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He Ho Tro Quyet Dinh

He Ho Tro Quyet Dinh

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Được xuất bản bởiNguyễn Việt Hồng

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Published by: Nguyễn Việt Hồng on Nov 26, 2011
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H~ H6 TfQ'Quy€t Dinh

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BAI 3.
NQIDUNG

cAc D~NG H¥

THONG HO TRQ QUYET DJNH

o o

H~ h6 tro quyet dinh nhom H~ h6 tro quyet dinh rmrc xf nghiep

111.1. H~ 111.1.1.

h6 tr(}' quy~t

djnh nhom

Ra quy@t dinh nhom, giao ti@p va cQng tac
Cac d~c diem cua cong viec nhom: + M9t nhom tlnrc hi~n m9t nhiem vu, thinh thoang fa quyet dinh, thinh thoang khong fa quyet dinh, + Cac thanh vien trong nhom co the a nhimg noi khac nhau. + Cac thanh vien trong nhom co the lam viec a nhfrng thai gian khac nhau. + Cac thanh vien trong nhom co the lam viec cung nhau hoac a cac t6 chirc khac nhau. + Nhom co the vinh vi~n hoac tarn thai. + Nhom co the a bAt ky rmrc quan ly nao hoac mire thai gian nao, + Co sir dieu ph6i (qua trinh va nhiem v~ dat duac) hoac mau thuan trong nhom. + Co sir dat diroc ho~c/va mAt mat nang suAttrong t6 clnrc, + Nhiem vu phai hoan thanh rAt nhanh. + Khong the hoac qua d~t cho tAt ca cac thanh vien trong nhom cung hop a m9t noi, + M9t s6 du li~u, thong tin, hoac kit~n thirc dn thiet nam a nhieu noi, m9t s6 khac a ngoai t6 clnrc, + Chuyen mon cua cac thanh vien khong co trong nhom la dn thick Cac heat d9ng va cac qua trinh mieu ta cac CU9C hop: + CU9C hop la heat d9ng chung lien quan boi m9t nhom ngiroi co dia vi bang nhau hoac gAnbang nhau. + Kth qua cua CU9Chop phu thuoc m9t phan vao kit~nthirc, y kien, cac danh gia cua cac thanh vien, + Kth qua cua CU9Chop cling phu thuoc vao sir ket hop cua nhom va phu thuoc vao qua trlnh ra quyet dinh diroc su dung boi nhom do. + Giai quyet cac y kien khac nhau boi ngiroi co quyen han hoac thirong hrong hoac phan xu.

111.1.2.

H6 trQ'giao

ti@p

Giao tiep la thanh phAn quan trong cho h6 tro quyet dinh, Khong co giao tiep, thl khong co c9ng taco Nhirng ngiroi ra quyet dinh ca nhan phai giao tiep voi cac d6ng nghiep, chuyen gia, co quan chfnh phu, khach hang, d6i tac kinh doanh, ... HQ cling dn du li~u va thong tin (va kiin thuc) til nhieu noi tren the gioi, Cac nhom ra quyet dinh phai giao tiep, c9ng tac, va thirong hrong trong cong viec, HAu het cac t6 chirc se nhanh tro thanh khong co chirc nang, neu khong co cac h~

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th6ng giao tiep. Thirong mai di~n nr co the hieu qua chi qua cac ky thuat giao tiep hi~n dai. Cac ky thuat thong tin hi~n dai cung cAp cac phirong ti~n h6 tro giao tiep re, nhanh, co kha nang, co the tin c~y. Nen tang h6 tro giao tiep la cac h~ th6ng may tfnh mang, + B~t dAu bang di~n bao, di~n thoai, radio va ti vi. + Trong 100 nam, cluing ta phat trien may fax, thir di~n nr, chuang trlnh chat, nhom tin nrc, h~ th6ng hQi nghi truyen hlnh, HAu het cac ky thuat nay deu heat dQng tren internet. + Str phat trien giao tiep sau cung la h~ th6ng hop di~n nr, cac dich vu va h~ th6ng hQi nghi di~n nr, tlnrong su dung internet de ket n6i cac ngiroi ra quyet dinh, Cac thuan loi ap dung cac phirong phap giao tiep cai tien trong cac t6 clnrc: + CM tien nang suAt cua nhan vien + Lien quan den nhieu ngiroi ra quyet dinh chfnh + Khong quan tam nhieu den dirong bien gioi dia ly + Tao nen van hoa hop tac nhat quan + CM tien chat hrong cuoc s6ng cua nhan vien

111.1.3.

H6 trQ' cQng tac: May tinh h6 trQ' cQng tac

Khung thai gian/nai ch6n: + Str hieu qua cua ky thuat tfnh toan cQng tac phu thuoc vao vi trf cua cac thanh vien trong nhom va phu thuoc vao thai gian chia se thong tin goi va nhan, + Chia su giao tiep thanh b6n 0, va t6 chirc b6n 0 doc thea 2 chieu thai gian va noi ch6n. • Thai gian: Khi goi va nhan thong tin hAu nlnr d6ng thai, giao tiep la d6ng thai. Vi du: Di~n thoai, ti vi, va cac cuoc hop g~p ~t nhau. Giao tiep bAt d6ng bQ xay ra khi ngiroi nhan nhan thong tin a thai diem khac thai diem goi thong tin do. • r.. N__ai,ch6n: giroi goi va ngiroi nhan co the a cling phong hoac khong, N + Bon 0 la: • Cling thai gian/cung noi ch6n: Cac thanh vien g~p ~t nhau cling mQt hie, gi6ng nlnr phong quyet dinh hoac g~p ~t truyen thong. • Cling thai gian/khac noi ch6n: Cac thanh vien a cac noi khac nhau, nlnrng giao tiep cling nhau. Vi du: hQi nghi truyen hlnh (videoconferencing). • Khac thai gian/cung noi ch6n: Nhieu ngiroi lam viec thea ca. Ca nay de lai thong tin cho ca khac, • Khac thai gian/khac noi ch6n: Cac thanh vien a cac noi khac nhau. Cac thanh vien nay goi va nhan thong tin a nhimg IAnkhac nhau.

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I Cung thai gian ]
• • • • • GSS trong phong quyet dinh GSS dua tren web H~ th5ng trinh bay da phirong ti~n Bang trilng Chia se thlli~u • • • • •

I Khac

thm gian ]

Cimg noi ch5n

GSS trong phong quyet dinh GSS dua tren web H~ th5ng quan ly dong nun vi~c Chia se tai lieu E-mail, V-mail

Khac noi ch5n

• • • • • •

GSS dua tren web Bang trilng Chia se thlli~u HQi nghi truyen hmh HQi nghi may tfnh E-mail, V-mail

• • • • • •

GSS dua tren web Bang trang E-mail, V-mail H~ th5ng quan ly dong lam vi~c Chia se tai lieu HQi nghi may tfnh co nho

Hlnh 111.1.1:Khung giao ti~p thiri gian/noi chAn va cac ky thu,t h~ trg tinh toan c9ng tac

Groupware: + Groupware thirong tham khao cac san pham phAn mem, cung cAp h6 tro cQng tac cho nh6m. Groupware cung cAp mQt co che dQi de chia se y kien, dfr li~u, thong tin, kien thirc, va cac nguon tai nguyen khac, Cac ky thuat tfnh toan cQng tac khac nhau h6 tro lam viec nh6m thea cac each khac nhau, phu thuoc vao loai thai gian/nai chon rna cong viec xay ra, muc dfch cua nh6m, va nhiem vu, Nhirng cong cu moi lien quan den viec h6 tro cac cuoc hop a bAt ctr thai gian naolbAt ctr noi nao, + C6 hang ngan g6i phAn mem chua mQt s6 thanh phAn cua groupware. MQt s6 chi c6 cac kha nang cQng tac tho sa (bdu CU, voting), trong khi mQt s6 khac cung cAp su h6 tro cho m6i khfa canh cQng tac (cac cuoc hop di~n nr dAy du cimg voi hQi nghi truyen hlnh). HAu het tAt ca deu t~n dung ky thuat internet cho gi~o di~n ngiroi su dung thea kieu duyet web nhat quan va cac protocol giao tiep, + Groupware tlnrong chua cac kha nang cho It nhAt mQt trong cac thanh phAn sau: • Phat kien di~n nr • HQp hoac hQi nghi di~n nr • Dinh thai nh6m • Len lich • Hoach dinh • GiM quyet dung dQ • Xay dung mo hlnh • HQi nghi truyen hlnh • C~ia s,etai li~u di~n nr (Yilh!;_ chia se man hlnh, bang trang, liveboard) • Bau cir, ...

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111.1.4. Cae h~ h6 trQ' quy@t dinh
HAu hth cac cong vi~c nhom xay ra trong cac cUQChop, M1}C tieu ciia groupware la h6 tro cong viec cua cac nhom thong qua m6i heat dQng cong viec, bao g6m cac cuoc hop, M~c du cac cuoc hop khong co hieu qua, cong viec nhom cung cAp cac phu hop, va mQt s6 dieu khac tlnrong, M1}c tieu ciia GSS la tang mQt s6 cac loi Ich cong tac va loai bo hoac giam bot mQt s6 nhimg mAt mat. Cac nha nghien CUll dfl phat trien cac phirong phap de cai tit~n cac qua trlnh cua cong viec nhom, va mQt s6 phirong phap nay diroc nhom tv dQng. Hai phirong phap dai dien la ky thuat nhom danh nghia (nominal group technique, NGT) va phirong phap Delphi (Delphi method). Cac phirong phap nay deu la cac tiep c~n bang tay de h6 tro lam viec nhom, Cac thanh cdng giOi han ciia cac phuong phap nhu NGT va Delphi dfrn den cac n6 lire su dung ky thuat thong tin de h6 tro cac cuoc hop nhom, Ky thuat chfnh goi la h~ h6 tro nhom (GSS, Group support system). Vao dAu nhimg nam 1990, thay the bang h~ h6 tro quyet dinh nhom (GDSS, Group decision support system), VI cac nha nghien CUll nhan ra r~ng cac ky thuat tfnh toan cQng tac dang su dung nhieu han h6 tro ra quyet dinh, H~ h6 tro nhom la bAt ClI sir ket hop nao cua phAn cimg va phAn mem, nham cai tien cong viec nhom, la thuat ngit chung g6m tAt ca cac dang tfnh toan cQng taco cai tien sau khi cac nha nghien CUll ky thuat thong tin nhan ra r~ng ky thuat diroc phat trien de h6 tro nhieu heat dQng thirong xay ra a cac cuoc hop g~p m~t nhau (phdt sinh y tuong, xay dung cdc dang cam, siip hang nac danh, bdu cu,

ass

ass

...).

M~c du, dAy du vfrn xem xet h~ th6ng thong tin diroc thiet ke cu the, tir giira cac nam 1990, nhieu kha nang d~c bi~t cua diroc nhiing vao cac cong cu san xuat, Vi du: Microsoft NetMeeting Client la mQt phAn cua Windows. HAu het cac deu d~ dung VI cluing co giao di~n windows hoac trinh duyet web. HAu het deu kha ph6 bien va cung cAp sir h6 tro cho cac heat dQng gi6ng nlnr phat sinh y nrong, giai quyet dung dQ, bAu cu, ... H~ th6ng hop di~n nr (EMS, electronic meeting system) la mQt dang groupware, h6 tro cac cuoc hop vao bAt ClI hie nao, a bAt ClI thai diem nao, Cac nhiem vu nhom bao g6m giao tiep, hoach dinh, phat sinh y nrong, giai quyet vAn de, thao lu~n vAn de, thirong hrong, giai quyet dung dQ, phan tfch va thiet ke h~ thong, cac heat dQng nhom cQng tac nhir chuan bi va chia se tai lieu, co the xem xet trong cac heat dQng nhom ph6 bien co Ich tir viec h6 tro dua tren tfnh: + LAy thong tin: bao g6m viec truy xuAt cac gia tri du li~u tir mQt co du li~u hi~n hanh va lAy thong tin tir cac thanh vien nhom khac, + Chia se thong tin: la trlnh bay du li~u cho toan bQ nhom tren man hlnh chung hoac a cac tram cua cac thanh vien nhom de xem. + Su dung thong tin: lien quan den irng dung ky thuat phan mem (nhu cdc g6i ma hinh hoiic cdc chuang trinh tmg dung C1:l the), cac thu tuc, va cac ky thuat giai quyet vAn de nhom de di den mQt quyet dinh nhom, M1}c tieu GSS la cung cAp h6 tro cho cac thanh vien trong cuoc hop de cai tien su phong phu va hieu qua cua cac cuoc hop bang each tang t6c dQ qua trinh ra quyet

ass

ass

ass ass

ass

may

sa

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dinh (hieu qua) hoac bang each cai tit~n chat hrong cua cac kth qua (hiiu hieu). GSS c6 g~ng tang cac dieu dat diroc cua qua trlnh va nhiem vu, va giam cac dieu khong dat diroc cua qua trinh va nhiem vu, CM tien hieu suAt bang each h6 tro cac thanh vien trong nhom trao d6i cac y nrong, y kien, va cac sa thfch. Cac d~c diem cu the nlnr song song va n~c danh de tao sir cai tien. Tiet kiem thai gian di chuyen, song song dfrn den giam cac chi phi, n~c danh dfrn den phat sinh nhieu y nrong han va sang tao nhieu y nrong han.

111.1.5. Cae ky thuit h~ th6ng h6 trQ'quy@tdinh nhom
Co 3 Iva chon de trien khai ky thuat GSS: + Trong phong quyet dinh voi muc tieu d~c bi~t + 0 phirong ti~n co nhieu cong dung + Nhir la mQt groupware dua tren web voi cac client chay a bAt ctr noi nao co cac thanh vien cua nhom, Cai d~t GSS a cac phong quyet dinh co muc tieu d~c biet, d~t, thea khach hang, cac phong quyet dinh voi cac muc tieu d~c bi~t (phong hop dien tu) co cac may tfnh va mQt man hlnh chung Ian a tnroc phong, Y nrong ban dAu chi la cac nha quan ly cAp cao va cac nha lanh dao su dung ti~n loi, Phan mem trong phong h9P di~n nr co muc dfch d~c bi~t tlnrong chay tren mang cue bQ, va cac phong nay trang bi kha d~t. cAu tnic cac phong h9P di~n nr thea cac hinh dang va kfch tlnroc khac nhau. Mi}t thi@t k@ph6 bi@n la mQt phong trang bi 12-30 may tfnh ca nhan co n6i mang, thirong hoan lai thanh man hlnh nen (desktop) (ad xem xet cdc thanh. vien tat han). MQt may tfnh server n6i voi h~ th6ng may chieu co man hlnh Ian va n6i voi mang de trlnh bay cong viec a cac tram lam viec ca nhan va tfch hop thong tin tit cac tram lam viec, Cac phong break-out trang bi cac may tfnh n6i voi server gAn ke voi phong quyet dinh co cac nhom nr vAn nho, Va trinh bay cac thong tin xuAt phat tit cac nhom nr vAn nho nay tren man hlnh chung Ian. Cac t6 chirc vfrn su dung cac phong quyet dinh di~n nr h6 tro cac cuoc h9P a cimg thai gian/cung noi ch6n. MQt Iva chon thir hai de xay dung phirong ti~n co nhieu cong dung, la phong lab co muc tieu chung voi kfch tlnroc gAp doi, khong Ian nhimg co phong GSS hiru Ich, D6i voi Iva chon mQt va hai, phirong ti~n huan luyen dn thiet de ph6i hop cac cuoc hop, Ngiroi dung dAu nhom lam viec voi phirong ti~n de cAu tnic cUQChop, Str thanh cong cua cUQCh9P GSS phu thuoc Ian vao chat hrong, cac heat dQng va h6 tro ngiroi h6 tro (facilitator). Tit nhirng nam 1990 tro lai day, mQt tiep c~n ph6 bien nhat la Iva chon thir ba: su dung groupware dua tren web hoac mang C\lCbQ (LAN, local area network), cho phep cac thanh vien trong nhom lam viec a bAt ky noi nao va a bAt ky thai gian nao, Groupware nay thuong co hQi nghi truyen hlnh, Tfnh s~n sang cua groupware nrong d6i re (vi mua hoac thue) ket hop voi sire manh va chi phf thap cua cac may PC lam cho loai h~ th6ng nay co the s6ng diroc. Cling vay, chi phf cao cua viec xay dung phirong ti~n va tim kiem ngiroi h6 tro co kinh nghiem, va yeu du de co cac thanh vien ket n6i tit cac vi trf khac nhau a bAt ky thai gian nao, dfrn den yeu du It cho 2 tiep c~n dAu. Web cung cAp tfnh uyen chuyen trong viec dieu hanh cac cuoc h9P, web tao cac vAn de hAp dfrn ve viec ngiroi tham du d~

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dang trong cac cuoc hop nlnr the nao, N6i chung, d6i voi cuoc hop a bfrt ky noi naolbfrt ky thai gian nao, gay frn nrong manh den rn6i giai dean cua cuoc hop la thai gian han ch6t. Thiet l~p cac thai gian han ch6t cho phep d6i voi cac vung thai gian (time zones) khac nhau va vfrn de di lai, MQt vfrn de khac d6i voi cac cuoc hop khong g~p rn~t nhau la cac thanh vien muon xern ho dang lam viec voi ai. MQt s6 h~ th6ng vfrn con truy xufrt cac hinh anh, trong khi d6 hQi nghi truyen hlnh cai tien rnQt s6 khfa canh cuoc hop bang each trlnh bay ngon ngfr chfnh nao d6 (body language).

111.1.6.

Cae h~ th6ng nhom

Cac h~ th6ng nh6rn la groupware d~ hieu, h6 tro phan tan rQng cua cac qua trinh nh6m. T6ng quan cac cong cu va rn6i quan h~ cua cac cong cu voi cac heat dQng ass chfnh diroc trlnh bay trong hlnh, Chuang trlnh nghi su la kenh dieu khien de dinh thai va dieu hanh cac heat dQng h~ th6ng nh6m. Cac cong cu trong cac h~ th6ng nh6rn chia thanh cac cong cu chuan va cac cong cu cai tien.

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Ho~t dQng
~

Cac cong cu Phat kien di~n tu Ngiroi blnh lu~n chu de Ngiroi phac thao nhom Bang trang

Phat sinh ytuang

?--

/

_

r-Hoach dinh cuoc hop

T6 chirc ytuang

---.c:::::::

Ngiroi phan loai Bang trang

~

NglImqA
cUQC hop

r---

T6iuu hoa

-==;
.>:

BAucu Phan tfch phuong an Khao sat D~ do Y ki~n

r--

Phat trien chfnh sach

-

.>
I

Ngiroi mo hlnh heat dQng Phan tfch phirong an

Tfch liiy ki~n thirc va trlnh bay bQ nho co t6 chirc

~

Phat kien di~n tu Ngiroi blnh lu~n chu de Nguoi ~Mc thao nhom Bang trang

Hinh 111.1.2:cAn true eiia cac h~ th8ng nhom eho Windows

Cac h~ th6ng nhom cho cac cong cu chuan Windows h6 tro cac qua trlnh nhom g6m phat sinh y nrong, xay dung danh sach, thu th~p thong tin, bAu cu, t6 clnrc, t6i iru hoa, va xay dung su d6ng cam: + Phat ki~n di~n nr (Electronic Brainstorming): thu th~p cac y nrong va cac loi blnh lu~n thea each thirc khong co cAu tnic, Cac nhom lam viec nhanh trong viec phat sinh dong y nrong tv do. Cac thanh vien dong gop d6ng thai (song song) va n~c danh. + Cong cu phac thao nhom (Group Outliner): cho phep nhom tao va blnh luan danh sach cac chu de a nhieu rmrc thea cAu tnic cay hoac phac thao, 0 m6i

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rmrc phac thao, cac thrum vien co the klh n6i them cac loi blnh luan, Do do, tfch hop va cQng tac cac loi blnh lu~n lai, + Cong cu blnh lu~n chu de (Topic Commenter): cho phep cac thanh vien blnh lu~n danh sach cac chu de. Str phat sinh y nrong nay co cAu tnic han so voi viec phat kien di~n nr, nlnrng co cAutnic kern han cong cu phac thao nhom, + Cong cu phan loai (Categorizer): cho phep nhom phat sinh danh sach cac y nrong va h6 tro cac loi blnh luan, Tao cac phan loai cho cac y nrong, va cac thanh vien co the keo cac y nrong thanh mQt loai thea yeu duo + BAu cu (Vote): h6 tro phat trien sir d6ng cam thong qua viec danh gia vfrn de thea nhom, Cac phirong phap bAu cu diroc cung cAp. Cac ket qua diroc l~p bang di~n nr va trlnh bay thea th6ng ke hoac d6 hoa, Cac cong cu cai tien cac h~ th6ng nhom g6m co cac cong cu nhiing vao de phan tfch, khao sat va mo hlnh: + Phan tfch phirong an: cho phep nhom danh trong s6 hoac ty l~ danh sach cac phirong an so voi danh sach cac tieu chuan, VI cac quyet dinh cQng tac yeu du danh gia nhieu quan diem va y nrong. Nhom co the kiem tra cac gia su thea kieu what-if b~ng each dieu chinh cac trong s6 cho cac tieu chuan, + Kh~o sat: cho phep tao, quan tri, va phan tfch danh sach cac cau hoi tnrc tuyen, + Cong cu mo hlnh heat dQng: cung cAp h6 tro nhom than thien ngiroi su dung cho mo hlnh thiet ke lai qua trlnh nghiep vu d6ng thai. Chuang trlnh nghi sir (kenh. iliJu khien) co ngiroi h6 tro. Thong qua chuang trlnh nghi sir, ngiroi h6 tro hoach dinh va dieu hanh cuoc hQP, dieu khien va tiet kiem cac bao cao va du li~u cua cuoc hop, Cac h~ th6ng nhom g6m mQt s6 nguon tai nguyen nhom khac: + Cac ngiroi lfry danh sach cac thanh vien co thong tin nen tang. + Bang trang la mQt cong cu chii thfch va vi;!thea nhom, + Ban tin (Handouts) la cac tai li~u tham khao cho viec xem xet nhom, + DQ do y kien (Optionion Meter) la phien ban dan gian va nhanh cho cong cu bAu cu de do cac y kien, Cac nguon tai nguyen ca nhan cai tien tfnh phong phii ca nhan: + Tai li~u (briefcase) cho phep truy xufrt cac irng dung su dung ph6 bien (xu If tit, cdc tinh. toan, va thu dien tie). + Nh~t ky ca nhan cho phep lfry cac ghi chu ca nhan. + Cong cu giam sat bien c6 thong bao cac thanh vien cua cac thong tin va heat dQng maio

111.1.7.

Qua trlnh hop GSS
Cac cuoc hop di~n nr g~p ~t nhau, cimg thai gian va cimg noi chon thirong tien trien thea dang ph6 bien: + Ngiroi dung dAu nhom hop voi ngiroi h6 tro de hoach dinh cuoc hop (dieu nay quan trong), chon cong cu phan mem, phat trien chuang trinh nghi SV. + Cac thanh vien hop trong phong quyet dinh, va ngiroi dung dAu dira ra cau hoi hoac vfrn de cho nhom, + Cac thanh vien danh vao cac y nrong hoac loi blnh lu~n (phdt kien) cua ho, va trinh bay cac ket qua ra cong cluing, VI cac thanh vien co the thay nhirng gl

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rna ngiroi khac dang danh tren man hlnh, su dung phAn mem t6 chirc y nrong, tim kiem cac dang ph6 bien. + Su dung phAn mem t6 chirc y nrong, cac thanh vien tim kiem cac y nrong, cac chu de, cac dang ph6 bien va t6 chirc lai thanh cac loai tho (y nrong chfnh) voi cac loi blnh luan thfch hop (nghien CUll moi dang c6 g~ng de tv dQng mQt phAn cua cUQC hop di~n nr), Sau d6 trinh bay cac ket qua ra cong cluing, + Goi 5-10 chu de tren cung cho phAn mem phat sinh y nrong thea sau cuoc thao luan, Qua trlnh (phdt sinh y tuong, ta chuc y tuong, t6i uu hoa) c6 the l~p lai hoac Uiyket qua bAu cu cU6i cung, Cac heat dQng chfnh cua ass c6 dien trlnh bay trong qua trlnh ass chuan: + Phat sinh y nrong: Biroc nay nhln nhan vAn de va c6 g~ng phat trien cac y nrong sang tao ve cac d~c diem quan trong cua vAn de d6. Cac y nrong nay c6 the la bAt ky dieu gl c6 the lam d6i voi vAn de nay, tir cac giai phap tiem frn cho den cac tieu chuan, r6i den cac nhan t6 khong quan trong, Cong cu phat kien di~n nr la thfch hop, dAu ra cua cong cu nay la mQt danh sach cac y nrong, Thai gian thong tlnrong khoang 30-45 phut, + T6 chirc y nrong: Cong cu t6 chirc y nrong d~t nhieu y nrong diroc phat sinh vao mQt danh sach g6m cac vAn de chfnh, DAu ra cua giai dean nay la mQt danh sach g6m vai y nrong chfnh (1 Y tuang chinh. tuang tmg vai 20 y tuang ban ddu). Thai gian thong thirong khoang 45-90 phut, + T6i Uti h6a: 0 giai dean nay, t6i Uti h6a cac y nrong chfnh, Cong cu bAu cu la thfch hop, dAu ra cua cong cu nay la mQt danh sach diroc t6i Uti g6m cac y nrong va cac chi tiet. Thai gian thong thirong khoang 10-20 phut, + Phat sinh y nrong: Phat sinh cac y nrong moi dua vao sir t6i Uti cua cac y nrong chfnh, Cong cu phat kien y nrong cung cAp cAu tnic nhir cong cu blnh lu~n chu de. Phat sinh cac y nrong thirong t~p trung vao cac giai phap. DAu ra cua giai dean nay khoang 20 y nrong cho m6i y nrong chfnh ban dAu. Qua trinh tiep tuc cho den khi chon y nrong cU6i cung nlnr la giai phap cho vAn de diroc nhac trong cuoc hQP, nhan dang mQt vai giai phap de dieu tra sau han. MQt s6 cuoc hop huang ra quyet dinh, MQt s6 cuoc hop khac lai kham pha ban chat, va t~p trung vao viec phat sinh y nrong de tiep tuc cac cuoc hop sau hoac cong viec ca nhan. Thong tlnrong, cuoc hop ass keo dai lau han cac cuoc hop khong c6 h6 tro, nlnrng nhirng thanh vien thirong ky luang han trong viec phat kien va phan tfch, va ho cam thay r~ng ho dfl ra quyet dinh t6t han khi su dung h~ thong. Cac cuoc hop a bAt ctr thai gian naolbAt ctr noi nao tro thanh mQt tiep c~n chuan VI ass dua tren web tang nhanh. C6 mQt s6 dieu khac nhau la cac thanh vien muon biet ve cac thanh vien khac (niu ho khtmg sUo dung h6i nghi truyen hinh dang thai, hoiic chua bao gia gijp cdc thilnh vien khac), phai giao thai gian hoan thanh nhiem vu (dijc bi~t niu cuoc h9P keo dai tren cdc vung thai gian khdc nhau), nhiem vu cua ngiroi h6 tro tro nen kh6 han, d~c bi~t khi cuoc hop keo dai nhieu gio. Ap d~t thai gian han ch6t de nh6m c6 the chuyen sang giai dean ke cua cuoc hop, Cac vAnde gi6ng nhau anh huang den cac moi truang hQc tir xa. Theo Romano et al. (1997), dieu quan trQng la nh~c cac thanh vien hQ dang a dau trong qua trInh, va giu hQ t~p trung vao cac nhi~m V\l chiem nhieu thai gian. Cac vAn de khac g6m tinh bao m~t (dd bew v~ cac thong tin co gia trt khoi ke tr6m), truy xuAt toan cAu (tit nhil hoijc cac site khac), thong tin va cac lai mai thu m\lc

a

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(folder invitations and information) (mai cdc thanh. vien tham gia VaG cdc giai doan cua cuoc hop), thong tin ve cac thanh vien (cdc the nghiep v~ ao), chi r6 ngiroi nao dang a tren h~ th6ng (ad gidm di cam gidc co dan}, cac dieu khien cua ngiroi h6 tro (nhu thi nao ad biit adu va dimg cdc cuoc hop, nhu thi nao ad han chi quyJn truy xudt ain cdc hoat a6ng khdc nhau). Hoach dinh cuoc h9P la loi khuyen quan trong nhat, Cac ngiroi h6 tro cung cAp cac dieu khfch l~ va phat trien quyen loi diroc bao dam trong kth qua, giao tiep thuong xuyen va r6 rang, giao vai tro va nhiem vu thea trach nhiem va r6 rang trong giao tiep giifa cac muc tieu va cac heat dQng. Sv thanh cdng ciia GSS: + Str thanh cong cua ass dua chu yeu vao tfnh hieu qua cua no. Khi su dung h~ thong, thl chi phf giam, h6 tro cac thanh vien ra cac quyet dinh t6t han, vaJho~c tang hieu sufrt dang ke, sau do la thanh congo + ass dn nhieu nhan t6 thanh cong cua h~ th6ng thong tin thirong nhir: rang buoc co t6 clnrc, ngiroi tai tro thirc thi, ngiroi tai tro heat dQng, sir huan luyen va tien bQ cua ngiroi su dung, giao dien hfrp dfrn ngiroi su dung, ... + Co mQt ngiroi h6 tro ca nhan, diroc huan luyen t6t va t~n tuy la mQt dieu quan trong, + ass phai co cac cong cu chfnh xac de h6 tro cong viec nhom cua t6 chirc va phai co tfnh song song va n~c danh de cung cAp cho qua trinh va nhiem vu cac dieu dat diroc. + Hoach dinh t6t la chla khoa de dieu hanh cac cuoc h9P thanh cong, dieu nay cling ap dung cho cac cuoc h9P di~n nr. Neu co bfrt ky hoach dinh cuoc h9P kern nao, deu lam cho nhom tin r~ng ass co hieu sufrt kern.

III.1.S.

HQc til' xa H9C tit xa xay ra khi viec h9C lien quan den cac cong cu hoac cac ky thuat diroc
thiet ke de khac phuc cac han che cua viec h9C cimg thai gian/cung noi ch6n. H9C tit xa b~t nguon tit My vao nam 1728 thong qua thir, H9C tit xa hfrp dfrn va co tiem fin khong han che, de each mang viec h9C a cac tnrong dai h9C, a cac tnrong cong va tnrong tir, trong viec huan luyen cong viec, Khi phat minh ti vi vao nhimg nam 1920, no diroc bao tnroc nlnr la thiet bi, dung de each mang giao due, Radio cling diroc su dung nam 1920, nam 1930 cho cac chuang trlnh h9C tit xa, cac h~ th6ng h9C tit xa truyen hlnh dfl heat dQng trong nhieu th~p nien, Ngay nay, ky thuat dfl cai tien, ti vi, hoac hQi nghi truyen hlnh, va tfnh toan cQng tac thong qua internet, cU6i cung co the chu toan b6n phan bang each cung cAp cac cong cu h6 tro h9C tit xa. Thiet ke cac cong cu internet, hQi nghi truyen hlnh va tfnh toan cQng tac thea moi tnrong lap h9C dfl phat trien thanh linh V\ICquan trong cua giao due cao han xung quanh the gioi trong nhieu th~p nien gAn day. H9C tit xa la mQt each khong truyen th6ng cua giao due phan tan va t~p trung cac chuyen gia lam viec thea yeu du chfnh la thanh phAn cua sir thuan ti~n. Khi tfrt ca cac nen kinh te cua giao due va cac xu huang kinh te xfl hQi cai tien, sinh vien hoan thanh giao due dai h9C thea each khong truyen thong. Nhirng thuan loi cua cac chuang trlnh h9C tit xa:

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+ HQc til xa hi~u qua nlnr cac phirong ti~n truyen thong, hoac tham chi t6t han
nita.

+ Khung thai gian uyen chuyen khi hoc til xa, tao co hQi cho nhieu ngiroi hoc ke
ca ngiroi quan ly cAp cao va ngiroi lanh dao, Sinh vien khong dn bo cong viec hi~n tai cua ho, Sinh vien c6 the di cong tac xa khi lam viec, Vi~c hoc c6 the s~n sang bfrt ky hie nao va bfrt ky thai gian nao, Trinh bay ky thuat moi cho mQt s6 hrong Ian thfnh gia, tao chi phi re han. Cac lap hoc tnrc tuyen c6 the day cac ky nang cu the. Cac lap hoc tnrc tuyen c6 chi phi thap han. C6 s~n nhieu thong tin cho sinh vien, ca ve chieu rQng va chieu sau cua kh6a hoc. + C6 the giao tiep mQt mQt giira sinh vien va giao vien (thong qua thu dien til). + Thai gian lien lac gifra khoa va sinh vien tang len. + HQc til xa thoa man nhu du hoc lien tuc. + Cac tai li~u kh6a hoc nhat quan. + Khong yeu du ngiroi tham dir, c6 the linh dQng (them hoiic bat). + Ky thuat c6 the xu ly kh6a hoc thea kieu thao lu~n cling nhir cac kh6a hoc ky thuat, + Thai dQ cua sinh vien cai tien va nang cao quen thuoc voi ky thuat tang dAn. + Sinh vien trlnh bay cac thu nhan tfch cue trong viec hoc. + Khao sat cac anh huang (cdc muc hoc cao han, cdc didm kidm tra cao han) nham tang cao cac kh6a hoc tnrc tuyen, Nhirng bfrt loi cua cac chuang trlnh hoc til xa: + Thieu mQt vai nrong tac xa hQi (hoac rfrt khac nhau), thieu cac cuoc hop g~p nhau. + C6 it giao tiep thea kieu tnrong hoc. + C6 cac vfrn de giao tiep (dijc bi~t la truyen hinh). + Sinh vien phai tfch cue cao han va t~p trung nhieu han. + Sinh vien phai thea nguyen t~c cao va t6 chirc cao. + Sinh vien phai c6 ky nang quan ly thai gian hieu qua. + Sinh vien phai c6ng hien nhieu, + Cac lap hoc tnrc tuyen yeu du h6 tro quan tri Ian. + Cac lap hoc tnrc tuyen yeu du h6 tro ky thuat Ian. + Thai gian phan cong va chuan bi cua khoa c6 y nghia cao han kh6a hoc truyen th6ng (tang len 3 Ian thai gian va n6 luc cdn thiet). + Thiet ke lai cac kh6a hoc t~n dung cac ca che trlnh bay t6t nhat de phan b6 chu de. + Nen c6 cac phAn thirong phu cho khoa VI n6 lire them cua sinh vien, + Khoa dn phai huan luyen cu the thea cac phirong phap giang day hi~u qua va c6 kythu~t. + Sinh vien dn huan luyen cu the thea ky thuat, + Kh6a hoc yeu du co sa ha tAng ky thuat rfrt tinh c~y g6m phAn cirng, phAn mem, va nh6m huan luyen, + Ngiroi hoc phai c6 trach nhiem cao han.

+ + + + + + +

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+ Uu the cua ali li~u thiet l~p diem, thong qua cac phirong phap cQng tac cho
phep giang vien nhan dang cac dong gop.

+ Sinh vien phai cham chi - day la cac khoa h9C thirc te, khong la cac khoa h9C
qua thir, Courseware h9C tit xa: + Co nhieu cong cu h9C tit xa dang goi courseware, tit dang t6ng quat han nlnr Lotus Notes, Microsoft NetMeeting, Novell GroupWise, va GroupSystems cho den cac cong cu cu the nlnr Lotus Learning Space, WebCT. Huan luyen hop tac tnrc tuyen: + K Y thuat h9C dua tren web cho phep cac t6 chirc IT c~p nhat cho cac thanh vien trong t6 chirc cac cai tien moi nhat trong linh V\ICIT. Cac khoa h9C nrong tac han, re han diroc dieu khien bang l~nh, h9C tit xa nhanh chong tro thanh thu tuc dieu hanh chuan, + H9C di~n tit cai tien yeu du giao tiep kip thai va thea 2 chieu qua cac cong cu hQi nghi truyen hlnh hoac nghe noi, cho phep cac sinh vien hoac giang vien nrong tac voi nhau va co phan h6i. D6i voi hAu het cac huan luyen web, sinh vien xem lap h9C ghi am lai hoac s6ng dQng va thanh vien bi gioi han trong cuoc thao lu~n bang thir di~n tit va bang thong bao, Cac nguon tai nguyen h9C tit xa: Cac t6 chirc sau co the nang cao viec cai tien va h6 tro h9C tit xa: + Trung tam tai nguyen nay co mQt phong h9C thea mo hlnh co the xem tren web. The Center for Distance Learning a Texas A&M University

(www.cdlr.tamu.edu).

+ Trung tam co cac tai nguyen nlnr cac tom t~t ve cac nghien CUll, cac bai bao
dfl frn ban, cac nghien CUll, cac huang dfrn cung voi cac meo nlnr the nao de thiet l~p mQt chuang trlnh hoac mQt khoa h9C tit xa. The Center for Excellence in Distance Learning (CEDL) a Lucent Technologies

(www.lucent.com/cedl/) .

+ T6 chirc nay vfrn con hru gift nhieu vfrn de quan trong trong giao due, H9 dfl xufrt ban quyen sach nlnr the nao de danh gia chat hrong chuang trlnh h9C tit xa cua mQt t6 clnrc, co ten la Distance Learning Evaluation Guide,
(ACENET, 1999). (www.acenet.edu).
The American Council on Education ACENET Danh gia viec h9C tit xa: + H9C tit xa la dang cQng tac va quan ly kien thirc. That la quan trong de danh gia anh huang cua cac khoa h9C dua tren web thea thuat ngit cac loi Ich va cac chi phf, HAu het cac kinh nghiem cua sinh vien deu la tfch eire. Sinh vien co xu huang h9C nhanh han sil dung groupware, cu the kho h9C co khoang each. Sinh vien trong moi tnrong h9C tit xa co xu huang thirc hi~n t6t han cac lap h9C truyen thong. Co mQt s6 nhan t6 quan trong trong viec h9C tit xa. Mire cao cua viec thiic dAy sinh vien, dao dire lam viec cirong dQ cao, va sinh vien chuyen sau thirong h6 tro ket qua dQ do thanh cong thong thirong cua nguoi h9C tit xa. Nhan t6 quan trong nhat de h9C tit xa thanh cong la rmrc dQ d6i voi giang vien nao va h6 tro nhom co the khuyen khfch sinh vien chiu trach nhiem viec h9C cua ho,

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+ Ca sinh vien va khoa phai hieu ky thuat cQng tac anh huang nlnr the nao va
chung thirc hi~n cong viec khoa hoc nlnr the nao, MQt s6 vAn de xoay quanh viec huan luyen, xac dinh su dung ky thuat nao va su dung nlnr the nao, phan b6 cai gl va phan b6 khi nao, su dung t~p tin sinh vien dira vao thea tieu chuan gi, ...

111.1.9.

Phat sinh

y turrng va sang

tao

Sang tao

+ Sang tao phirc tap, Sang tao xem nlnr la net tieu bieu co ban cua con ngiroi va
rmrc dQ dat diroc. • Net tieu bieu sang tao lien quan den ca nhan la oc sang tao, tfnh dQc l~p, ca tfnh, long nhiet tlnh, va tfnh linh dQng. • Nhieu nha nghien CUllcho la: Tfnh sang tao co the hQC,cai tien va khong phu thuoc nhieu vao net tieu bieu ca tfnh nlnr suy nghi, • Cac cong ty d6i moi nhan ra r~ng: Sang tao khong nhat thiet la ket qua cua thien tai nhieu nhir la moi tnrong lam viec cham soc y nrong, + Khi hlnh thanh mQt vAn de, phai nhan dang cac phirong an va cac tieu chuan tiem frn. Phat sinh y nrong la mQt tiep c~n ly nrong. Y nrong sang tao thirong dfrn den cac giai phap. Trong phat kien y nrong, co mQt s6 dQ do tfnh sang tao cu the: cac thanh phan dinh hrong (s6 y tuang] va cac thanh phAn dinh tfnh (chdt IU(Yng y tuang}. su dung h~ th6ng h6 tro tfnh sang tao deu anh huang den ca thanh phAn dinh hrong va dinh tfnh, + Nhieu t6 chirc nhan ra gia tri cua tfnh sang tao va sir d6i maio HQ nhan biet ban chat cQng tac cua tfnh sang tao va cac loai moi tnrong thiic dfry tfnh sang tao, Tfnh sang tao va sir d6i moi di lien voi nhau. Nhirng gl gi6ng nlnr la y nrong kern tro thanh nguon d6i moi sang tao nhieu nam trong nrong lai. + Str cQng tac, tro choi mao hiem, va prototype cAn thiet de thiic dfry tfnh sang tao, Noi lam tro thanh noi thu vi de ngiroi cong nhan d6i moi kien thirc. Tro choi lien quan den viec sang tac bAt ngo khong thea each tao gia tri maio Cac qua trlnh sang tao khong the quan ly thea cimg each thirc voi cac cai tien tien loi c6 dien (conventional incremental improvements). Co the tnrong thanh va huang dfrn d6i moi bang viec thiet l~p cac muc tieu mem, bang viec danh gia tien trlnh bang sir s~c sao den chien hroc dai han va nhimg thay d6i cua the gioi ben ngoai, va bang viec tao khong khf khuyen khfch suy nghi tao bao (Port va Carey, 1997). Ngiroi quan ly thiic dfry tfnh sang tao nen "cho phep va co the" han la cAu tnic va dieu khien (Silverstone, 1999). Tfnh sang tao quan trong trong viec giai quyet vAn de va do do no cling quan trong de phat trien cac h~ th6ng h6 tro tfnh toano + Kfch thfch tfnh sang tao va sir d6i moi bang cac nhan t6 moi tnrong, Moi tnrong thoa man cac tieu chuan "tro choi mao hiem" , la mQt phAn cua qua trinh, Kfch thfch boi ngiroi sang tao khac trong moi tnrong co the thiic dfry nhom tien len phfa tnroc. Nhir the nao? Kfch thfch co the den tnrc tiep til cac y nrong hAp dfrn diroc phat trien nlnr la ket qua cua sir ket hop (hoac diJu ph6i) giira nhieu ngiroi sang tao, Phat sinh y nrong thong qua phat kien di~n nr

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+ Cac ky thuat va cac phirong phap phat sinh y nrong da diroc thong qua de cai

+

+

+

+ +

+

tien tfnh sang tao cua ca ca nhan va nhom, Phan mem phat sinh y nrong (phdt kiin dien til) gnip kfch thfch dong suy nghi sang tao khong the kiem soat diroc, tv do: y nrong, tir nghia, hlnh anh, va cac khai niem thiet l~p tfnh nhiet tlnh, dua vao nguyen t~e dieu ph6i (kit h(J]J). M9t s6 goi phAn mem thiet ke de cai tien qua trlnh suy nghi sang tao cua tam trf con ngiroi, va co the dung de tao cac y nrong san pham moi, cac chien hroc tiep thi, cac chien dich khuyen mai, ten, tieu de, khau hieu, cau chuyen hoac phat kien, D~e diem chfnh cua phAn mem phat sinh y nrong la bung n6 nhieu y nrong eho ngiroi sir dung, no giiip ngiroi sir dung chuyen tir ehe d9 phan tfch sang ehe d9 sang tao. Nghien ciru tam ly eho thay: Con ngiroi co xu huang bam eh~t cac suy nghi cua ho, sir dung y nrong dAu tien nlnr la diem khoi dAu eho cac y nrong khac, Do do, cac y nrong sau khong co y nghia moi, nhimg co thay d6i nho so voi y nrong ban dAu. VI phAn mem phat kien y nrong thoat khoi tfnh chu quan cua con ngiroi, no giiip rna r9ng nen tang suy nghi va khuyen khfch cac y nrong thirc sir xuat hien. Theo dinh nghia, phat sinh y nrong trong GSS la n6 lire e9ng tac. Y nrong cua m9t ngiroi kfch thfch y nrong cua ngiroi khac, va kfch thfch nhieu y nrong han (tao ra mdt chu6i cdc y tuang kit h(J]J). V6i cac cong cu h6 tro tfnh toan e9ng tac (vi du GSS), cac ca nhan lam tfrt ca cac suy nghi trong khi h~ th6ng phan mem khuyen khfch ho di chuyen theo. Ky thuat nay la each an to an, n~e danh de khuyen khfch cac thanh vien noi len y kien rna ho cam thay mi~n cirong trong cac thiet l~p e6 dien han. Bang each xay dung m6i ngiroi m9t Y nrong, ngiroi ta co the dat diroc cac tAm nhln sang tao rna ho khong co tnroc khi ket hop cac y nrong dang t6n tai va trf nho cua ho, Co m9t anh huang tham tham khi cac y nrong lam viec thea each cua ho thong qua qua trinh. Cac ket hop kfch thfch trf nho, co the kfch heat tfnh sang tao, Trao d6i thong tin (vi~c h9C) co the tang hieu sufrt va tfnh sang tao, Diroi cac dieu kien phat kien di~n nr dung, co the phat sinh nhieu y nrong han va nhieu y nrong sang tao han. Kham pha m9t s6 cac dieu kien khac nhau. Chang han nhir, Ap hrc thai gian anh huang den viec phat sinh y tuong; Vi~e phan ra vfrn de thea cac giai dean thai gian hoac thea nhiem vu; Cac cong cu phat kien y nrong khac nhau de sang tao; Str phan loai, M9t each t6ng quat, neu tiep e~n dung trong viec phat kien di~n nr, thl phat sinh nhieu y nrong, va nhieu y nrong sang tao han. CM gl neu ca nhan thoa man nhu du phat kien m9t minh? Co cac phirong phap de cai tien phat kien ca nhan. Satzinger et al. (1999) phat trien phat kien mo phong de giiip cac ca nhan kfch thfch cac dap irng sang tao han khi phat kien m9t mlnh, HQ so sanh anh huang cua cong cu mo phong phat sinh cac y nrong ngfiu nhien eho ngiroi ra quyet dinh ca nhan, trai ngiroc voi ngiroi ra quyet dinh ca nhan khong sir dung cong cu mo phong trong phat kien, Cac thanh vien sir dung cong cu mo phong phat sinh nhieu y nrong va nhieu y nrong sang tao han cai khac, Nghien ciru nlnr the nao nhom nen t6 chirc de phat sinh y tuang trlnh bay dieu do, trai vai vi~e tIm kiem phat sinh y tuang khong co may tinh trung gian, m9t GSS dan h6 trq nhom ph<it sinh nhieu y tuang ehfrt luqng eao han eung s6 cae

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thanh vien lam viec nlnr cac ca nhan hoac trong m9t vai nhom nho han. Cac h~ th6ng dua tren web de phat sinh y nrong (vi du: TCBWorks) dfl co s~n. + Hoi lien quan den phat kien y nrong, cac anh xa y thirc co the gnip ca nhan hoac nhom hieu vfrn de 19n X9n, phat trien khung chung, va cai tien tfnh sang tao, Anh xa y nrong trlnh bay cac khai niem co lien quan den cac khai niem khac nlnr the nao, do do giiip ngiroi su dung t6 chirc cac suy nghi va cac y tu~g. Theo each nay, chung ta co the thay vfrn de rna cluing ta c6 g~ng giai quyet, PhAn mem cai tien tfnh sang tao + M~c du phat kien di~n nr cai tien tfnh sang tao, nhimg chfnh loai ngiroi tao ra cac ket qua. M9t s6 phirong phap va phAn mem cai tien tfnh sang tao cua con ngiroi bang each thirc hi~n m9t s6 nhiem vu sang tao cua con nguoi. M9t s6 h~ th6ng thirc sir trinh bay hanh vi sang tao, Chuang trlnh may tfnh trlnh bay hanh vi sang tao + Trong nhieu th~p nien, ngiroi ta c6 g~ng viet cac chuang trlnh may tfnh, de trinh bay hanh vi thong minh. D~c diem chfnh cua hanh vi thong minh la tfnh sang tao, May tfnh co sang tao khong? + Cac tac nhan thong minh (smartbots) co the heat d9ng nlnr la cac ngiroi h6 tro trong ass. Chen et al. (1995) mieu ta kinh nghiem rna tac nhan thong minh diroc tro giiip trong viec h9i tu Y nrong, Hieu sufrt cua tac nhan so voi hieu sufrt cua ngiroi h6 tro trong viec nhan dang cac khai niem thoa man yeu du quan trong, nlnrng kern han trong viec phat sinh cac khai niem thfch hop va chfnh xac. Nhimg tac nhan co the hoan thanh nhiem vu nhanh han ban sao cua con ngiroi, Khai niem nay a dang sa khai, nhimg co tiem An h6 tro ass dua tren web. + Rasmus (1995) mieu ta 3 cong C\1 sang tao, • H~ th6ng 1 goi la Copycat, chuang trlnh tim kiem cac nrong tv thea cac mfru ky nr. Nhan dang mfru la dn thiet cua sir thong minh. Copycat g6m co m9t s6 tac nhan thong minh, co the tim cac nrong tv voi cac chu6i ky nr, Co the t6ng quat hoa kha nang nay cho cac vfrn de khac, yeu du hieu biet khai niem va thao tac cac d6i nrong. Kha nang cua chuang trlnh de doan tnroc y nghia cua viec chuyen d6i va tim cac phu hop nrong tv cung cAp clnrng ca rna cac may tfnh co the b~t clnroc kha nang cua con nguoi de tao cac nrong tv. • H~ th6ng 2, Tabletop, cling co kha nang tim kiem cac mfiu tuAn nr. • H~ th6ng 3, AARON, la chuang trlnh vi;!ngh~ thuat phirc tap va ket qua cua 14 nam nghien ciru, Harold Cohen, ngiroi phat trien h~ th6ng dfl tao ra co So' tri thirc h6 tro AARON. Cac chuang trlnh may tfnh nrong tv dfl diroc phat trien de viet tho, nhac, va tao cac tac pham ngh~ thuat bang da phirong ti~n khac nhau. Cac phirong an phAn mem sang tao de phat sinh y nrong + CoBrain (Invention Machine Corporation, Cambridge, MA, www.inventionmachine. com) la d6ng nghiep thong minh phat trien sir d6i moi ky thuat. Ky thuat xu ly ngfr nghia cua CoBrain doc, hieu, va lfry cac khai niem chfnh til cac co So' dfr li~u cong ty, intranet, va internet. Phan mem doc n9i dung, tao cay giai phap vfrn de (chi muc kien tlnrc) , va phan ph6i ban tom t~t trinh bay

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n9i dung ky thuat trong cac ali li~u nrong irng, CoBrain sil dung kit~n thirc cong trinh va nghien CUll khoa hoc nlnr la nen tang cho cac giai thuat ngfr nghia de tang t6c cac d6i moi thiet ke qua trlnh va san pham maio + CoBrain dua tren ly thuyet giai quyet vAn de c6 tfnh sang tao (TRIZ - chit nga viit tcit). Genrich Altshuller va cac d6ng nghiep cua anh a Nga da phat trien TRIZ nam 1946. Tren 2 tri~u bang sang che diroc khao sat, phan loai thea rmrc d9 sang tao, va phan tfch de tim kiem cac nguyen t~c d6i moi sau: • Cac vAn de va cac giai phap l~p lai thong qua cac cong ngh~ va cac nghien CUll khoa hoc. • Cac mfru cai tien ky thuat l~p lai thong qua cac cong ngh~ va cac nghien CUll khoa hoc. • Cac d6i moi sil dung cac anh huang nghien CUll khoa hoc nam ngoai linh V\IC rna ho da phat tricn, PhAn mem tao tfnh sang tao cua con ngiroi d~ dang han + C6 nhieu g6i phAn mem t6t c6 the giiip kfch thfch tfnh sang tao, M9t s6 c6 cac chirc nang rAt cu the, va m9t s6 khac sil dung cac ket hop til ngfr hoac cac cau hoi de nhac ngiroi sil dung lAy cac chi thi moi, khong r6 rang trong cac mfru suy nghi cua ho, Hoat d9ng nay c6 the giiip ngiroi sil dung ng~t cac mfru suy nghi tuAn hoan, lAy cac kh6i trf tu~ trong qua khir, hoac khac phuc tri hoan, Cac phAn mem nlnr the sil dung nhieu each tiep c~n khac nhau de phat sinh dong y nrong cua ngiroi sil dung, + Sau day la cac g6i phAn mem tao tfnh sang tao cho con ngiroi: • Project KickStart (www.projectkickstart.com) h6 tro khfa canh sang tao cua m6i vAn de cu the: t6 chirc m9t de an a mire khoi dAu. Qua ngiroi sil dung voi nhieu buoc chuan rna m6i de an nen tien hanh, N6 gnip ngiroi sil dung t6 chirc cac y nrong de b~t dAu de an nhanh ch6ng. N6 cling lam cho cac thong tin til cac de an khac s~n sang giiip tien hanh cac chi tiet cho m6i buoc. • ThoughtPath (Synectics Company, www.thoughtpath.com) cai tien tfnh sang tao bang each dfrn d~t ngiroi sil dung qua nhieu buoc minh hoa su thanh cong trong thirc teo ThoughtPath huang dfrn ngiroi sil dung thong qua cac vAn de va cac ca h9i di den m9t giai phap sang tao va c6 the tlnrc hi~n diroc. N6 giiip ngiroi sil dung dat diroc tAm nhln ve cac vAn de. N6 cai tien suy nghi "ben ngoai cai hop" (outside-the-box). • Creative Think (www.creativethink.com) cung cAp Creative WhackPack (dua tren von Oech (1998)), m9t b9 bai g6m 64 the, se tach chung ta ra khoi cac mfru suy nghi thea th6i quen, va de cluing ta nhin vAn de thea each maio Cac the kfch thfch trf nrong nrong. Chung ta c6 the chon m9t the ngfru nhien, • IdeaFisher c6 m9t til dien ngon ngfr tieng Anh ket hop, c6 the tham khao cheo cac til va cac nh6m cau. Cac m6i lien ket ket hop lam cho til dien d~ dang d6i voi may tfnh, de cung cAp cho ngiroi sil dung cac til c6 lien quan voi chu de a m9t mire d9 nao d6, dua vao cac nrong tv va cac phep fin du, Nhieu ket hop khong tuyen tfnh c6 the ky quae, tfnh ky quae thuong kfch thfch cac y nrong hiru Ich, maio Nhirng ket hop ca nhan cling diroc them vao co sa dfr li~u de rna r9ng co sa irng dung sang tao, IdeaFisher mieu ta

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nlnr la "tir dien chuyen steroids).

de cua cac chat tv sinh ra" (a thesaurus on

111.1.10. Cac vin d@,nghien cuu tinh toan cQng tac va GSS
Groupware vfrn dang phat trien manh, chfnh VI co ngay cang nhieu nhu du de cac nhom cQng tac voi nhau. Cac vAn de va cac diu hoi khong the tra loi lien quan den viec tfnh toan cQng tac trong ly thuyet va tlnrc hanh, Ky thuat cai tien nhanh han nhieu tnroc khi kham pha vAn de dAy du, cac vAn de moi dira ra. Thiet l~p cuoc hop di~n nr trai ngiroc voi thiet l~p cuoc hop truyen thong. Cac vAn de quan trong nhir song song, n~c danh, va d~c biet la kfch tlnroc nhom, Cong cu phat kien y nrong (ai~n tir so vai truyen thong, dien tir so vai dien tir khdc) co the do s6 y nrong phat sinh va cac y nrong phat sinh tit dau, So sanh cac phirong phap GSS de xac dinh phirong phap nao la t6t han va phirong phap nao la t6t nhat nham t~n dung cac ky thuat cho cac ket qua t6t han hoac cho nhieu ket qua han. Hay, co bAt ky anh huang nao den phat kien y nrong khi phan di vAn de thea nhiem vu, thea thai gian, hoac thea ca nhiem vu va thai gian. Hay, anh huang cua cAu tnic groupware nham kfch thfch suy nghi dfrn den cong viec hieu qua han. Hay cac anh huang phan loai, Hay cac thanh vien trong nhom hoc nlnr the nao khi ho lam viec, va ho co the trao d6i thong tin hieu qua nlnr the nao, Web groupware trinh bay cac co hQi va thach thirc maio Chang han nhir, Thiet l~p ly thuyet hanh vi t6 clnrc va h~ th6ng thong tin giai thfch tfnh hieu qua cua groupware nhir the nao, Hay, hanh vi xa hQi cua nhom anh huang den goupware nlnr the nao, Hay, nlnr the nao de dieu hanh cUQChop va nlnr the nao de h6 tro cac ngiroi h6 tro vfrn rna, trong khi cac ngiroi khac da 6n dinh, Groupware s~n sang va chay tren web, nhieu t6 chirc c6 g~ng ao hoa each thirc rna chung heat dQng. Cac t6 chirc c6 g~ng hlnh thanh sir hop tac ao, a do ngiroi ta co the lam viec bAt ctr noi nao va bAt ctr khi nao thfch hop, Khi cluing ta di chuyen den tinh huong nay, nhieu cau hoi han xuAt hi~n (nhir the nao de quan ly mQt t6 chirc nlnr the vfrn con la mQt cau hoi rna khi nhirng ngiroi cong nhan a nhimg noi xa). CU6i cung, nghien CUll nham xac dinh each t6t nhat de t~n dung groupware trong phong hoc.

111.2. H~ 111.2.1.

h6 tr(}' quy~t

djnh rmrc xi nghi~p

H~ h6 trQ'quy@tdinh rmrc xi nghi~p: Cac khai ni~m va dinh nghia

Vao nhirng nam 1980 va cho too nhimg nam 1990, cac h~ th6ng su dung cho cac yeu du cua cac nha lanh dao cAp cao diroc thiet ke nlnr la cac h~ th6ng dQc l~p va goi la cac h~ th6ng thong tin lanh dao (EIS, Executive information systems). Ngay nay, cac h~ th6ng h6 tro cac nha lanh dao va cling h6 tro cac nhan vien, Cac h~ th6ng nay goi la cac h~ th6ng thong tin rmrc xf nghiep (ding goi la EIS, Enterprise information systems). VI cac h~ th6ng nay su dung cho nhieu ngiroi, nen chi phf hieu qua nhat, Cac h~ th6ng rmrc xf nghiep xay dung t6t cung cAp cac nha lanh dao voi cung cac kha nang nlnr EIS tnroc diroc su dung de cung cAp va them vao h~ th6ng cho nhieu ngiroi su dung khac trong xf nghiep,

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111.2.2. Ti@n hoa ciia h~ th6ng thong tin mire xi nghi~p tin Uinh d~o

va h~ th6ng

thong

Trong nhimg nam 1980, DSS ca nhan h6 tro cong viec cua cac chuyen gia va nhimg ngiroi quan ly cAp trung. DSS t6 chirc h6 tro chfnh cho cac ngiroi hoach dinh, phan tfch va cac nha nghien ciru, Hiem khi cac ngiroi lanh dao cAp cao su dung tnrc tiep DSS. Tinh huong nay trai ngtroc voi sir kien la cac ngiroi lanh dao cAp cao thirong hay ra quyet dinh, Cai gl dn de xu ly cac yeu du d~c bi~t cua cac ngiroi lanh dao dung hie va chfnh xac, Nord va Nord, 1996 cong dung ph6 bien nhat cua EIS la h6 tro quyet dinh (50%) bang each cung cAp du li~u va thong tin, dinh thai (50%), thiet l~p chuang trlnh nghi sir va dinh thai cac CU9C hop (43.8%), l~p tai li~u di~n nr (31.5%), duyet du li~u va giam sat cac tinh huong (31.3%). Watson et al., 1997, cac h~ th6ng thong tin lanh dao cling diroc biet nhir la cac h~ th6ng h6 tro lanh dao, la ky thuat n6i len. Nhirng ngiroi su dung chfnh cua EIS la nhan vien van phong lanh dao chfnh (CEO, chief executive officer), nhan vien van phong tai chanh chfnh (CFO, chief financial officer), hoac nhan vien dieu hanh chfnh (COO, chief operations officer). Vao giira nhimg nam 1990, voi nhimg cai tien trong kho du li~u va trong mang web, thay the khai niem EIS d9C l~p bang h~ th6ng rmrc xf nghiep chi phf hieu qua han. Cac dinh nghia dua tren Rockart va DeLong (1988): + H~ th6ng thong tin lanh dao (EIS, Executive information system) la h~ th6ng may tfnh phuc vu cac yeu du thong tin cua cac ngiroi lanh dao cAp cao. Ngiroi su dung truy xufrt nhanh cac thong tin kip thai va truy xufrt tnrc tiep cac bao cao quan ly, EIS rfrt than thien, h6 tro d6 hoa, cung cAp cac bao cao ngoai l~, va kha nang duyet du li~u di xuong, No cling co the ket n6i diroc voi internet, intranet va extranet. + H~ th6ng h6 tro lanh dao (ESS, Executive support system) la h~ th6ng h6 tro co the d~ hieu, dua tren EIS, bao g6m giao tiep, tv d9ng van phong, h6 tro phan tfch, va thong minh nghiep vu, + H~ th6ng thong tin rmrc xf nghiep (EIS, Enterprise information system) la h~ th6ng di~n lien hiep cac cong ty, cung cAp cac thong tin co tfnh lich su tir cac quan diem hop taco Cac ngiroi su dung khac nhau trong xf nghiep co the su dung h~ th6ng cho cac muc dfch khac nhau. Cac h~ th6ng nay cling phuc vu cho cac yeu du cua cac lanh dao cAp cao. Cac h~ th6ng rmrc xf nghiep la m9t phAn quan trong cua khai niem quan ly tai nguyen rmrc xf nghiep (ERP, Enterprise resources management). Cac h~ th6ng h6 tro mire xf nghiep: + Muc tieu quan trong nhat cua cac h~ th6ng h6 tro mire xf nghiep (ESS) la cung cAp m9t cong cu de h6 tro mire xf nghiep, Co 2 loai EIS: m9t thiet ke d~c bi~t de h6 tro cac ngiroi lanh dao cAp cao, m9t co xu huang phuc vu cho m9t c9ng d6ng ngiroi su dung r9ng han. + Dieu chinh EIS chi lanh dao nlnr la m9t phAn cua h~ th6ng thong tin rmrc xf nghiep, Cac irng dung EIS co muc dfch h6 tro cac ngiroi ra quyet dinh chuyen nghiep trong xf nghiep, EIS cung cAp m9t s6 kha nang dn thiet, Ngoai ra, con co m9t s6 cong cu gnip cac ngiroi quan ly chirc nang (tai chanh, tiep thi), va tfch hop cac cong cu nay vao EIS.

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+ Han nfra, EIS h6 tro eho cac rmrc t6 chirc thap han. VI the, ngay nay EIS eo
nghia la h~ th6ng thong tin rmrc xf nghiep hay h~ th6ng thong tin ella moi

nguoi. SU dung cac h~ th6ng rmrc xf nghiep (enterprise systems) hay cac h~ th6ng thong minh nghiep vu (business intelligence systems, BI), de mieu til vai tro moi ella EIS, d~e bi~t ngay nay kho dfr li~u (data warehouses) eo the eung cAp dfr li~u a dang d~ su dung, cac h~ th6ng truy vAn huang d6 hoa eo kha nang ehia nho dfr li~u va phan tfch dfr li~u da chieu,

111.2.3. Vai tro va cac yell elll thong tin cua ngutri Uinh d~o
Vai tro quyet dinh lanh dao la m9t vai tro chfnh, VIthe cluing ta ehia no thanh hai giai dean, Giai dean 1 lien quan den viec nhan dang cac vAn de va cac co h9i. Giai dean 2 lien quan den cac quyet dinh ve cai gl se lam d6i voi cac vAn de va cac co h9i. Str phan ehia nay eo the su dung de hieu cac yeu du thong tin ella ngiroi lanh dao va cac kha nang ella h~ th6ng thong tin lanh dao (EIS).

Moi tnrong ben ngoai

Moi tnrong ben trong

Quet qua

Quet qua

Danh gia thong tin

Phan tfch dinh tfnh

Phan tfch dinh hrong

Giai do~m1

DAu ra cho vi~c ra quyet dinh

Giai do~m2

Quyet dinh: Cai gl de lam d6i voi vAn de (co h6i) nay

Hinh 111.2.1:Qua trinh ra quy~t dinh eiia ngU'oolanh d,o (Vai tro quy~t dinh)

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Nhir trong hlnh, thong tin chay vao h~ th6ng tit cac moi tnrong ben trong va moi tnrong ben ngoai, Phat sinh cac thong tin trong tit cac dan vi chirc nang (tai chdnh, tiip thi, scm xudt, ki toan, nhdn su, ... ). Thong tin ngoai den tit nhieu nguon nhir internet, cac co sa dfr li~u tnrc tuyen khac, cac bai bao, cac dich vu tin nrc tren internet, cac frn ban cong nghiep, cac bao cao chfnh phu, cac lien lac ca nhan. R6 rang, cac thong tin ket hop vo cling c6 gia tri, la tai nguyen c6 t6 chirc quan trong dn thiet de s6ng con va canh tranh thanh congo Tuy nhien, VI kh6i hrong thong tin Ion, nen dn phai quet moi tnrong de cac thong tin thfch hop, Cac tac nhan phAn mem thong tin quet qua cac thong tin tren web, cac bao cao nQi bQ, cac cau chuyen maio Sau d6 danh gia va phan kenh cac thong tin diroc thu th~p de phan tfch dinh tfnh va dinh hrong (cdc chuyen gia thuc hien khi cdn thiet). Sau d6, ngiroi lanh dao hoac nh6m ra quyet dinh dua vao vfrn de hoac co hQi dang t6n tai, Neu quyet dinh nay c6 vfrn de, thl di~n dich tro thanh dAu vao cho buoc ke: ra quyet dinh dua vao cai gl de lam d6i voi vfrn de nay. Muc dfch ca ban cua EIS la h6 tro giai dean 1 cua qua trlnh trong hinh tren. Con cac irng dung DSS d~c thu (specific DSS applications) h6 tro giai dean 2. Cac phirong phap tim ra cac yeu du thong tin: tham khao thong tin ''the Minicase in Focus W8.1" tren site www.prenhaILcom/turban. MQt dieu phirc tap Ian trong viec xac dinh cac yeu du thong tin cua cac ngiroi lanh dao la: yeu du thay d6i khi cac nhiem vu va cac trach nhiem cua ngiroi lanh dao thay d6i. VI the, trong nhieu t6 clnrc, EIS diroc xem nhir da cai tien va khong bao gio xem nlnr da hoan thanh dAy duo

111.2.4.

Cae die tinh va cac kha nang ciia cac h~ th6ng thong tin Uinh d~o

Cac d~c tfnh va kha nang cua h~ th6ng thong tin lanh dao (EIS):

+ Chfrt hrong thong tin:
• Linh dQng • Tao thong tin chfnh xac • Tao thong tin kip thai • Tao thong tin thfch hop • Tao thong tin dAy du • Tao thong tin hop ly + Giao di~n ngiroi su dung: • Giao di~n ngiroi su dung d6 hoa (GUI) tinh vi • Giao di~n than thien voi ngiroi su dung • Cho phep truy xufrt thong tin tin c~y va an toan • C6 thai gian dap irng ng~n (thong tin kip thai) • C6 the truy xuat thong tin a nhieu noi • Thu tuc truy xufrt c6 the tin c~y diroc • SU dung ban phfm t6i thieu nlnr cac dieu khien infrared, chnot, touch pads, man hlnh cam bien (touch screen) • Lfry nhanh cac thong tin thea yeu du • C6 the thiet ke cac kieu quan ly cua cac ngiroi lanh dao khac nhau • C6 thirc dan tv tro giiip + Cung cAp kha nang ky thuat: • Truy xufrt thong tin tfch hop (toan du)

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Truy xufrt thir di~n nr Su dung r9ng dii cac dfr li~u ben ngoai Ghi lai cac di~n dich Lam n6i b~t cac chi dfrn ella vfrn de Sieu van ban va da phirong ti~n Phan tfch thea yeu du ella ngiroi su dung (adhoe analysis) Phan tfch va trlnh bay da chieu Trinh bay thong tin thea dang phan cAp • Klh hop d6 hoa va van ban trong cimg m9t giao di~n trlnh bay • Cung cAp cac bao cao quan ly thea ngoai l~ • Trinh bay cac xu huang, ty l~ va d9 l~eh • Cung cAp kha nang truy xufrt dfr li~u co tfnh lich su va dfr li~u hi~n hanh nhfrt • T6 chirc cac nhan t6 thanh cong quan trong • Cung cAp kha nang du doan • Tao ra cac thong tin a nhieu rmrc chi tiet khac nhau (eho kha nang duyet dfr li~u di xuong, drill down) • LQe, nen, do thea vet dfr li~u quan trong • H6 tro giai thfch ket thiic vfrn de thea huang rna Cac loi Ich ella EIS: + D~ duy tri cac muc tieu co t6 chirc + D~ truy xufrt thong tin + Cho phep ngiroi su dung nang eao hieu sufrt han + Tang chat hrong ra quyet dinh + Cung cAp sir cai tien canh tranh + Tiet kiem thai gian ella ngiroi su dung + Tang kha nang giao tiep + Tang chat hrong giao tiep + Cung cAp kha nang dieu khien t6t han trong t6 chirc + Cho phep tham gia cac vfrn de va cac co h9i + Cho phep hoach dinh + Cho phep tim kiem nguyen nhan ella m9t vfrn de + Thoa man cac yeu du ella ngiroi lanh dao Chi tiet cac khai niem quan trong: + Duyet dfr li~u di xuong: • M9t trong nhimg kha nang hiru Ich nhat ella EIS la eung cAp cac rmrc chi tiet ella thong tin t6ng hop, • Xay dung va duy trl cac dirong duyet dfr li~u di xuong b~ng cac ket n6i kieu sieu van ban kern han la kieu dfru e9ng tnr, + Cac nhan t6 thanh cong quan trong: • Cac nhan t6 thanh cong quan trong la cac nhan t6 su dung de duy tri cac muc tieu ella t6 clnrc, Chang han nlnr cac nhan t6 mang tfnh chien hrcc, quan ly, hoac heat d9ng; xufrt phat til 3 nguon chfnh: t6 clnrc, cong nghiep va moi tnrong, Cac nhan t6 thanh cong co the a rmrc doan the, phan khu, xf nghiep hoac phong ban. Thinh thoang cling xem xet ca cac nhan t6 thanh cong quan trong ella cac ca nhan. • • • • • • • •

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Giam sat cac nhan t6 thanh cong quan trong thea 5 thong tin: • • • Cac nrong trlnh vfrn de chfnh: Cac hru d6 n6i b~t Cac thong tin tai chanh

a mire

tren cimg

+

+

• Cac nhan t6 chfnh • Cac bao cao trach nhiem KPI (Key performance indicators) chi tith Truy xufrt trang thai: • Cac bao cao hoac dfr li~u sau cung ve trang thai cac chi thi chfnh co the truy xufrt bfrt ky hie nao qua mang. Thong tin thfch hop la quan trong, va nhan manh dfr li~u hi~n tai, Trong cac tnrong hop cAp bach, yeu du cac bao cao kip thai. Phan tfch: • Tlnrc hi~n phan tfch thea cac each sau: • Sil dung cac chirc nang co s~n • Tfch hop them cac san pham DSS • Phan tfch boi cac tac nhan thong minh • Tlnrc hi~n qua trinh phan tfch: • Cac lanh dao nhan di~n cac thong tin muon phan tfch sau han. • Cac lanh dao yeu du tnrc tiep hanh d9ng phan tfch sau han til thirc dan ESS (ch6.ng han, tinh. todn dutmg xu huang) hoac xufrt dfr li~u cho san pham rieng bi~t thea kha nang phan tfch thea yeu duo • Phu thuoc vao ESS, qua trinh xufrt va khoi d9ng cong cu khac bang viec Iva chon thirc dan trong ESS hoac co the yeu du lanh dao hru dieu trlnh bay vao t~p tin, thoat khoi ESS, khoi d9ng cong cu khac, d9C t~p tin diroc hru til ESS. Khi ngiroi lanh dao truy xufrt cong cu khac (thuang la bang dien til), cac d~c diem phan tfch thirong diroc chon til thirc dan. Tlnrc hi~n phan tfch trong ESS hoac bang cong cu ben ngoai, trlnh bay cac ket qua phan tfch a dang m~c dinh, Cac ngiroi lanh dao co cac Iva chon de dieu chinh giao dien trlnh bay nham cai tien kha nang d~ hieu,

+ Bao cao ngoai l~:
L~p cac bao cao ngoai l~ thea khai niem quan ly thea ngoai l~. Trong cac bao cao ngoai l~, cac ngiroi lanh dao chii y den hi~u sufrt rfrt xfru (hodc nit tat). Tiep c~n nay tiet kiem thai gian dang ke khi phai xem xet dfr li~u thong qua cac dieu kien ngoai l~. Sil dung mau s~c va am thanh: • Thong tlnrong, cac thanh phan quan trong trinh bay a dang s6, cilng nlnr sil dung mau s~c: mau xanh la cay la OK, mau vang la canh bao, mau do la nguy hiem (chi hieu sudt n6.m ngoai cdc rang bU9C cho trutrc cua ki hooch}. Cac mau s~c (to bong, hoiic nhdp nhdy) thong bao cho ngiroi sil dung cac vfrn de tiem fin, gay sir chu y ngay l~p nrc, M9t s6 h~ th6ng trang bi cac tfn hieu am thanh de thong bao cho ngiroi sil dung di den cac thong tin do. Dinh huang thong tin: •

+

+

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Dinh huang thong tin la kha nang eho phep s6 hrong Ian du li~u trlnh bay nhanh va d~ hieu, De cai tien kha nang nay, ngiroi Slr dung co the dung cac cong cu sieu phirong ti~n (hypermedia tools) va cac tac nhan thong minh (intelligent agents). + Giao tiep: • Cac ngiroi lanh dao dn giao tiep voi nhimg ngiroi khac, Co the giao tiep bang thir di~n nr, truyen cac bao cao den mQt ngiroi nao do thea dia chi, goi cuoc hQP, hoac blnh lu~n tren cac nhom tin nrc tren internet, hoac cac ky thuat tfnh toan eQng tac nlnr GSS (Lotus Notes, Netscape Communication, Microsoft's NetMeeting), cac phong chat, cac bang thong bao, hoac cac cong cu h6 tro web, hQi nghi truyen hlnh til xa.

111.2.5.

So sanh

va tich hQ'pEIS va DSS

EIS thiet ke de h6 tro cac ngiroi lanh dao dip eao, giiip ho kham pha cac vfrn de va cac co hQi. DSS h6 tro cac ngiroi phan tfch e6 g~ng tra loi cau hoi cai gl co the lam cung voi mQt co hQi hoac mQt vfrn de cu the. So sanh EIS va DSS: EIS Cac ngiroi Slr dung thong thirong Sv tlnic dfiy Ung dung Duyet du li~u di xuong, truy xufrt trang thai Tfnh thfch hop Quet moi tnrong, danh gia hieu sUfrt, nhan dang cac vfrn de va cac co hQi Cac chfnh sach, cac quyet dinh khong co diu true, a rmrc eao va h6 tro gian tiep Cac thong tin tin nrc, thong tin ben ngoai ve khach hang, d6i thu canh tranh, moi tnrong; cac bao cao thea yeu du va dinh thai ve cac heat dQng ben trong Do thea vet va dieu khien, nhan dang co hQi Thiet ke loai ra quyet dinh eho m6i ngiroi lanh dao ca nhan bang nhieu Iva chon dAu ra Phai co DSS H6 tro phan tfch va quyet dinh Tfnh hieu qua Cac quyet dinh quan ly tren cac linh V\Ie da dang H6 tro cac quyet dinh l~p lai, cac quyet dinh khong the doan tnroc, ra quyet dinh khong co diu true va ban diu true Cac thong tin h6 tro cac tinh huong d~e bi~t

H6 tro quyet dinh

Loai thong tin

Sy d\lng co nguyen tac Kha nang phu hop Val cac ngiroi Slr dung ca nhan D6hQa

Hoach dinh, t6 clnrc, nhom va dieu khien

phan

Cho phep cac danh gia ca nhan, cac kha nang what-if, Iva chon loai hQp hQi thoai La mQt phan quan trong cua nhieu DSS

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Than thien ngiroi su d\lllg Xu ly thong tin

Phai co LQc, nen thong tin, do thea vet dfr li~u va thong tin quan trong Truy xufrt tlnrong xuyen cac

Phai co neu khong co ngiroi su dung trung gian EIS kfch thfch cac can hoi, cac cau tra loi b~ng each su dung DSS va phan h6i lai EIS Co the co trong DSS, nhirng

H6

tro cac thong tin

chi tiet

rmrc chi tith cua bfrt ky thong khongthuang tin t6ng hop nao (duy~t dii li~u chi tiit)
hlnh

Co

sa mo

Cac chirc nang co s~n bi han
che Theo ngiroi ban san pham hoac thea cac chuyen gia h~ th6ng thong tin Mainframe, cac tram RISC, mang LAN s, hoac cac h~ th6ng phan b6

La diem c6t 16i cua DSS Theo ngiroi su dung, hoac ca nhan hoac cac chuyen gia tit cac trung tam thong tin hoac phong ban h~ th6ng thong tin Mainframe, cac tram RISC, cac may PC hoac cac h~ th6ng phan b6 Cac kha nang tfnh toan Ion, cac ngon ngfr mo hlnh, mo phong, irng dung va cac b9 tao DSS

Cfru tnic

Phan cirng

Ban chat phan mem

cac

goi

Truy xufrt nrong tac, d~ dang den nhieu co dfr li~u, truy xufrt tnrc tuyen, cac kha nang DBMS plnrc tap, cac lien ket phuct~p

sa

Ban tin

chat

cac thong

Trinh bay thong tin diroc phat sinh tnroc ve qua klnr va hi~n tai, tao cac thong tin moi ve qua khir, hi~n tai, nrong lai

Tao thong tin moi ve qua khir, hi~n tai, nrong lai

111.2.6. EIS, Truy xuit dfr li~u, kho dfr li~u, OLAP, phan tich da chi@u, trlnh bay va web
Kho dfr li~u la m9t kho dfr li~u diroc lam sach va IQClai de truy xufrt chi dQC va su dung boi cac ngiroi lanh dao, cac ngiroi quan ly, va cac ngiroi phan tfch. Thiet ke va hi~n thirc EIS de truy xufrt nhieu co dfr lieu khac nhau nhieu dang khac nhau tren cac nen tfnh toan khac nhau, su dung kho dfr li~u nlnr la nhieu nguon dfr li~u cho EIS. Khi m~t tnroc cua kho dfr li~u la cong cu phat sinh truy vfrn khac nhau (nhu PowerBuilder), h~ th6ng truy vfrn ngon ngfr tv nhien, hoac cong cu xay dung cac form tv d9ng, kho dfr li~u cai tien kha nang cho bfrt ky ngiroi su dung nao (khong chi la cdc nguai liinh. dao) truy xufrt dfr li~u cAn thiet, Vao giira nhfrng nam 1990, cac ngiroi phat trien va cac ngiroi nghien CUll b~t dAu kham pha cac phirong phap hien thi dfr li~u cai tien va sieu phirong ti~n su dung trong EIS. Sieu phirong ti~n la dfr li~u da phirong ti~n cAn thiet cimg voi cac sieu lien ket, cling la phirong ti~n cung cAp dfr li~u co Ich cho cac ngiroi lanh dao, Sieu phirong ti~n co

sa

a

rna

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the diroc cung cAp tren cac lien kth web cung voi phAn mem duyet web trong EIS hoac qua cac goi rieng nlnr Lotus Notes. Khi truy xufrt va cung cAp dfr li~u, phan tfch va trlnh bay tro nen quan trong, Kth hop phan tfch da chieu voi cac cong cu xu ly phan tfch tnrc tuyen (OLAP, online analytical processing) cho phep trinh bay dfr li~u ca a dang bang di~n nr va d6 thi, kern voi kha nang chia nho kh6i dfr li~u da chieu rna ngiroi su dung yeu cAu tir kho dfr li~u. Cac phirong phap OLAP cung cAp cac cong cu phan tfch, Sau day la m9t s6 goi phAn mem: + BrioQuery (Brio Technology Inc.) + Business Objects (Business Objects Inc.) + Decision Web (Comshare Inc.) + DataFountain (Dimensional Insight Inc.) + DSS Web (MicroStrategy Inc.) + Focus Fusion (Information Builders Inc.) + InfoBeacon Web (Platinum Technology Inc.) + Oracle Express Server (Oracle Corporation) + Pilot Internet Publisher (Pilot Software Inc.)

111.2.7.

Thong tin phln m@mtrong cac h~ th6ng rmrc xi nghi~p

Watson et al. (1996) nhan ra r~ng cac ngiroi ra quyet dinh yeu cAu thong tin mem, tlnrong diroc cung cAp khong chfnh thirc de ra cac quyet dinh, Tac gia nghien CUll sau han nlnr thong tin mem trong EIS co pham vi gl va nlnr the nao, Thong tin mem "19n X9n, khong chfnh tlnrc, 1f\ICquan, chu quan, rna h6". Thong tin mem diroc su dung trong hAu het EIS, chia thanh cac loai: + Tien doan, nghien CUll,du doan, va uoc tfnh (78.1 %) + GiM thfch, chirng minh, danh gia, va di~n dich (65.6%) + Cac bao cao tin nrc, cac xu huang cong nghiep, va dfr li~u khao sat ben ngoai (62.5%) + Cac dinh thai va cac hoach dinh chfnh thirc (50.0%) + Cac y kien, cam nghi, y nrong (15.6%) + Tin d6n, loi noi dua (9.4%) SU dung thong tin mem a dang tien doan, nghien CUll, du doan, va uoc tfnh la quan trong de hoach dinh cac muc tieu. Nghien CUllkhac l~p tai li~u su dung cac loai thong tin mem, M9t each t6ng quat, nhom h6 tro EIS co the nh~p vao thong tin nay, nhimg thinh thoang EIS phat sinh thong tin tv d9ng dua vao dfr li~u lich su (theo khai pha dfr lieu) hoac bang cac tac nhan thong minh (lAs, intelligent agents) quet cac nguon tin nrc va cac bao cao ben trong. GiM thfch, clnrng minh, danh gia, va di~n dich giiip cac ngiroi lanh dao cam thay cai gl dang xay ra ben trong va ben ngoai xf nghiep, Nhieu h~ th6ng rmrc xf nghiep cho phep ngiroi su dung rut ng~n cac giai thfch tren man hlnh hoac thir di~n nr tnroc khi cung cAp thong tin cho cac ngiroi su dung khac, Cac bao cao tin nrc ph6 bien khi cac tin nrc cung cAp (a ca dang van ban va hlnh anh) va tro nen r9ng rai, d~c bi~t qua Web. Khi cac tac nhan thong minh 19Ccac tin nrc (ben trong va ben ngoai), chung ta mong doi nhieu tin nrc han diroc cung cAp thong qua cac h~ th6ng mire xf nghiep, Thong tin mem cai tien gia tri cua cac h~ th6ng rmrc xf nghiep cho ngiroi lanh dao, Nghien CUllcua Watson et al. (1996) trlnh bay: D6i voi thong tin mem, hAu

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hlh cac thanh vien co ke hoach t~p trung cac n6 hrc ve cac dich vu tin tile ben ngoai, thong tin canh tranh, va tfnh d~ dang ella viec xu ly thong tin mem, MQt s6 xf nghiep t~p trung ra quyet dinh d~ dang han eho chfnh cac ngiroi su dung them thong tin mem,

III.2.S.

DSS t6 clnrc

DSS t6 chile duy tri cac h~ th6ng dua tren may tfnh, diroc phat trien de h6 tro quyet dinh eho m6i mile, no t~p trung vao nhiem vu hoac heat dQng co t6 chile lien quan den tuAn tv cac heat dQng va cac tac nhan (nhu phdt tridn hoacti dinli tiip thi phong ban hoiic ngiin sacn van lien doanh). Han nfra, cac heat dQng ella m6i ca nhan hAu nlnr lfin lQn voi cong viec ella ngiroi khac, H6 tro may tfnh eoi nlnr la xe eQ de cai tien giao tiep, ket hop, va giai quyet vAn de. MQt s6 dinh nghia ve DSS t6 chile (ODSS, Organizational DSS): + Watson (1990) dinh nghia ODSS nhir la sir ket hop ella ky thuat giao tiep va may tfnh, diroc thiet ke de ra quyet dinh ph6i hop va ph6 bien thea cac linh V\Ie chile nang va thea cac lap phan cAp de cac quyet dinh thfch hop voi cac muc tieu ella t6 chile va di~n dich ehia se quan ly ella moi tnrong canh tranh. + Carter et al. (1992) dinh nghia ODSS nlnr la DSS diroc su dung boi cac ca nhan hoac cac nhom a nhieu tram lam viec han la mQt dan vi t6 chile ra cac quyet dinh khac nhau su dung mQt t~p cac cong cu ph6 bien. + Swanson (Swanson va Zmud, 1990) goi ODSS nlnr la h~ h6 tro quyet dinh phan b6. DSS t6 chile khong nen nghi nlnr la DSS ella ngiroi quan lY. No nen xem nlnr h6 tro phong ban lao dQng ella t6 chile trong viec ra quyet dinh, DDSS nhir la DSS h6 tro ra quyet dinh phan b6. + King va Star (1990) eung cAp quan diem khac, Tac gia tin r~ng khai ni~m ODSS thea nguyen t~e dan gian: Ap dung cac ky thuat may tfnh va cac giao tiep de cai tien qua trlnh ra quyet dinh t6 chile. Theo nguyen t~e, ODSS co cai nhln h6 tro ky thuat eho cac qua trinh nhom den mile eao han ella cac t6 chile nhieu nlnr cimg each DSS nhom rna rQng cai nhin h6 tro ky thuat eho hanh dQng ca nhan d6i voi qua trlnh nhom tren intranet. George (199111992) tim ra cac d~e tfnh ella ODSS til cac dinh nghia tren: + T~p trung ella ODSS la mQt quyet dinh, hoac heat dQng, hoac nhiem vu t6 chile, anh huang den nhieu dan vi t6 chile hoac nhieu vAn de hop tac. + ODSS dt cac chile nang t6 chile hoac cac lap phan cAp. + ODSS hAu nlnr lien quan den cac ky thuat may tfnh va cac ky thuat giao tiep. M6i quan h~ ella ODSS d6i voi GSS va EIS + VI tfnh phirc tap ella ODSS, nen ODSS co the diroc tfch hop voi GSS vaJho~e EIS. Han nfra, VI GSS co the diroc su dung de t6i Uti hoa cac thanh phan va giai quyet cac dung dQ, cAu true ella ODSS co the diroc tfch hop voi cAu true ella GSS. M6i quan h~ gifra cac h~ th6ng mile xf nghiep + ODSS la mQt loai h~ th6ng mile xf nghiep lien quan tnrc tiep voi h6 tro quyet dinh, Trong khi xay dung cac h~ th6ng gi6ng nlnr cac h~ th6ng dQe l~p trong qua khir, ngay nay ODSS hAu nlnr la mQt phAn ella co sa ha tAng h6 tro intranet. Ca ODSS va EIS co lien quan gAn voi ERP va diroc trien khai cung ERP.

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111.2.9.

Cae ehu6i eung e§p, ehu6i gia tr] va h6 trQ'quy@tdjnh

Cac dinh nghia

+ Chu6i eung cAp tham khao den dong cac nguyen li~u, cac thong tin va cac
dich vu tit cac ngiroi eung cAp nguyen li~u tho thong qua cac xf nghiep va cac kho den khach hang dAu eu6i. Chu6i eung cAp cling g6m co cac t6 chile va cac qua trlnh tao va phan ph6i san pham, thong tin va dich vu den khach hang dAu eu6i. Chu6i eung cAp lien quan den nhieu heat dQng nlnr mua, xu ly nguyen li~u, hoach dinh va dieu khien san xuat, dieu khien kho va h~u dn, phan b6 va phan phoi. + Chile nang quan ly ehu6i eung cAp (SCM, supply chain management) la phan ph6i ehu6i eung cAp hi~u qua va thirc hi~n ehu6i eung cAp hieu qua, de hoach dinh, t6 chile, ph6i hop cac heat dQng ella ehu6i eung cAp. Cac loi Ich + Muc tieu ella SCM hi~n dai la giam rui ro va khong chac chac trong ehu6i eung cAp, thea each tao anh huang tfch eve den cac mile kho, thai gian ella ehu trinh, cac qua trinh, va dich vu khach hang. TAt ca cac dieu nay nham tang kha nang co loi va tfnh canh tranh. + Loi Ich ella quan ly ehu6i eung cAp diroc nhan ra trong kinh doanh va trong quan dQi. Trong moi tnrong canh tranh ngay nay, tfnh hieu qua va hiru hi~u ella ehu6i eung cAp trong hAu het cac t6 chile la quan trong den sir s6ng con ella t6 chile va phu thuoc nhieu vao cac h~ th6ng thong tin h6 tro. Cac thanh phAn ella ehu6i eung cAp: 3 thanh phan + Dong tren: PhAn nay g6m cac ngiroi eung cAp (ho co thd la cdc nguai scm xudt va/ho(j.c cdc nguai liip rap) va cac ngiroi eung cAp ella cac ngiroi eung cAp. Mo rQng cac m6i quan h~ nlnr the sang trai trong nhieu mile, tAt ca cac each lien quan den nguon nguyen li~u. + Ben trong: Phan nay g6m tAt ca cac qua trlnh diroc su dung trong viec chuyen d6i cac dAu vao ella ngiroi eung cAp sang dAu ra, tit thai gian, cac nguyen li~u nh~p vao t6 chile den thai gian cac san pham phan ph6i ben ngoai t6 chile. + Dong diroi: Phan nay g6m tAt ca cac qua trinh lien quan den viec phan ph6i san pham eho cac khach hang eU6i cung, Chu6i eung cAp thirc sir ket thiic khi san pham den sir chuyen nhirong sau khi su dung,

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Dong tren Ngiroi eung cfrpmue2 Qua tr, mh tong ~ quat

Ben trong

Dong dU'm

\
/ J

Ngiroi eung cfrp rmrc 1

Ngiroi eung cfrpmue2

1\

Ngiroi eung cfrpmue2
\.

Ngiroi eung cfrp mire 1

V
I

I

San xufit va d6ng g6i day ehuy~n

--r-

Trung Him phan phoi
~

Ngiroi ban Ie
~

Khaeh hang
I

Ngu~i tao giay

Ngiroi lam nhan

Ng~ai san xuatruQ1l

Ngiroi tao thuy tinh

Ngiroi tao ehai

Ngiroi eung cfrpkhae Kinhdoanh tnrc tiep Chu6i eung cfrp va ehu6i gia tri + Khai ni~m ehu6i eung cfrp lien quan den ehu6i gia tri va cac h~ th6ng gia trio Theo mo hlnh ehu6i gia tri (Posrter, 1985), bfit ky cac t6 chirc nao d~u ehia cac heat d9ng thanh 2 phan: cac heat d9ng chfnh va cac heat d9ng h6 tro. C6 5 heat d9ng chfnh: (1) h~u dn rang buoc trong (adu raj, (2) cac heat d9ng (scm xudt va kidm tra xi ng hiep scm xudt), (3) h~u dn rang buoc ngoai (luu trii va phdn phoi), (4) kinh doanh va tiep thi, (5) dich vu, + Cac heat d9ng nay lien ket voi nhau. BAu ra cua heat d9ng dAu la dAu vao cua heat d9ng thir hai. M6i IAndAu vao thay d6i thanh dAu ra, thl gia tri diroc them vao, Cac heat d9ng chfnh tuAn tv va lam viec tien trien thea each sau trong khi d6 gia tri diroc them vao m6i heat d9ng.

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+ Cac nguyen li~u den diroc xu ly (nhdn, luu trii, ... ), va gia tri diroc them vao
cluing nhimg gl diroc goi la h~u dn rang bU9C trong. Sau d6, nguyen li~u diroc su dung trong cac heat d9ng, rna nhieu gia tri han diroc them vao trong viec lam cac san pham, CAn chuan bi cac san pham de d6ng g6i phan ph6i, hru trir, v~n chuyen, va nhieu gia tri han diroc them vao. Sau d6, tiep thi va kinh doanh phan ph6i san pham den ngiroi su dung, Cu6i cung, thirc hi~n dich vu sau khi ban hang cho khach hang. TAt ca cac heat d9ng them gia tri c6 ket qua loi nhuan (hy vong). H6 tro cac heat d9ng sau: (1) co sa ha tAng xf nghiep (tai chdnh, ki toan, qudn If), (2) quan ly tai nguyen con ngiroi, (3) phat trien ky thuat (R&D), va (4) sir thu mua hang h6a. M6i heat d9ng h6 tro bAt ctr hoac tAt ca cac heat d9ng chfnh, va cling c6 the h6 tro heat d9ng khac, Cac xf nghiep c6 g~ng t6i iru gia tri t6ng c9ng doc thea toan b9 chu6i. C6 nhieu each de tang gia tri nay, va nhieu quyet dinh dn thirc hi~n cho muc dfch nay. Chu6i gia tri cua xf nghiep la m9t phan cua dong cac heat d9ng Ian han, rna Porter goi la h~ th6ng gia trio H~ th6ng gia tri g6m ca ngiroi cung cAp dAu ra dn cho xf nghiep va cac chu6i gia tri, g6m ca ngiroi cung cAp nay den nguoi cung cAp khac (co thd trong nhiJu mire). Khi xf nghiep tao san pham, cluing di qua cac chu6i gia tri cua ngiroi phan ph6i (la nguai ding co cdc chu6i gid tri rieng}, tAt ca cac each cho ngiroi mua (khdch. hang), cling c6 cac chu6i gia tri rieng, Dat diroc va duy trl thuan loi canh tranh va h6 tro thuan loi nay b~ng cac phirong ti~n IT yeu du sir hieu biet cua toan b9 h~ th6ng gia trio C6 the vi;! cac khai niem chu6i gia tri va h~ th6ng gia tri cho ca san pham va dich vu, va cho bAt ky t6 chirc nao, cong hoac nr, Cac khai niem chu6i gia tri va h~ th6ng gia tri c6 lien quan gAn voi chu6i cung cAp. Cac heat d9ng chfnh cua chu6i gia tri nrong irng voi mo hlnh t6ng quat trong hlnh tnroc. Khai niem h~ th6ng gia tri nrong irng voi khai niem chu6i cung cAp rna r9ng, bao g6m cac ngiroi cung cAp va cac d6ng nghiep kinh doanh khac, M9t trong nhimg muc tieu chfnh cua SCM la t6i da gia tri them vao doc thea chu6i cung cAp, va day la noi rna h6 tro quyet dinh may tfnh h6a nh~p hlnh, quyet dinh va chu6i cung cAp De t6i da gia tri them vao doc chu6i cung cAp, th~t dn thiet de ra quyet dinh va danh gia anh huang tiem Ancua cluing, Vi d{l, h~u dn rang bU9Ctrong rna con ngiroi phai quyet dinh a dau, khi nao, va bao nhieu de mua. Tlnrc hi~n v~n chuyen nguyen li~u rang bU9Ctrong thea nhieu each khac nhau, cau hoi nao diroc chon, Trong m6i lien ket cua chu6i cung cAp, ra cac quyet dinh nlnr the nao de di chuyen nguyen li~u, thong tin, tien bac de gia tri tang nhieu nhat, PhAn mem quan ly chu6i cung cAp s~n sang de h6 tro quyet dinh cho ca cac heat d9ng chfnh va phu, Chang han, t6i iru h6a cac qua trinh san xuAt, dinh thai, quan ly kho, va sir thu mua hang h6a. Cac mo hinh DSS d~c thu c6 the xac dinh loi Ich chi phf dAu nr trong cac ky thuat thong tin voi n6 lire tao gia tri doc thea chu6i cung cAp. Hien thirc DSS trong moi tnrong chu6i cung cAp phirc tap VI nhimg dieu kh6 khan va khong chac chan doc thea each thirc nay.

+ +

+

Ra

+

+ + +

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111.2.10.

Cae vin d@ va cac giai phap ebu6i eung eip

Giai thieu + Gia tri them vao doc thea chu6i cung cAp dn thiet cho tfnh canh tranh hoac ngay ca sir song con. + Cac vAn de chu6i cung cAp diroc nhan bith ca trong cac heat dQng kinh doanh va quan dQi trong nhieu the h~. MQt s6 vAn de gay cho quan dQi thua trong chien tranh va cac cong ty ra khoi kinh doanh. + Trong the gioi kinh doanh, co hang tram vf du ve cong ty khong the thoa man cac yeu du hoac co kho qua Ian va qua d~t de duy tri, Chang han nhir, thieu toan bQ chien hroc chu6i cung cAp va that bai de nhan ra chieu rQng cua cac ham y t6 clnrc, Han nfra, co mQt khai niem sai la SCM t6t co the chi diroc duy tri thong qua h~ th6ng ERP. Cac vAn de thong tlnrong tren chu6i cung cAp + Nhieu vAn de doc thea chu6i cung cAp b~t nguon chfnh til cac dieu khong chac chan va yeu du ket hop cac heat dQng vaJho~c cac dan vi ben trong va cac d6ng nghiep kinh doanh. + Nguon chfnh til cac dieu khong chac chan la du doan nhu du, co the bi anh huang boi nhieu nhan t6 nhir tfnh canh tranh, gia, dieu kien thai tiet, va nhirng phat trien ve ky thuat, Nhirng dieu khong chac chan khac t6n tai nhieu IAn phan ph6i, phu thuoc vao nhieu nhan t6 til cac viec may moe hir cho den cac dieu kien dirong xa, Cac vAn de chat hrong cling voi nguyen li~u va cac bQ phan cling co the tao ra nhirng trl hoan ve thai gian san xuat, va vAn de ket xe co the can thiep den vAn de v~n chuyen, + Trieu clnrng chfnh cua SCM kern la dich vu khach hang kern - co nghia la, ngiroi ta khong lAy san pham hoac dich vu a thai diem va a noi dn thiet, hoac lAy cac dich vu va hang hoa chat hrong kern. Cac trieu clnrng khac la chi phf kho cao, mAt loi nhuan, chi phf phu cho cac chuyen v~n chuyen d~c bi~t va cac chuyen v~n chuyen tham hiem, Cac giai phap d6i voi cac vAn de chu6i cung cAp + Trong nhieu nam, cac t6 chirc da phat trien nhieu giai phap cho vAn de chu6i cung cAp. MQt giai phap sam nhat la tfch hop doc, + Quan ly kho va SCM thfch hop yeu du ra cac quyet dinh va ph6i hop cac m6i lien ket cua chu6i cung cAp va cac heat dQng khac nhau, de hang hoa co the di chuyen d~ dang va kip thai til ngiroi cung cAp den khach hang. Tlnrc te nay lam cho s6 hrong kho thap va chi phf giam, cAn ket hop VI nhieu cong ty phu thuoc vao m6i heat dQng khac nlnrng khong luon luon lam viec cling nhau. + SCM hieu qua yeu du khach hang va ngiroi cung cAp lam viec cling nhau thea each ph6i hop b~ng each chia se va giao tiep thong tin dn thiet cho viec ra quyet dinh, + De dieu khien thfch hop cac dieu khong chac chac, dn nhan dang va hieu cac nguyen nhan cua cac dieu khong chac chan, xac dinh cac dieu khong chac chan se anh huang den cac heat dQng khac len va xuong chu6i cung cAp nlnr the nao, va tfnh toan cac each lam giam hoac loai bo cac dieu khong chac chan nay. Ket hop voi vAn de nay la dn thiet cho moi tnrong giao tiep hieu qua va hiru hieu d6i voi tAt ca cac d6ng nghiep kinh doanh. + MQt s6 giai phap khac cho cac vAn de SCM:

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Su dung cac linh kien tir cac nha cung cAp khac han la tv lam trong thai diemyeu duo • Ttrong tv, "mua" han la "lam" bfrt ctr khi nao thfch hop, • Cfru hlnh cac ke hoach v~n chuyen t6i iru, • T6i iru viec mua ban. • Tao cac c9ng tac c6 chien hroc voi cac nha cung cAp. • SU dung m9t tiep c~n mua ban dung hie de cac nha cung cAp phan ph6i nhanh cac s6 hrong nho bfrt ctr khi nao cung cAp, dn cac nguyen li~u va cac linh ki~n. • Giam s6 hrong trung gian, thuong them vao cac chi phf chu6i cung cAp, bang each su dung thirong mai di~n nr de tiep thi tnrc tiep. • Giam thai gian dieu hanh mua vaJho~c ban b~ng each xu ly tv d9ng su dung EDI hoac cac mang hroi ben ngoai, • SU dung It nha cung cAp. • CM tien m6i quan h~ giua nha cung cAp va ngiroi mua. • Chi san xufrt sau khi cac dan d~t hang dfl s~n sang, nhir Dell lam voi cac may tfnh lam thea dan d~t hang. • H,oan thanh yeu du chfnh xac b~ng each lam viec gAn voi cac nha cung cap. + HAu het cac giai phap tren diroc cai tien bang each h6 tro IT, d~c bi~t la a dang cac h~ th6ng hoach dinh tai nguyen rmrc xf nghiep (ERP, enterprise resource planning).

111.2.11. Cae h~ th6ng tinh toan: MRP, ERP va SCM
CM tien cua cac tro giiip may tfnh + M9t each lich su, nhieu heat d9ng chu6i cung cAp diroc quan ly voi cac giao dich tren gifry to khong hieu qua va hiru hieu, Do d6, VI su dung may tfnh trong kinh doanh sam, cac chu y diroc cho de tv d9ng cac qua trlnh doc thea chu6i cung cAp. Muc tieu chfnh la giam chi phi, xu ly tham hiem va giam l6i. + Trong thai gian ngan, cac dieu phu thuoc ben trong t6n tai giifa cac heat d9ng chu6i cung cAp. Dinh thai san xufrt lien quan den cac ke hoach mua va quan ly kho. Mo hlnh hoach dinh yeu du nguyen li~u (MRP, material requirements planning) yeu du c~p nh~t hang ngay, nen dn h6 tro may tfnh, + Trong khi cac g6i MRP hiru Ich trong nhieu tnrong hop, gnip dieu khien rmrc kho thap, cac phan hru hrong cua chu6i cung cAp, chung that bai trong nhieu tnrong hop, M9t trong nhimg ly do that bai chfnh la cac heat d9ng dinh thoi/kho/mua lien quan gAn voi tai nguyen lao d9ng va tai chanh, Dieu nay cai tien phAn mem va phirong phap lu~n MRP goi la hoach dinh yeu du san xufrt hoac MRP II. + Trong cai tien nay, cang ngay cang c6 nhieu h~ th6ng thong tin tfch hop, Cai tien nay tiep tuc, dfrn den khai niem hoach dinh tai nguyen rmrc xf nghiep (ERP, enterprise resource planning), t~p trung vao viec tfch hop cac heat d9ng xu ly giao dich mire xf nghiep, Va rna r9ng ERP, g6m c6 cac khach hang va cac ngiroi cung cAp ben trong va sau d6 khach hang va cac nguoi cung cAp ben ngoai, diroc biet nlnr la phAn mem ERP/SCM rna r9ng. Tai sao tfch hop

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+ Tao xf nghiep the ky 21 khong the tlnrc hi~n hi~u qua voi ky thuat may tfnh
the ky 20, huang thea chirc nang. Cac h~ th6ng clnrc nang khong eho cac phong ban khac giao tiep voi cac phong ban khac, Tuy nhien t~ han, du li~u san xufrt kho, kinh doanh quan trong . + Sandoe va Saharia (2001) li~t ke cac loi Ich chfnh ella viec tfch hop (theo thie tl! quan trong): • Cac loi Ich hiru hlnh (tangible benefits): Giam chi phf kho, giam nhan cong, cai tien san xuat, cai tien quan ly ra l~nh, cai tien ehu trlnh tai chanh dong, giam chi phf IT, giam chi phf thu mua hang hoa, cai tien quan ly tien mat, tang thu nhap va loi nhuan, giam chi phf h~u dn v~n chuyen, giam bao tri, cai tien phan ph6i kip thai • Cac loi Ich vo hlnh (intangible benefits): TAm nhln thong tin, cac qua trinh cai tien vaJho~e moi, phan irng ella khach hang, tieu chuan hoa, linh d9ng, toan du hoa, va hi~u sufrt kinh doanh. + Ca hai loai loi Ich nhieu phAn lien quan tnrc tiep den SCM cai tien, Tfch hop ehu6i eung cAp + Trong nhieu the h~, cac cong ty quan ly cac m6i lien ket khac nhau ve ehu6i eung cAp dge l~p voi nhau. Tuy nhien, vao nhimg nam 1950, va nho vao viec gioi thieu cac h~ th6ng thong tin dua tren may tfnh, cac cong ty dfl tfch hop cac m6i lien keto D~ dang tfch hop thea yeu du cac heat d9ng de dap irng nhu du ella khach hang trong nhieu linh V\Ie chi phf dich vu va san pham, chat hrong, phan ph6i, ky thuat, va thai gian ehu ky mang ve bang each tang tfnh canh tranh toan duo Han mra, cac dang moi ella cac m6i quan h~ t6 chirc va each mang thong tin, d~e bi~t internet va thirong mai di~n nr, mang SCM vao sir chu y hang dAu. Str chu y nay tao uoc muon dAu nr tien vao phan cimg va phAn mem dn eho viec tfch hop khong day. Hoach dinh tai nguyen rmrc xf nghiep + CM tien tfnh toan chu/khach rmrc xf nghiep tao m9t tlnr thach moi: nlnr the nao de dieu khien tfrt ca cac qua trinh kinh doanh chfnh voi m9t kien true phAn mem dan thea thai gian thirc. GiM phap tfch hop goi la hoach dinh tai nguyen rmrc xf nghiep (ERP, enterprise resource planning), lura hen nhieu loi Ich tir viec tang hieu qua den viec cai tien chat hrong, kha nang san xuat, va kha nang co lei, M1}c tieu chinh ciia ERP la tfch hop tfrt ca cac phong ban va cac chirc nang trong cong ty thanh m9t h~ th6ng may tfnh co the phuc vu cac yeu du ella toan xf nghiep, + PhAn mem ERP qua cac phong ban chirc nang va rna r9ng doc thea ehu6i eung cAp eho nha eung cAp va khach hang. Nhieu cong ty dfl thanh cong trong viec tfch hop hang tram irng dung su dung phAn mem ERP, tiet kiem hang trieu do la va tang sir thoa man khach hang. + B9 ERP eung cAp m9t giao di~n quan ly tfrt ca cac heat d9ng thong thirong trong san xuat - tir viec nh~p vao cac dan d~t hang kinh doanh den viec ph6i hop v~n chuyen cling nlnr dich vu khach hang sau kinh doanh. Cac h~ th6ng ERP b~t dAu ket hop chirc nang giao dich khach hang va quan ly cac m6i quan h~ giifa nha eung cAp va ngiroi ban hang, lam eho h~ th6ng It co ve kfn, + ERP dong vai tro quan trong eho cac nha san xufrt trung blnh va nho tro nen t~p trung, lam eho qua trinh kinh doanh thay d6i trong xf nghiep,

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+ Tuy nhien, ERP khong bao gio co nghia h6 tro hoan toan chu6i cung cAp. Cac
giai phap ERP la trung Him giao dich, Chung khong cung cAp cac mo hlnh may tfnh hoa dn dap irng nhanh nhimg thay d6i kip thai ve cung cAp, nhu du, lao d9ng hoac kha nang. Giai quyet dieu thieu sot nay bang ERP the h~ thir hai, co cac kha nang h6 tro quyet dinh, ERP the h~ thir hai + ERP the h~ thir nhat huang den tv d9ng cac qua trinh kinh doanh van phong chfnh. ERP the h~ thir hai manh han b~t dAu bang muc tieu phan cAp cac h~ th6ng hi~n tai nham tang hieu qua xu ly cac giao dich, cai tien viec ra quyet dinh, xa han nifa la bien d6i cac each thirc lam kinh doanh. + ERP the h~ thir nhat h6 tro can ban OLTP va cac heat d9ng giao dich thong tlnrong khac, Vi d{l, h~ th6ng ERP co tfnh nang d~t hang di~n nr, hoac each t6t nhat de l~p hoa dan ban hang. + Phat sinh cac bao cao boi ERP cung cAp cho cac ngiroi hoach dinh nhimg gl xay ra trong cong ty, va hieu suAt tai chanh va chi phi. Tfch hop diroc lam nlnr the nao? Co 3 tiep c~n + Tiep c~n tfch hop de co the lam viec voi cac phAn mem khac nhau tir cac ngiroi ban khac nhau. + Tiep c~n tfch hop cho ngiroi ban them cac kha nang thong minh kinh doanh va h6 tro quyet dinh, + Tiep c~n cho thue cac irng dung, hie do ngiroi ban se cham soc cac tfnh nang va cac vAn de tfch hop, Tiep c~n nay nrong d6i moi va diroc goi la phirong an ngiroi cung cAp dich vu irng dung (ASP, application service provider). Cac ngiroi cung cAp dich vu irng dung va nguon ben ngoai ERP + Ngiroi cung cAp dich vu irng dung (ASP, application service provider) la ngiroi ban phAn mem phat hanh cac irng dung dua tren ERP, co cac kha nang DSS cho cac t6 clnrc, HQ se thiet l~p h~ th6ng va chay cho ngiroi su dung, SU dung ASP coi nlnr la chien hroc quan ly rui ro va phu hop nhat voi cac cong ty nho va trung blnh, + Khai ni~m ASP d~c bi~t hiru dung trong cac de an ERP, d~t de cai d~t, mAt nhieu thai gian hi~n tlnrc va cho nhom nao la vAn de chfnh, Tuy nhien, ASP cling minh clnrng ERP dfl them nhieu tfnh nang nlnr DSS, EC, CRM, trung tam du li~u (data marts), sir phong phii desktop, va cac irng dung lien quan den chu6i cung cAp khac, + SU dung ASP co m9t s6 tAng • Ngiroi ban yeu du loi cam ket 5 nam, Trong 5 nam, phAn mem co the thay d6i d9t ng9t, va ngay ca diroc cai vao PC, va cho mi~n phi. • Cac h~ th6ng thue kha chuan va sir khong phu hop voi cac yeu du cua chung tao Ket hop (mire xi nghiep) portals va EIS + Khi cac ky thuat web den cac mang may tfnh ket hop, EIS hi~n tai hoac cac h~ th6ng thong minh se thay the boi cac portal mire xi nghiep ket hop, + Portal rmrc xi nghiep (ket hop) tfch hop nhieu irng dung ben trong nlnr quan ly moi tnrong, quan ly tai lieu, va thir di~n nr cung voi cac irng dung ben ngoai nlnr cac dich vu tin nrc va cac site khach hang. Do la tAt ca cac irng dung

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thong qua cac may PC. Cac portal kth hop da dang cac kha nang va ho su dung nhieu lap ky thuat: • Cac ky thuat groupware: cac thao lu~n, cac cuoc hop ehat, va cac de an
thir vien,

Trinh bay: Cac cong cu hien thi dfr li~u nlnr Web OLAP, JavaSeript, va HTML de trinh bay Web. • Ca nhan h6a va sir tuy bien: cac tac nhan phAn mem tuy bien thong tin eho cac ngiroi su dung ca nhan su dung cac ky thuat nhan, • Cong eQng va phan b6: kho cac tai li~u a cac dinh dang kha chuyen cilng nlnr cac cong cu cong eQng va tan thanh, • Tim kiem: cac cong cu tim kiem van ban dAy du va tim kiem cac mien ta tai li~u va cac nQi dung khac, • Phan loai: cac cong cu tao va duy tri cac loai thong tin khac nhau eho cac thfnh gia khac nhau, nlnr cac cong cu da chieu. • Tfch hop: cac cong cu truy xufrt cac nguon dfr li~u tach roi nlnr cac g6i ERP, cac eo sa dfr li~u quan h~, va dfr li~u ben ngoai nlnr han ngach kinh doanh e6 phan. + The h~ dAu cua hAu het cac portal doanh nghiep la phien ban san pham hoi d6i moi e6 nhan la cac cong cu kinh doanh thong minh hoac cac cong cu quan ly tai li~u VI cac portal thirc hi~n tfrt ca nhiem vu dAy du nhat nen kh6 va d~t de xay dung, MQt vfrn de la s6 ngiroi su dung cang Ion, ehi phf cang eao, va ehi phf kho dieu ehinh VI hAu het tfrt ca cac loi Ich deu vo hlnh,

111.2.12. Cae h~ h6 trQ' quy@t dinh mit trmre
Cac quyet dinh

a tfrt ca

cac mire trong t6 chirc d6ng g6p de thanh cong doanh

vu khach hang. Tlnrc hi~n cac yeu du a cac tuyen tnroc bang cac tlnh huong xufrt hi~n trong cac kh6a kinh doanh hang ngay, D6 la ngoai l~ quyet dinh, eo hQi tang kinh doanh rna hop d6ng xu ly quyet dinh, ngiroi ra quyet dinh phai lam hieu qua cac quyet dinh nhanh dua vao ngfr canh va thea cac chien hroc va cac huang dfrn thiet l~p tnroc boi quan ly chfnh, Ra quyet dinh m~t tnroc la qua trinh cac cong ty tv dQng cac qua trinh quyet dinh va dAy cluing xuong vao t6 chirc va thinh thoang ra cac d6ng nghiep, N6 bao g6m cac nhan vien co quyen bang each eho ehung cac chien hrcc, danh gia cac dQ do, phan tfch anh huang va lam cac thay d6i tac vu, Ra quyet dinh ~t tnroc phuc vu cac ngiroi su dung kinh doanh nlnr cac nguoi quan ly tuyen nghiep vu, cac lanh dao kinh doanh, va cac dai dien trung tam de gnip ho ra cac quyet dinh tac vu t6t thoa man cac muc tieu ket hop, Ra quyet dinh m~t tnroc eung cAp eho cac ngiroi su dung cac cau hoi dung de hoi, vi trf dfr li~u dn thiet, va cac dQ do (vi d{l, khd nang co Zai tit khdcb hang va san phdm) rna chuyen dfr li~u thanh cac muc tieu ket hop va de nghi cac hanh dQng cai tien hieu suat, Ngay nay, cac san pham irng dung phan tfch xufrt hi~n de h6 tro cac hanh dQng nay. Chfnh cac irng dung giao dich ngay nay va cac cong cu h6 tro quyet dinh khong the s~n sang eho cac ngiroi su dung ra cac quyet dinh t6t han.

nghiep, Nhimg cac quyet dinh t6i da eo hQi kinh doanh hoac t6i thieu ehi phf dich

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Cac h~ th6ng m~t tnroc: Trong viec ra quyet dinh m~t tnroc, m6i qua trlnh tac vu co m9t qua trinh quyet dinh nrong irng de danh gia, Iva chon va cai tien thirc thi. + Ra quyet dinh m~t tnroc tv d9ng cac quyet dinh dan gian - nlnr lam dong bang tai khoan khach hang that bai de lam cac b6i thirong - b~ng each dinh nghia tnroc cac lu~t kinh doanh va cac bien e6 kfch thfch, 0 cac diem quyet dinh phirc tap han, nlnr cAp phat kho, ra quyet dinh m~t tnroc eho ngiroi quan ly cac ngfr canh dn thiet - cac phirong an co s~n, cac anh huang kinh doanh, va cac d9 do thanh cong - de ra quyet dinh dung. De tao thuan loi h6 tro quyet dinh thong thuong trong kinh doanh, ngiroi sil dung phai biet diu hoi gl de hoi, thong tin nam a dau, va cac thanh phAn d9 do.

111.2.13.

TU'O'nglai cua cac h~ h6 trQ' quy@t dinh mire xi nghi~p

va Uinh d~o

M9t s6 d~e diem xufrt hi~n trong the h~ ke tiep cua cac h~ th6ng rmrc xf nghiep (nh6.m h6 tra cdc nguai liinh. dao va cdc nguai sir dung khdc trong xi nghiep): + H9P cong cu de xay dung h~ th6ng thea yeu du + H6 tro da phirong ti~n + Trinh bay anh 3 chieu va thirc te ao + Xuat hi~n cac h~ th6ng phan tfch + Cac h~ th6ng h6 tro web + Tro giiip trf tu~ va h6 tro tv d9ng + Tfch hop EIS va cac h~ th6ng h6 tro nhom + Cac h~ th6ng h6 tro toan du + Tfch hop va trien khai cung voi cac san pham ERP

Bai 3. Cdc dang h~ h6 tra ra quye't dinh

Feb-2004

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