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# AC Meters

Chapter 03

Objectives
At the end of this chapter, the student should

be able to:

Describe the operation of a half-wave rectifier circuit. Trace the current path in a full-wave bridge rectifier circuit. Calculate ac sensitivity and the value of multiplier resistors for half-wave and full-wave rectification.

Outline
Introduction: What is AC? dArsonval with Half-wave Rectification dArsonval with Full-wave Rectification

Introduction
Several types of meter movements maybe used to measure AC current or voltage. The five principal meter movements used in ac instruments are listed in the table below:

Introduction
No 1 2 3 4 5 Meter Movement DC Use AC Use YES YES YES YES Applications Standard meter, Wattmeter, etc Indicator applications, etc High voltage measurement. Radio freq measurement Electro-dynamometer YES Iron-Vane Electro-static Thermocouple DArsonval YES YES YES YES

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Introduction
AC Waveforms

## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

In the previous chapter, we have discussed in detail dArsonval MM (PMMC) and its applications in Ammeter, Voltmeter and Ohmmeters. Now, well learn about using the same MM to measure ac current or voltages.

## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

In order to measure ac with dArsonval MM, we must first rectify the ac current by use of a diode rectifier. This process will produce uni-directional current flow. Several types of diode rectifiers are available: copper oxide, vacuum diode, semiconductor diode etc.

## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

Still remember our DC Voltmeter, using dArsonval meter movement?
Im

Sensitivity= 1/Ifs
Rs

Rm Im

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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

PMMC meter movements will not work correctly if directly connected to alternating current, because the direction of needle movement will change with each half-cycle of the AC. Permanent-magnet meter movements, like permanent-magnet motors, are devices whose motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage.
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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

If we add a diode to a DC Voltmeter, then we have a meter circuit capable of measuring ac voltage.
RS

Rm I m

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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

The FW biased diode will have no effects in the operations of the circuit. (ideal diode) Now, suppose we replace the 10-Vdc with 10Vrms, what will happen?

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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

The voltage across the MM is just the positive cycle of the sine wave because of rectifying action of the diode. The peak value of the ac sine wave is :

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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

The MM will respond to the average value of the sine wave where the average, or DC value equals 0.318 times the peak value. The average value of the AC sine wave is :

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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

The diode action produces an approximately half sine wave across the load resistor. The average value of this voltage is referred to as the DC voltage, which a DC voltmeter connected across a load resistor will respond to.
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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

Therefore, we can see that the pointer that deflected full scale when a 10-V DC signal was applied, deflects to only 4.5V when we apply a 10-Vrms sine AC waveforms. Thus, an AC Voltmeter using wave rectification is only approximately 45% sensitive as a DC Voltmeter.

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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

In order to have a full scale deflection meter when a 10-Vrms is applied, we have to design the meter with the Rs having 45% of the Rs of the DC voltmeter. Since the equivalent DC voltage is 45% of the RMS value, we can write like this: Rs= (Edc/Idc)-Rm = (0.45Erms/Idc) -Rm
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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

Example 1
Compute the value of Rs for a 10-Vrms AC range on the voltmeter shown in Figure 1. Given that Ein= 10-Vrms, Ifs= 1mA, Rm=300.
RS

Rm I m

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## dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

Example 2
In the wave rectifier shown below, D1 and D2 have an average forward resistance of 50 and are assumed to have an infinite resistance in reverse biased. Calculate the following: (a) Rs value (b) Sac (c) Sdc Given that Ein = 10-Vrms, Rsh = 200, Ifs = 100mA, Rm = 200
Rs IT D1 Im Ish Ein D2 Rsh
Rm

## Make it as your exercise at home

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Conclusion
dArsonval MM can be used to measure both DC and AC current/voltages.

The MM will respond to the average value of sine wave where the average, or DC value equal to 0.318 times the peak value. Sac = 0.45Sdc

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