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Difference between class action lawsuit and public interest litigation A.

Definition:CLASS ACTION SUIT In law, a class action or a representative action is a form of lawsuit in which a large group of people collectively bring a claim to court and/or in which a class of defendants is being sued. This form of collective lawsuit originated in the United States and is still predominantly a U.S. phenomenon, at least the U.S. variant of it. However, in several European countries with civil law different from the English common law principle (which is used by U.S. courts), changes have been made in recent years that allow consumer organizations to bring claims on behalf of large groups of consumers. PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION In Indian law, public interest litigation means litigation for the protection of the public interest. It is litigation introduced in a court of law, not by the aggrieved party but by the court itself or by any other private party. It is not necessary, for the exercise of the court's jurisdiction, that the person who is the victim of the violation of his or her right should personally approach the court. Public interest litigation is the power given to the public by courts through judicial activism. However, the person filing the petition must prove to the satisfaction of the court that the petition is being filed for a public interest and not just as a frivolous litigation by a busy body. Such cases may occur when the victim does not have the necessary resources to commence litigation or his freedom to move court has been suppressed or encroached upon. The court can itself take cognisance of the matter and proceedsuomotu or cases can commence on the petition of any public-spirited individual. B. Importance CLASS ACTION SUIT Class action lawsuits are an important and valuable part of the legal system when they permit the fair and efficient resolution of legitimate claims of numerous parties. Such claims might otherwise evade legal enforcement.Class actions may also help regulators control conduct that threatens to harm various markets. Securities and other consumer classactions serve to enforce regulatory standards designed to controlor deter fraudulent marketplace conduct that might otherwise escape regulation.Aggregation can increase the efficiency of the legal process, and lower the costs of litigation. In cases with common questions of law and fact, aggregation of claims into a class action may avoid the necessity of repeating "days of the same witnesses, exhibits and issues from trial to trial.

PIL had already molded the state in to the instrument of socio-economic change. C. a class action ensures that all plaintiffs receive relief and that early-filing plaintiffs do not raid the funda class action avoids the situation where different court rulings could create "incompatible standards" of conduct for the defendant to follow. It¶s the sword of every one used only for taking the justice. In some cases class certification may require discovery in order to determine its size and if the proposed class meets the standard for class certification. the plaintiff must file a motion to have the class certified. The marginalized and disadvantaged groups continued to be exploited and denied basic human rights. Typically these cases result from an action on the part of a business or a particular product defect or policy that applied to all proposed class members in a typical manner. It is working for the welfare of every section of society. PIL has been used as a strategy to combat the atrocities prevailing in society.In "limited fund" cases. It¶s an institutional initiative towards the welfare of the needy class of the society. Procedure CLASS ACTION SUIT The procedure for filing a class action is to file suit with one or several named plaintiffs on behalf of a proposed class. After the complaint is filed. Public interest litigation is working as an important instrument of social change. PIL today offers such a paradigm which locates the content of informal justice without the formal legal system. The Anglo-Saxon model of adjudication insisted upon observance of procedural technicalities such as locus standi and adherence to adversarial system of litigation. The proposed class must consist of a group of individuals or business entities that have suffered a common injury or injuries. Non Anglo-Saxon jurisdiction directs courts to transcend the traditional judicial function of adjudication and provide remedies for social wrongs.A class action ensures that a defendant who engages in widespread harm ± but does so minimally against each individual plaintiff ± must compensate those individuals for their injuries. to whether the named plaintiffs are sufficiently . the defendants may object to whether the issues are appropriately handled as a class action. Social justice is the byproduct of this transcends from the formal legal system.Class action cases may be brought to purposely change behavior of a class of which the defendant is a member. The innovation of this legitimate instrument proved beneficial for the developing country like India. The result was that the courts were accessible only to the rich and the influential people. PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION The British rule bequeathed to India a colonial legal heritage. Upon the motion to certify the class.

first a notice giving class members the opportunity to opt out of the class.Litigation involvement can divert the attention of the community away from the real issues. iv.Engage a competent lawyer. and to their relationship with the law firm or firms handling the case. or broadcast to class members. please file the PIL in the name of an office bearer/member in his/her personal capacity. Filing a suit against the government would require issuing a notice to the concerned officer department at least two months prior to filing. only to the extent that they give timely notice to the class counsel or the court that they are opting out. vii. published.Litigation can be time consuming.Write to the relevant authorities and be clear about your demands. ii. 4. i. Second.Be meticulous in gathering detail for use in the case. retain the negatives and take an affidavit from the photographer.If you have taken the decision i.Consult a lawyer on the choice of forum. the court will usually direct the class counsel to send a settlement notice to all the members of the certified class. If you are unregistered.Be careful in filing a case because i.Consult all affected interest groups who are possible allies. vi. If you plan to use photographs.An adverse decision can affect the strength of the movement. if individuals wish to proceed with their own litigation they are entitled to do so. 3. Make an informed decision to file a case.You may have to issue a legal notice to the concerned parties/authorities before filing a PIL.representative of the class. If you are handling the matter yourself make sure you get good legal advice on the drafting. if there is a settlement proposal.e. 2. v. informing them of the details of the proposed settlement. Due process requires in most cases that notice describing the class action be sent.Litigation can take away decision making capability/strength from communities.A PIL can be filed only by a registered organization. and their resources for dealing with class actions. viii. iv.Litigation can be expensive. The court will also examine the ability of the firm to prosecute the claim for the plaintiffs. . As part of this notice procedure.Collect all the relevant information ii. Retain bills. PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION 1.Maintain records in an organized fashion. there may have to be several notices. iii. iii. v.


(a) Prerequisites. (2) there are questions of law or fact common to the class. and (4) the representative parties will fairly and adequately protect the interests of the class. . (3) the claims or defenses of the representative parties are typical of the claims or defenses of the class. One or more members of a class may sue or be sued as representative parties on behalf of all members only if: (1) the class is so numerous that joinder of all members is impracticable.