu chJ rîu:
,0 "h2ng ph¸p chung ®i'u ch6 rîu ®2n ch1c:
a+ -i(rat ho: anken *c%ng -
C
,..

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C
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-
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Ete khan

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+,+\g+^ .
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K Wmng (nng an(/hit •omic D R+\g+^ ++++++G rîu b{c C;
R
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40 8i'u ch6 rîu 9:ty;ic:

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C, D C-
C
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O
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\en am&laK 2µ m"ntK.

a+ Ihu_ ph"n tinh b%t; *C
S
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j
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n
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Aa-C,O
C
S
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+++++++++++++G -,+C-
C
+C-*,-.+C-
C
+,- D C-
O
C-, D C,
C
.
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CtnSharing.Com – Download Ebook Free..!!! VÝ dô 4: CTPT cña mét rîu A lµ CnHmOx . H·y x¸c ®Þnh mçi quuan hÖ cña m,n ®Ó A lµ rîu no? Tõ ®ã rót ra CTTQ chung cña c¸c rîu no bÊt kú? Híng dÉn: A cã thÓ viÕt CnHm-x (OH)x. CTPT cña rîu no lµ CnH2n+2-xOx => §Ó A lµ rîu no <=> m-x = 2n+2-x <=> m=2n+2. VÝ dô 5: Mét rîu no ®a chøc cã sè nguyªn tö cacbon b»ng sè nguyªn tö oxi trong ph©n tö. H·y x¸c ®Þnh CTPT cña rîu trªn? BiÕt dRîu/KK < 3,2. VÝ dô 6: 1- §èt ch¸y hoµn toµn V thÓ tÝch rîu no X cÇn 2,5V thÓ tÝch oxi trong cïng ®iÒu kiÖn. 2- §èt ch¸y hoµn toµn 1 mol h¬i rîu no A cÇn võa ®óng 3,5 mol oxi trong cïng ®iÒu kiÖn. H·y x¸c ®Þnh CTPT, CTCT cña A? Híng dÉn: Gäi X lµ CnH2n+2Ox trong ®ã n ≥ x, n vµ x nguyªn d¬ng. Ph¬ng tr×nh ph¶n øng CnH2n+2Ox + (3n+1-x)/2 O2 ----> nCO2 + (n+1)H2O . Theo bµi ra vµ PTP¦ cã: (3n+1-x) = 3,5 => x = 3n-6 ≤ n => n ≤ 3. - n=1 => x=-3 lo¹i. - n=2 => x=0 lo¹i. - n=3 => x=3 => A lµ C3H8O3=> CH2(OH)-CH(OH)-CH2(OH). Mét sè chó ý khi gi¶i bµi tËp ®èt ch¸y rîu: CnH2n+2-2aOx + (3n+1-a-x)/2 O2 ---> nCO2 + (n+1-a)H2O. Theo ptp ta cã: - NÕu nH2O/nCO2>1 <=> (n-a+1)/n > 1 <=> a=0 => rîu ®em ®èt lµ rîu no. - NÕu nH2O/nCO2 = 1 <=> (n-a+1)/n = 1 <=> a=1 => rîu ®em ®èt lµ rîu kh«ng no chøa 1 liªn kÕt pi hoÆc rîu no chøa 1 vßng. Theo ptp ta lu«n cã: nO2/nCO2 = (3n+1-x-a)/n ≤ 1,5 víi mäi n ≥x ≥1 nguuyªn, a ≥ 0. - NÕu nO2/nCO2 = 1,5 <=> (3n+1-x-a)/n = 1,5 <=> a=0 vµ x=1 => rîu ®em ®èt lµ rîu no ®¬n chøc. Rîu kh«ng no ®¬n chøc (a=1, x=1) - NÕu nO2/CO2 < 1,5 cã thÓ lµ:-Rîu no ®a chøc (a=0, x>1) Rîu kh«ng no ®a chøc (a>1, x>1). 2

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