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DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT,


The Building Construction site (Plot 12 Nakivubo Mews)

Student

KINTU PHILLY,
08/U/397 Supervisors:
Department: Arch. Kyosimire Doreen Field: Arch. Mulwana Alfred (Planning and Design Associates)

Date:
August 2010

COURSE UNIT; ARC 2301-INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FOR ARCHITECTS 1

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0.1. DECLARATION

I here by fully declare that the content of this report has all personally composed by me with the help of consultations from the idicated sourses. STUDENT

SIGN. _________________________________________________________ Mr KINTU PHILLY

0.2. APPROVAL

DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR

SIGN. _________________________________________________________

Arch KYOSIMIRE DOREEN

FIELD SUPERVISOR

SIGN. ____________________________________________________ Arch MULWANA ALFRED

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0.3. ABSTRACT

The following report describes an overview of types and outcomes of work undertaken by the author which formed the industrial training component of the Bachelor of Architecture degree in the second year of the bachelor of architecture degree learning process. In particular this report examines my involvement in a building construction project undertaken by Planning and Design Associates for Mr. Mukasa Steven on a shopping complex building in the western part of Kampala city. This report furthermore features the construction activities of the above-named building after casting of the first floor slab to plastering of the first floor ceiling. It also contains analysis and comparison of the construction activities as they were done on the ground with what should have idealy been done. The methodology used to aquire this information involve direct participation in the construction activities,observation of the procedures taken by the workforce and inquiries addressed to the involved members of the workforce team.

0.4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to extend my sincere gratitude to all the people who have enabled my industrial training session a success.In particular my supervisors Arch Doreen Kyosimire and Arch. Mulwana Alfred for all the support rendered to make this industrial training a success.I also wish to thank Mr Mukasas steven for having allowed me to to do industrial training at his building.

0.5. ABBREVIATIONS USED


mm milimeters inches m meters fig. figure dia, diameter

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0.6. TABLE OF CONTENTS


0.3. ABSTRACT_______________________________________________________ 1 0.6. TABLEOFCONTENTS________________________________________________ 2 0.7. TABLE OF FIGURES_________________________________________________ 5 1. REPORT INTRODUCTION______________________________________________ 4 1.1Project over view:client,architect,contractors,duration,cost 2 .OVERVIEW OF THE BUILDING__________________________________________ 5 2.1 Site Location, 2.2Design(intended and approved) 2.3Design(as built) 2.4Construction:site administration sructure, site layout(facilities) 2.5Construction schedule. 3. WITNESSED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES_______________________________ 10 3.1 The column:setting out,formwork,reinforcement,casting and curing 3.2 The floor slab:setting out(level and boundary establishment),formwork, reinforcement and maxipan placement,casting and curing 3.3 The stair:setting out,formwork,reinforcement,casting and curing 3.4 The floor beam:setting out(position establishment), formwork, reinforcement, casting and curing. 3.5 The foundation:Basement earth and water removal.Hard core placement 3.6 Finnishing:Striking off formwork,setting out(level establishment), The scafolding, rendering 3.7 Electrical sevice lines:The the lay out 4. CHALLENGES________________________________________________________ 24 4.1Safety:analysis 4.2Work rate:Analysis 4.3comunication:Analysis 4.4Transport :Analysis 4.5Knowledge acquisition as a student:Analysis 4.6Financial:Analysis 5 CONCLUSION_________________________________________________________ 25 5.1Skills aquired: 5.2The proffesion 5.3The training 6APPENDICES 6.1References: Websites, text books_______________________________________ 26 6.2Measured drawings___________________________________________________ 27

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0.7. TABLE OF FIGURES NAME Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4a Figure 4b Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10a Figure 10a Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22a Figure 22b Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26a Figure 26b Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 CONTENT Site Location plan
Existing site administaration structure a better site administaration structure site physical setup site physical lay out plan wooden stair for access to the 2nd floor the construction schedule column setting out column height determinetion column kicker formwork colum timber formwork colum steel formwork column section balcony column formwork foundation column formwok Concerete mixture flow diagram concrete casting concrete vibrating /compacton. curing of column concrete slab soffit level determination slab void boundries setting out rectagular slab void formwork .round slab void formwork slab formwork side shutters slab formwork round end shutters slab formwork support slab overhang fomwork slab soffit formwork .slab reinforcement maxipan& reinforcement placement slab overhang section concrete mixer stair reinforcement plan .used stair dimensions .used stair dimensions stair starter bars .stair reinforcement section .stair reinforcement specifications newly cast atair beam to column joint reinforcement slab boundary beam

NAME Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44a Figure 44b Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70

CONTENT
beam formwork beam concrete compaction during casting beam formwork support newly cast beam beam reinforcement foundation beam casting foundation profile section excavation of foundtion pit placement of hard core foundation elements plastered surface section the scafolding ceiling plastering procedure plastering tools newly plastered surface .newly removed formwork ideal plastering procedure electrical units electrical conduits and joint before casting building,s electrical service line lay out diagram risky working safety belt for workers at high building points the safety hamlet approved Basement floor plan approved ground floor plan approved first floor plan approved 2nd floor plan approved 3rd floor plan approved 4th to7th floor plan As built basemnent floor plan As built ground floor plan As built 1st floor plan As built 2nd floor plan As built 3rd floor plan

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1. INTRODUCTION

Originally the site had existing structures made up of shops, stores, residential apartments, and restaurant units. The client, Mr. Mukasa Steven, decided to put up a multistory structure to replace these with a shopping mall complex containing offices restaurants saloons and apartment suites. Architect Mutono Ronald did the architectural designing. The structural analysis was done by a consultation firm by the names of INTEGRATED DESIGN. The client chose to involve Architect Mulwana Alfred of PLANNING AND DESIGN ASSOCIATES as the supervising architect. The contract structure is such that the contractor for the concrete structural skeleton is QUALITY AND ECONOMICAL CONTRACTORS. A private contractor took on the plastering and brick partitioning. Another private contractor is to take on the the openings and steel railings.For aluminium partitions another contractor is to be employed.Another contractor is to work on the furniture fittings.For plumbing another contractor.Electrical wiring an instalations is also another. The timing of the project the much i could gather is that the project started on 1st April 2010 The project is estimated at $1,560,000. For seven consecutive weeks I witnesssed and took part in all the construction activities of the shopping mall project.

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2. BUILDING OVERVIEW
2.1 LOCATION The building in consideration is an upcoming proposed shopping complex located on plots 12 Nakivubo mews and plot37 Nakivubo place as shown in fig 1. The site has special feature of being in the middle of the business area of the city. It is also on a water logged area,This brought a few challenges during the contruction process as discused in the following sctions of the report.

FIG 1 .SITE LOCATION

2.2.1BUILDING DESIGN(APPROVED). The shopping mall was designed originaly with a central atrium access set up.it was to have parking in the basement level .in addition to shops on the ground and 1st floors.the 2nd and 3rd floors would have a combination of saloons offices restaurants and pharmacies.then the rest of the 3 upper levels of the structure were to constitute a collection of lodging and apartment spaces. The measured drawings are shown in appendix 6.2.1

2.2.2ANALYSIS OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGN.

On the positive side all the bulding rules and regulations os specified by the Kampala city council comitee were followed because the building had a provision for basement parking, a collection of shops and office units plus stores. On the other hand this design would make the client loose space to access that would have been used for stores or shops.This was among the main driving factors that mad ethe client to consider changing the overall setup of te building.

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2.3.1BUILDING DESIGN(AS BUILT) After the Kampala city council officials approved the design for construction, the client adjusted the originally proposed and approved design because it did not meet up to his requirements. I got the opportunity to do the as built drawings for the part of the building that had been figured out in terms of construction that which are shown in appendix 6.2.2 As illustrated, the basement parking spaces were eliminated, the access configuration changed from a centralized atrium stair system to a multiple access alleys. All spaces in the basement ground and first and second floor levels are to be commercial spaces basically in form of shops and stores. The next 3 levels are to constitute a hotel setup but to be built and designed and constructed later.

2.3.2ANALYSIS OF THE BUILT DESIGN.

Analytically the constructed design of the building has set backs of not having enough parking spaces for all the users of the users of the shopping mall, challenges of lighting the basement area which are to be shops. On the other hand this configuration would enable the client to maximise on the area of the building used for rental spaces. The as built version of the building also had defective stair rests of 600mm which were so small for a public building of this size.

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2.4.1 SITE ADMINISTRATION As shown in the lay out diagram the client was the head person in giving directions for changes.Next the contractor would follow.Then the site engineer.The foremen, gang leaders of different trades then lastly the work force that was both semi skilled and non skilled. Analyticaly speaking this set up had the advantage of achieving construction of the building in a way the client wanted at a very minimum cost and time spent. On the other and it led to a couple of setbacks like clashing orders and Contruction procedure mistakes . There was an inneficient communication system between the members of the administrative structure. For example the void dimensions of the 2nd floor had to be corrected and formwork reconstructed 3 times due to the fact that different people from the site admnistrative team gave differet directions to the semiskilled labour force.

FIG 2 . EXISTING SITE ADMINISTARATION STRUCTURE

In the ideal situatuion the architect would have a clerk of works who gets to be around the site full time directing the work force on how to carry out the construction of the buildings components. Also the working drawings of the part at which construction is being done would be displayed on a site notticeboard so that the work force could refer to them as frequently as possible.

FIG 3 . A BETTER SITE ADMINISTARATION STRUCTURE

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2.4.2.SITE PHYSICAL LAYOUT As regards the position of facilities like deliverly point of materials, toilet facilities,kitchen area . The site varied in configuration at different stages of the contruction process. The first stage I observed was when the consruction activities were going on on the first floor columns . The ground floor still had the timber formwork in position. The position of the respective site facilities is as shown in the illustration.
FIG 4a .SITE PHYSICAL FEATURES(CONDTRUCTION AT 1st FLOOR

The 2nd stage of construction activities moved to the 2nd floor .

The 3rd stage had construction activities going on on the Third floor and form work completely removed from the ground and basement floors.

FIG 4b .site physical lay out plan

Analyticaly the lack of extra space on site was a big setback to an ideal site layout structure.

FIG 5 . wooden stair for access to the 2nd floor

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2.5. CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES SCHEDULE The construction process began in April 2010 with demolishing of the existing blocks. It was followed by excavation of the basement and foundation pit. The retaining wall foundation pads and beams followed. Foundation and basement columns came in next. The ground floor slab and columns were cast. Followed by the first floor slab At this stage I took part in and witnessed the casting of the 1st floor columns, 2nd floor slab, 2nd floor columns, 3rd floor slab and finishing in the basement and ground floor. Construction schedule bar chart program.

FIG 6 . the construction schedule(as drawn by me because the contractor never had one)

The timing of the contruction process was mainly set back by the fact that the client of the next building delyed to begin construction.

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3. WITNESSED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES I am to discuss the construction processes sections:column,slab,stair,beam,foundation,services. I took part in into the following

3.1. THE COLUMN 3.1.1Setting out, With reference to the working drawings the positions of the columns are established on the floor slab surface. Builders lines are fixed laterally on predetermined points that map with the outer surface of the columns. Another set of builders lines is also fixed longitudinally.

FIG 7 .column setting out

The meeting points of these two builders line sets is marked off by two lines each along the direction of a given line set to give the corners of the columns at their respective points. Analytically this procedure produced a high level of inaccuracies in setting out.
FIG 8 . column height determinetion

3.1.2The column kicker formwork At the above established column corner points, wooden formwork is setup in form of a box with inner dimensions matching with the column length and width. It is fixed to the floor slab with the help of wooden joist braces and nails. A concrete mixture of 1:2:3 cement sand aggregate is made and poured into the formwork leaving extruded points of the former floor level of the column reinforcement.

FIG 9 .column kicker formwork

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3.1.3Column formwork In case of steel form work 2 prefabricated steel L shaped cross-section (400mm x 400mm) members are erected above the column kicker. They are fixed together with the help of binding wire pieces. The resultant setup is plumbed for verticality and braced with wooden joists In case of wooden formwork, 4"x2" wooden joists are setup in such a way that they support 12"x1" timber boards cuboid is then formed with inner void dimensions the same as of the desired column 400mm x 400mm x 2800mm. The spaces between the no uniform wooden members are plugged in with soaked papers to control bleeding of concrete,

FIG 10a.colum timber formwork

3.1.4Column reinforcement As shown in figure 5, 4 Y-20 steel bars are overlapped with, and fixed with binding wire to, the steel bars protruding from the former floor column Stirrups made of bent r 9 steel bars are fixed with binding wire along the length of the main vertical bars at intervals of 170mm.

FIG 10b . column steel formwork

FIG 11 .column section

FIG 12 .balcony column formwork

FIG 13 .foundation column formwok

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3.1.5Column concrete mixture Cement, Sand and Stones with a proportion ratio of 1:2:3 (with an estimated amount of water) are poured into the drum of the concrete mixer. The drum is left to rotate for an approximated number of times till the concrete mixture seems to be uniformly mixed based on the experience of the concrete workforce personnel.

FIG 14. Concerete mixture flow diagram

3.1.6Column concrete casting and curing First the height level of concrete required is established by measuring off from the slab surface with the help of a tape measure.The desired conrete fill height is indicated on the formwork external surface with the help of a marker. The formed mixture as described is then poured into cans or wheel barrows by rotating the drum of the mixer in the direction of the position of the container that will take it to the position that it will be cast. The concrete is then transferred to the column formwork box. It is poured into the formwork in 4 intervals till it reaches the predetermined column height level. It is vibrated to eliminate air spaces at the 4 level intervals of filling the column formwork. For the following 7 days the concrete is wetted with the help of a perforated jerry can to make sure it cures fully.

FIG 15 .concrete casting

FIG 16 concrete vibrating /compacton.

FIG 17 curing of column concrete

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3.2 THE FLOOR SLAB


3.2.1.Setting out(level and boundary establishment)

The level of the floor slab is determined with reference to the working drawings and measured out and marked off on to the cast columns of the floor on which construction is taking place. First an intermediate reference level is measured at one column from the slab surface and transferred to other columns using a water level.from this reference level the true slab soffit position is established by measuring off.The thickness of the slab is establihed by measuring a reference distance of 800mm from the bottom of the formwork .This level is transferred to all starter bars of the columns with the help of a water level.The actual thickness is then establishe by mesuaring off from this point.
FIG 18 slab soffit level determination

Boundaries of the slab are establised after the base boarding of the slab formwork has been done. With the help of builders lines,nails,makers as tools.reference is made to the measured drawings and to a pre established point on the slab formwork. The boundaries are measured off or constructed and marked off for the formwork team of the work force to know where to put the slab form work side shutter boards.This also applies to estabishment of slab void areas.
FIG 19 .slab void boundries setting out

FIG 20 . rectagular slab void formwork FIG 21 . round slab void formwork

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3.2.2 Slab form work

Cross 4"x2" timber joists are erected to match the pre-determined floor slab soffit formwork board level. They are propped by eucalyptus logs of diameter 150mm that rest on the floor slab surface to which they are fixed with nails. Another set of timber joists is fixed on top of these with the help of wire nails and a hammer at an interval of 500mm. On top of the resultant setup is put 12x1 boards to form the slab soffit formwork. Next at the previously marked off boundaries of the solid slab vertical 12x1 board are fixed with nails, plumbed for verticality and propped for stability. In cases of curves in the slab boundaries plywood is used and propped with 4"x2" timber joists. The spaces that result from irregularities in the wooden member shapes are plugged in with soaked paper to control the bleeding of the concrete.

FIG 22a .slab formwork side shutters

FIG 22b. slab formwork round end shutter formwork

FIG 23 .slab formwork support

FIG 24.slab overhang fomwork

FIG 25 .slab soffit formwork

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3.2.3.Slab reinforcement and maxipan placement,

With reference to the structural working drawings, main iron bars(Y 20 or Y 16) are assembled along the length of the slab they ate linked by styrup rings fixed t them with the help of binding wires at intervals of 100 to 150mm depending on the bending moments of the position of the slab.The resultant setup is the reignforcement for the slab beam.The space left in between the slab beams is filled with lines maxipan blocks at a pacing of 120mm.Bottom rib steel bars(Y 8) are placed in the spaces between the maxipan lines.Another set of topping bars(y 8) are put above the maxipans at intervals of 300mm.they are crisscrosssed to form a grid and joined with the help of binding wire.on top this set up is fixed a british reinforced concrete mesh.At posiions here stairs are to be made protruding bars are left to act as the anchor point for the stair.

FIG 26a .slab reinforcement

FIG 27.slab overhang section FIG 26b .maxipan& reinforcement placement

3.2.4Slab casting and curing

Cement, Sand and Stones with a proportion ratio of 1:2:3 (with an estimated amount of water) are poured into the drum of the concrete mixer. The drum is left to rotate for an approximated number of times till the concrete mixture seems to be uniformly mixed. The resultant mixture is then poured into wheel barrows and cans and ferried to the point of the slab that is being cast. It is poured into the formwork, spread with the help of a hoe or spade and vibrated to eliminate air spaces. The level of the poured concrete is kept at the measured off point that was marked during the setting out process. It is then leveled with wooden rods that are hit on its surface .it is left to set and For the following 7 days the concrete is wetted with the help of a perforated jerry can to make sure it cures fully.

FIG 28 .concrete mixer

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3.3 THE STRAIGHT FLIGHT STAIR 3.3.1Setting out(position and size esablishment) Reference is taken from the working drawings and a pre established point on the floor slab. With the help of a builders line a plumb bob,marker,water level and tape measure the stair position on the floor slab is set out beginning with the 1st riser position, overall going distance, and landing position/dimension and stair width. The height of the intermediate landing is established by measuring from the slab level. The height is transferred to the points of the stair using a water level. The second going is also established by connecting builders line where the stair rest ends to the next floor slab where the stair void ends.After the offit boards are fixed meausurements are made to establish the boundaries of the stair slab width, thickness and riser,tread proportions.

FIG 29 .stair reinforcement plan

3.3.2Formwork Cross 4"x2" wooden joists are placed across the current floor stair void span to create a base support for the stair form work props. Vertical eucalyptus members are erected to act as props. They are distributed in such a way that they first support the stair rest. Diagonal joists are fixed from the slab surface to the rest and from the rest to the next floor slab soffit. They are propped with eucalyptus joists. Another set of 4"x2" wooden joists is fixed with wire nails across the diagonal ones at intervals of 500mm. On top of this is put a set of 12x1 wooden boards to form the stair slab soffit form work. 12x1 wooden Side shuter boards are fixed at the predetermined stair boudaries and propped with wooden joists. After the steel reinforcement is doneThe treads and risers are formed aby fixing cross wooden joists connecting the two side shutter boards.such that they are in position to have all the three sets of dimensions (tread, riser and slab thickness) accurately established.

FIG 30 . .used stair dimensions

FIG 31 .used stair dimensions

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3.3.3Stair reinforcement With in the already established stair formwork for one going, main steel bars(Y-20) are positioned longitudinally along the length of the stair close to the slab bottom they are fixed to the starter bars with the help of binding wire. Another set of steel bars are arranged laterally along the length of the stair slab and fixed to the original one with the help of binding wire. The two steel reinforcement setups of both the risers are overlapped at the stair rest. The stair rest is given another assembly of a grid of steel bars joined to the bars from the two sections of the stair with binding wire.

FIG 32 .stair starter bars

FIG 33 .stair reinforcement section

FIG 34 .stair reinforcement specifications

3.3.4casting and curing of stair slab concrete. A concrete mixture of 1:2:3 cement sand aggregate is made with approximated quantities of water. It is mixed with the help of an engine driven concrete mixer. It is then poured into cans or wheel barrows and transported to the position of the stair slab it is going to make and poured into the formwork and reinforcement setup. The mixture is vibrated with the help of an engine driven vibrator to eliminate air spaces. The horizontally flat areas of the stair slab are leveled out with a wooden rod. It is left untouched for a minimum of 12 hours for the surface to harden enough to be walked on. Water is poured on the slab 3 times a day for the next 7 days to ensure that it cures completely

FIG 35 .newly cast atair

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3.4 THE FLOOR BEAM 3.4.1 setting out(position establishment)

Reference is taken from the working drawings (sections) the height of the beam from the floor slab is esablished.First an intermdeiate level measurement of 2000mm is taken from the slab surface and marked on the column. It is transferred to the rst of the colulns with the help of a water level stationed at the first meaured point.The beam soffit is the detemined by measuring off from this reference point. Beam depth is established after the beam soffit formwork has been set up by measuring off a distance of 260mm from the sofffit formwork board and marking it off on the beam formwork side shutter board.
, 3.4.2 Formwork

FIG 36 .beam to column joint reinforcement

Cross 4x2 timber joists are placed laterally in position and propped with eucalyptus joists resting on the floor slab. Another set of 4x2 timber joists is fixed to these longitudinally at intervals of 500mm with wire nails. On top of the resultant set up is put 12x1 wooden boards are fixed with nails to create the beam soffit formwork platform. Vertical 12x1 wooden boards are placed at the already determined boundaries of the beam. They are plumbed to ensure verticality and propped with wooden joists.

FIG 37 .slab boundary beam

FIG 38 .beam formwork

FIG 39 .beam concrete compaction during casting

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3.4.3 Reinforcement

With reference to the structural working drawings, main iron bars(Y 20 or Y 16) are assembled along the length of the slab they are linked by stirrup rings(r-8 steel bars) fixed to them with the help of binding wires at intervals of 100 to 150mm depending on the bending moments of the position of the beam. The resultant setup is then placed in the already made formwork. It is fixed to the column starter bars with the help of binding wires.

FIG 40 .beam formwork support

3.4.4 Casting and curing

This is done together with the slab. Cement, Sand and Stones with a proportion ratio of 1:2:3 (with an estimated amount of water) are poured into the drum of the concrete mixer. The drum is left to rotate for an approximated number of times till the concrete mixture seems to be uniformly mixed. The resultant mixture is then poured into wheel barrows and cans and carried to the point of the beam that is being cast. It is poured into the formwork, spread with the help of a hoe or spade and vibrated to eliminate air spaces. The level of the poured concrete is kept at the measured off point that was marked during the setting out process. It is then leveled with wooden rods that are hit on its surface.

FIG 41 .newly cast beam

FIG 42 .beam reinforcement

FIG 43 .foundation beam casting

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3.5 FOUNDATION

3.5.1 Basement earth and water removal. After the basement level formwork is removed,The water collected with in the baement pit I pumped out with yhe help of an engine driven water pump. The soil that collects between the foundation beams and pads is dug out,put in cans and carried to a truck that takes it off the site.

FIG 44a .foundation profile section

FIG 44b .excavation of foundtion pit

FIG 45 .basement fter removal of earth

3.5.1 Hard core placement Stones of approximate size 500x500x500mm are carried from the site deliverypoint in awheel barrow and placed between the foundation beams and pads in such way as to minimise spaces between them.

FIG 45 .placement of hard core

FIG 45b . placement of hard core FIG 46 .foundation elements

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3.6 FINISHING WORKS

3.6.1 Striking off formwork It is done After the 28 concrete curing days have passed .With the help of a crow bar and hammer, the wooden formwork is removed from the already set concrete slab and beams. The nails are bent to prevent them from causing accidents by piercing people. The removed formwork members are carried to the next point of t sit were they are to be reused In case of the badly shuttered ones they are carried off the site.
FIG 47 .plastered surface section

3.6.2 The timber scafolding, In order to reach the higher Parts of the ceiling that are to be plastered a raised wooden platform is setup as illustrated in the figure

FIG 48 .the scafolding

3.6.3 Plaster level establishment With the help of a tape measure the desired finished ceiling level is established and marked off.It is tranfered to selected points of the columns of the floor on which the finishing job is being done. Nails are attarched to these selected points and builders lines are fixed to conect them in form of a grid of stings. A plaster gauge is cast first on the surface to be plastered.By making sure that theplasted units do not exceed the fixed string level.
FIG 49 .ceiling plastering procedure

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3.6.3 Ceiling plastering rendering

The surface to be plastered is cleared of irregularities like stuck pieces of wood and polythene sheets. It is wetted with water. A mortar mixture of cement sand with proportions of 1:3 is made manually and mixed with an approximate amount of water based on the experience of the work force personnel. The mixture is put into wheel barrow or cans and carried to the point that is being plastered. The mixture is then picked from the can or wheel barrow and thrust on to the surface to be plastered with the help of a builders trowel.This is done over and over again till the entire plastered area is completely at the level of the originally established plaster gauge. The resultant plastered area oi level out first with a wooden rod and then with a wooden float.it is left to set for a minimum of 6 hours. A mortar mixture of cement and lime in proportions of 1:1 is made and mixed with an approximate amount of water.It is applied on the hardenned surface with a buildes trowell and smoothene immediately wit h a steel float.The plateresd surface is then left to cure.
FIG 50 .plastering tools

FIG 51 .newly plastered surface

FIG 53 .ideal plastering procedure FIG 52 .newly removed formwork

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3.7 ELECTRICAL SERVICE LINES : 3.7.1 The the genaral lay out The electrical line conduits were cast with in the slab following the procedures dscribed bellow.Plastc codiuts and channels are put in the reinforcement in such a way that channels are created or the movement of wires and electrical insatallations.The lay out is such that from the point where electricity is to get into the building ,conduits are put linking it to the main distribution board.From the main distribution boar conduits are placed to link the wires to arectangular adaptable box units.From these another serries of coduits is connected to cylindrical power outlets. 3.7.1 Electrical installations With in the floor slab formwork and reinforcement conduits and elecrical line joints are fixed with nails to the formwork boards. In case of open ends with in these units they are blocked with soaked paper to make sure that they are not blocked by concrete during the casting process. It is illustrated in more detail I the figure.

FIG 54 .electrical units

FIG 55 .electrical conduits and joint before casting

FIG 56.the building,s electrical service line lay out diagram

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4. CHALLENGES 4.1.Safety Workers on site had little or no protective wear.There was no first aid box to help n case a work on site got anyaccident

Analysis and recommendations. Every worker would have a plastic cap to act as scurity against falling debris.Also in addition o that workers at high levels should have to dress up with fafety belts in case they fall off the bilding.
FIG 57 .risky working

FIG 58 .safety belt for workers at high building points FIG 59 .the safety hamlet

4.2.Work rate: The work rate was at times forced to be high by removal of form work before the specificied period of time necessary for the concrete to cure. Analysis: On the other hand the act all construction work was being paid for on the basis of the amount of work done by an individual or team made th work force perform at afast rate

4.3.comunication: The excahnge of information on site was mainly oral because almost all the workforce understood the local language. Analysis There was a need of a better comunication mechanism may be daily meetings for specified teams before they take on specific tasks.This would save on construction errors. 4.4.Transport : The movement of mainly material was by casual labourers Analysis.This reduced the work rate significantly andhad it been mechanised with the help of a pulley it woul be more efficient.

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4.5.Knowledge acquisition as a student: Many of the questons I used to pose to the work force as a student would have either inappropriate answers or go completely uanswered due to the lack of knowledge by the workers. Analysis:This would have been much more efficiently achieved if the architect had a fully present clerk of works to explain every construction as it went on. 5 .CONCLUSION

5.1Skills aquired: The shopping mall project had a couple of lessons to offer on my journey to professional architecture. Due to the fact that the context of this building construction project is a relatively informal one, I had to learn mainly by observing and taking part in activities the way they are not ideally supposed to be done.

5.2The proffesion Generally speaking thhe architecture profession is in a in the private sector part of the country crisis.The ordinally privately financed clients do not seem to get the value of an architect on th building team .they only use the architect for getting approval from the city council officials to build.

5.3The training Anaytically speaking this session helped me to bridge the knowledge gap between theoretical class room work and the real world practice. It has been of uch great help in understanding the way buildig components like columns floor slabs and stairs are made.

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6. APPENDICES APPENDIX 6.1 REFERENCES Building construction handbook By R. Chudley, Roger Greeno
http://gulfcoastprecast.com/Stairs.html http://www.oas.org/cdmp/document/codedraw/sectionb.htm http://www.precisionpaintingplus.net/blog/category/plaster/

APPENDIX 6.2.1, measured drawings originally designed and approved by the Kampala city council officials.

FIG 60 . approved Basement floor plan

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FIG 61 . approved ground floor plan

FIG 62 . approved first floor plan

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FIG 63 . approved 2nd floor plan

FIG 64 . approved 3rd floor plan

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FIG 65 . approved 4th to7th floor plan

APPENDIX 6.2 .2 Measured drawings as built done by me

FIG 66 . As built basemnent floor plan

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FIG 67 . As built ground floor plan

FIG 68 . As built 1st floor plan

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FIG 69 . As built 2nd floor plan

FIG 70 . As built 3rd floor plan

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