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Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD)

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Sustainable Architecture

1.1 What is Sustainable Development? 1.2 Various Viewpoints 1. BACKGROUND 1.3 Three Dimensions 1.4 Further Reading 2.1 Sustainable Construction 2.2 Environmental Architecture 2.3 Ecological Building 2.4 Green Building 2.5 Further Reading 3.1 Site 3.2 Energy 3.3 Water 3.4 Materials 3.5 Waste 3.6 Community 3.7 Indoor Environment 4.1 Design Guides (downloadable) 4.2 Processes 4.3 Assessment

2. CONCEPTS

3. ISSUES

4. STRATEGIES

5.1 Reference Books & Materials 5. REFERENCES 5.2 Web Links 5.3 Case Studies

Home of BEER
| Created: Dec 1996 | Updated: 10 Aug 2002 | By Sam C M Hui (cmhui@hku.hk) |

1. BACKGROUND
[The current world population]

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1.1 What is Sustainable Development?

"Sustainable development is development which meets the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generation to meet their own needs." -- World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, pp. 4, Oxford University Press, New York, 1987. This definition has been formulated by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), led by the norwegian prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, in 1987. The word development in this definition implicates two important aspects of the concept: It is omnidisciplinary, it cannot be limited to a number of disciplines or areas, but it is applicable to the whole world and everyone and everything on it, now and in the future. Secondly, there is no set aim, but the continuation of development is the aim of the development. The definition is based on two concepts: the concept of needs, comprising of the conditions for maintaining an acceptable life standard for all people, and the concept of limits of the capacity of the environment to fulfill the needs of the present and the future, determined by the state of technology and social organisation. The needs consist firstly of basic needs such as food, clothing, housing and employment. Secondly, every individual, in every part of the world should have the opportunity to try and raise his or her life standard above this absolute minimum. The limits consist of natural limitations like finite resources, but also of declining productivity caused by overexploitation of resources, declining quality of water and shrinking of biodiversity. For our common future, it would therefore be best if needs are best fulfilled while limits are not increased, but preferably decreased. This would lead to the quite simple conclusion that all political, technical and social developments can easily be evaluated in the light of sustainable development by these two arguments. Any development should help fulfill needs and should not increase limitations.

1.2 Various Viewpoints


Many other definitions of sustainable development have also been offered, some general and some more precise. The followings illustrate the variety of foci evident in discussions of sustainable development. ". . . requires meeting the basic needs of all people and extending opportunities for economic and social advancement. Finally, the term also implies the capacity of development projects to endure organizationally and financially. A development initiative is considered sustainable if, in addition to protecting the environment and creating opportunity, it is able to carry out activities and generate its own financial resources after donor contributions have run out." Bread for the World, Background Paper No. 129, Washington, DC, March 1993. "[improves] . . . the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems." International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), World Conservation Union, United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP), and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Caring for the Earth, pp. 10, IUCN/UNEP/WWF, Gland, Switzerland, 1991. "[uses] . . . natural renewable resources in a manner that does not eliminate or degrade them or otherwise dimish their renewable usefulness for future generations while maintaining effectively constant or non-declining stocks of natural resources such as soil, groundwater, and biomass." World Resources Institute, Dimensions of sustainable development, World Resources 1992-93: A Guide to the Global Environment, pp. 2, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992. "[maximizes] . . . the net benefits of economic development, subject to maintaining the services and quality of natural resources." R. Goodland and G. Ledec, Neoclassical economics and principles of sustainable development, Ecological Modeling 38 (1987): 36. "[is based on the premise that] . . . current decisions should not impair the prospects for maintaining or improving future living standards . . . This implies that our economic systems should be

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managed so that we live off the dividend of our resources, maintaining and improving the asset base." R. Repetto, World Enough and Time, pp. 15-16, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1986. " . . . is taken to mean a positive rate of change in the quality of life of people, based on a system that permits this positive rate of change to be maintained indefinitely." L. M. Eisgruber, Sustainable development, ethics, and the Endangered Species Act, Choices, Third Quarter 1993, pp. 4-8. " . . . is development without growth --- a physically steady-state economy that may continue to develop greater capacity to satisfy human wants by increasing the efficiency of resource use, but not by increasing resource throughput." H. E. Daly, Steady state economics: concepts, questions, and politics, Ecological Economics 6 (1992): 333-338. " . . . is the search and the carrying out of rational strategies that allow society to manage, in equilibrium and perpetuity, its interaction with the natural system (biotic/abiotic) such that society, as a whole, benefits and the natural system keeps a level that permits its recuperation." E. Gutierrez-Espeleta, Indicadores de sostenibilidad: instrumentos para la evaluacion de las politicas nacionales", unpublished paper presented at 50th Anniversity Conference of the Economic Sciences Faculty sponsored by the University of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica, Nov. 19, 1993.

"Future generation is the most important" --- Confucius. "Treat the Earth well. It was not given to you by your parents. It was loaned to you by your children." --- Kenyan Proverb. "Sustainability is living on the interest rather than the principle." -- economics educators. Sustainability (Nachhaltigkeit) as postulated in Germany "requires the inextricable linkage of ecology, economy and social security. Sustainable development requires that improvements in economic and social living conditions accord with the long-term process of securing the natural foundations of life (G1)". A sustainable system delivers services without exhausting resources. It uses all resources efficiently both in an environmental and economic sense.

1.3 Three Dimensions

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Economic dimensions of sustainability: Creation of new markets and opportunities for sales growth Cost reduction through efficiency improvements and reduced energy and raw material inputs Creation of additional added value Environmental Sustainability

Environmental dimensions of sustainability Reduced waste, effluent generation, emissions to environment Reduced impact on human health Use of renewable raw materials Elimination of toxic substances

Social dimensions of sustainability Worker health and safety Impacts on local communities, quality of life Benefits to disadvantaged groups e.g. disabled

The idea of environmental sustainability is to leave the Earth in as good or better shape for future generations than we found it for ourselves. By a definition, human activity is only environmentally sustainable when it can be performed or maintained indefinitely without depleting natural resources or degrading the natural environment. Resource consumption would be minimal Materials consumed would be made ENTIRELY of 100% post-consumer recycled materials or from renewable resources (which were harvested without harm to the environment and without depletion of the resource base) Recycling of waste streams would be 100% Energy would be conserved and energy supplies would be ENTIRELY renewable and non-polluting (solar thermal and electric, wind power, biomass, etc.)

1.4 Further Reading


Definition of Sustainability [AGS] Definitions of Sustainability [SDIC] The Economics of Sustainability [US-EPA] Global Sustainability Concepts [University of California Irvine] Interactive Learning About Sustainable Development [IISD]

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Sustainable Development: Education for Engineers & Others Sustainable Development Information [Five E's] "Sustainability" by Robert Gilman, from the 1992 UIA/AIA "Call for Sustainable Community Solutions" [Context Institute] Sustainability and Sustainable Development [University of Reading, UK] Thoughts on Sustainability [eDesign] What is sustainable development? [SustainAbility.com] What is "Sustainability"? [Florida Sustainable Communities Center] What is Sustainability? [US EPA] What Is Sustainability? [by Susan Murcott of MIT] Definitions Principles Criteria Indicators Conceptual Frameworks

2. CONCEPTS
"Architecture presents a unique challenge in the field of sustainability. Construction projects typically consume large amounts of materials, produce tons of waste, and often involve weighing the preservation of buildings that have historical significance against the desire for the development of newer, more modern designs." -- The Earth Pledge (www.earthpledge.org)

2.1 Sustainable Construction


Sustainable construction is defined as "the creation and responsible management of a healthy built environment based on resource efficient and ecological principles". Sustainably designed buildings aim to lessen their impact on our environment through energy and resource efficiency. It includes the following principles: minimising non-renewable resource consumption enhancing the natural environment eliminating or minimising the use of toxins Accordning to an OECD Project, "Sustainable building" can be defined as those buildings that have minimum adverse impacts on the built and natural environment, in terms of the buildings themselves, their immediate surroundings and the broader regional and global setting. "Sustainable building" may be defined as building practices, which strive for integral quality (including economic, social and environmental performance) in a very broad way. Thus, the rational use of natural resources and appropriate management of the building stock will contribute to saving scarce resources, reducing energy consumption (energy conservation), and improving environmental quality. Sustainable building involves considering the entire life cycle of buildings, taking environmental quality, functional quality and future values into account. In the past, attention has been primarily focused on the size of the building stock in many countries. Quality issues have hardly played a significant role. However, in strict quantity terms, the building and housing market is now saturated in most countries, and the demand for quality is growing in importance. Accordingly, policies that contribute to the sustainability of building practices should be implemented, with recognition of the importance of existing market conditions. Both the environmental initiatives of the construction sector and the demands of users are key factors in the market. Governments will be able to give a considerable impulse to sustainable buildings by encouraging these developments. The OECD project has identified five objectives for

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sustainable buildings: Resource Efficiency Energy Efficiency (including Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction) Pollution Prevention (including Indoor Air Quality and Noise Abatement) Harmonisation with Environment (including Environmental Assessment) Integrated and Systemic Approaches (including Environmental Management System) Theme Environmental Economic - Construction - Materials - Infrastructure - Profitability - Employment - Productivity - Transport and utilities - Building stock value Social - Equity - Community - Poverty - Minorities - Inner cities - Transport - Communications

Sub-theme - Global - Local and site - Internal Issues - Climate change - Resources - Internal environment - External environment - Wildlife

Green Code for Architecture [From: Greening Government: Towards More Sustainable Construction: Green Guide for Managers on the Government Estate, Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, UK] Based on the objectives of the Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) The principles are: demolish and rebuild only when it is not economical or practicable to reuse, adapt or extend an existing structure; reduce the need for transport during demolition, refurbishment and construction and tightly control all processes to reduce noise, dust, vibration, pollution and waste; make the most of the site, eg. by studying its history and purpose, local micro-climates and the prevailing winds and weather patterns, solar orientation, provision of public transport and the form of surrounding buildings; design the building to minimise the cost of ownership and its impact on the environment over its life span by making it easily maintainable and by incorporating techniques and technologies for conserving energy and water and reducing emissions to land, water and air; wherever feasible, use the construction techniques which are indigenous to the area, learning from local traditions in materials and design; put the function of the building and the comfort of its occupants well before any statement it is intended to make about the owner or its designer. That is, make it secure, flexible and adaptable (to meet future requirements) and able to facilitate and promote communications between staff; build to the appropriate quality and to last. Longevity depends much on form, finishes and the method of assembly employed as on the material used. avoid using materials from non renewable sources or which cannot be reused or recycled, especially in structures which have a short life;

2.2 Environmental Architecture


Five principles of an environmental architecture (Thomas A. Fisher, AIA, November, 1992): Healthful Interior Environment. All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that materials and building systems do not emit toxic substances and gasses into the interior atmosphere. Additional measures are to be taken to clean and revitalize interior air with filtration and plantings. Energy Efficiency. All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that the building's use of energy is minimal. Cooling, heating and lighting systems are to use methods and products that conserve or

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eliminate energy use. Ecologically Benign Materials. All possible measures are to be taken to use building materials and products that minimize destruction of the global environment. Wood is to be selected based on non destructive forestry practices. Other materials and products are to be considered based on the toxic waste out put of production. Environmental Form. All possible measures are to be taken to relate the form and plan of the design to the site, the region and the climate. Measures are to be taken to "heal" and augment the ecology of the site. Accomodations are to be made for recycling and energy efficiency. Measures are to be taken to relate the form of building to a harmonious relationship between the inhabitants and nature. Good Design. All possible measures are to be taken to achieve an efficient, long lasting and elegant relationship of use areas, circulation, building form, mechanical systems and construction technology. Symbolic relationships with appropriate history, the Earth and spiritual principles are to be searched for and expressed. Finished buildings shall be well built, easy to use and beautiful. Architect William McDonough defined the breadth of what Green Building is: The Hannover Principles Living buildings will: Harvest all their own water and energy needs on site. Be adapted specifically to site and climate and evolve as conditions change. Operate pollution-free and generate no wastes that aren't useful for some other process in the building or immediate environment. Promote the health and well-being of all inhabitants, as a healthy ecosystem does. Be comprise of integrated systems that maximize efficiency and comfort. Improve the health and diversity of the local ecosystem rather than degrade it. Be beautiful and inspire us to dream. -- Jason F. McLennan, BNIM Architects

2.3 Ecological Building

Ecology
1. the science of the relationship and interaction of living organisms with their inanimate (e.g. climate, soil) and their animate environment, as well as the study of resource and energy management in the biosphere and its sub-categories. 2. the study of the detrimental effects of modern civilization on the environment, with a view toward prevention or reversal through conservation.

Ecological Building
A movement in contemporary architecture. This movement aims to create environmentally friendly, energy-efficient buildings and developments by effectively managing natural resources. This entails passively and actively harnessing solar energy and using materials which, in their manufacture, application, and disposal, do the least possible damage to the so-called 'free resources' water, ground, and air.

Economy
1. careful, thrifty management of resources, such as money, materials, or labor.

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2. an orderly, functional arrangement of parts; on organized system. 3. efficient, sparing, or conservative use. Major Areas: Environment Building Fabric Building Technology
Cooling energy Direct - Electrically driven chiller - Absorption chiller - Gas-motor driven chiller - Cooling towers - Tandem systems Indirect - Cold storage in building - Cold storage in terrain - Bore holes Heat energy Direct - District heating - Boiler (gas, oil, coal, biogas, condensing) - Electric boiler (with storage) Indirect - Solar thermal system - Combined heat and power (CHP) - Heat pumps - Flue gas heat exchanger Electrical energy Mains supply - Commercial power supply utilities Self supply - Combined heat and power (CHP) - Emergency generator - Photovoltaics - Tandem system - Wind energy generator Water Pure water - Public supply (drinking, cooking) Greywater - Waste water (condenser water, flushing, cleaning) Rainwater - Flushing, cleaning, cooling

Air Facade and roof Transparent insulating Free air material - Natural ventilation Photovoltaics - Wind force Absorber surface - Energy content Storage masses Stack effect Planted surfaces - Solar energy, diffuse radiation Rainwater - Solar energy, direct radiation Dayligth elements Collectors Soil Aquifer Construction - Heat storage Storage masses - Cool storage Passive solar absorber Groundwater Heat exchanger elements Night cooling by outside air - Cold energy - Heat energy Atria Earth/rock Green zones - Geothermal cooling Evaporative cooling - Heat energy Passive solar energy Heat buffer Water surfaces Lake - Pump water or greywater - Heat energy - Cold energy River - Pump water or greywater - Heat energy - Cold energy Sea - Pump water or greywater - Heat energy - Cold energy

What does "Ecos" mean?

2.4 Green Building

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"It's not easy being green." -- Kermit the Frog, 1972. A green approach to the built environment involves a holistic approach to the design of buildings. All the resources that go into a building, be they materials, fuels or the contribution of the users need to be considered if a sustainable architecture is to be produced. Producing green buildings involves resolving many conflicting issues and requirements. Each design decision has environmental implications. Measures for green buildings can be divided into four areas: reducing energy in use minimising external pollution and environmental damage reducing embodied energy and resource depletion minimising internal pollution and damage to health What Makes a Building Green? A "green" building places a high priority on health, environmental and resource conservation performance over its life-cycle. These new priorities expand and complement the classical building design concerns: economy, utility, durability, and delight. Green design emphasizes a number of new environmental, resource and occupant health concerns: Reduce human exposure to noxious materials. Conserve non-renewable energy and scarce materials. Minimize life-cycle ecological impact of energy and materials used. Use renewable energy and materials that are sustainably harvested. Protect and restore local air, water, soils, flora and fauna. Support pedestrians, bicycles, mass transit and other alternatives to fossil-fueled vehicles. Most green buildings are high-quality buildings; they last longer, cost less to operate and maintain, and provide greater occupant satisfaction than standard developments. Sophisticated buyers and lessors prefer them, and are often willing to pay a premium for their advantages. What surprises many people unfamiliar with this design movement is that good green buildings often cost little or no more to build than conventional designs. Commitment to better performance, close teamwork throughout the design process, openness to new approaches, and information on how these are best applied are more important than a large construction budget. Sustainable Design Sustainable design is the thoughtful integration of architecture with electrical, mechanical, and structural engineering. In addition to concern for the traditional aesthetics of massing, proportion, scale, texture, shadow, and light, the facility design team needs to be concerned with long term costs: environmental, economic, and human. The Rocky Mountain Institute outlines five elements for sustainable design: Planning and design should be thorough. Sustainable design is "front loaded" compared with traditional design. Early decisions have the greatest impact on energy efficiency, passive solar design, daylighting, and natural cooling. Sustainable design is more of a philosophy of building than a prescriptive building style. Sustainable buildings don't have any particular look or style. Sustainable buildings don't have to cost more, nor are they more complicated than traditional construction. Integrated design, that is design where each component is considered part of a greater whole, is critical to successful sustainable design. Minimizing energy consumption and promoting human health should be the organizing principles of sustainable design. The other elements of design can be organized: energy saving architectural features, energy conserving building envelope, and energy-efficient and health-promoting mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems.

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Principles of Sustainable Design Understanding Place - Sustainable design begins with an intimate understanding of place. If we are sensitive to the nuances of place, we can inhabit without destroying it. Understanding place helps determine design practices such as solar orientation of a building on the site, preservation of the natural environment, and access to public transportation. Connecting with Nature - Whether the design site is a building in the inner city or in a more natural setting, connecting with nature brings the designed environment back to life. Effective design helps inform us of our place within nature. Understanding Natural Processes - In nature there is not waste. The byproduct of one organism becomes the food for another. In other words, natural systems are made of closed loops. By working with living processes, we respect the needs of all species. Engaging processes that regenerate rather than deplete, we become more alive. Making natural cycles and processes visible brings the designed environment back to life. Understanding Environmental Impact - Sustainable design attempts to have an understanding of the environmental impact of the design by evaluating the site, the embodied energy and toxicity of the materials, and the energy efficiency of design,materials and construction techniques. Negative environmental impact can be mitigated through use of sustainably harvested building materials and finishes, materials with low toxicity in manufacturing and installation, and recycling building materials while on the job site. Embracing Co-creative Design Processes - Sustainable designers are finding it is important to listen to every voice. Collaboration with systems consultants, engineers and other experts happens early in the design process, instead of an afterthought. Designers are also listening to the voices of local communities. Design charettes for the end user (neighbourhood residents or office employers) are becoming a standard practice. Understanding People - Sustainable design must take into consideration the wide range of cultures, races, religions and habits of the people who are going to be using and inhabiting the built environment. This requires sensitivity and empathy on the needs of the people and the community. "Sustainable architecture involves a combination of values: aesthetic, environmental, social, political, and moral. It's about using one's imagination and technical knowledge to engage in a central aspect of the practice -- designing and building in harmony with our environment. The smart architect thinks rationally about a combination of issues including sustainability, durability, longevity, appropriate materials, and sense of place. The challenge is finding the balance between environmental considerations and econmic constraints. Consideration must be given to the needs of our communities and the ecosystem that supports them." -- Sanuel Mockbee, Auburn University

2.5 Further Reading


Agenda 21 on Sustainable Construction [CIB] Defining Sustainable Architecture (by Jack A. Kremers), Architronic v4n3.02 Green Building Basics Green Building Primer [B.E.S.T.] Green Buildings - The Growing Emphasis on Building Performance and Occupant Health Patterns of Sustainable Design [www.homeasta.org] Rural Sustainability (slide show) Sustainable Architecture Online Course [Boston Architectural Center] Sustainable Architecture: A Definition (by John Norton), Habitat Debate Vol. 5 No. 2 Sustainable Architecture White Papers [Table of Content][720.47 S96] Sustainable building in the Netherlands (by P.W. Heijimen) Sustainable Construction [CBPP] Sustainable Design [AIA COTE]

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Urban Sustainability (slide show) What is Sustainable Design? - Basic Sustainable Design Principles [www.homeasta.org] Energy Efficiency Material Efficiency Water Efficiency Regional Design What It Means to Be Green [Architectural Record]

3. ISSUES
SITE MATERIALS ENERGY WASTE WATER COMMUNITY

3.1 Site
Sustainable Urban Design What is Sustainable Urban Development? [University of Salford] Sustainable Urban Design and Climate [Bureau of Meteorology Australia] Principles of sustainable urban design [Barton, H., 1996. Going green by design, Urban Design Quarterly, January 1996, available at http://www2.rudi.net/ej/udq/57/ggd.html]: Principle 1: Principle 2: Principle 3: Principle 4: Principle 5: Principle 6: Principle 7: Increasing Local Self-Sufficiency Human Needs Structure Development Around Energy-Efficient Movement Networks The Open Space Network Linear Concentration An Energy Strategy Water Strategy Site Design Solar orientation Pedestrian orientation Transit orientation Micro climatic building/siting Infrastructure Efficiency Water supply and use Wastewater collection Storm drainage Street lighting Traffic signalization Recycling facilities On-Site Energy Resources Geothermal/groundwater Surface water Wind Solar District heating /cooling Cogeneration Thermal storage Fuel cell power

Landform/Microclimate Topography Light-colored surfacing Vegetative cooling Wind buffering/channeling Evaporative cooling

Land-Use Use density Use mix Activity concentration

Transportation Integrated, mulimodal street network Pedestrian Bicycle Transit High-occupancy vehicles Pavement minimization Parking minimization/siting

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Sustainable Transportation Integrating land-use, transport and environmental planning is important to minimise the need for travel and to promote efficient and effective mode of transport, including walking. There are four principal ways to influence transport system efficiency and energy consumption: urban and land-use planning; modal mix (cars, trucks, rail, air, etc.); behavioural and operational aspects (occupancy of vehicles, driver behaviour, system characteristics); and vehicle efficiency and fuel choice. Pedestrianisation is to restrict vehicle access to a street or area for the exclusive use of pedestrians. It provides a pleasant and safe environment for pedestrians, and are ideal venues for shopping, social and cultural activities such as street markets and fairs. Proposed concepts in Hong Kong The Third Comprehensive Transport Study : Final Report Sustainable Cities and Green Development Cities as Superorganisms Sustainable Cities: Environmentally Sustainable Urban Development Green Development Guiding Principles Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate

3.2 Energy
Energy Efficiency The benefits from the energy-efficient siting and design of buildings are economic (saving money), social (reducing fuel poverty); and ecological (reducing resource exploitation and emissions). Every new development ideally should have an explicit energy strategy, setting out how these benefits are to be achieved. Computer energy simulations can be used to assess energy conservation measures early and throughout the design process. The expanded design team collaborates early in conceptual design to generate many alternative concepts for building form, envelope and landscaping, focusing on minimizing peak energy loads, demand and consumption. Computer energy simulation is used to assess their effectiveness in energy conservation, and their construction costs. Typically, heating and cooling load reductions from better glazing, insulation, efficient lighting, daylighting and other measures allows smaller and less expensive HVAC equipment and systems, resulting in little or no increase in construction cost compared to conventional designs. Simulations are used to refine designs and ensure that energy-conservation and capital cost goals are met; and to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. Building Energy Efficiency Research (BEER) Energy Design Resources Energy-Saving Technology in Business-Related Buildings [UNEP Global Environmental Centre] Renewable Energy Renewable Energy

3.3 Water

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[Under Construction] Water conservation methods: Toilets:Low flush toilets Dual flush toilets (3/6 litres) Vacuum or compressed air toilets Cistern displacement devices Waterless toilets Composting toilets (heated or unheated) Incinerating toilets Urinals:Urinal controls (infrared, radar, autoflush) Waterless urinals Wash hand basins:Push taps Flow control, self closing Tap flow regulators Shower:Shower mixers Water saving showerheads Self closing shower system Outside and garden:Water control Clothes Washers:Water saving washers Control & usage Water supply:Auto shut off and pressure regulators Rain water and grey water:Rain water recycling systems Grey water recycling systems

3.4 Materials

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Embodied Energy The quantity of energy required by all the activities associated with a production process, including the relative proportions consumed in all activities upstream to the acquisition of natural resources and the share of energy used in making equipment and other supporting functions. i.e. direct plus indirect energy. The energy input required to quarry, transport and manufacture building materials, plus the energy used in the construction process, can amount to a quarter of the 'lifetime' energy requirement of a very energy-efficient building. To reduce embodied energy, without compromising longevity or efficiency: re-use existing buildings and structures wherever possible (provided their energy costs in use can be reduced to an acceptable level). design buildings for long life, with ease of maintenance and adaptability to changing needs construct buildings and infrastructure out of local and low- energy materials where possible reduce the proportion of high rise, detached or single-storey developments design layouts which minimise the extent to roadway and utility pipework per dwelling create a strategy Prefabrication Prefabrication [CityU CIVCAL] Prefabrication in Hong Kong Public Housing Harmony Site Visit Concord Site Visit

3.5 Waste

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"Waste - a resource in the wrong place" -- An old Chinese proverb. Waste Management Strategies Waste prevention Recyclying construction and demolition materials Architectural reuse (include adaptive reuse, conservative disassembly, and reusing salvaged materials) Design for material recovery (durability, disassembly, adaptive reuse) Waste hierarchy: Sustainable development Prevention Reduction On-site reuse On-site recovery Off-site reuse Off-site recovery Landfill waste v. waste n.

1. to use, consume, spend, or expend thoughtlessly 1. a place, region, or land that is uninhabited or or carelessly uncultivated 2. to cause to lose energy, strength, or vigor; exhaust, tire, or enfeeble 3. to fail to take advantage of or use for profit 4. to destroy completely 2. a devasted or destroyed region, town, or building; a ruin 3. a useless or worthless by-product, as from a manufacturing process 4. garbage; trash

Humans are the only species on Earth that produce waste which is not a raw material or nutrient for another species. We are the only species to produce wastes that can be broadly toxic and build up for long periods of time. As William McDonough, Dean of the University of Virginia School of Architecture, has said, a sustainable society would eliminate the concept of waste. Waste is not simply an unwanted and sometimes harmful by-product of life; it is a raw material out of place. Waste and pollution demonstrate gross inefficiency in the economic system since they represent resources that are no longer available for use and/or create harm in humans and other species.

3.6 Community
Sustainable Communities Sustainable Communities [Sustainability Report] Sustainability and Sustainable Communities Sustainable Cities White Papers [Earth Pledge]

3.7 Indoor Environment


Indoor air quality Visual quality Acoustic quality Noise control

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Controllability of systems

4. Strategies
4.1 Design Guides (online or downloadable)
ACC Sustainable Facility Guide, 2000. [US Air Force] (PDF) Austin Chronicle's Green Building Guide, 1994. Building Green on a Budget [Environmental Building News] Checklist for Environmentally Responsible Design and Construction [Environmental Building News] Ecotecture [Department of Design and Environmental Analysis,Cornell University] Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools Energy smart building design: How to make it happen Environmental Assessment Guide for Public Housing (October 1996) [HUD] Environmental Sustainability Checklist [City of Austin Green Building Program] Good Residential Design Guide - Your Home [www.greenhouse.gov.au] Green Office Guide [www.greenhouse.gov.au] Green Products Guide [Architectural Record] Greening Federal Facilities (a resource guide) [USDOE] Greening Government: Towards More Sustainable Construction: Green Guide for Managers on the Government Estate [UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs] Greening Portland's Affordable Housing [City of Portland] GSA Real Property Sustainable Development Guide [US General Services Administration] A Guide for Managing and Minimizing Building and Demolition Waste [PolyU] The Guide to Green Buildings Resources [Green Building British Columbia] Guidelines for the design of more sustainable buildings: durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues [University of Strathclyde] Guidelines for Total Building Commissioning [State of Florida] High Performance Building Guidelines [New York City Department of Design and Construction] High Performance Green Building Guidelines [Commonwealth of Pennsylvania] High Performance Guidelines: Triangle Region Public Facilities Home Remodeling Green Building Guidelines [Alameda County Waste Management Authority] Hugh L. Carey Battery Park City Authority Residential Environmental Guidelines Introduction to Sustainable Design, by Jong-Jin Kim, University of Michigan, December 1998. (PDF) NAHB Research Center, Guide to Developing Green Building Programs, National Association of Home Builders, 1999. (PDF) Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide, University of Minnesota, 1999. Model Green Office Leasing Specifications [Commonwealth of Pennsylvania] National Best Practice Manual for Building High Performance Schools New Home Construction Green Building Guidelines [Alameda County Waste Management Authority] NWBuildNet's Environmental Guide Process Guidelines for High-Performance Buildings [State of Florida] Santa Monica Green Buildings Design & Construction Guidelines Sustainable Building Residential Rehabilitation Guidebook (PDF) Sustainable Building Sourcebook, Green Building Program of the City of Austin, Texas (HTML by Bill Christensen), 1998. Sustainable Building Technical Manual, Public Technology Inc., US Green Building Council, 1996.

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Sustainable Decision Guide For City of Saint Paul Facilities Sustainable Design Brochure, Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, Inc.(HOK), St. Louis, Missouri, 1998. The Sustainable Design Resource Guide, American Insitute of Architects Committee on the Environment (COTE) and Architects, Designers and Planners for Social Responsibility (ADPSR Colorado), Third Edition, 1997. The Sustainable Design Resource Guide: Colorado & the Western Mountain Region, Denver AIA Committee on the Environment, 2000. Whole Building Design Guide, 2000. Whole Building Design Guide, US Navy, 1997.

4.2 Processes

Planning Process Site selection and planning Budget planning Capital planning Programme planning Design Process Client awareness and goal setting Green vision, project goals & green design criteria Team development Well-integrated design Resource management Performance goals Operation & Maintenance Commissioning of building systems

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Building operation Maintenance practices Renovation Demolition

4.3 Assessment
Environmental Assessment Assessment Methods: Design [University of Salford] ATHENA Sustainable Materials Institute BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) BRE Environmental Profiles BREEAM UK BREEAM Canada Copy from CSA Building Environmental Quality Evaluation for Sustainability Through Time (BEQUEST) Construction and City Related Sustainability Indicators CRISP EcoHome (UK) Info from Battle McCarthy Eco-Pro (Finland) Eco-Quantum (Netherlands) ENVEST (environmental impact estimating design software) [UK BRE] Assessment Process & Benifits [Battle McCarthy] Environmental Support Solutions EQUER (France) GBTool Green Building Assessment Tool - GBTool 1.3 A Second-Generation Environmental Performance Assessment System for Buildings Green Building Rating System (Korea) Green Globes Interactive Tools Survey [University of Weimar, Germany] International Association for Impact Assessments (IAIA) LCAid (Australia) LEED Green Building Rating System LISA (LCA in Sustainable Architecture) New Measures for Building Performance SimPro life-cycle assessment software (PRe, Product Ecology Consultants) Assessment Methodologies Indoor air quality audit Life cycle energy audit Initial embodied energy Recurring embodied energy Operational energy Benchmarking Greenhouse gas assessment Lighting, thermal and ventilation (LTV) audit Hydraulic audit Life cycle costing audit Post occupancy evaluation Assessment Principles

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Bellagio Principles: Guidelines for the Practical Assessment of Progress Towards Sustainable Development Biodiversity Criteria Preservation of: species richness, abundance, diversity; ecological diversity; high number of endemic species; high number of important gene pools; habitat. Three forms of biodiversity: genetic species ecosystems Natural environment to protect: Grassland Shrubland Forest Wetland Water stream Mangrove Marsh Impact of urban development direct species loss habitat destruction/fragmentation habitat degradation (pollution, decrease in size) e.g. due to disturbance, noise, light food web disruption Impact mitigation Avoidance No development Alternative Reduction minimise impacts Compensation (on site or off site) habitat creation/restoration

5. References
5.1 Reference Books & Materials 5.2 Web Links 5.3 Case Studies

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Sustainable Architecture

1.1 What is Sustainable Development? 1. BACKGROUND 1.2 Various Viewpoints 1.3 Three Dimensions 1.4 Further Reading 2.1 Sustainable Construction 2.2 Environmental Architecture 2.3 Ecological Building 2.4 Green Building 2.5 Further Reading 3.1 Site 3.2 Energy 3.3 Water 3.4 Materials 3.5 Waste 3.6 Community 3.7 Indoor Environment 4.1 Design Guides (downloadable) 4.2 Processes 4.3 Assessment

2. CONCEPTS

3. ISSUES

4. STRATEGIES

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5. REFERENCES

5.1 Reference Books & Materials 5.2 Web Links 5.3 Case Studies

Home of BEER
| Created: Dec 1996 | Updated: 10 Aug 2002 | By Sam C M Hui (cmhui@hku.hk) |

1. BACKGROUND
[The current world population]

1.1 What is Sustainable Development?

"Sustainable development is development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generation to meet their own needs." -- World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, pp. 4, Oxford University Press, New York, 1987. This definition has been formulated by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), led by the norwegian prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, in 1987. The word development in this definition implicates two important aspects of the concept: It is omnidisciplinary, it cannot be limited to a number of disciplines or areas, but it is applicable to the whole world and everyone and everything on it, now and in the future. Secondly, there is no set aim, but the continuation of development is the aim of the development. The definition is based on two concepts:
q

the concept of needs, comprising of the conditions for maintaining an acceptable life standard for all people, and the concept of limits of the capacity of the environment to fulfill the needs of the present and the future, determined by the state of technology and social organisation.

The needs consist firstly of basic needs such as food, clothing, housing and employment. Secondly, every individual, in every part of the world should have the opportunity to try and raise his or her life standard above this absolute minimum. The limits consist of natural limitations like finite resources, but also of declining productivity caused by overexploitation of resources, declining quality of water and shrinking of biodiversity. For our common future, it would therefore be best if needs are best fulfilled while limits are not increased, but preferably decreased. This would lead to the quite simple conclusion that all political, technical and social developments can easily be evaluated in the light of sustainable development by these two arguments. Any development should help fulfill needs and should not increase limitations.

1.2 Various Viewpoints


Many other definitions of sustainable development have also been offered, some general and some more precise. The followings illustrate the variety of foci evident in discussions of sustainable development.
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". . . requires meeting the basic needs of all people and extending opportunities for economic and social advancement. Finally, the term also implies the capacity of development projects to endure organizationally and financially. A development initiative is considered sustainable if, in addition to protecting the environment and creating opportunity, it is able to carry out activities and generate its own financial resources after donor contributions have run out." Bread for the World, Background Paper No. 129, Washington, DC, March 1993. "[improves] . . . the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems." International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), World Conservation Union, United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP), and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Caring for the Earth, pp. 10, IUCN/UNEP/WWF, Gland, Switzerland, 1991. "[uses] . . . natural renewable resources in a manner that does not eliminate or degrade them or otherwise dimish their renewable usefulness for future generations while maintaining effectively constant or non-declining stocks of natural resources such as soil, groundwater, and biomass." World Resources Institute, Dimensions of sustainable development, World Resources 1992-93: A Guide to the Global Environment, pp. 2, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992. "[maximizes] . . . the net benefits of economic development, subject to maintaining the services and quality of natural resources." R. Goodland and G. Ledec, Neoclassical economics and principles of sustainable development, Ecological Modeling 38 (1987): 36. "[is based on the premise that] . . . current decisions should not impair the prospects for maintaining or improving future living standards . . . This implies that our economic systems should be managed so that we live off the dividend of our resources, maintaining and improving the asset base." R. Repetto, World Enough and Time, pp. 15-16, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1986. " . . . is taken to mean a positive rate of change in the quality of life of people, based on a system that permits this positive rate of change to be maintained indefinitely." L. M. Eisgruber, Sustainable development, ethics, and the Endangered Species Act, Choices, Third Quarter 1993, pp. 4-8. " . . . is development without growth --- a physically steady-state economy that may continue to develop greater capacity to satisfy human wants by increasing the efficiency of resource use, but not by increasing resource throughput." H. E. Daly, Steady state economics: concepts, questions, and politics, Ecological Economics 6 (1992): 333-338. " . . . is the search and the carrying out of rational strategies that allow society to manage, in equilibrium and perpetuity, its interaction with the natural system (biotic/abiotic) such that society, as a whole, benefits and the natural system keeps a level that permits its recuperation." E. GutierrezEspeleta, Indicadores de sostenibilidad: instrumentos para la evaluacion de las politicas nacionales", unpublished paper presented at 50th Anniversity Conference of the Economic Sciences Faculty sponsored by the University of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica, Nov. 19, 1993.

"Future generation is the most important" --- Confucius. "Treat the Earth well. It was not given to you by your parents. It was loaned to you by your children." --- Kenyan Proverb. "Sustainability is living on the interest rather than the principle." -- economics educators.

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Sustainability (Nachhaltigkeit) as postulated in Germany "requires the inextricable linkage of ecology, economy and social security. Sustainable development requires that improvements in economic and social living conditions accord with the long-term process of securing the natural foundations of life (G1)". A sustainable system delivers services without exhausting resources. It uses all resources efficiently both in an environmental and economic sense.

1.3 Three Dimensions

Economic dimensions of sustainability: q Creation of new markets and opportunities for sales growth q Cost reduction through efficiency improvements and reduced energy and raw material inputs q Creation of additional added value

Environmental dimensions of sustainability q Reduced waste, effluent generation, emissions to environment q Reduced impact on human health q Use of renewable raw materials q Elimination of toxic substances

Social dimensions of sustainability q Worker health and safety q Impacts on local communities, quality of life q Benefits to disadvantaged groups e.g. disabled

Environmental Sustainability

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The idea of environmental sustainability is to leave the Earth in as good or better shape for future generations than we found it for ourselves. By a definition, human activity is only environmentally sustainable when it can be performed or maintained indefinitely without depleting natural resources or degrading the natural environment.
q q

q q

Resource consumption would be minimal Materials consumed would be made ENTIRELY of 100% post-consumer recycled materials or from renewable resources (which were harvested without harm to the environment and without depletion of the resource base) Recycling of waste streams would be 100% Energy would be conserved and energy supplies would be ENTIRELY renewable and non-polluting (solar thermal and electric, wind power, biomass, etc.)

1.4 Further Reading


q q q q q q q q

q q q q q q

Definition of Sustainability [AGS] Definitions of Sustainability [SDIC] The Economics of Sustainability [US-EPA] Global Sustainability Concepts [University of California Irvine] Interactive Learning About Sustainable Development [IISD] Sustainable Development: Education for Engineers & Others Sustainable Development Information [Five E's] "Sustainability" by Robert Gilman, from the 1992 UIA/AIA "Call for Sustainable Community Solutions" [Context Institute] Sustainability and Sustainable Development [University of Reading, UK] Thoughts on Sustainability [eDesign] What is sustainable development? [SustainAbility.com] What is "Sustainability"? [Florida Sustainable Communities Center] What is Sustainability? [US EPA] What Is Sustainability? [by Susan Murcott of MIT] r Definitions r Principles r Criteria r Indicators r Conceptual Frameworks

2. CONCEPTS

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"Architecture presents a unique challenge in the field of sustainability. Construction projects typically consume large amounts of materials, produce tons of waste, and often involve weighing the preservation of buildings that have historical significance against the desire for the development of newer, more modern designs." -- The Earth Pledge (www.earthpledge.org)

2.1 Sustainable Construction


Sustainable construction is defined as "the creation and responsible management of a healthy built environment based on resource efficient and ecological principles". Sustainably designed buildings aim to lessen their impact on our environment through energy and resource efficiency. It includes the following principles:
q q q

minimising non-renewable resource consumption enhancing the natural environment eliminating or minimising the use of toxins

Accordning to an OECD Project, "Sustainable building" can be defined as those buildings that have minimum adverse impacts on the built and natural environment, in terms of the buildings themselves, their immediate surroundings and the broader regional and global setting. "Sustainable building" may be defined as building practices, which strive for integral quality (including economic, social and environmental performance) in a very broad way. Thus, the rational use of natural resources and appropriate management of the building stock will contribute to saving scarce resources, reducing energy consumption (energy conservation), and improving environmental quality. Sustainable building involves considering the entire life cycle of buildings, taking environmental quality, functional quality and future values into account. In the past, attention has been primarily focused on the size of the building stock in many countries. Quality issues have hardly played a significant role. However, in strict quantity terms, the building and housing market is now saturated in most countries, and the demand for quality is growing in importance. Accordingly, policies that contribute to the sustainability of building practices should be implemented, with recognition of the importance of existing market conditions. Both the environmental initiatives of the construction sector and the demands of users are key factors in the market. Governments will be able to give a considerable impulse to sustainable buildings by encouraging these developments. The OECD project has identified five objectives for sustainable buildings:
q q q q q

Resource Efficiency Energy Efficiency (including Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction) Pollution Prevention (including Indoor Air Quality and Noise Abatement) Harmonisation with Environment (including Environmental Assessment) Integrated and Systemic Approaches (including Environmental Management System) Environmental Economic - Construction - Materials - Infrastructure Social - Equity - Community

Theme

Sub-theme - Global - Local and site - Internal

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Issues

- Climate change - Resources - Internal environment - External environment - Wildlife

- Profitability - Employment - Productivity - Transport and utilities - Building stock value

- Poverty - Minorities - Inner cities - Transport - Communications

Green Code for Architecture [From: Greening Government: Towards More Sustainable Construction: Green Guide for Managers on the Government Estate, Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, UK] Based on the objectives of the Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) The principles are:
q

demolish and rebuild only when it is not economical or practicable to reuse, adapt or extend an existing structure; reduce the need for transport during demolition, refurbishment and construction and tightly control all processes to reduce noise, dust, vibration, pollution and waste; make the most of the site, eg. by studying its history and purpose, local micro-climates and the prevailing winds and weather patterns, solar orientation, provision of public transport and the form of surrounding buildings; design the building to minimise the cost of ownership and its impact on the environment over its life span by making it easily maintainable and by incorporating techniques and technologies for conserving energy and water and reducing emissions to land, water and air; wherever feasible, use the construction techniques which are indigenous to the area, learning from local traditions in materials and design; put the function of the building and the comfort of its occupants well before any statement it is intended to make about the owner or its designer. That is, make it secure, flexible and adaptable (to meet future requirements) and able to facilitate and promote communications between staff; build to the appropriate quality and to last. Longevity depends much on form, finishes and the method of assembly employed as on the material used. avoid using materials from non renewable sources or which cannot be reused or recycled, especially in structures which have a short life;

2.2 Environmental Architecture


Five principles of an environmental architecture (Thomas A. Fisher, AIA, November, 1992):
q

Healthful Interior Environment. All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that materials and building systems do not emit toxic substances and gasses into the interior atmosphere. Additional measures are to be taken to clean and revitalize interior air with filtration and plantings. Energy Efficiency. All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that the building's use of energy is minimal. Cooling, heating and lighting systems are to use methods and products that conserve or eliminate energy use. Ecologically Benign Materials. All possible measures are to be taken to use building materials and products that minimize destruction of the global environment. Wood is to be selected based on non destructive forestry practices. Other materials and products are to be considered based on the toxic

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waste out put of production. Environmental Form. All possible measures are to be taken to relate the form and plan of the design to the site, the region and the climate. Measures are to be taken to "heal" and augment the ecology of the site. Accomodations are to be made for recycling and energy efficiency. Measures are to be taken to relate the form of building to a harmonious relationship between the inhabitants and nature. Good Design. All possible measures are to be taken to achieve an efficient, long lasting and elegant relationship of use areas, circulation, building form, mechanical systems and construction technology. Symbolic relationships with appropriate history, the Earth and spiritual principles are to be searched for and expressed. Finished buildings shall be well built, easy to use and beautiful.

Architect William McDonough defined the breadth of what Green Building is:
q

The Hannover Principles Living buildings will:


q q q

q q q q

Harvest all their own water and energy needs on site. Be adapted specifically to site and climate and evolve as conditions change. Operate pollution-free and generate no wastes that aren't useful for some other process in the building or immediate environment. Promote the health and well-being of all inhabitants, as a healthy ecosystem does. Be comprise of integrated systems that maximize efficiency and comfort. Improve the health and diversity of the local ecosystem rather than degrade it. Be beautiful and inspire us to dream.

-- Jason F. McLennan, BNIM Architects

2.3 Ecological Building Ecology


1. the science of the relationship and interaction of living organisms with their inanimate (e.g. climate, soil) and their animate environment, as well as the study of resource and energy management in the biosphere and its subcategories. 2. the study of the detrimental effects of modern civilization on the environment, with a view toward prevention or reversal through conservation.

Ecological Building
A movement in contemporary architecture. This movement aims to create environmentally friendly, energy-efficient buildings and developments by effectively managing natural resources. This entails passively and actively harnessing solar energy and using materials which, in their manufacture, application, and disposal, do the least possible damage to the socalled 'free resources' water, ground, and air.

Economy
1. careful, thrifty management of resources, such as money, materials, or labor.

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2. an orderly, functional arrangement of parts; on organized system. 3. efficient, sparing, or conservative use. Major Areas:

Environment
Air Free air - Natural ventilation - Wind force - Energy content Stack effect - Solar energy, diffuse radiation - Solar energy, direct radiation Soil Aquifer - Heat storage - Cool storage Groundwater - Cold energy - Heat energy Earth/rock - Geothermal cooling - Heat energy Water surfaces Lake - Pump water or greywater - Heat energy - Cold energy River - Pump water or greywater - Heat energy - Cold energy Sea - Pump water or greywater - Heat energy - Cold energy

Building Fabric
Facade and roof Transparent insulating material Photovoltaics Absorber surface Storage masses Planted surfaces Rainwater Dayligth elements Collectors Construction Storage masses Passive solar absorber Heat exchanger elements Night cooling by outside air Atria Green zones Evaporative cooling Passive solar energy Heat buffer

Building Technology
Cooling energy Direct - Electrically driven chiller - Absorption chiller - Gas-motor driven chiller - Cooling towers - Tandem systems Indirect - Cold storage in building - Cold storage in terrain - Bore holes Heat energy Direct - District heating - Boiler (gas, oil, coal, biogas, condensing) - Electric boiler (with storage) Indirect - Solar thermal system - Combined heat and power (CHP) - Heat pumps - Flue gas heat exchanger Electrical energy Mains supply - Commercial power supply utilities Self supply - Combined heat and power (CHP) - Emergency generator - Photovoltaics - Tandem system - Wind energy generator Water Pure water - Public supply (drinking, cooking) Greywater

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- Waste water (condenser water, flushing, cleaning) Rainwater - Flushing, cleaning, cooling
q

What does "Ecos" mean?

2.4 Green Building


"It's not easy being green." -- Kermit the Frog, 1972. A green approach to the built environment involves a holistic approach to the design of buildings. All the resources that go into a building, be they materials, fuels or the contribution of the users need to be considered if a sustainable architecture is to be produced. Producing green buildings involves resolving many conflicting issues and requirements. Each design decision has environmental implications. Measures for green buildings can be divided into four areas:
q q q q

reducing energy in use minimising external pollution and environmental damage reducing embodied energy and resource depletion minimising internal pollution and damage to health

What Makes a Building Green? A "green" building places a high priority on health, environmental and resource conservation performance over its life-cycle. These new priorities expand and complement the classical building design concerns: economy, utility, durability, and delight. Green design emphasizes a number of new environmental, resource and occupant health concerns:
q q q q q q

Reduce human exposure to noxious materials. Conserve non-renewable energy and scarce materials. Minimize life-cycle ecological impact of energy and materials used. Use renewable energy and materials that are sustainably harvested. Protect and restore local air, water, soils, flora and fauna. Support pedestrians, bicycles, mass transit and other alternatives to fossil-fueled vehicles.

Most green buildings are high-quality buildings; they last longer, cost less to operate and maintain, and provide greater occupant satisfaction than standard developments. Sophisticated buyers and lessors prefer them, and are often willing to pay a premium for their advantages. What surprises many people unfamiliar with this design movement is that good green buildings often cost little or no more to build than conventional designs. Commitment to better performance, close teamwork throughout the design process, openness to new approaches, and information on how these are best applied are more important than a large construction budget. Sustainable Design Sustainable design is the thoughtful integration of architecture with electrical, mechanical, and structural engineering. In addition to concern for the traditional
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aesthetics of massing, proportion, scale, texture, shadow, and light, the facility design team needs to be concerned with long term costs: environmental, economic, and human. The Rocky Mountain Institute outlines five elements for sustainable design:
q

Planning and design should be thorough. Sustainable design is "front loaded" compared with traditional design. Early decisions have the greatest impact on energy efficiency, passive solar design, daylighting, and natural cooling. Sustainable design is more of a philosophy of building than a prescriptive building style. Sustainable buildings don't have any particular look or style. Sustainable buildings don't have to cost more, nor are they more complicated than traditional construction. Integrated design, that is design where each component is considered part of a greater whole, is critical to successful sustainable design. Minimizing energy consumption and promoting human health should be the organizing principles of sustainable design. The other elements of design can be organized: energy saving architectural features, energy conserving building envelope, and energy-efficient and health-promoting mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems.

Principles of Sustainable Design


q

Understanding Place - Sustainable design begins with an intimate understanding of place. If we are sensitive to the nuances of place, we can inhabit without destroying it. Understanding place helps determine design practices such as solar orientation of a building on the site, preservation of the natural environment, and access to public transportation. Connecting with Nature - Whether the design site is a building in the inner city or in a more natural setting, connecting with nature brings the designed environment back to life. Effective design helps inform us of our place within nature. Understanding Natural Processes - In nature there is not waste. The byproduct of one organism becomes the food for another. In other words, natural systems are made of closed loops. By working with living processes, we respect the needs of all species. Engaging processes that regenerate rather than deplete, we become more alive. Making natural cycles and processes visible brings the designed environment back to life. Understanding Environmental Impact - Sustainable design attempts to have an understanding of the environmental impact of the design by evaluating the site, the embodied energy and toxicity of the materials, and the energy efficiency of design,materials and construction techniques. Negative environmental impact can be mitigated through use of sustainably harvested building materials and finishes, materials with low toxicity in manufacturing and installation, and recycling building materials while on the job site. Embracing Co-creative Design Processes - Sustainable designers are finding it is important to listen to every voice. Collaboration with systems consultants, engineers and other experts happens early in the design process, instead of an afterthought. Designers are also listening to the voices of local communities. Design charettes for the end user (neighbourhood residents or office employers) are becoming a standard practice. Understanding People - Sustainable design must take into consideration the wide range of cultures, races, religions and habits of the people who are going to be using and inhabiting the built environment. This requires sensitivity and empathy on the needs of the people and the community.

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"Sustainable architecture involves a combination of values: aesthetic, environmental, social, political, and moral. It's about using one's imagination and technical knowledge to engage in a central aspect of the practice -- designing and building in harmony with our environment. The smart architect thinks rationally about a combination of issues including sustainability, durability, longevity, appropriate materials, and sense of place. The challenge is finding the balance between environmental considerations and econmic constraints. Consideration must be given to the needs of our communities and the ecosystem that supports them." -- Sanuel Mockbee, Auburn University

2.5 Further Reading


q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q

Agenda 21 on Sustainable Construction [CIB] Defining Sustainable Architecture (by Jack A. Kremers), Architronic v4n3.02 Green Building Basics Green Building Primer [B.E.S.T.] Green Buildings - The Growing Emphasis on Building Performance and Occupant Health Patterns of Sustainable Design [www.homeasta.org] Rural Sustainability (slide show) Sustainable Architecture Online Course [Boston Architectural Center] Sustainable Architecture: A Definition (by John Norton), Habitat Debate Vol. 5 No. 2 Sustainable Architecture White Papers [Table of Content][720.47 S96] Sustainable building in the Netherlands (by P.W. Heijimen) Sustainable Construction [CBPP] Sustainable Design [AIA COTE] Urban Sustainability (slide show) What is Sustainable Design? - Basic Sustainable Design Principles [www.homeasta.org] r Energy Efficiency r Material Efficiency r Water Efficiency r Regional Design What It Means to Be Green [Architectural Record]

3. ISSUES
SITE MATERIALS ENERGY WASTE WATER COMMUNITY

3.1 Site
Sustainable Urban Design

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q q q

What is Sustainable Urban Development? [University of Salford] Sustainable Urban Design and Climate [Bureau of Meteorology Australia] Principles of sustainable urban design [Barton, H., 1996. Going green by design, Urban Design Quarterly, January 1996, available at http://www2.rudi.net/ej/udq/57/ggd.html]:
r r r r r r r

Principle 1: Principle 2: Principle 3: Principle 4: Principle 5: Principle 6: Principle 7:

Increasing Local Self-Sufficiency Human Needs Structure Development Around Energy-Efficient Movement Networks The Open Space Network Linear Concentration An Energy Strategy Water Strategy Site Design
q q q q

Landform/Microclimate
q q q q q

Infrastructure Efficiency
q q q q q q

Topography Light-colored surfacing Vegetative cooling Wind buffering/channeling Evaporative cooling

Solar orientation Pedestrian orientation Transit orientation Micro climatic building/ siting

Water supply and use Wastewater collection Storm drainage Street lighting Traffic signalization Recycling facilities

Land-Use
q q q

Transportation
q

On-Site Energy Resources


q q q q q q q q

Use density Use mix Activity concentration

q q q q q q

Integrated, mulimodal street network Pedestrian Bicycle Transit High-occupancy vehicles Pavement minimization Parking minimization/siting

Geothermal/groundwater Surface water Wind Solar District heating /cooling Cogeneration Thermal storage Fuel cell power

Sustainable Transportation Integrating land-use, transport and environmental planning is important to minimise the need for travel and to promote efficient and effective mode of transport, including walking. There are four principal ways to influence transport system efficiency and energy consumption:
q q q

urban and land-use planning; modal mix (cars, trucks, rail, air, etc.); behavioural and operational aspects (occupancy of vehicles, driver behaviour, system characteristics); and vehicle efficiency and fuel choice.

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Pedestrianisation is to restrict vehicle access to a street or area for the exclusive use of pedestrians. It provides a pleasant and safe environment for pedestrians, and are ideal venues for shopping, social and cultural activities such as street markets and fairs.
q q

Proposed concepts in Hong Kong The Third Comprehensive Transport Study : Final Report

Sustainable Cities and Green Development


q q q q

Cities as Superorganisms Sustainable Cities: Environmentally Sustainable Urban Development Green Development Guiding Principles Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate

3.2 Energy
Energy Efficiency The benefits from the energy-efficient siting and design of buildings are economic (saving money), social (reducing fuel poverty); and ecological (reducing resource exploitation and emissions). Every new development ideally should have an explicit energy strategy, setting out how these benefits are to be achieved. Computer energy simulations can be used to assess energy conservation measures early and throughout the design process. The expanded design team collaborates early in conceptual design to generate many alternative concepts for building form, envelope and landscaping, focusing on minimizing peak energy loads, demand and consumption. Computer energy simulation is used to assess their effectiveness in energy conservation, and their construction costs. Typically, heating and cooling load reductions from better glazing, insulation, efficient lighting, daylighting and other measures allows smaller and less expensive HVAC equipment and systems, resulting in little or no increase in construction cost compared to conventional designs. Simulations are used to refine designs and ensure that energy-conservation and capital cost goals are met; and to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements.
q q q

Building Energy Efficiency Research (BEER) Energy Design Resources Energy-Saving Technology in Business-Related Buildings [UNEP Global Environmental Centre]

Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy

3.3 Water
[Under Construction]

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Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD)

Water conservation methods:


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Toilets:r Low flush toilets s Dual flush toilets (3/6 litres) s Vacuum or compressed air toilets r Cistern displacement devices r Waterless toilets s Composting toilets (heated or unheated) s Incinerating toilets Urinals:r Urinal controls (infrared, radar, autoflush) r Waterless urinals Wash hand basins:r Push taps r Flow control, self closing r Tap flow regulators Shower:r Shower mixers r Water saving showerheads r Self closing shower system Outside and garden:r Water control Clothes Washers:r Water saving washers r Control & usage Water supply:r Auto shut off and pressure regulators Rain water and grey water:r Rain water recycling systems r Grey water recycling systems

3.4 Materials

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Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD)

Embodied Energy The quantity of energy required by all the activities associated with a production process, including the relative proportions consumed in all activities upstream to the acquisition of natural resources and the share of energy used in making equipment and other supporting functions. i.e. direct plus indirect energy. The energy input required to quarry, transport and manufacture building materials, plus the energy used in the construction process, can amount to a quarter of the 'lifetime' energy requirement of a very energy-efficient building. To reduce embodied energy, without compromising longevity or efficiency:
q

q q q q q

re-use existing buildings and structures wherever possible (provided their energy costs in use can be reduced to an acceptable level). design buildings for long life, with ease of maintenance and adaptability to changing needs construct buildings and infrastructure out of local and low- energy materials where possible reduce the proportion of high rise, detached or single-storey developments design layouts which minimise the extent to roadway and utility pipework per dwelling create a strategy

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Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD)

Prefabrication
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Prefabrication [CityU CIVCAL] r Prefabrication in Hong Kong Public Housing r Harmony Site Visit r Concord Site Visit

3.5 Waste
"Waste - a resource in the wrong place" -- An old Chinese proverb. Waste Management Strategies
q q q

Waste prevention Recyclying construction and demolition materials Architectural reuse (include adaptive reuse, conservative disassembly, and reusing salvaged materials) Design for material recovery (durability, disassembly, adaptive reuse)

Waste hierarchy:
q q q q q q q q

Sustainable development Prevention Reduction On-site reuse On-site recovery Off-site reuse Off-site recovery Landfill waste n. 1. a place, region, or land that is uninhabited or uncultivated 2. a devasted or destroyed region, town, or building; a ruin 3. a useless or worthless by-product, as from a manufacturing process 4. garbage; trash

waste v. 1. to use, consume, spend, or expend thoughtlessly or carelessly 2. to cause to lose energy, strength, or vigor; exhaust, tire, or enfeeble 3. to fail to take advantage of or use for profit 4. to destroy completely

Humans are the only species on Earth that produce waste which is not a raw material or nutrient for another species. We are the only species to produce wastes that can be broadly toxic and build up for long periods of time. As William McDonough, Dean of the University of Virginia School of Architecture, has said, a sustainable society would eliminate the concept of waste. Waste is not simply an unwanted and sometimes harmful by-product of life; it is a raw material out of place. Waste and pollution demonstrate gross
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Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD)

inefficiency in the economic system since they represent resources that are no longer available for use and/ or create harm in humans and other species.

3.6 Community
Sustainable Communities
q q q

Sustainable Communities [Sustainability Report] Sustainability and Sustainable Communities Sustainable Cities White Papers [Earth Pledge]

3.7 Indoor Environment


q q q q q

Indoor air quality Visual quality Acoustic quality Noise control Controllability of systems

4. Strategies
4.1 Design Guides (online or downloadable)
q q q q q q q q q q q q q q

q q q

ACC Sustainable Facility Guide, 2000. [US Air Force] (PDF) Austin Chronicle's Green Building Guide, 1994. Building Green on a Budget [Environmental Building News] Checklist for Environmentally Responsible Design and Construction [Environmental Building News] Ecotecture [Department of Design and Environmental Analysis,Cornell University] Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools Energy smart building design: How to make it happen Environmental Assessment Guide for Public Housing (October 1996) [HUD] Environmental Sustainability Checklist [City of Austin Green Building Program] Good Residential Design Guide - Your Home [www.greenhouse.gov.au] Green Office Guide [www.greenhouse.gov.au] Green Products Guide [Architectural Record] Greening Federal Facilities (a resource guide) [USDOE] Greening Government: Towards More Sustainable Construction: Green Guide for Managers on the Government Estate [UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs] Greening Portland's Affordable Housing [City of Portland] GSA Real Property Sustainable Development Guide [US General Services Administration] A Guide for Managing and Minimizing Building and Demolition Waste [PolyU]

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Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD)


q q

q q q q q q q

q q q q

q q q q q

q q q q

q q

The Guide to Green Buildings Resources [Green Building British Columbia] Guidelines for the design of more sustainable buildings: durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues [University of Strathclyde] Guidelines for Total Building Commissioning [State of Florida] High Performance Building Guidelines [New York City Department of Design and Construction] High Performance Green Building Guidelines [Commonwealth of Pennsylvania] High Performance Guidelines: Triangle Region Public Facilities Home Remodeling Green Building Guidelines [Alameda County Waste Management Authority] Hugh L. Carey Battery Park City Authority Residential Environmental Guidelines Introduction to Sustainable Design, by Jong-Jin Kim, University of Michigan, December 1998. (PDF) NAHB Research Center, Guide to Developing Green Building Programs, National Association of Home Builders, 1999. (PDF) Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide, University of Minnesota, 1999. Model Green Office Leasing Specifications [Commonwealth of Pennsylvania] National Best Practice Manual for Building High Performance Schools New Home Construction Green Building Guidelines [Alameda County Waste Management Authority] NWBuildNet's Environmental Guide Process Guidelines for High-Performance Buildings [State of Florida] Santa Monica Green Buildings Design & Construction Guidelines Sustainable Building Residential Rehabilitation Guidebook (PDF) Sustainable Building Sourcebook, Green Building Program of the City of Austin, Texas (HTML by Bill Christensen), 1998. Sustainable Building Technical Manual, Public Technology Inc., US Green Building Council, 1996. Sustainable Decision Guide For City of Saint Paul Facilities Sustainable Design Brochure, Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, Inc.(HOK), St. Louis, Missouri, 1998. The Sustainable Design Resource Guide, American Insitute of Architects Committee on the Environment (COTE) and Architects, Designers and Planners for Social Responsibility (ADPSR Colorado), Third Edition, 1997. The Sustainable Design Resource Guide: Colorado & the Western Mountain Region, Denver AIA Committee on the Environment, 2000. Whole Building Design Guide, 2000. Whole Building Design Guide, US Navy, 1997.

4.2 Processes

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Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD)

Planning Process
q q q q

Site selection and planning Budget planning Capital planning Programme planning

Design Process
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q q q q

Client awareness and goal setting r Green vision, project goals & green design criteria Team development Well-integrated design Resource management Performance goals

Operation & Maintenance


q q q q q

Commissioning of building systems Building operation Maintenance practices Renovation Demolition

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4.3 Assessment
Environmental Assessment
q q q q q q

q q q

q q q

q q q

q q q q q q q q q

Assessment Methods: Design [University of Salford] ATHENA Sustainable Materials Institute BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) BRE Environmental Profiles BREEAM UK BREEAM Canada r Copy from CSA Building Environmental Quality Evaluation for Sustainability Through Time (BEQUEST) Construction and City Related Sustainability Indicators CRISP EcoHome (UK) r Info from Battle McCarthy Eco-Pro (Finland) Eco-Quantum (Netherlands) ENVEST (environmental impact estimating design software) [UK BRE] r Assessment Process & Benifits [Battle McCarthy] Environmental Support Solutions EQUER (France) GBTool r Green Building Assessment Tool - GBTool 1.3 r A Second-Generation Environmental Performance Assessment System for Buildings Green Building Rating System (Korea) Green Globes Interactive Tools Survey [University of Weimar, Germany] International Association for Impact Assessments (IAIA) LCAid (Australia) LEED Green Building Rating System LISA (LCA in Sustainable Architecture) New Measures for Building Performance SimPro life-cycle assessment software (PRe, Product Ecology Consultants)

Assessment Methodologies
q q

Indoor air quality audit Life cycle energy audit r Initial embodied energy r Recurring embodied energy r Operational energy r Benchmarking r Greenhouse gas assessment Lighting, thermal and ventilation (LTV) audit

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q q q

Hydraulic audit Life cycle costing audit Post occupancy evaluation

Assessment Principles
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Bellagio Principles: Guidelines for the Practical Assessment of Progress Towards Sustainable Development

Biodiversity Criteria Preservation of:


q q q q q

species richness, abundance, diversity; ecological diversity; high number of endemic species; high number of important gene pools; habitat.

Three forms of biodiversity:


q q q

genetic species ecosystems

Natural environment to protect:


q q q q q q q

Grassland Shrubland Forest Wetland Water stream Mangrove Marsh

Impact of urban development


q q q q

direct species loss habitat destruction/fragmentation habitat degradation (pollution, decrease in size) e.g. due to disturbance, noise, light food web disruption

Impact mitigation
q

Avoidance r No development r Alternative

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Reduction r minimise impacts Compensation (on site or off site) r habitat creation/restoration

5. References
5.1 Reference Books & Materials 5.2 Web Links 5.3 Case Studies

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Sustainability Issues

SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES
Introduction
Although many sustainability issues are global or national in scope, we relate most directly to what is happening where we live. In Canada, almost 80 per cent of the population is urban. Therefore, a shift to more sustainability must take place at the local level, in the places where we live, work, and shop. In this way, a community - whether it is a small town in Saskatchewan or one of Canada's sprawling metropolitan areas - has an important role to play in making sustainable development a reality. What is a sustainable community? Many definitions of a sustainable community have been put forward, but they all revolve around the interconnectedness of society, economy and environment. According to Maureen Hart, a sustainable community is one in which . . . the economic, social and environmental systems that make up the community provide a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all community residents, present and future. Sustainable communities acknowledge that there are limits to the natural, social and built systems upon which we depend.

Home Sustainability Issues

Measuring sustainability at the community level How sustainable are Canadian communities?

A view of community as three A view of community as three concentric circles: separate, unrelated parts: an economic the economy exists within society, and both the part, a social part and an economy and society exist within the environmental part. Traditional quality environment. Sustainability indicators attempt to of life indicators tend to measure these measure the extent to which these boundaries are respected. 3 parts separately. Source: Hart Environmental Data

In addition to social, economic, and environmental health, sustainable communities are about the participation of all elements of society in decision-making processes. Local governments can help their communities to become more sustainable, but they cannot do it without a mandate from, and the participation of the local community. According to the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy Sustainability must be community-led and consensus-based because the central issue is will, not expertise; only a community-based process can overcome the political, bureaucratic and psychological barriers to change. But citizen-led processes must be complemented by top-down government support because it is still only governments that have the regulatory powers to secure
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Sustainability Issues

the transition to sustainable development. The following twelve principles, proposed by the Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy, encompass the social, economic, environmental and decision-making aspects of sustainable communities: Model Principles for Sustainable Communities
Source: Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy

A sustainable community is one which:

1. Recognizes that growth occurs within some limits and is


ultimately limited by the carrying capacity of the environment

2. Values cultural diversity 3. Has respect for other life forms and supports biodiversity 4. Has shared values amongst the members of the community
(promoted through sustainability education)

5. Employs ecological decision-making (e.g., integration of 6.


environmental criteria into all municipal government, business and personal decision-making processes) Makes decisions and plans in a balanced, open and flexible manner that includes the perspectives from the social, health, economic and environmental sectors of the community Makes best use of local efforts and resources (nurtures solutions at the local level) Uses renewable and reliable sources of energy Minimizes harm to the natural environment Fosters activities which use materials in continuous cycles. And, as a result, a sustainable community: Does not compromise the sustainability of other communities (a geographic perspective) Does not compromise the sustainability of future generations by its activities (a temporal perspective).

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Measuring sustainability at the community level How sustainable are Canadian communities?

Background | Sustainability Issues | Options & Ideas | Sustainable Business Indicators | National Reporting Survey | News & Views | Resources Copyright 2004. Sustainability Reporting Program. All rights reserved.

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Austin Chronicle's Green Building Guide

Green Building Guide

(106KB) cover illustration by A.J. Garces Welcome to the Austin Chronicle's Green Building web page, a republication of the Chronicle's Green Building issue of April 27, 1994. NEW STUFF includes R.U. Steinberg's guide to Environmental BBS's and a few updates, corrrections, and additional material that didn't make it into the original issue. THE ARTICLES are split into four major areas, having to do with alternative building materials, water conservation and reuse, energy efficiency, and organizations that can help. The original RESOURCE LISTINGS are included with each article and also are combined together for convenient downloading. THE INFO was all accurate as of April, 1994. We have not rechecked phone numbers and such since that time. Things change. If you have information regarding phone number and address changes or new resources, please send e-mail to xephyr@auschron.com. All materials are copyright (C) 1995 by the Austin Chronicle and the individual authors.

Building Materials
Material World
Suzy Banks' overview guide to green building materials

Are We Running Out of Wood


Robert Bryce on timber and sustainability

The Last Straw

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Austin Chronicle's Green Building Guide

Robert Bryce looks at straw bale construction

Earthy Solutions
Suzy Banks on earth-sheltered homes

Resources

Water Conservation
Wet Harvest
Suzy Banks on rainwater catchment systems

Greywater
Some water can be reused... or can it? by Suzy Banks

Problems of Elimination
Marshall Frech on alternatives to sewage

Resources

Energy Efficiency
Plugging into "Negawatts"
Steps to energy efficiency by Robert Bryce

Energy Star Ratings


Jeanine Sih on a City of Austin incentive program

UT and Others Think Green


Organizational conservation, by Jeanine Sih

Resources

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Austin Chronicle's Green Building Guide

Organizations
Green Builder Program
Jeanine Sih on a City of Austin pilot program

Sustainable Building Coalition


Grassroots green, by Jeanine Sih

From Fringe to Center


The world of Pliny Fisk, by Robert Bryce

Environmental BBS
an annotated guide by R.U. Steinberg

InfiNet
Austin's homegrown environmental BBS, by Chris Burton

Resources

Complete Resource List

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BuildingGreen.com - EBN 8:5 - Building Green on a Budget

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Articles > Volume 8 > Number 5

Building Green on a Budget


Feature - Environmental Building News May 1999

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Building green costs too much. Id like to include green features, but the budget just isnt high enough. Green building is just for wealthy clients. All too often we hear these claims. And, indeed, a lot of elements of environmentally responsible building do cost moreat least in the short term. But many of the design and building practices that are described in the pages of EBN or advocated by a growing cadre of environmentally conscious designers and builders cost no more than conventional practice. Indeed, some cost less. Were talking about first-cost herehow much more (if any) it costs to incorporate green features into a building project. Lifecycle costs are different. When we factor in energy savings over time, or increased durability, or enhanced worker productivity, green design features and materials become much easier to justify. It would be wonderful if life-cycle costs were considered as a matter of course in building design today but they are not. Most of us in the building profession are forced to deal almost solely with first-cost in justifying our projects.

GreenSpec Directory

Photo: T.J. Adel & Son Photography The Sun Life Building, leased by Mobile Data Solutions, Inc., is remarkably energy efficient for an office building built on a tight budget. The pond in the foreground is fed by rainwater from the buildings roof. (See

Now shipping: GreenSpec 6. Purchase your copy now!

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Performance and Value in British To address this issueand the perception that building green has to cost morewere Columbia's Sun Life Building.) devoting our feature article this month to lowcost green building features. Most of the article is a checklist of design strategies, building practices, and material substitutions that will cost no more thanor actually cost less than conventional practice. By no means should this list be considered complete in terms of what can be done on a tight budget. With good integration of all the disciplines on a design team, it is possible to incorporate, within budget, many strategies that taken alone would increase costs. The project report Performance and Value in British Columbia's Sun Life Building provides an excellent example of such a design. Some Cautions on a Low-Cost Agenda As we examine green design strategies and construction practices that reduce (or at least do not increase) construction costs, it is important to point out that limiting oneself to only those strategies that keep first-costs low may not be in the best long-term interest of the client. Sure, we can create better buildings (from an environmental standpoint) while spending less money, but realize that too strict a policy on avoiding those strategies that increase first-cost may result in lost opportunities for even more significant savings down the road. Yes, we should pay attention to low-cost strategies, but we should also pay attention to some of the higher first-cost strategies that can significantly reduce life-cycle costs. As the green design field matures, it becomes Checklist: ever more clear that integration is the key to achieving the energy and environmental goals we Low-Cost Green Design and desireespecially if cost is a major driver. Construction Practices Integration is more than using the savings from one change to pay for anotherits about making changes that allow other changes to happen. A smaller chiller, for example, makes money available to upgrade the envelope, but it also depends on the envelope upgrade to satisfy the buildings needs. While integration can keep construction costs down, it usually requires more time to be spent in up-front design. Alex Wilson

Related content Articles


q

Related categories Green Topics


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Greening Affordable Housing - EBN:


Feature - March 2005

Performance and Value in British Columbias Sun Life Building - EBN:


Projects - May 1999

Financing Integrated Design Affordable Housing

Access Floors: A Step Up for Commercial Buildings - EBN: Feature


- January 1998

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Policy Process Land Use Site & Water Energy Materials Indoors

Checklist for Environmentally Responsible Design and Construction


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DESIGN - SITE ISSUES - MATERIALS - EQUIPMENT - BUSINESS PRACTICES

DESIGN * Smaller is better: Optimize use of interior space through careful design so that the overall building size--and resource use in constructing and operating it--are kept to a minimum. * Design an energy-efficient building: Use high levels of insulation, highperformance windows, and tight construction. In southern climates, choose glazings with low solar heat gain. * Design buildings to use renewable energy: Passive solar heating, daylighting, and natural cooling can be incorporated cost-effectively into most buildings. Also consider solar water heating and photovoltaics--or

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* Optimize material use: Minimize waste by designing for standard ceiling heights and building dimensions. Avoid waste from structural over-design Free Bulletin (use optimum-value engineering/advanced framing). Simplify building Sign up for our geometry. * Design water-efficient, low-maintenance landscaping: Conventional lawns have a high impact because of water use, pesticide use, and pollution generated from mowing. Landscape with drought-resistant native plants and perennial groundcovers. * Make it easy for occupants to recycle waste: Make provisions for storage and processing of recyclables: recycling bins near the kitchen, undersink compost receptacles, and the like. * Look into the feasibility of graywater: Water from sinks, showers, or clothes washers (graywater) can be recycled for irrigation in some areas. If current codes prevent graywater recycling, consider designing the plumbing for easy future adaptation. * Design for durability: To spread the environmental impacts of building over as long a period as possible, the structure must be durable. A building with a durable style ("timeless architecture") will be more likely to realize a long life. * Design for future reuse and adaptability: Make the structure adaptable to other uses, and choose materials and components that can be reused or recycled. * Avoid potential health hazards: radon, mold, pesticides: Follow recommended practices to minimize radon entry into the building and provide for future mitigation if necessary. Provide detailing that will avoid moisture problems, which could cause mold and mildew growth. Design insect-resistant detailing that will require minimal use of pesticides.

SITING & LAND USE * Renovate older buildings: Conscientiously renovating existing buildings is the most sustainable construction.

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* Create community: Development patterns can either inhibit or contribute to the establishment of strong communities and neighborhoods. Creation of cohesive communities should be a high priority. * Encourage in-fill and mixed-use development: In-fill development that increases density is inherently better than building on undeveloped (greenfield) sites. Mixed-use development, in which residential and commercial uses are intermingled, can reduce automobile use and help to create healthy communities. * Minimize automobile dependence: Locate buildings to provide access to public transportation, bicycle paths, and walking access to basic services. Commuting can also be reduced by working at home--consider home office needs with layout and wiring. * Value site resources: Early in the siting process carry out a careful site evaluation: solar access, soils, vegetation, water resources, important natural areas, etc., and let this information guide the design. * Locate buildings to minimize environmental impact: Cluster buildings or build attached units to preserve open space and wildlife habitats, avoid especially sensitive areas including wetlands, and keep roads and service lines short. Leave the most pristine areas untouched, and look for areas that have been previously damaged to build on. Seek to restore damaged ecosystems. * Provide responsible on-site water management: Design landscapes to absorb rainwater runoff (stormwater) rather than having to carry it off-site in storm sewers. In arid areas, rooftop water catchment systems should be considered for collecting rainwater and using it for landscape irrigation. * Situate buildings to benefit from existing vegetation: Trees on the east and west sides of a building can dramatically reduce cooling loads. Hedge rows and shrubbery can block cold winter winds or help channel cool summer breezes into buildings.

MATERIALS * Avoid ozone-depleting chemicals in mechanical equipment and insulation: CFCs have been phased out, but their primary replacements-HCFCs--also damage the ozone layer and should be avoided where

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possible. Avoid foam insulation made with HCFCs. Reclaim CFCs when servicing or disposing of equipment. * Use durable products and materials: Because manufacturing is very energy-intensive, a product that lasts longer or requires less maintenance usually saves energy. Durable products also contribute less to our solid waste problems. * Choose low-maintenance building materials: Where possible, select building materials that will require little maintenance (painting, retreatment, waterproofing, etc.), or whose maintenance will have minimal environmental impact. * Choose building materials with low embodied energy: Heavily processed or manufactured products and materials are usually more energy intensive. As long as durability and performance will not be sacrificed, choose low-embodied-energy materials. * Buy locally produced building materials: Transportation is costly in both energy use and pollution generation. Look for locally produced materials. Local hardwoods, for example, are preferable to tropical woods. * Use building products made from recycled materials: Building products made from recycled materials reduce solid waste problems, cut energy consumption in manufacturing, and save on natural resource use. A few examples of materials with recycled content are cellulose insulation, Homasote, Thermo-ply, floor tile made from ground glass, and recycled plastic lumber. * Use salvaged building materials when possible: Reduce landfill pressure and save natural resources by using salvaged materials: lumber, millwork, certain plumbing fixtures, and hardware, for example. Make sure these materials are safe (test for lead paint and asbestos), and don't sacrifice energy efficiency or water efficiency by reusing old windows or toilets. * Seek responsible wood supplies: Use lumber from independently certified well-managed forests. Avoid lumber products produced from oldgrowth timber unless they are certified. Engineered wood can be substituted for old-growth Douglas fir, for example. Don't buy tropical hardwoods unless the seller can document that the wood comes from wellmanaged forests.

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* Avoid materials that will offgas pollutants: Solvent-based finishes, adhesives, carpeting, particleboard, and many other building products release formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air. These chemicals can affect workers' and occupants' health as well as contribute to smog and ground-level ozone pollution outside. * Minimize use of pressure-treated lumber: Use detailing that will prevent soil contact and rot. Where possible, use alternatives such as recycled plastic lumber. Take measures to protect workers when cutting and handling pressure-treated wood. Scraps should never be incinerated. * Minimize packaging waste: Avoid excessive packaging, such as plasticwrapped plumbing fixtures or fasteners that aren't available in bulk. Tell your supplier why you are avoiding over-packaged products. Keep in mind, however, that some products must be carefully packaged to prevent damage--and resulting waste.

EQUIPMENT * Install high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment: Well-designed high-efficiency furnaces, boilers, and air conditioners (and distribution systems) not only save the building occupants money, but also produce less pollution during operation. Install equipment with minimal risk of combustion gas spillage, such as sealed-combustion appliances. * Install high-efficiency lights and appliances: Fluorescent lighting has improved dramatically in recent years and is now suitable for homes. Highefficiency appliances offer both economic and environmental advantages over their conventional counterparts. * Install water-efficient equipment: Water-conserving toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators not only reduce water use, they also reduce demand on septic systems or sewage treatment plants. Reducing hot water use also saves energy. * Install mechanical ventilation equipment: Mechanical ventilation is usually required to ensure safe, healthy indoor air. Heat recovery ventilators should be considered in cold climates because of energy savings, but simpler, less expensive exhaust-only ventilation systems are also adequate.

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JOB SITE & BUSINESS * Protect trees and topsoil during sitework: Protect trees from damage during construction by fencing off the "drip line" around them and avoiding major changes to surface grade. * Avoid use of pesticides and other chemicals that may leach into the groundwater: Look into less toxic termite treatments, and keep exposed frost walls free from obstructions to discourage insects. When backfilling a foundation or grading around a house, do not bury any construction debris. * Minimize job-site waste: Centralize cutting operations to reduce waste and simplify sorting. Set up clearly marked bins for different types of usable waste (wood scraps for kindling, sawdust for compost, etc.). Find out where different materials can be taken for recycling, and educate your crew about recycling procedures. Donate salvaged materials to low-income housing projects, theater groups, etc. * Make your business operations more environmentally responsible: Make your office as energy efficient as possible, purchase energy-efficient vehicles, arrange carpools to job sites, and schedule site visits and errands to minimize unnecessary driving. In your office, purchase recycled office paper and supplies, recycle office paper, use coffee mugs instead of disposable cups. On the job, recycle beverage containers. * Make education a part of your daily practice: Use the design and construction process to educate clients, employees, subcontractors, and the general public about environmental impacts of buildings and how these impacts can be minimized.

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EERE: Bookmark Update

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Environmental Assessment Guide for Public Housing

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Environmental Assessment Guide for Public Housing (October 1996, 28 p.)


This Environmental Assessment Guide is a tool to be used by public housing authorities to identify and rank environmental hazards that may endanger the health and safety of their residents. The focus of this Guide is on environmental conditions on the grounds of public housing, near the property and in the surrounding neighborhood. Not included in the Guide are building-related issues addressed by other programs, such as lead-based paint and asbestos in individual dwelling units, radon or public safety.
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This Guide, while referenced to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods for performing environmental site assessments, is more general and broad in scope. It does not address economic liability issues; its purpose is to help public housing authorities to identify unique and potent environmental issues affecting their residents. This Guide was designed for use by a wide range of public housing authorities. The nation's 1.4 million public housing units are managed by 3,300 public housing authorities. Units and projects vary widely in age, density, location, design, construction and upkeep. Public housing authorities vary enormously from rural authorities with as few as six units to urban authorities with thousands of units and large, complex organizations. Currently, public housing authorities have multiple responsibilities, often with limited funding and increasing workloads.

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1. November 10, 2003. The Blue Santa Web site has moved. Please update your bookmarks once you visit www.bluesanta.org 2. October 1, 2003. The Office of Dispute Resolution was not funded in the 2003 - 2004 fiscal year budget 3. October 1, 2003. The Pioneer Farm was not funded in the 2003 - 2004 fiscal year budget 4. October 1, 2003. The Neighborhood Academy was not funded in the 2003 - 2004 fiscal year budget 5. August 4, 2003. The Downtown Jam Web site has expired. New link, www.ci.austin.tx.us/roadworks/rwwork.htm 6. February 26, 2003. The Traditional Neighborhood District Criteria Manual has moved. Please update your bookmarks. 7. February 20, 2003. The Code of Ordinances and Technical Manuals are now being hosted from American Legal's Web site. 8. June 20, 2002. The LEAPS directory and all files were moved to the Intranet (CityWeb). 9. May, 2002. The Ullrich files were removed. 10. June, 2000. NewAirport files moved over to a new directory labeled AustinAirport.

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Your Home Design Guide - Home Page

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Green Buildings BC Resources Guide

GUIDE TO GREEN BUILDINGS RESOURCES


Green Buildings BC - New Buildings Program
Last Updated Apr. 25, 2006

Building construction, renovation and operation consume more of the earth's resources than any other human activity. Each year, as much as 40% of the raw materials and energy produced in the world are used in the building sector. This generates millions of tonnes of greenhouse gases, toxic air emissions, water pollutants, and solid wastes. No other sector has a greater impact on the global environment or faces a greater obligation to improve its environmental performance. With so much of the world's resources consumed in the building sector, learning how to build with the environment in mind will make a big difference for the global environment. -- ASMI, "The Environmental Challenge in the Building Sector" 1999

Agencies Responsible: British Columbia Buildings Corporation, Ministry of Finance

Table of Contents
1.0 Funding Assistance Resources 2.0 General Resources 2.1 Guidelines 2.2 Whole Building Resources 2.2.1 Whole Building Case Studies 3.0 Ecological Performance Resources: Energy 3.1 Energy Use (E1) 3.2 Energy Source (E2) 3.3 Clean Energy Transport (E3) 3.4 Energy Case Studies 3.4.1 Energy Use Case Studies 3.4.2 Energy Source Case Studies 3.4.3 Clean Energy Transport Case Studies 4.0 Ecological Performance Resources: Water 4.1 Water Use (Wa1) 4.2 Water Filtration (Wa2) 4.3 Human Waste (Wa3) 4.4 Ground Water Recharge (Wa4) 4.5 Water Case Studies

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Green Buildings BC Resources Guide

4.5.1 Water Use Case Studies 4.5.2 Water Filtration and Ground Water Recharge Case Studies 4.5.3 Human Waste Case Studies 5.0 Ecological Performance Resources: Landscape 5.1 Integrated Pest Management (L1) 5.2 Green Space (L2) 5.3 Native Plantings and Wildlife Habitat (L3) 5.4 Landscape Case Studies 5.4.1 Green Space Case Studies 5.4.2 Native Plantings And Wildlife Habitat Case Studies 6.0 Ecological Performance Resources: Materials 6.1 Recycled Materials (M1) 6.2 Efficient Materials (M2) 6.3 Salvaged Materials (M3) 6.5 Durable, Low Maintenance and Healthy Materials (M5) 6.6 Low-Environmental Impact Materials (M6) 6.7 Overall Material Resources 6.8 Material Case Studies 6.8.1 Materials Case Studies 7.0 Ecological Performance Resources: Waste 7.1 Solid Waste (W1) 7.2 Composting Facilities (W2) 7.3 Waste Case Studies 7.3.1 Composting Facilities Case Studies 8.0 Ecological Performance Resources: Construction Practices 8.1 Construction Waste (C1) 8.2 Reuse Topsoil (C2) 8.3 Vegetation and Watercourse Protection (C3) 8.4 Construction Practices Case Studies 8.4.1 Construction Waste Case Studies 9.0. Human Health and Comfort Resources: Indoor Environmental Quality 9.1 Air Pollutant Emissions (IEQ1) 9.2 Air Pollutant Emissions (IEQ2) 9.3 Outdoor Air Intake (IEQ3) 9.4 Ventilation Effectiveness and Air Filtration (IEQ4) 9.5 System Commissioning and Cleaning (IEQ5) 9.6 Daylighting (IEQ6) 9.7 Overall Indoor Environmental Quality Resources 9.7.1 Air Pollutant Emission Case Studies 9.7.2 Daylighting Case Studies 9.8 Acoustics 10.0 Economic Performance Resources 10.1 Life-Cycle Assessment (EC1)

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Green Buildings BC Resources Guide

10.1.1 Life-Cycle Case Studies 11.0 Resources for Schools 11.1 Programs for Designers and Owners 11.1.1 Case Studies of Resource-Efficient Schools

Comments or suggestions? Please contact us.

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outcomes_guidance

RESEARCH OUTCOMES
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Durability, Adaptability and Energy Conservation of Buildings

Guidance document
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'Design for more sustainable buildings - durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues'

Outcomes

main page

Guidelines for the design of more sustainable buildings: durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues
Reason for the guidelines: Preserving and creating the built environment for sustainable development
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Although these guidelines focus on the durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues of building design, they should be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to preserving and creating the built environment for sustainable development. This is the main objective which underpins the guidelines. Durability, adaptability and energy conservation of buildings have been recognised as major achievement goals in some earlier (Burns, 1992; Chapman, 1992; Preiser et al, 1991; Rodin, 1992, Rookwood, 1993; Schlaich and Ptzl, 1992; Stillman, 1992, Vischer, 1991) and more recent research (Cole and Larsson, 1998; Clements-Croome, 1996; Crawley and Aho, 1999; Dekker, 1998; Grammenos and Russel, 1997; Kohler, 1999; Cole, 1999). Buildings that are durable, adaptable and contribute to the energy conservation have a positive impact on environmental, social and economic systems, and thus contribute to more sustainable development.

Aim, approach and target audience

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The aim of these guidelines is to provide advice on a strategic approach to resolving the conflicts among durability, adaptability and energy conservation requirements in building design. The guidelines are an outcome of a research project which focused on identifying such conflicts in higher education buildings. However, they are applicable to other types of buildings as well. It is not possible to provide prescriptive guidelines for the reconciliation of the conflicts among the durability, adaptability and energy conservation requirements because of the combination of variable factors in building design such as buildings function(s) (initial and future), required service life, required level of adaptability and energy requirements. Prescriptive guidelines may carry too many qualifications and limitations which are not applicable in all cases. Understanding the principles behind the conflicts in building design allows designers to apply their own ideas in solving the problem.
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Since designing for durability, adaptability and energy conservation requires the involvement of the whole design team, the guidelines are aimed at all members of building design teams.

Defining durability, adaptability and energy conservation

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Defining durability, adaptability and energy conservation Durability is defined as service life, i.e. the actual period during which no unacceptable expenditure on maintenance or repair is required. Adaptability of buildings, as defined in this research project, comprises the following: Ease of change of building spatial organisation within the same use Ease of change for new use Ease of change of technology and services Ease of use for people with different physical abilities. In the construction industry, energy is used for the extraction and manufacture of building materials and components, their transportation to the building site, the construction process, the running of building, maintenance, adaptations, deconstruction and disposal. Energy conservation of buildings pertains to all these phases of building life.

Teamwork approach

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It has often been emphasised that an integrated team design approach is crucial for a good building design. Clients, architects, structural and services engineers, and quantity surveyors need to work together from the start of a project on the development of design strategies and the assessment of whole life costs. Early involvement of contractors contributes to the examination of buildability and costs. Experienced building managers can draw attention to common faults in building design, maintenance problems, and difficulties or advantages in management and operation of different services systems. Design team members need to agree that, throughout the design process (from inception to detailed design), they will try to identify the conflicts between the design strategies and solutions, and aim to resolve them.

Consideration of whole life cycle impact of buildings

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The main principle of building design for sustainable development is to consider the impact of buildings on the natural, social and economic systems throughout their life cycle. The main consequence of this approach to building design is that buildings should not be designed as expendable and disposable products, but that the use of natural, social and economic resources invested in their creation should be maximised and any negative impacts minimised. Opportunities for achieving this goal arise from the moment when the decision is made whether to re-use an existing building or to build a new one, through all stages of building design, procurement, construction, use (operation, maintenance, adaptations), dismantling, recycling and disposal. This approach needs to be adopted by both the clients and design team.

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Defining and adopting a building design philosophy

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A building design philosophy needs to be defined and adopted by clients and designers. The objective of the design philosophy is to emphasise that the main principles and objectives of a building design should be harmonised. This means that in the pursuit of energy conservation, durability, adaptability or cost effectiveness, it is necessary to remember the Vitruvian principles of commodity, firmness and delight. Buildings that are functional and comfortable, durable and look well have always been appreciated and rarely became obsolete. The main objective of building design should be to provide a building which meets the requirements for functionality, durability, adaptability, energy conservation, cost-effectiveness and aesthetics in a balanced way. This means that the pursuit of one goal should not compromise the possibilities of achieving the other goals of the building design.

Defining functional requirements, and design objectives and targets (design brief)

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Both in adapting an existing building and designing a new one, building function, required service life, required level of adaptability, and energy requirements, which include the targets for energy conservation, need to be defined at the design brief stage. Together with the available budget, these achievement goals and performance targets outline the main design objectives and constraints.

Re-using an existing building or building a new one (feasibility studies)

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When the functional requirements, design objectives and targets are defined, clients and designers need to consider whether to adapt an existing building or build a new one. This is the first step towards the energy conservation and preservation of natural resources. Existing buildings need to be examined regarding the following issues: Compatibility of the new use with the existing natural, social and economic environment ..(assessment of the environmental, social and economic impact) Appropriateness of the existing building regarding spatial requirements of the new use, e.g. ..net surface, floor-to-floor height. Infrastructure requirements of the new use in relation to the existing infrastructure Strength and durability of the building structure and possibilities for improving its durability Adaptability of the building Constraints regarding the preservation of the cultural values of the building Possibilities of re-use and recycling of building elements, components and materials Potential for improving durability, adaptability and energy conservation. An assessment of the environmental impact of the new building will enable planners to decide whether the new use is compatible with the existing environment. Architects, structural and services engineers will examine and assess the above listed issues. If the assessment shows that the existing building is durable, adaptable, and contributes to energy conservation, then it should be re-used. However, financial considerations will have a significant role if some of the listed requirements are not met. Since the costs will be higher if the requirements of new use cannot be easily met, it is advisable to look for an existing building with design features which meet most of the requirements of the new use.

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Adopting a common strategic goal in the design of new buildings: design for re-use (durability and adaptability) and energy conservation

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Designing for re-use should be adopted as a common strategic goal in the design of new buildings. In order to avoid early obsolescence, one of the main strategies for achieving the durability of buildings is to design adaptable buildings. Apart from designing for the adaptability of the whole building, design for re-use means that building elements and components should be designed for re-use in the same or other buildings. This goal also contributes to energy conservation and has a positive impact on the preservation of natural resources. Energy used throughout the building life comprises the embodied energy of building materials and components, energy used in the construction process, during the lifetime of the building, and for dismantling. Since the amount of energy used during the building life still represents the major part of the total energy used by buildings, energy efficiency of buildings during their lifetime and the type of energy sources (non-renewable or renewable) play the most important role in the total energy conservation and environmental impact of energy. The main strategic goal regarding energy conservation is to minimise the use of fossil energy and maximise the use of renewable energy resources, daylighting and natural ventilation.

Conceptual design - main spatial, structural and energy conservation strategies

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Main principles of the design strategy are first expressed in the conceptual design which outlines spatial, structural and environmental concepts of the building design. At this stage designers have the first opportunity to propose design strategies and examine their compatibility. In conceptual design, the following issues need to be examined with regard to the re-use (durability and adaptability) and energy conservation of buildings: Spatial issues: flexible planning of the layout.
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Planning of the layout means placing the activities in particular positions in a building whilst taking into account interrelationship of the activities, main communication routes and environmental requirements for specific activities. Planning for adaptability of the layout means that activities and their relationship may change, as well as the complete use of building. Thus, the initial layout needs to be considered as only one of various possible layouts within a building plan. This can be achieved by the following: Avoiding too tightly designed spaces which accommodate only present day requirements. ..Both the plan surface and floor-to-floor height need to be considered. The plan depth and ..floor-to-floor height should be optimised regarding the daylighting and natural ventilation in ..order to reduce the need for electrical lighting, mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning. Vertical communications and vertical ducting of services should be located so that horizontal ..communication and distribution lines are not too long, and that they are not an obstacle in ..the reorganisation of layout. Wide structural spans will provide better flexibility of the layout. Flexibility of the layout and ease of extension depend on the location of the plant and the ..possibility of replacing the equipment and increasing its capacity without interrupting the ..building function. The plant should be spacious and easily accessible for both people and ..equipment. If possible, it should be located at the ground level or in a separate building. The initial building use may not require very complex and sophisticated services. However,

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..adaptable buildings should have the spatial capacity for the installation of new services, if ..needed in future. Structural issues: wide structural spans and strong, 'robust' structure
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Wide structural spans will allow a flexible layout, but then the structure needs to be robust and to be designed for extra loads. Robust structure is also designed to cope with known hazards considering both risk and consequence. It is not unduly sensitive to marginal departures from the design assumptions, local defects or movement and environmental change. The structure should not deflect or vibrate to an extent that alarms the occupants or disturbs their function. Energy conservation issues
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Maximising daylighting, natural ventilation and use of renewable resources


.

This is achieved by avoiding the need for air-conditioning through the use of shallow plans which permit natural ventilation and daylighting. Solar gains in summer are avoided by shading and correct orientation. Passive solar gains, particularly for ventilation preheat, and night ventilation for cooling, are also considered. Thermal mass of the structure or building envelope as regulator of thermal behaviour of a building
.

While a heavyweight building does not have advantages over a lightweight building with good insulation during the warming up period, thermal mass brings an energy benefit in its effects on the usefulness of solar and casual gains. This means that lightweight buildings will overheat quickly, while heavyweight buildings are able to absorb the sudden input of solar gain. The energy stored in heavyweight walls helps delay a demand for heating as the outside temperature drops, which has an important role in minimising temperature swings in unheated spaces such as conservatoires and atria. In hot weather, the thermal mass can be cooled by the fall of night, providing the building is not occupied by night. Design team will consider how building thermal mass can contribute to the energy conservation. Flexibility and capacity of services
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If the initial building use requires complex and 'intelligent' services, they need to be flexible. Flexibility of the layout also requires flexible services which have extra capacity, or the possibility of increasing the capacity. Flexibility of electrical, heating and cooling services is particularly important in order to provide adequate environmental conditions and servicing of the equipment. Concerning the HVAC systems, this means that they may be decentralised to allow the differential use in the building. Independence of services in relation to the building fabric
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The design and ducting of services should aim to achieve independence in relation to the building fabric to allow ease of change and maintenance, and avoid changes or damage to the building fabric.

Design of the building envelope for durability, adaptability and energy conservation

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In the process of defining main spatial, structural and services parameters, the building envelope also needs to be considered. Design of a building envelope to be durable, adaptable and which will
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contribute to energy conservation needs to consider the following: Good design of details which affect durability. Apart from robustness, good detailing ..contributes to the durability and good appearance of buildings. For example, water ..penetration is the main cause of faults in buildings in the UK. This can be prevented by good ..detailing of the roof and eaves, building envelope, windows and exterior doors, basement ..walls and floors. Special care is needed in designing the joints between building ..components. In addition, building components which have mechanical parts (for example, ..movable shades for passive solar systems) and which are regularly used need to be very ..robust and simple to operate. Specification of durable and maintainable materials and components for the building ..envelope. Poor exterior appearance of a building may decrease the building value and ..contribute to its early obsolescence. Design of the building envelope for adaptability. Modular elements which allow changing of ..solid and void/glazed surfaces on the building envelope can contribute to better adaptability ..of the building interior. Extensions to the building may be easier if the building envelope or ..some of its elements can be easily demounted. Design of the building envelope for energy conservation. Adequate U-values, shading against ..overheating, double glass skin for natural ventilation, use of thermal mass for passive solar ..heating systems, and other strategies for energy conservation can be applied in the design of ..the building envelope.

Identifying conflicts between the strategies at the stage of conceptual design

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The design team should aim to identify any conflicts between the proposed strategies and means for achieving them. Apart from the conflicts which may arise among durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues, possible effects of the proposed strategies on functionality, appearance etc., of the building need to be considered. If conflicts are identified, designers should aim to propose design solutions which meet the strategic requirements in a balanced way.

Creating a building performance profile as a guide to a detailed design

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When the main strategies have been agreed in the conceptual design, detailed performance requirements can be defined in the form of a building performance profile. The DAEC Tool is based on a method which can be used to define a performance profile for a building in relation to durability, adaptability and energy conservation. Performance requirements should be defined in consultation with the client and revised when the whole life costs are provided. Durability performance profile
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Durability performance profile will define the required service life of all building elements and components. For example, the performance profile of higher education buildings examined the following building elements and components: foundations, structure, roof and covering, building envelope, partitions, floor finishes, ceiling finishes, wall finishes, stairs, windows, doors internal and external, fittings, HVAC system, lighting, water plumbing, sewage system, lifts. The list may be amended for other building types. Adaptability performance profile
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Adaptability performance profile will define the requirements for building design features which affect adaptability. The adaptability profile needs to be defined in relation to the required level of adaptability. For example, levels of adaptability were defined in the DAEC Tool as follows: Low adaptability - design features are appropriate for minor changes within the same use ..(e.g. organisational) Medium adaptability - design features are appropriate for more complex changes within ..same use (e.g. technological) and for similar use (e.g. from student residences into a hotel) High adaptability - design features are appropriate for complete change of use (e.g. industrial ..building into a library). With regard to the adaptability of higher education buildings the following spatial, structural and services design features, and design features that affect ease of use of the spaces by occupants with different physical abilities were assessed: site (possibility of expansion, access for pedestrians, access for services), interior layout and design (completeness of brief, flexibility of layout, grouping of functions, ..average main room size, provisions for disabled), structure (strength of columns/walls, column density/span, floor-to- ceiling height, floor ..loading, floor structure, removability of partitions), HVAC system (plant location, plant size space wise, access for people, access for ..equipment, ducting access), electricity (extra load, wiring space, access for servicing), water (supply, capacity), sewage (capacity), drainage (capacity), lifts (capacity, extra space).
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The list of building design features which need to be assessed may be amended for other building types. Energy conservation performance profile
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Energy conservation performance profile defines requirements for the building design features that affect energy conservation, and performance targets related to energy consumption and the environmental impact of energy-in-use. For example, the following design features and environmental performance targets were examined with regard to higher education buildings: building orientation, exposure to winds, overshadowing by neighbours, building form, U values, building plan vs. heating adjustment, type of glazing, solar energy use and control (overheating, glare, solar energy use and energy production), cooling/ventilation system, lighting system, lighting control, plan depth, day lighting area, resources for lighting, resources for heating CO2 emissions, NOx emissions, ozone depletion recycling of energy and materials, embodied energy, energy-in-use consumption energy-in-use monitoring.
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The above list may be amended, if needed, for other building types.

Identifying conflicts between the proposed design features/ performance targets

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When the performance profile is defined, the design team should check if any conflicts between proposed design features and related performance targets can be identified and resolved.

Detailed design

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The detailed design will follow the requirements defined in the performance profile. It will consider the following issues with regard to the durability, adaptability and energy conservation: Durability issues
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Specifying for durability


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Specification of building materials, components and finishes which are suitable for the environmental conditions and can be protected from damaging agents in soil, water and air, and which meet or exceed required service life. These specifications will also be based on the environmental impact of building materials and components. Environmental Preference Method - EPM (Anink et al, 1996) and Green Guide to Specification (Howard et al, 1998) can be used, as well as the data on life cycle analysis (LCA) of building materials and components when it becomes available. Designing for buildability
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A design needs to be readily buildable and not dependent upon perfect workmanship and compliance with the specification. Advice on good workmanship and quality control
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Good workmanship on site and the assembly of complex components off site will contribute to the durability of buildings. The level of quality assurance selected throughout the whole process should ensure satisfactory reliability. Specifications can include this advice, especially regarding new and untested design solutions. Maintainability
.

A design identifies and provides good access for all items requiring maintenance and inspection. It should incorporate early warning signs of serious defects. It should allow easy maintenance of building elements and finishes. Adaptability issues
.

Design for dismantling and re-use


.

A detailed design of building elements and components should aim to provide the possibility of easy dismantling. Design for accessibility and ease of use by all occupant
.

A detailed design of access routes, communications, services, etc. should consider the needs of all occupants, including those who are disabled. Energy conservation issues
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Avoiding conflicts between different environmental requirements


.

The strategies for low energy buildings comprise careful consideration of building design and management in other to avoid the conflicts between the means for achieving natural lighting, ventilation, heating and cooling. This implies an understanding of different environmental conditions which occur in buildings during 24 hours and in different seasons, and how the strategies for achieving desired environmental conditions may come into conflict. There is a range of strategic (Baker, 1995) and more detailed technical guides, e.g. Energy efficiency in buildings (CIBSE, 1998) which the design team will need to consult. Adequate and energy efficient services
.

Services engineers will consider the use of condensing boilers, heat recovery and heat pumps reduce the heating demand, low energy light sources to reduce electricity demand, and combined heat and power (CHP for larger buildings. Where mechanical cooling is unavoidable, they will minimise the load by adopting passive means (e.g. shading) or mixed mode. Modelling for energy conservation
.

A range of tools are helpful in planning and designing for energy conservation, and in predicting the energy consumption of buildings. Some of the available tools are listed below: Sun Charts for assessing the solar availability on a site, LT Method for evaluating the energy performance of a number of strategic options ..(Baker and Steemers, 1994), New Method 5000 for assessing the performance of passive solar buildings, PASSPORT for assessing residential building heat requirements, ADELINE for assessing the performance of indoor lighting systems, ESP-r for a dynamic thermal simulation which can examine a range of issues including ..building fabric, mass flow, ideal and detailed plant systems - separately or in combination ..at timesteps ranging from second to an hour (UCD-OPET, 1995) CADEM (EVE Group) system for assessing the energy efficiency of new homes, NORMA for assessing natural cooling techniques Key numbers method for rule of thumb assessment of the likely energy and power demand ..of buildings (BRECSU-OPET, 1995). Some brochures (UCD-OPET, 1995; BRECSU-OPET, 1995) provide further sources of information on energy software from a range of international organisations and World Wide Web and Internet information sources. Design for manageability and occupant control
.

Designers should aim to provide simple interfaces for operation of building environmental systems.

Commissioning, handover and feedback

Top of Page

Since many modern buildings are very complex, and may comprise 'intelligent' systems or specific operation regimes to benefit from its design features, it is necessary to provide the documentation with operating and maintenance manuals for building managers. Post-occupancy surveys should become a
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regular practice in order that the information gained may be used for new building briefs and thus contribute to further improvements.
.

References
Burns, J. G. (1992) Design life of buildings: client expectations, in Sommervile, G. (ed) The Design Life of Structures, Blackie and Son Ltd: Glasgow, pp. 240-245. Chapman, J. C. (1992) What can we learn from marine structures?, in Sommervile, G. (ed) The Design Life of Structures, Blackie and Son Ltd: Glasgow, pp. 85-93. Preiser, W. F. E. and Vischer, J. C. (1991) An Introduction to Design Intervention: A Manifesto for the Future of Environmental Design, in Preiser, W. F. E., Vischer, J. C. and White, E. T. (eds) (1991) Design Intervention: Toward a More Humane Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, pp. 1-8. Rodin, J. (1992) Buildings: general, in Sommervile, G. (ed) The Design Life of Structures, Blackie and Son Ltd: Glasgow, pp. 163-165. Rookwood, R. (1993) Making it Happen, in Blowers, A., Planning for a sustainable environment: A report by the Town and Country Planning Association, Earthscan Publications Ltd: London Schlaich, J. and Ptzl, M. (1992) Some thoughts on the application of design life principles in practice, in Sommervile, G. (ed) The Design Life of Structures, Blackie and Son Ltd: Glasgow, pp. 47-56. Stillman, J. (1992) Design life and the new Code, in Sommervile, G. (ed) The Design Life of Structures, Blackie and Son Ltd: Glasgow, pp. 3-8. Cole, R. J. and Larsson, N. K. (1998) GBC'98 Assessment Manual: Volume 1, Overview, April. Natural Resources Canada Ottawa, Canada. Clements-Croome, T. D. J. (1996) Future horizons in building environmental engineering, Building Research and Information, 24 (2), 86-96. Crawley, D. and Aho, I. (1999) Building environmental assessment methods: application and development trends, Building Research and Information, 27 (4/5), 200-308. Dekker, K. (1998) Open Building Systems: a case study, Building Research and Information, 26 (5), 311-318. Grammenos, F. and Russel, P. (1997) Building Adaptability: A view from Future, in Proceedings of the Second International Conference: Buildings and the Environment, June 9-12, Paris, Vol. 2, pp. 19-26. Kohler, N. (1999) The relevance of Green Building Challenge: an observer's perspective, Building Research and Innovation, 27 (4/5), 309-320. Vischer, J. C. (1991) Summing Up Opinions on Architecture and Social Change, in Preiser, W. F. E., Vischer, J. C. and White, E. T. (eds) (1991) Design Intervention: Toward a More Humane Architecture,

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Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, pp.353-366. Top of Page

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Total Building Commissioning

The purpose of this World Wide Web site is to provide access to documents dealing with the Guidelines for Total Building Commissioning being developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Building Sciences. The site is maintained by the Florida Design Initiative and is organized around the individual technical guidelines that will comprise the complete set of Guidelines for Total Building Commissioning. Guideline Modules 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. General Principles and Procedures Mechanical and Energy Systems Structural Systems Exterior Envelope Systems Roofing Systems Interior Systems Elevator Systems Plumbing Systems Lighting Systems Electrical Systems Fire Protection Systems Telecommunications Systems

http://sustainable.state.fl.us/fdi/edesign/resource/totalbcx/ Questions or comments? ... contact gzik@polaris.net This page last updated on 1 July 1999.

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Office of Sustainable Design -- NYC Department of Design and Construction

HOME

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NEW YORK CITYS NEW GREEN BUILDING LEGISLATION On October 3, 2005, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg signed Local Law 86, which will require many of the Citys new municipal buildings, additions, and renovations to achieve rigorous standards of sustainability. This legislation will apply to many of the Department of Design and Constructions (DDC) upcoming and future projects. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AT DDC Soon after DDC was established, it created in 1997 the Office of Sustainable Design (OSD), for the purposes of identifying and implementing cost-effective ways to promote greater environmental
High Performance Infrastructure Guidelines (PDF)

Purchase your own copy of DDC publications at the New York City Store. Get more info

responsibility in building design. In 1999, OSD published DDCs High Performance Building Guidelines, an internationally recognized green building reference which has helped introduce sustainable design to DDC project teams. In October 2005, DDC published a companion piece for infrastructure, the High Performance Infrastructure Guidelines, one of the first of its kind in the world. While the Building Guidelines were in development, OSD launched a Pilot Program to incorporate sustainable features on selected DDC projects. As of December 2005, about 30 pilot projects incorporating sustainable strategies have been built or are in design or construction under the

Children's Center Green Primer (PDF)

management of DDC. Implementing the High Performance Guidelines records the status of the program as of November 2002. Both Guidelines and the Implementation piece were made possible through the generous funding and guidance provided by the Design Trust for Public Space. The pilot projects have a total construction cost of approximately $950 million. Four of the projects are completed, with six now in construction, 16 in design and five in pre-design. Energy saving strategies adopted by most of these projects include: significantly greater use of natural lighting, low-e glazing, energy saving lighting controls, improved insulation, light colored roofing, and high

Local Law 77: Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Manual (PDF)

efficiency heating and cooling systems. Nearly all projects use a palette of low-toxicity, renewable, and high-recycled content materials, such as newsprint insulation, plastic toilet partitions, fly-ash concrete, bamboo, and linoleum or rubber flooring. Several projects have adopted more innovative strategies such as geothermal heating and cooling, photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, planted roofs, porous paving and gray-water recycling systems. Fifteen projects, three of which are scheduled to open in 2006, are targeting various ratings, from certified to platinum, as defined by the U.S. Green Buildings Councils Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. One of those projects, the Queens Botanical Garden Administration Building, is expected to receive a platinum rating -- the highest level -- achieved to date by just a handful of buildings worldwide.

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Office of Sustainable Design -- NYC Department of Design and Construction

OSD has expanded sustainable practices beyond the Pilot Program. All new DDC projects are now required to start with an environmental meeting, to use construction materials with recycled content and low toxicity, and to develop a waste management plan, among other measures. Many new projects will be required to achieve rigorous levels of sustainability as per Local Law 86 for 2005. In addition, OSD has an ongoing training program to introduce DDC staff to the principles of sustainable design. The powerpoints from these training sessions are posted here. The Guidelines are being supplemented with a series on in-depth manuals to inform the high performance process. Newly completed and posted on this Website are Local Law 77: DDC Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Manual and Manual for Quality, Energy Efficient Lighting. THIS WEBSITE The DDC established this site to disseminate information and provide resources for its managers, consultants, and client agencies. Since sustainable design is such a rapidly evolving technical discipline, by locating this information on the Web in downloadable format, the Office of Sustainable Design (OSD) seeks to ease the transition to sustainable building at DDC. The resources are organized in four categories: Reports & Manuals, Specifications, and Forms and Examples. The Reports & Manuals explore subjects in depth, providing both an overview and useful, practical information. They cover topics, such as ultra-low sulfur diesel and high quality efficient lighting, where sustainable practices can substantially contribute to New York Citys buildings and its environment. The Specifications section includes recommended specification language on topics such as environmentally preferable materials and construction and demolition waste management. Written as performance specifications in Microsoft Word, they are easy to download and incorporate into a project specification. Finally, the site includes downloadable Forms and Examples, such as an example of an Environmental Programming Matrix and reporting forms for NYCs Local Law 77.

Home -- Reports & Manuals -- Specifications -- Forms & Examples NYC.gov Home Page -- Contact Us -- FAQs -- Privacy Statement -- Site Map

DDC Home

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Sustainable Architecture Module:

Introduction to Sustainable Design

Written by Jong-Jin Kim, Assistant Professor of Architecture, and Brenda Rigdon, Project Intern College of Architecture and Urban Planning The University of Michigan

Published by National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education, 430 E. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115 734.764.1412 fax: 734.647.5841 nppc@umich.edu website: www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/

This compendium was made possible in part by a grant from the 3M Corporation. These materials may be freely copied for educational purposes.
Introduction to Sustainable Design December 1998 Sustainable Design 1

2 Sustainable Design

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Introduction to Sustainable Design

Contents
List of Figures ............................................................................. 5

Fundamentals
Changing our Definitions of Growth and Progress.................5 Resource Consumption and Environmental Pollution............5 Sustainability in Architecture.................................................. 6

Principles of Sustainable Design


Principle 1: Economy of Resources....................................... 9 Principle 2: Life Cycle Design .............................................. 11 Principle 3: Humane Design ................................................ 14 Summary .............................................................................. 15

Methods for Achieving Sustainable Design


Economy of Resources........................................................ 16 Energy Conservation.................................................. 16 Water Conservation.................................................... 20 Materials Conservation .............................................. 21 Life Cycle Design ................................................................. 22 Pre-Building Phase..................................................... 22 Building Phase............................................................ 24 Post-Building Phase ................................................... 25 Humane Design.................................................................... 27 Preservation fo Natural Conditions ............................ 27 Urban Design and Site Planning................................ 27 Design for Human Comfort ........................................ 28

Sustainable Design Bibliography......................... 29 Sustainable Design Annotated Bibliography ......33

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December 1998

Sustainable Design 3

List of Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3. Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Income vs. energy consumption............................6 Income vs. water consumption..............................6 Income vs. pollutant production ............................6 Framework for sustainable architecture................8 Material-flow diagram ........................................... 9 Conventional model of the building life cycle......11 Sustainable building life cycle ............................ 11 Ecological elements of site and building .............13 Methods for Economy of Resources.................17 Methods for Life Cycle Design ..........................23 Methods for Humane Design ........................... 26

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Fundamentals
Changing our Definitions of Growth and Progress
How do we measure economic success? Traditionally, we measure Gross National Product (GNP), which favors any economic activities and production, regardless of their true benefits and effect on long-term societal well-being. Even consumption, demolition, and waste that require further production are credited to a higher GNP. In industrialized, capitalistic societies, consumption is regarded as a virtue. However, realizing the environmental threats, real or potential, to the quality of life, environmental movements have begun in virtually all sectors of industrialized countries, including business, manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and architecture. Researchers are developing and refining methods of analyzing the true cost of an economic activity over its entire life cycle. Developing countries tend to model their economic infrastructure after those of their industrialized counterparts. Today, economic activities in developing countries around the world, Pacific Rim countries in particular, are far more noticeable than two or three decades ago, and their share of the world economy is increasing. All quantitative economic indices such as per capita income, GNP, amount of foreign trade, and the amount of building construction indicate that their economies are strong and growing rapidly. Measuring a countrys GNP does not account for the loss of environmental quality and quality of life attributed to industrialization. In the United States alone, billions of dollars have been spent cleaning up an environment subjected to uncontrolled development. The ecological havoc created by the former Soviet Union is only now beginning to be fully understood. Developing countries would do well to learn from these situations, not emulate them.

Resource Consumption and Environmental Pollution


Resource consumption and economic status have a strong correlation. As the income level of a society increases, so does its resource consumption. This is true for societies of virtually any size, be they families, cities, or entire countries.

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December 1998

Sustainable Design 5

400 Canada

USA 300

200 UK

Germany Japan

France N Korea 100 Korea Hong Kong 0 0 10000 Italy

20000

30000

Per-Capita Income (US$/yr)

The correlation between per-capita income and energy consumption of various countries demonstrates this trend. As shown in Figure 1, industrial countries with higher incomes consume more energy per capita than developing countries. Among industrialized countries, the energy intensity of Canada and the United States is the highest, while Japans is much lower. This implies that it is plausible for a society to establish resource-efficient social and economic infrastructures while raising its economic status. A society (household, community, city, or country) with such an infrastructure will be less susceptible to resource shortages, more reliable by itself, and thus more sustainable in the future. The correlation between per-capita income and per-capita water consumption reveals a similar pattern (see Figure 2), as does the emission of environmental pollutants to the atmosphere (see Figure 3). Developing countries energy use, water use, and share of global environmental pollution is expected to increase.

Per Capita Energy Consumption (M-Btus/yr)

Figure 1: Correlations between per-capita incomes and percapita energy consumption levels of selected industrialized and developing countries. [Source:
Herman Daly, Steady-State Economics (Washington: Island Press, 1991).]

Sustainability in Architecture
1500 USA

The World Commission on Environment and Development has put forth a definition of sustainability as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Per Capita Water Use (gal/day)

Canada

1000 USSR

Italy Mexico 500 Germany UK Korea France Japan

From Our Common Future (London: Oxford University Press, 1987).

0 0 10000 20000 30000

Per-Capita Income (US$/yr)

Figure 2: Correlations between per-capita incomes and per-capita water consumptions of selected industrialized and developing countries. [Source: Herman Daly,
Steady-State Economics (Washington: Island Press, 1991).]

This definition of sustainability does not specify the ethical roles of humans for their everlasting existence on the planet. It also fails to embrace the value of all other constituents participating in the global ecosystem. The need for finding long-terms solutions that warrant continuing human existence and well-being is far more compelling than that of finding a proper terminology to describe the human need. In this respect, the debate on the terms green, sustainable, or ecological architecture is not terribly important.

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Architecture is one of the most conspicuous forms of economic activity. It is predicted that the pattern of architectural resource intensity (the ratio of per-capita architectural resource consumption to per-capita income) will generally follow the same patterns as shown in Figure 1, 2, and 3. A countrys economic development will necessitate more factories, office buildings, and residential buildings. For a household, the growth of incomes will lead to a desire for a larger house with more expensive building materials, furnishings and home appliances; more comfortable thermal conditions in interior spaces; and a larger garden or yard.
Per Capita Pollutant Production

USA 20 Canada

(CO2 Eq.-ton/yr)

UK USSR Brazil 10 Italy

Germany

France

Japan

China

Korea

During a buildings existence, it affects the local and global environments via a series of interconnected human activities and natural processes. At the early stage, site development and construction influence indigenous ecological characteristics. Though temporary, the influx of construction equipment and personnel onto a building site and process of construction itself disrupt the local ecology. The procurement and manufacturing of materials impact the global environment. Once built, building operation inflicts long-lasting impact on the environment. For instance, the energy and water used by its inhabitants produce toxic gases and sewage; the process of extracting, refining, and transporting all the resources used in building operation and maintenance also have numerous effects on the environment. Architectural professionals have to accept the fact that as a societys economic status improves, its demand for architectural resources land, buildings or building products, energy, and other resources will increase. This in turn increases the combined impact of architecture on the global ecosystem, which is made up of inorganic elements, living organisms, and humans. The goal of sustainable design is to find architectural solutions that guarantee the well-being and coexistence of these three constituent groups.

10000

20000

30000

Per Capita Income ($/yr) Per-Capita Income (US$/yr)

Figure 3: Correlations between per-capita incomes and per-capita pollutant production of selected industrialized and developing countries. [Source: Herman Daly,
Steady-State Economics (Washington: Island Press, 1991).]

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Sustainable Design 7

Principles of Sustainable Design


To educate architects to meet this goal of coexistence, we have developed a conceptual framework. The three levels of the framework (Principles, Strategies, and Methods) correspond to the three objectives of architectural environmental education: creating environmental awareness, explaining the building ecosystem, and teaching how to design sustainable buildings. The overall conceptual diagram for sustainable design is shown in Figure 4. We propose three principles of sustainability in architecture. Economy of Resources is concerned with the reduction, reuse, and recycling of the natural resources that are input to a building. Life Cycle Design provides a methodology for analyzing the building process and its impact on the environment. Humane Design focuses on the interactions between humans and the natural world. These principles can provide a broad awareness of the environmental impact, both local and global, of architectural consumption.

Figure 4: Conceptual framework for Sustainable Design and Pollution Prevention in Architecture.

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND POLLUTION PREVENTION

Principles Economy of Resources Life Cycle Design Strategies


Energy Conservation Pre-Building Phase Preservation of Natural Conditions Urban Design Site Planning

Humane Design

Water Conservation

Building Phase

Material Conservation

Post-Building Phase

Design for Human Comfort

Methods
8 Sustainable Design December 1998 Introduction to Sustainable Design

Each of these principles embody a unique set of strategies. Studying these strategies leads students to more thorough understanding of architectures interaction with the greater environment. This allows them to further disaggregate and analyze specific methods architects can apply to reduce the environmental impact of the buildings they design.
Figure 5: The input and output streams of resource flow.

MATERIAL FLOW IN THE BUILDING ECOSYSTEM Upstream Building Materials Building Materials Energy Water Consumet Goods Consumer Goods Solar Radiation Wind Rain Building Building Downstream Used Materials Combustion Byproducts Graywater Sewage Recycleable Materials Wasted Head Polluted Air Groundwater

Principle 1: Economy of Resources


By economizing resources, the architect reduces the use of nonrenewable resources in the construction and operation of buildings. There is a continuous flow of resources, natural and manufactured, in and out of a building. This flow begins with the production of building materials and continues throughout the buildings life span to create an environment for sustaining human well-being and activities. After a buildings useful life, it should turn into components for other buildings. When examining a building, consider two streams of resource flow (see Figure 5). Upstream, resources flow into the building as input to the building ecosystem. Downstream, resources flow out of the building as output from the building ecosystem. In a long run, any resources entered into a building ecosystem will eventually come out from it. This is the law of resource flow conservation. For a given resource, its forms before entry to a building and after exit will be different. This transformation from input to output is caused by the many mechanical processes or human interventions rendered to the resources during their use in buildings. The input elements for the building ecosystem are
Introduction to Sustainable Design December 1998 Sustainable Design 9

diverse, with various forms, volumes, and environmental implications. The three strategies for the economy of resources principle are energy conservation, water conservation, and material conservation. Each focuses on a particular resource necessary for building construction and operation. Energy Conservation After construction, a building requires a constant flow of energy input during its operation. The environmental impacts of energy consumption by buildings occur primarily away from the building site, through mining or harvesting energy sources and generating power. The energy consumed by a building in the process of heating, cooling, lighting, and equipment operation cannot be recovered. The type, location, and magnitude of environmental impacts of energy consumptions in buildings differ depending on the type of energy delivered. Coal-fired electric power plants emit polluting gases such as SO2 , CO2 , CO, and NO x into the atmosphere. Nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, for which there is currently no permanent management solution. Hydropower plants each require a dam and a reservoir which can hold a large body of water; construction of dams results in discontinuance of river ecosystems and the loss of habitats for animals and plants. Water Conservation A building requires a large quantity of water for the purposes of drinking, cooking, washing and cleaning, flushing toilets, irrigating plants, etc.. All of this water requires treatments and delivery, which consume energy. The water that exits the building as sewage must also be treated. Material Conservation A range of building materials are brought onto building sites. The influx of building materials occurs primarily during the construction stage. The waste generated by the construction and installation process is significant. After construction, a low-level flow of materials continues in for maintenance, replacement, and renovation activities. Consumer goods flow into the building to support human activities. All of these materials are eventually output, either to be recycled or dumped in a landfill.

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Principle 2: Life Cycle Design


The conventional model of the building life cycle is a linear process consisting of four major phases: design; construction; operation and maintenance; and demolition (see Figure 6). The problem with this model is that it is too narrowly defined: it does not address environmental issues (related to the procurement and manufacturing of building materials) or waste management (reuse and recycling of architectural resources).

Design

Construction

Operation & Maintenance

Demolition

Figure 6: Conventional model of the building life cycle.

The second principle of sustainable architecture is life cycle design (LCD). This cradle-to-grave approach recognizes environmental consequences of the entire life cycle of architectural resources, from procurement to return to nature. LCD is based on the notion that a material transmigrates from one form of useful life to another, with no end to its usefulness. For the purpose of conceptual clarity, the life cycle of a building can be categorized into three phases: pre-building, building, and post-building, as shown in Figure 7. These phases are connected, and the boundaries between them are not obvious. The phases can be developed into LCD strategies that focus on minimizing the environmental impact of a building. Analyzing the building processes in each of these three phases provides a better understanding of how a buildings design, construction, operation, and disposal affect the larger ecosystem.
Pre-Building Phase

Nature

Figure 7: The sustainable building life cycle.

Extraction Processing Manufacturing Transportation Building Phase Construction Operation and Maintenance

Post-Building Phase Waste Management Recycle Reuse

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Sustainable Design 11

Pre-Building Phase This phase includes site selection, building design, and building material processes, up to but not including installation. Under the sustainable-design strategy, we examine the environmental consequences of the structures design, orientation, impact on the landscape, and materials used. The procurement of building materials impacts the environment: harvesting trees could result in deforestation; mining mineral resources (iron for steel; bauxite for aluminum; sand, gravel, and limestone for concrete) disturbs the natural environment; even the transport of these materials can be a highly polluting activity, depending on their weight and distance from the site. The manufacturing of building products also requires energy and creates environmental pollution: for example, a high level of energy is required to manufacture steel or aluminum products. Building Phase This phase refers to the stage of a buildings life cycle when a building is physically being constructed and operated. In the sustainable-design strategy, we examine the construction and operation processes for ways to reduce the environmental impact of resource consumption; we also consider long-term health effects of the building environment on its occupants. Post-Building Phase This phase begins when the useful life of a building has ended. In this stage, building materials become resources for other buildings or waste to be returned to nature. The sustainabledesign strategy focuses on reducing construction waste (which currently comprises 60% of the solid waste in landfills1) by recycling and reusing buildings and building materials.
For more information on this topic, see Recycling and Reuse of Building Materials. This Sustainable Architecture module is available for a small fee from the Center for Sustainable Systems (formerly the NPPC; see the front page of this document for contact information) or free of charge on our website:
www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia/architecture.html

Sim Van der Ryn and Peter Calthorpe, Sustainable Communities (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1986).
1

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Site and Building Interactions The LCD concept calls for consideration of the environmental consequences of buildings in all three phases of the life cycle. Each phase of building life cycle is associated with two groups of ecological elements: site and building (see Figure 8). The principal domain of architectural design is in the building phase, but sustainable building can be achieved by finding ways to minimize environmental impacts during all three phases of building life cycle.
SITE: Elements of site ecology that exist within or in the vicinity of a building site, including sunlight, wind, precipitation, water table, soil, flora, fauna, etc. ... ... before construction. BUILDING: Natural or manufactured resources, such as building materials, water, or energy ...

Figure 8: Ecological elements of Site and Building associated with the building life-cycle phases.

... before they arrive at the site.

... from the time construction begins through the duration of the buildings useful life.

... from the time they arrive at the site for installation or operation though the duration of the buildings useful life.

... after the buildings useful life.

... after the buildings useful life.

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Sustainable Design 13

Principle 3: Humane Design


Humane design is the third, and perhaps the most important, principle of sustainable design. While economy of resources and life cycle design deal with efficiency and conservation, humane design is concerned with the livability of all constituents of the global ecosystem, including plants and wildlife. This principle arises from the humanitarian and altruistic goal of respecting the life and dignity of fellow living organisms. Further examination reveals that this principle is deeply rooted in the need to preserve the chain elements of the ecosystems that allow human survival. In modern society, more than 70% of a persons lifespan is spent indoors. An essential role of architecture is to provide built environments that sustain occupants safety, health, physiological comfort, psychological well-being, and productivity. Because environmental quality is intangible, its importance has often been overlooked in the quest for energy and environmental conservation, which sometimes seemed to mean shivering in the dark. Compounding the problem, many building designers have been preoccupied with style and form-making, not seriously considering environmental quality in and around their built environments . Remember the performance factor of design. When a product saves energy, does it perform as well as what it is replacing? And how does it affect the performance of building occupants? For instance, early fluorescent lighting systems were more efficient than their incandescent counterparts; however, some fluorescents were known to buzz. The bulb might save $30 in annual energy costs, but if the noise irritated the employee working nearby, the employees resulting drop in productivity could cost the employer a lot more, thereby wiping out any financial benefits gained from lighting energy conservation. A general rule of thumb in such comparisons is that the annual energy bill of a typical office building amounts to around five hours of employee labor cost; therefore, any building energy conservation strategy that annually reduces productivity by more than five hours per employee defeats its purpose. This is not to say that energy conservation cant be financially beneficial, just that it should be kept in holistic perspective, taking other pertinent factors into account.

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The following three strategies for humane design focus on enhancing the coexistence between buildings and the greater environment, and between buildings and their occupants, Preservation of Natural Conditions An architect should minimize the impact of a building on its local ecosystem (e.g., existing topography, plants, wildlife). Urban Design and Site Planning Neighborhoods, cities, and entire geographic regions can benefit from cooperative planning to reduce energy and water demands. The result can be a more pleasant urban environment, free of pollution and welcoming to nature. Human Comfort As discussed previously, sustainable design need not preclude human comfort. Design should enhance the work and home environments. This can improve productivity, reduce stress, and positively affect health and well-being.

Summary
To achieve environmental sustainability in the building sector, architects must be educated about environmental issues during their professional training. Faculty have to foster environmental awareness, introduce students to environmental ethics, and developing their skills and knowledge-base in sustainable design. The current status of sustainable design in architecture is that of an ethic rather than a science. While a change of lifestyles and attitudes toward the local and global environments is important, the development of scientific knowledge-bases that provide skills, techniques, and methods of implementing specific environmental design goals is urgent. To enhance environmental sustainability, a building must holistically balance and integrate all three principles Sustainable Design, Economy of Resources, and Life Cycle Design in design, construction, operation and maintenance, and recycling and reuse of architectural resources. These principles comprise a conceptual framework for sustainable architectural design. This framework is intended to help designers seek solutions rather than giving them a set of solutions. Specific design solutions compatible with a given design problem will emanate from these principles.
Introduction to Sustainable Design December 1998 Sustainable Design 15

Methods for Achieving Sustainable Design


The ultimate goal and challenge of sustainable design is to find win-win solutions that provide quantitative, qualitative, physical, and psychological benefits to building users. There are many possibilities for achieving this seemingly difficult goal. The three principles of sustainable design economy of resources, life cycle design, and humane design provide a broad awareness of the environment issues associated with architecture. The strategies within each principle focus on more specific topics. These strategies are intended to foster an understanding of how a building interacts with the internal, local, and global environments. This section discusses methods for applying sustainable design to architecture.

Economy of Resources
Conserving energy, water, and materials can yield specific design methods that will improve the sustainability of architecture (see Figure 8). These methods can be classified as two types. 1) Input-reduction methods reduce the flow of nonrenewable resources input to buildings. A buildings resource demands are directly related its efficiency in utilizing resources. 2) Output-management methods reduce environmental pollution by requiring a low level of waste and proper waste management. Energy Conservation Energy conservation is an input-reduction method. The main goal is to reduce consumption of fossil fuels. Buildings consume energy not only in their operation, for heating, lighting and cooling, but also in their construction. The materials used in architecture must be harvested, processed, and transported to the building site. Construction itself often requires large amounts of energy for processes ranging from moving earth to welding.
Energy-Conscious Urban Planning

Cities and neighborhoods that are energy-conscious are not planned around the automobile, but around public transportation and pedestrian walkways. These cities have zoning laws favorable to mixed-use developments, allowing people
16 Sustainable Design December 1998 Introduction to Sustainable Design

to live near their workplaces. Urban sprawl is avoided by encouraging redevelopment of existing sites and the adaptive reuse of old buildings. Climatic conditions determine orientation and clustering. For example, a very cold or very hot and dry climate might require buildings sharing walls to reduce exposed surface area; a hot, humid climate would require widely spaced structures to maximize natural ventilation.

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND POLLUTION PREVENTION

Figure 9: Economy of Resources methods of application.

Principle 1: Economy of Resources Strategies


Energy Conservation Water Conservation Material Conservation

Methods

Energy-conscious urban planning Energy-conscious site planning Alternative sources of energy Passive heating and cooling Avoidance of heat gain or heat loss Use of lowembodied-energy materials Use of energyefficient appliances with timing devices

Reduction: - Indigenous landscaping - Low-flow showerheads - Vacuum-assist toilets or smaller toilet tanks Reuse: - Rainwater collection - Graywater collection

Materialconserving design and construction Proper sizing of building systems Rehabilitation of existing structures Use of reclaimed or recycled materials and components Use of nonconventional building materials

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Energy-Conscious Site Planning

Such planning allows the designer to maximize the use of natural resources on the site. In temperate climates, open southern exposure will encourage passive solar heating; deciduous trees provide shade in summer and solar heat gain in winter. Evergreens planted on the north of a building will protect it from winter winds, improving its energy efficiency. Buildings can be located relative to water onsite to provide natural cooling in summer.
Passive Heating and Cooling

Solar radiation incident on building surfaces is the most significant energy input to buildings. It provides heat, light, and ultraviolet radiation necessary for photosynthesis. Historically, architects have devised building forms that provide shading in summer and retain heat in winter. This basic requirement is often overlooked in modern building design. Passive solar architecture offers design schemes to control the flow of solar radiation using building structure, so that it may be utilized at a more desirable time of day. Shading in summer, by plants or overhangs, prevents summer heat gain and the accompanying costs of air-conditioning. The wind, or the flow of air, provides two major benefits: cooling and hygienic effects. Prevailing winds have long been a major factor in urban design. For instance, proposals for Roman city layouts were primarily based on the direction of prevailing winds.
Insulation

High-performance windows and wall insulation prevent both heat gain and loss. Reducing such heat transfer reduces the buildings heating and cooling loads and thus its energy consumption. Reduced heating and cooling loads require smaller HVAC equipment, and the initial investment need for the equipment will be smaller. Aside from these tangible benefits, high-performance windows and wall insulation create more comfortable thermal environments. Due to the insulating properties of the materials, the surface temperatures of windows and walls will be higher in the winter and lower in the summer. The installation of smaller HVAC equipment reduces mechanical noise and increases sonic quality of the indoor space.

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Alternate Sources of Energy

Solar, wind, water, and geothermal energy systems are all commercially available to reduce or eliminate the need for external energy sources. Electrical and heating requirements can be met by these systems, or combination of systems, in all climates.
Daylighting

Building and window design that utilizes natural light will lead to conserving electrical lighting energy, shaving peak electric loads, and reducing cooling energy consumptions. At the same time, daylighting increases the luminous quality of indoor environments, enhancing the psychological wellbeing and productivity of indoor occupants. These qualitative benefits of daylighting can be far more significant than its energy-savings potential.
Energy-Efficient Equipment & Appliances

After construction costs, a buildings greatest expense is the cost of operation. Operation costs can even exceed construction costs over a buildings lifetime. Careful selection of highefficiency heating, cooling, and ventilation systems becomes critical. The initial price of this equipment may be higher than that of less efficient equipment, but this will be offset by future savings. Appliances, from refrigerators to computers, not only consume energy, they also give off heat as a result of the inefficient use of electricity. More efficient appliances reduce the costs of electricity and air-conditioning. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed the Energy Star program to assist consumers in identifying energy efficient electronic equipment.
Choose Materials with Low Embodied Energy

Building materials vary with respect to how much energy is needed to produce them. The embodied energy of a material attempts to measure the energy that goes into the entire life cycle of building material. For instance, aluminium has a very high embodied energy because of the large amount of electricity that must be used to manufacture it from mined bauxite ore; recycled aluminum requires far less energy to refabricate. By choosing materials with low embodied energy, the overall environmental impact of a building is reduced. Using local materials over imported materials of the same type will save transportation energy.
Introduction to Sustainable Design December 1998 Sustainable Design 19

Water Conservation Methods for water conservation may reduce input, output, or both. This is because, conventionally, the water that is supplied to a building and the water that leaves the building as sewage is all treated by municipal water treatment plants. Therefore, a reduction in use also produces a reduction in waste.
Reuse Water Onsite

Water consumed in buildings can be classified as two types: graywater and sewage. Graywater is produced by activities such as handwashing. While it is not of drinking-water quality, it does not need to be treated as nearly as intensively as sewage. In fact, it can be recycled within a building, perhaps to irrigate ornamental plants or flush toilets. Well-planned plumbing systems facilitate such reuse. In most parts of the world, rainwater falling on buildings has not been considered a useful resource. Buildings are typically designed to keep the rain from the occupants, and the idea of utilizing rain water falling on building surfaces has not been widely explored. Building envelopes, particularly roofs, can become rainwater collecting devices, in combination with cisterns to hold collected water. This water can be used for irrigation or toilet-flushing.
Reduce Consumption

Water supply systems and fixtures can be selected to reduce consumption and waste. Low-flow faucets and small toilet tanks are now required by code in many areas of the country. Vacuum-assisted and biocomposting toilets further reduce water consumption. Biocomposting toilets, available on both residential and commercial scales, treat sewage on site, eliminating the need for energy-intensive municipal treatment. Indigenous landscaping using plants native to the local ecosystem will also reduce water consumption. These plants will have adapted to the local rainfall levels, eliminating the need for additional watering. Where watering is needed, the sprinkler heads should be carefully placed and adjusted to avoid watering the sidewalk and street.

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Materials Conservation The production and consumption of building materials has diverse implications on the local and global environments. Extraction, processing, manufacturing, and transporting building materials all cause ecological damage to some extent. There are input and output reduction methods for materials conservation. As with water, some of these methods overlap.
Adapt Existing Buildings to New Uses

One of the most straightforward and effective methods for material conservation is to make use of the resources that already exist in the form of buildings. Most buildings outlive the purpose for which they were designed. Many, if not all, of these buildings can be converted to new uses at a lower cost than brand-new construction.
Incorporate Reclaimed or Recycled Materials

Buildings that have to be demolished should become the resources for new buildings. Many building materials, such as wood, steel, and glass, are easily recycled into new materials. Some, like brick or windows, can be used whole in the new structure. Furnishing, particularly office partition systems, are also easily moved from one location to another.
Use Materials That Can Be Recycled

During the process of designing the building and selecting the building materials, look for ways to use materials that can themselves be recycled. This preserves the energy embodied in their manufacture.
Size Buildings and Systems Properly

A building that is oversized for its designed purpose, or has oversized systems, will excessively consume materials. When a building is too large or small for the number of people it must contain, its heating, cooling, and ventilation systems, typically sized by square footage, will be inadequate or inefficient. This method relates directly to the programming and design phases of the architectural process. The clients present and future space needs must be carefully studied to ensure that the resulting building and systems are sized correctly. Architects are encouraged to design around standardized building material sizes as much as possible. In the U. S., this standard is based on a 4'x8' sheet of plywood. Excess trimming of materials to fit non-modular spaces generates more waste.

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Reuse Non-Conventional Products as Building Materials

Building materials from unconventional sources, such as recycled tires, pop bottles, and agricultural waste, are readily available. These products reduce the need for new landfills and have a lower embodied energy that the conventional materials they are designed to replace.
Consumer Goods

All consumer goods eventually lose their original usefulness. The useful life quantifies the time of conversion from the useful stage to the loss of original usefulness stage. For instance, a daily newspaper is useful only for one day, a phone book is useful for one year, and a dictionary might be useful for 10 years. The shorter the useful life of consumer goods, the greater the volume of useless goods will result. Consequently, more architectural considerations will be required for the recycling of short-life consumer goods. The conventional term for consumer goods that have lost their original usefulness is waste. But waste is or can be a resource for another use. Therefore, in lieu of waste, it is better to use the term recyclable materials. One way buildings can encourage recycling is to incorporate facilities such as on-site sorting bins.

Life Cycle Design


As discussed earlier, the Life Cycle Design principle embodies three strategies: pre-building, building, and post-building. These strategies, in turn, can yield specific design methods that will improve the sustainability of architecture. Figure 10 shows how each method relates to the main strategies of Life Cycle Design. These methods focus mainly on reducing input. Consuming fewer materials lessens the environmental impact of the associated manufacturing processes. This then reduces the eventual output of the building ecosystem. Pre-Building Phase During the Pre-Building Phase, the design of a building and materials selected for it are examined for their environmental impact. The selection of materials is particularly important at this stage: the impact of materials processing can be global and have long-term consequences.

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SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND POLLUTION PREVENTION

Figure 10: Life Cycle Design methods of application.

Principle 2: Life Cycle Design Strategies


Pre-Building Building Post-Building

Methods

Use materials that are ... - made of renewable resources - harvested or extracted without ecological damage - recycled - recyclable - long-lasting and low maintenance Minimize energy needed to distribute materials.

Schedule construction to minimize site impact. Provide wasteseparation facilities. Use nontoxic materials to protect construction workers as well as end users. Specify regular maintenance with nontoxic cleaners.

Adapt existing structures to new users and programs. Reuse building components and materials. Recycle building components and materials. Reuse the land and existing infrastructure.

Use Materials Made From Renewable Resources

Renewable resources are those that can be grown or harvested at a rate that exceeds the rate of human consumption. Using these materials is, by definition, sustainable. Materials made from nonrenewable materials (petroleum, metals, etc.) are, ultimately, not sustainable, even if current supplies are adequate. Using renewable materials wherever possible reduces the need for nonrenewable materials.

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Use Materials Harvested or Extracted Without Causing Ecological Damage

Of the renewable materials available, not all can be obtained without significant environmental effects. Therefore, the architect must be aware of how various raw materials are harvested and understand the local and global ramifications.
Use Recycled Materials

Using recycle materials reduces waste and saves scarce landfill space. Recycled materials also preserve the embodied energy of their original form, which would otherwise be wasted. This also reduces the consumption of materials made from virgin natural resources. Many building materials, particularly steel, are easily recycled, eliminating the need for more mining and milling operations.
Use Materials with Long Life and Low Maintenance

Durable materials last longer and require less maintenance with harsh cleansers. This reduces the consumption of raw materials needed to make replacements and the amount of landfill space taken by discarded products. It also means occupants receive less exposure to irritating chemicals used in the installation and maintenance of materials. Building Phase The methods associated with the Building Phase strategy are concerned with the environmental impact of actual construction and operation processes.
Minimize Site Impact

Careful planning can minimize invasion of heavy equipment and the accompanying ecosystem damage to the site. Excavations should not alter the flow of groundwater through the site. Finished structures should respect site topology and existing drainage. Trees and vegetation should only be removed when absolutely necessary for access. For sensitive sites, materials that can be hand-carried to the site reduce the need for excessive road-building and heavy trucks.
Employ Nontoxic Materials

The use of nontoxic materials is vital to the health of the buildings occupants, who typically spend more than threequarters of their time indoors. Adhesives used to make many common building materials can outgas release volatile organic compounds into the air for years after the original construction. Maintenance with nontoxic cleansers is also

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important, as the cleaners are often airborne and stay within a buildings ventilation system for an extended period of time. Post-Building Phase During this phase, the architect examines the environmental consequences of structures that have outlived their usefulness. At this point, there are three possibilities in a buildings future: reuse, recycling of components, and disposal. Reuse and recycling allow a building to become a resource for new buildings or consumer goods; disposal requires incineration or landfill dumping, contributing to an already overburdened waste stream.
Reuse the Building

The embodied energy of a building is considerable. It includes not only the sum of energy embodied in the materials, but also the energy that went into the buildings construction. If the building can be adapted to new uses, this energy will be conserved. Where complete reuse of a building is not possible, individual components can be selected for reuse windows, doors, bricks, and interior fixtures are all excellent candidates.
Recycle Materials

Recycling materials from a building can often be difficult due to the difficulty in separating different substances from one another. Some materials, like glass and aluminum, must be scavenged from the building by hand. Steel can easily be separated from rubble by magnets. Concrete can be crushed and used as aggregate in new pours.
Reuse Existing Buildings and Infrastructure

It has become common for new suburbs to move farther and farther from the core city as people search for space and nature. Of course, the development of new suburbs from virgin woods or fertile agricultural fields destroys the very qualities these suburbanites are seeking. Moreover, in addition to the materials for new houses, new development requires massive investments in material for roads, sewers, and the businesses that inevitability follow. Meanwhile, vacant land and abandoned structures in the city, with its existing infrastructure, go unused, materials wasted.

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Sustainable Design 25

Figure 11: Humane Design methods of application.

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND POLLUTION PREVENTION

Principle 3: Humane Design Strategies


Preservation of Natl Conditions Urban Design Site Planning Design for Human Comfort

Understand the impact of design on nature Respect topographical contours Do not disturb the water table Preserve existing flora and fauna

Avoid pollution contribution Promote mixeduse development Create pedestrian pockets Provide for human-powered transportation Integrate design with public transportation

Provide thermal, visual, and acoustic comfort Provide visual connection to exterior Provide operable windows Provide clean, fresh air Accomodate persons with differing physical abilities Use nontoxic, non-outgassing materials

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Humane Design
As described in the introduction, this principle embodies three strategies: preservation of natural conditions, urban design and site planning, and design for human comfort. These strategies, in turn, yield specific design methods that will improve the sustainability of architecture. Figure 11 shows how each method relates to the three strategies of Humane Design. These methods focus primarily on improving the quality of life for humans and other species. Preservation of Natural Conditions
Respect Topographical Contours

The existing contours of a site should be respected. Radical terraforming is not only expensive but devastating to the sites microclimate. Alteration of contours will affect how water drains and how wind moves through a site.
Do Not Disturb the Water Table

Select sites and building designs that do not require excavation below the local water table. Placing a large obstruction (the building) into the water table will disturb natural hydraulic process. If the water table is exposed during construction, it will also become more susceptible to contamination from polluted surface runoff.
Preserve Existing Flora and Fauna

Local wildlife and vegetation should be recognized as part of the building site. When treated as resources to be conserved rather than as obstacle to be overcome, native plants and animals will make the finished building a more enjoyable space for human habitation. Urban Design and Site Planning The methods associated with the Urban Design and Site Planning strategy apply sustainability at a scale larger than the individual building.
Integrate Design with Public Transportation

Sustainable architecture on an urban scale must be designed to promote public transportation. Thousands of individual vehicles moving in and out of area with the daily commute create smog, congest traffic, and require parking spaces.

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Promote Mixed Use Development

Sustainable development encourages the mixing of residential, commercial, office and retail space. People then have the option of living near where they work and shop. This provides a greater sense of community than conventional suburbs. The potential for 24-hour activity also makes an area safer. Design for Human Comfort
Provide Thermal, Visual, and Acoustic Comfort

People do not perform well in spaces that are too hot or too cold. Proper lighting, appropriate to each task, is essential. Background noise from equipment or people can be distracting and damage occupants hearing. Acoustic and visual privacy also need to be considered.
Provide Visual Connection to Exterior

The light in the sky changes throughout the day, as the sun and clouds move across the sky. Humans all have an internal clock that is synchronized to the cycle of day and night. From a psychological and physiological standpoint, windows and skylights are essential means of keeping the body clock working properly,
Provide Operable Windows

Operable windows are necessary so that building occupants can have some degree of control over the temperature and ventilation in their workspace.
Provide Fresh Clean Air

Fresh air through clean air ducts is vital to the well-being of building occupants. The benefits of fresh air go beyond the need for oxygen. Continuous recirculation of interior air exposes people to concentrated levels of bacteria and chemicals within the building.
Use Nontoxic, Non-Outgassing Materials

Long-term exposure to chemicals commonly used in building materials and cleaners can have a detrimental effect on health.
Accommodate Persons with Differing Physical Abilities

One aspect of sustainable design is its longevity. Buildings that are durable and adaptable are more sustainable than those that are not. This adaptability includes welcoming people of different ages and physical conditions. The more people that can use a building, the longer the buildings useful life.

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Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide

The Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide educates and assists architects, building owners, occupants, educators, students, and the general public concerning sustainable building design. The Guide is a design tool that can be used to overlay environmental issues on the design, construction, and operation of both new and renovated facilities. It can be used to set sustainable design priorities and goals; develop appropriate sustainable design strategies; and to determine performance measures to guide the sustainable design and decision-making processes. It can also be used as a management tool to organize and structure environmental concerns during the design, construction, and operations phases. The current version of the Guide is the first stage of a design tool that will evolve based on feedback from users and especially based on case studies that apply the Guide. The future development and support for the Guide depends on understanding the effectiveness of the tool and learning how it is being used. If the Guide is applied to an actual project, we request that you share your results and findings. This information will be used only to understand the application and effectiveness of the guide, as well as contributing to the growing knowledge base on sustainable design. MSDG Version 2.0

1999-2001 Regents of the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus, College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture All rights reserved. Do not copy or reproduce without permission. Contact msdg@tc.umn.edu. Privacy Statement

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e design: Resources: Process Guidelines

The Process Guidelines for High-Performance Buildings were implemented in 1998 as an updating of the Florida Energy Conservation Manual (1992 Revision) and State Energy Management Plan (1986 Revision). The Process Guidelines for High-Performance Buildings were developed to provide general information and legislatively mandated guidance for a range of personnel with facility and project responsibilities during all phases of building design, construction, and operation. The Process Guidelines incorporate provisions formerly addressed by the State Energy Management Plan (SEMP) and the Florida Energy Conservation Manual (FECM); and also provide information and provisions related to the state's Energy Consumption Tracking Database (ECTD) and Florida Energy Modeling Program (formerly known as FLEET). NOTE: This is a work product of the Florida Energy Update Project and is not currently mandated by the Florida Department of Management Services as mandatory for State of Florida facilities. Therefore, the specific procedures discussed are not necessarily the official policy of the State of Florida. To access the Process Guidelines for High-Performance Buildings select an area of responsibility and a facility design or occupancy phase from the choices below, then press the "Continue" button to see a list of tasks related to the responsibility and phase selected. Follow the instructions, select a specific task (and possibly a specific subtask), and retrieve applicable provisions of the Process Guidelines and related information and resources.

Responsibility: (Select) Phase: (Select) Continue If you prefer, there is a Text-only Index and a Graphic Interface available, as well. For more general reference, there is also a Library of online and print references available.

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Santa Monica Green Building Program

Santa Monica Green Building Program Search


Help Advanced

Green Building Requirements Guidelines Case Studies Additional Resources Site Map

The City of Santa Monica has a commitment to protecting the environment, improving quality of life, and promoting sustainability. In order to fulfill this commitment, the City has adopted a set of requirements and recommendations to encourage the development of "green" buildings without forcing excessive costs or other burdens upon developers, building owners or occupants. The City has also developed Green Building Guidelines to explain possible ways of achieving green building goals. This site contains information both on what you must do and what you might consider doing in order to achieve Santa Monicas standards of excellence in green building design and construction. For information on green techniques in general, and strategies for both Required and Suggested practices, see the Green Building Design and Construction Guidelines link. The Introduction to the Guidelines contains background information on Santa Monicas Green Building Program, as well as explanations of the green building design process. For information on city requirements for all building projects in Santa Monica, see the Green Building Program Requirements. For information about other City of Santa Monica Environmental Programs go to www. smepd.org.

Home | Whats New | Guidelines in PDF | Site Map | Design Advisor | Energy Compliance | Contact Us

Design Credits

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Sustainable Building Sourcebook Contents

Table of Contents

Looking for a green professional? Check out the Green Building Professionals Directory!

Do you supply goods or services that relate to Sustainable Building? Become a sponsor! Visit all our sponsors

Introduction Praise Disclaimer Purpose of the Sourcebook How to Use the Sourcebook

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Sustainable Building Sourcebook Contents

Indoor Water Conservation Composting Toilets Pervious Materials Xeriscape Greywater Irrigation Harvested Rainwater Water Budget

Passive Solar Design Landscaping for Energy Conservation Radiant Barrier and Ridge-and-Soffit Venting Earth Sheltered Design Solar Hot Water, Heating and Cooling Systems Photovoltaic Systems Gas Water Heating Systems Ductwork Fans Energy Recovery Ventilator Programmable Thermostat Energy Efficient Appliances Lighting Electro-Magnetic Fields Ground Source Heat Exchange

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Sustainable Building Sourcebook Contents

Dimensional Lumber Wood Treatment Engineered Structural Materials Engineered Sheet Materials Engineered Siding and Trim Flyash Concrete Non-Toxic Termite Control Earth Materials Floor Coverings Wood Flooring Roofing Structural Wall Panels Insulation Windows and Doors Cabinets Paints, Finishes and Adhesives Straw Bale Construction

Home Recycling Compost Systems Construction Waste Recycling

Appendices
How to be Listed in the Sourcebook Design Criteria for Central Texas Keyword Search the Site Green Building Professionals Directory Now includes Green Building Pros EVERYWHERE!

Sustainable Sources | Building Sources | Green Building Conferences | Bookstore | Calendar | Green

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Sustainable Building Sourcebook Contents

Real Estate Classifieds

This document was adapted to HTML by Bill Christensen, webmaster of Sustainable Sources .
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Sustainable Facilities Management

Home Ask Saint Paul Contact Search Site Map


www.stpaul.gov 651-266-8989 Top 10 Online Services Sustainable Saint Paul Residents Business Explore Saint Paul Mayor Council Departments City Org Chart Budget Weekly Meetings Parks & Recreation Libraries Schools Saint Paul for Kids Where in St. Paul The Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide has been adopted by the City of City Job Openings Saint Paul for managing City-owned facilities. The University of Minnesota created this set of guidelines, and it was adopted by the State of Minnesota City Contracts for use in the design of new State facilities. This guide takes the place of the Housing & Property Info City's Sustainable Decision Guide, created in 1997. Licensing/Permits Police Fire Public Works Maps Documents Official Publications Other Government Sites Ramsey County State of Minnesota United States
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Office of Real Estate Department of Technology and Management Services 160 City Hall, Saint Paul, MN 55102 651-266-8850; fax 651-266-8919

Sustainable Facilities Management


For City of Saint Paul Facilities The city needs to be understood as part of a functioning ecosystem. This does not mean that future development should be discouraged or that there should be a wholesale restoration of the natural environment. It means instead that efforts should be made to redress the imbalance that now exists between the natural and built environments. The intent is to understand the city as a unique and healthy urban ecology specific to Saint Paul. (Excerpted from the Saint Paul Mississippi Development Framework, 1997)

Participants in creating the City's 1997 Sustainable Decision Guide


TASK FORCE
Jim Graupmann Water Utility Lee Williamson Library Services (SPPL) Del Swanson Fire and Safety Services Department (FIRE) Ray Schmidt Police Department

Darold McMahan Planning and Economic Development (PED) Duane Kroll Contract and Analysis Services, Department of Technology and Management Services (TMS) Rick Person Public Works Department (PW)

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Scott Getty Northern States Power (NSP) Duane Stolpe Parks and Recreation (PR)

TASK FORCE STAFF


q

Mark Basten Design Group, Real Estate Division, Department of Technology and Management Services (TMS) Chuck Ekstedt Design Group, Real Estate Division, Department of Technology and Management Services (TMS) David Godfrey City Council Investigation and Research Center (CTY CNCL)

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The Sustainable Design Resource Guide

The Sustainable Design Resource Guide

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WBDG - Whole Building Design Guide

The Gateway to Up-To-Date Information on Integrated 'Whole Building' Design Techniques and Technologies

WBDG Quick Links


Below are a selection of WBDG pages, documents or tools that are frequently requested by users: - Construction Waste Management Database - Building Envelope Design Guide - Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers - GSA LEED Cost Study and Applications Guide - Unified Facilities Criteria - Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS)

Access New WBDG Services

New and Updated WBDG Pages


- Fire Station NEW - Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) - Heating, Ventilating, AirConditioning, and Refrigerating (HVAC&R) Engineering NEW - Information Technologies Engineering NEW - UFC/ISC Security Design Criteria Overview and Comparison NEW - Cool Metal Roofing - Running a Design Competition - Cost Estimating NEW - Plumbing Engineering NEW - Energy Master Planning for HVAC Systems in New and Existing Buildings NEW - HVAC System Dynamic Integration - Value Engineering NEW - Planning and Conducting Integrated Design (ID) Charrettes NEW - Electric Lighting Controls - Air Decontamination

New Version of the Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers Now Available!
To address the need for a comprehensive guide for procuring green building products and construction services within the Federal government, EPA, in partnership with the Federal Environmental Executive and the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG), has developed the Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers. The Guide contains more than 60 model "green" guide specification sectionscovering a vast array of construction materials and methodsto help Federal agencies in meeting Greening of Government Executive Orders; EPA's Final Guidance on Environmentally Preferable Purchasing; EPA's Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines for recovered content; USDA's Federal Biobased Products Preferred Procurement Program; ENERGY STAR & DOE Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Product Efficiency Recommendations; the Energy Policy Act of 2005; and the recently signed Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding. This new version reflects EPA's response to more than 100 industry public comments.

2006, National Institute of Building Sciences. All rights reserved. Disclaimer.

The "Whole Building" Design Approach


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WBDG - Whole Building Design Guide

The goal of 'Whole Building' Design is to create a successful highperformance building. To achieve that goal, we must apply the integrated design approach to the project during the planning and programming phases. It is necessary for the people involved in the building design to interact closely throughout the design process. The owner, building occupants, and operation and maintenance personnel should be involved to capture their understanding of how the building and its systems will work for them once they occupy it. The fundamental challenge of 'whole buildings' design is to understand that all building systems are interdependent. Read more

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