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GIAI NHANH TRAC NGHIEM

?

cAc CONG THUC
~

~

o CHUdNG I
CAC COttGTtlaC GIAI "tlA"" TRO"G tlOA tlQC
, A " ,

1. Cong thuc tinh sf}d6ng phan ancol ddn chuc no

IS6 d6ng phan aneol CnH2n

+

20:;;:

2n

-1 (1 < n < 6)

Vi du 1. C6 bao nhieu aneol don chirc no la d6ng phan cua nhau, cong thirc phan lAn h.t<;1t 10,C3HsO; C4H100; C5H120?

tv

Gidi

86 d6ng phan aneol CaHsO
C4HlOO

=2

3- 2

=2
2

= 24 -

=4

C5H120 = 25

-2

=8
11

2. Cong thuc tinh sf}d6ng phan andehit ddn chuo no ~6 d6ng phan andehi t CnH2n 0 = 2

-1 (2 < n < 7)

Vi du 2. C6 bao nhieu andehitdon chuc no 18.d6ng phan ca'u tao cua nhau, cong thltc phan tit hin htgt la C4HsO; C5H100; C6H120 ? Gidi 86 dang phan andehit C4HsO

=

2 2

4- 3

= =

2

C5H 100:;;:

5- 3 3

=, 4 8

CaH120 = 2 6 -

3. Cong thtrc tinh sf}ddng phan axit cacboxylic don chuc no

186 dang

phan axit CnH2n02 == 2

11

-1

(2 < n < 7-)

Vi d~ 3. C6 bao nhieu axit cacboxylic don chltc no 18 dang phan ca'u tao cua nhau, cong thuc phan tti IAn lttgt lEi C4Hs02; C5HlO02; CJI1202 ? Giiii 86 dang phan axit C4Hs02 C5HlO02= CaH1202::;

=

24 - a 25 -3 3::;

=

2 4 8

=

2a-

4. Cong thuc tinh s6 d6ng phan este ddn chu'c no

186 dang phan

este CnH2nOg

=

2

n-1

(1 < n < 5)

5

Vi du 4. C6 bao nhieu este la ddng phan cau tao cua nhau, cong thuo phan tit 1a C2H402; CgHS02 ; C4Hs02

Giiii
86 d6ng phan este C2H402 CgHS02 = 2 232 = 22

=
-'

1
2

C4Hs02 = 24-2

= -l

Vi du 5.,C6 bao nhieu chat htru co dan chirc, d6ng phan cau tao cua nhau, c6 cung cong thuc phan tit· C4Hs02, d~u tac dung dugc vdi dung dich NaOH ?

A. 5

B.3

C.4 Giiii

D.6
(TSDH 2007/ Kh6i A)

Cac chell huu co den chirc co 2 oxi trong phan tit 1a cac axit S6ddng phan axit C4Hs02 = 243

va este

=2

86 ddng phan este C4Hs02

=

2 4 -: 2

=

4

V~yco 6 cha't hiru co thoa yeu c§u d~ bai ~ chon D 5. Cong thuc tinh 86 ete ddn chuc no ~6 ddng phan ete CnH2n + 20

,

=

!( n 2

1) (n - 2

(voi 2 < n < 6)

Vi d~ 6. Co bao nhieu ete la ddng phan c§u tao ella nhau, cong' thirc phan tli 1dn hrot 1a C3HsO; C4HlOO va C5H120?

Giiii
86 ddng phan ete C3HsO = C4HlOO
C5H120

! (3 2
2

1) ( 3 - 2) = 1

.

= -1 (4 = ~ (5 -

1) (4 - 2)
1) (5 - 2)

= =

3
6

Vi du 7.· Co bao nhieu chat hiru co la ddng phan c§u tao cua nhau, cong' thirc phan tli la C4H 100?

Giiii
Do C4HlOO co s6 hoac ete no
1'\

= 0 nen C4HlOO chi co th~ 18.cong thuc cua aneo1 no
2

86 d6ng phan anco1 C4HlOO = 24 6

=4

86 dang phan ete C4HlOO = .!(4 - 1) (4 - 2) = 3 2

~ co 7 dang

phan cau tao e§n tim

~ ,,' " ,,' u Lrill y: H Q'p c h at C x H y0 zN t Cl u co so 1\ max . = 2x - y" - 2 + t + 2
6. Cong thuc tfnh s6 d&ng phan xeton ddn chuc no '

S6 dang

phan xeton CnH2nO = .!(n - 2) (n - 3~ (vdi 2 < n <7) 2 . ,

Vi du 8. p6bao nhieu xeton la dang phan ea'u tao eua nhau, eong thue phan tit l§n hrot la C4HsO; C5HlOOva C6HI20? Gidi 86 dang phan xeton C4HsO

=.2.!.(4 =

2) (4 - 3)

=1

1 C5HlOO = 2 (5 - 2) (5 - 3) = 3 C6H120 .!(6 - 2) (6 - 3) 2
+ sN

=6

7. Cong thtrc tlnh s6 ddng phan amin ddn chuc no

186 d&ng phan

am in CllH2n

= 211-:- 11 (n < 5)

Vi du 9. Co bao nhieu amin dan chirc no hi d6ng phan ea'u tao ciia nhau, eong thirc phan tit Iftn hrot la C2H7N; CsHgN va C4HllN? Gidi S6d5ng phan amin C2H7N = 2 C4HllN
2-1
1

=

2

CSH9N = 2 3 -

=4

=2

4- 1

=8.

Vi du 10. ~Amin dan chirc A tac dung vdi HCl vita dil theo ti l~ kh6i ht<;1ng tttang ling 2 : 1. A co th~ co bao nhieu d6ng phan ea'u tao? Gidi Theo d~ nA : nHCI = 2: 1 ~ nA ~ MA = 73 (vi nA ~ A co 24 1

=

nHCI = 73 : 36,5

~ 73 gam A tac dung vira du 1 mol HC~

=

nHCI = 1 mol) phan eau tao 7

~ A co cong thire phan tit C4HllN

= 8 dang

8. Cong' thuc tinh s6 C cua ancol no hoac ankan dua dngchay 86 C ciia aneol no hoac ankan

V80

phan

=

Vi du 11. D6t chay mQt Iuong aneol don chirc A dttqe 15,4 gam CO2 9,45 gam H20. Tim eong thU'e phan tli ella A.

va

Gidi
Ta co nCO:l= 0,35 mol < nH20 SO' Cella ancol

=

0,525 mol nen A 18.ancol no

=

__ 0-,-,3_5__ = 2. 0,525 - 0,35

V4y A co cong thrrc phan tli C2R60 Vi du 12. B6t chay hoan toan mQt htqng hidrocacbon A r6i hap thu toan bQ san pham chay vao binh d\jD.g nttoc voi trong du thay khdi lttqng btnh tang 39 gam va xua't hien 60 gam ke't tua. Tim cong thue phan ttl ella A

Gidi
' 44.0,6 Ta co nC02 = 06 rnoI < nH20 = 39 - 18 ,
SO' C cua ankan

=

0,7 mol nen A la ankan

=

6 0, 0,7 - 0,6

= 6.

V~y A co cong' thirc CGH14
:

Vi du 13. Ddt chay hoan toan ancol da chirc A dtt<Jc nC02 Tim cong' thtrc phan ttl cua ancol A.

nH:!O= 2 :3.

Gidi
Theo d~ cirdiroc 2 mol CO2 thi cfing' diroc 3 mol H20

V" so C"eua aneo I ay A' ..

= -- 2 = 2 3-2

Ancol da chirc 2C chi co th~ co t6i da 2 nhom OH, do do A co cong thuc C2H602 ra bat cu chdt Iuiu co nao khi chdy chi t{LO CO2 va H20, trong d6 nC02 < nH~O thi ta d~u c6 86 C trong pluin. til chdt hilu

Luu

y. Thuc
n
C--,°2::....,.__

C(J

= __

J

va clui: hilu

C(J

nay chi

co

thi la ankan, hoac ancol

no, hotic ete no, V~n dung. dieu. nay cung gizip gidi nhanh cdc bai toano

8

Tlui: vtj,y, xet vi du sau: Ala hop chat huu co chua C; H; 0, phan til chi chua mQt loai nh6m chirc, Chia m gam A lam 2 phan bang' nhau: + Cho phan 1 tac dung he't v6'i Na dugc 3,36 lit H2 (dktc). + D6t chay he't phan 2 duoc 26,4 gam CO2 va 13,5 gam H20. GiA tri m la
A.18

B. 13,5

C. 12,6 Gitii

D. 14,4

Do ncoz = 0,6 mol < nHzO = 0,75 mol va A tac dung dugc v6'i Na nsn

A 18. ancol no
86 C trong phan til A = 0,6 = 4 => nA = 0,6 = 0,15 mol 0,75 - 0,6 4

Ma nH2 = 3,36 = 0,15 mol = nA nen A phai la ancol 2 chirc 22,4 8uy ra A c6 cong thuc phan til C4HlOOZ• VfJ;y m = 90.0,15 = 13,5 gam (chon B) 9. Cong thuc tim cong thtre phan t~ ancol no, mach hd dt1a theo ti l~ mol giua ancol ;, Cn H2n + 20 x can k mo 10th' 2

va O2 trong
I

phan ung chay

Giii sil d6t chay hoan toan 1 mol ancol no, mach h& A, cong thtrc / 2k ta co: n = ----- 1+ x
3
(x< n)

Vi du 14. B6t chay hoan toan 1 mol ancol no, mach h& A c~ 4 mol O2• Tim cong tlurc phan ttl cua A.

ouu
Do 3 = _2_.4_1_+_2 nen n
A

3

= 3'va
=

x = 2.

V~y A c6 cong thuc phan til la CgHS02 Nb. q,n xet, Tuy ta cung co 4 't -,
A

2.4 -1 + 5 ,. Iwq,c 5 __ 2.4 -1 3 3

+8

... ,

nhung ·cac ancol CJI100S

hotic C5H120S kh6ng t6n tai, mac du cluing

vdn thoo. dii ki~n d~ bai.
9

Thqi vgy cdc ancol dd neu iT tren cO cdc phdn ung chtty la: CSHg02 C5H120g

+ 402
+ 402

3C02 5C02

+ 4H20
+ 6H20

Vi du 15. Dot chay hoan toan 1 mol aneol no, mach hl1 A cAn 3,5 mol O2• Tim cong' thtre phan tit cua A.

Giiii
Do 3 = 2.3,5 - 1 + 3 nen n = 3 va x = 3.
3 V~y A co cong thirc phan ttl'la C3Rg03

Vi dv.16. D6t chay hoan toan 1 mol aneol no, mach h& A cAn 4,5 mol O2• Tim cong thirc phan ti't cua A.
c

Giiii

Do . 3 = 2.4,5 - 1 + 1 nen n
A

3

= 3'va x = 1.

V~y A 'eo cong thirc phan ttl'la C3HsO

Vi du 17. D6t chay hoan toan 1 mol aneol no, mach hl1 A cAn 5 mol O2-, Tim cong thuc phan ti't cua A.,

Giiii
-

DQ 4 = 2.5 - 31 + 3,:nen n = 4' va x = 3 .
V~y A-e6 cong thirc phan ttl'la C4RlO03

10. Cong thuc tinh kh6i luqng ancol ddn clnre no (hoae hAn h~ ancol ddn chuc no) theo-kh6i luqng CO2 va kh6i luqng H20.
m
. ancol -

-m

H20

mCO 2

11

Vi du 18. Khi d6t chay hoan toan m gam h6nhQ'p hai aneol no, dan chile, mach h6' duoc V lit CO2 (dkte) va a gam nude. Bi€u thirc lien h~ giira m, a va VIa: A.m=a5,6

v

B. m = 2a-

C.

m=

2a- --

.

v

V -11,2
V

22,4

D. m = a +

5,6 ,(TSDH 2009/ Kh6i A)

10

Giai ' Ta co mancol= mH20
-

m --u- =
C02

1 44V a - 11 22,4

=

a - 5,6

V

(chon A)

11. Cong thuc tfnh s6 di, tri, tetra . . . , n pep tit t6ida han hflp gam x amino axit khac nhau 186n peptitmax = xn

tao bO'i

I

Vi du 19. Co toi da bao nhieu dipeptit, tripeptit g6m 2 amino axi t la glyxin va alanin? Giai 86 dipeptitmax 86 tripeptitmax
= 22 = 4

thu du'<]ctit h6n hop

=

23 = 8 thu dU<;ic hOn hop ta

Vi d~ 20. Co t6i da bao nhieu dipeptit, tripeptit g6m 3 amino axit la glyxin, alanin va valin? Giai 86 dipeptitmax 86 tripeptitmax

=

32

=

9
27

= 33

=

Vi du 21. Co t6i da bao nhieu tetrapeptit thu du'<]ctit h6n hop g6m 2 amino axit la glyxin va alanin? Tit hOn hop g6m 3 amino axit Ia glyxin, alanin va valin? Giai 86 tetrapeptitjj; tao bdi 2 amino axit = 24 = 16

S6 tetrapeptit..., tao bdi 3 amino axit = 34 =_ 81
Vi d~ 22. Thuy phan hoan toan tripeptit X thu dugc hbn hop chi g6m 2 aminoaxit la glyxin va alanin. X co th~ co bao nhieu cong thuc cdu tao? Giai

se cong
Luu

thuc c~u tao ella X = 2

3

-

2

=

6

la sd tripeptit cue -dg,i tao bili h6n hap -2 amino axit tren, nhung pluii loai bi) 2 tripeptit tao boi cung m9t loai aminoaxit laGly

y: ~

- Gly - Gly va Ala - Ala - Ala Vi du 23. Tit HOn hop g6m 3 amino axit la glyxin, alanin va valin th~ tao du<]cbao nhieu tripeptit chua dii 3 g6c amino axit tren? Giai 86 tripeptit chua dli 3 g6c amino axit = 3! = 6

co

Luu

y: -

Day la bai toan. tinli 86 n peptit chua dil n g6c ex- amino axit.

Vi du. ti: him lUJPglyxin vit alanin chi too 2 dipeptit Gly - Ala va Ala - Gly chua d112 g6c amino axit tren. Vi du co 3! = 6 tripeptit chua du 3 g6c amino axit glyxin; alanin va valin trong phan ttl

- S6 n peptit chua du n goc amino axit

= nl.

12. Cong thuc tinh s6 triglixerit cacboxylic beo

tao bdi glixerol voi cae axit
2

n o rIes Sh" tri te = ---(n + 1) 2

Vi du 24. Bun nong han hop g6m glixerol cling 2 axit beo la axit panmitic va axit stearic (xuc tac H2S04 dac) se thu dl1Q'ctoi da bao nhieu triglixerit? Gicii
. SA" trig 1· it = _n_2(_n_+_l_) __ 22 (22+ 1) -_ 6 o ixeri 2

13. Cong thuc tinh s6 ete t~o bl1i han hep n ancol dern ehuc
t n(n Soe e=--,.!

+ 1)
2

Vi du 25. Bun nong han hop x g6m 2 ancol don chuc no v6'i H2S04 d~c d 140°C diroc han hop bao nhieu ete? Gicii So ete

=

2(2

2

+ 1) = 3

Vi d\l 26. Bun nong han hop g6m 3 ancol don chirc no v6'i H2S04 d~c d 140°C dl1Q'c han hop bao nhieu ete? . Gicii

x

SO' ete

= 3(3 + 1) = 6

2

13. Cong thuc tfnh kh6i lliflng amino axit A (chua n nhom NH2 va m nhom COOH) khi eho amino axit nay vaodung dieh chua a mol Hel, sau do cho dung dieh sau phan ung tac dung vila

dii vdi b mol NaOH

Vi du 27. Cho m gam glyxin vao dung dich chira 0,3 mol HCI. Dung dich sau phan ling tac dung vua dti v6'i 0,5 mol NaOH. Tim m. Gitii m

=

75 0,5- 0,3 1

=

15 gam

Vi du 28. Cho m gam axit glutamic vao dung dich chua 0,3 mol HCl. Dung dich sau phan ling tac dungvira du vdi 0,5 mol NaOH. Tim m. Gitii m

=

147 0,5; 0,3 = 14,7 gam

Vi du 29. Cho m gam lysin vao dung dich chua 0,3 mol HCl. Dung dich sau phan ling tac dungvua du vdi 0,5 mol NaOH. Tim m Gitii m

=

146 0,5-0,3 1

29,2 gam

la mot amino axit rfit cdn thilt cho s1/ tang trztlmg co thi. No la amino axit kh6ng th€ thay thl vi co th€ nguai khong th€ tu t6ng lU1P duoc ma pluii ltiy true tilp tit thuc an. Nlui: Ban La nuac titng them lysin oao gao, b(Jt mi.: d€ xUc tiln s1/ t6ng h'!JJprotein. Lysyn co cong tlua: la NH2(CH;)4CH(NHp)COOH. Vi du 30. Cho mQt hrong axitglutamic vao dung dich chua 0,2 mol HCI. Dung dich sau phan U'ng tac dung vira du vdi 0,3 mol NaOH, sau d6 co can dung dich du'Q'cbao nhieu gam ran khan? Gitii D~ dang thB:y ran khan g6m: + 0,2 mol NaCl +' 03-02
2

Lttu

y: Lysin

'=

0,05 mol NaOOCCH(NH2)CH2CH2COONa

::::.mdn khan

=

58,5. 0,2 + 191. 0,05 = 21,25 gam

Vi du 31. Cho mQt lu'Q'Ilgamino axit A vao dung dich chua 0,1 mol HCI. Dung dich sau phan ling tac dung' vtia du vai 0,25 mol NaOH, sau do co can duqc 20,175 gam rAn khan. V~y A co cong thUt phan 18.:

tu

A. C4H7N04

B. C4HgN204

c. C H
5

lO

N204

D. C5HgN04_
13

Gidi 'I'heocac phirong an d€ ra thi A co 4 oxi trong phan ti1 tire A co 2 nhomCOOH

=> 20,175 gam rAn khan g6m: + 0,1 mol NaCl
.. 0, 25 - 0, 1 =, 075 mo I muoi natri cua A .,..,.. + 2 => Mmuo'i natri cua A = 20,175 - 58,5.0,1 = 191 0,075
.?

°

=> MA = 191 - 46 + 2

=

147 (CsH9NO,t, chon D)

14. Cong thuc tfnh kh6i hicjng amino axit A (chua n nhom NH2 va m nhom COOH) khi cho amino axit nay vao dung djeh chua a mol NaOH, sau do cho dung dich sau phan ung tac dung v-ua du vdi b mol HC!

Vi du 32. Cho m gam alanin vao dung dich chira 0,375 -mol NaOH. Dung dich sau phan ling tac dung vua du vai 0,575 mol HCI. Tim m. Gidi m = 89 0, 575 ~ 0,375 = 17,8 gam Vi du 33. Cho m gam axit glutamic vao dung dich chua 0,3 mol NaOH. Dung dich sau phan irng tac dung vira du v6i 0,5 mol HCI. Tim m. Gidi m

=

147 0,5 - 0,3 = 29,4 gam 1

Vi du 34. Cho m gam lysin vao dung dich chua 0,3 mol NaOH. Dung dich sau ph an ling tac dung vira du vdi 0,5 mol HCl. Tim m Gidi 0,5 - 0,3 m = 146 2

=, 146

gam

16. Cong thuc tfnh sa lien k~t 1t cua hcjpchai hUn cd mach hd A, cong thuc CxHy hol)c CxHyOz dua vao m6i lien quan giiia s6 mol CO2; H20 thu dliqc khi d6t chay A

A 1a CxHy hoac CxHyOz, mach hd, chay cho nC02
A co s6 14
7t

-

nH20

= kn, thi

= (k + 1)

Vi du 35. Dot chay hoan toan me>throng' este don chuc, mach h6' A duc;1c nC02 - nH20 = 2 nA • M~t khac thuy phan A (moi tnrong axit) du'c;1cxit a cacboxylic B va andehit don chire no D. V~y phat bi~u dung la: A. Axit cacboxylic B phai lam mat mau m1dc brom B. Andehit D trang guong cho ra bac theo ti l~ mol 1: 4 C. Axit cacboxylic

B co nhiet

de>soi cao nhat day d6ng d~ng

D. Este A chua it nhat 4C trong phan tlt

Giiii
Theo d~ A co (2 + 1) = 31\. D~t Ala RCOOR' thi (R + 1 + R') co 31\ nen (R + R') co 21\. M~t khac sl/ thuy phan A tao andehit don chirc no chirng to R' phai co 111, v~y R cung phai co 111. Suy ra B phai la axi t cacboxylic chua no, tU'c B lam mat mau nude brom Vi dv. 36. D6t chay hoan toan a mol andehit mach h6' X du'Q'cb mol CO2 va c mol H20 (vdi b = a + c). Trong phan U'ng trang guong, mQt phan tlt X chi cho 2 electron. X la andehit thuQc day d6ng dAng: A. khong no mQt n6i doi, don chirc ~. khong no hai nO'i doi, don chirc B. no, don chirc

D. no, hai chirc
(TSDH 20071 Kh6i A)

Giiii
Theo d~, X chay cho nC02
-

nH20

= nx

nen X co (1 + 1) = 21\.

Trong phan ling trang guong, ffiQt phan tlt X chi cho 2 electron (d~ 2 ion Ag" nhan 2e nay, tuc tao Ag theo ti l~ moll: 2), chimg to X la andehit don chuc. Vc}y X con 111 d g6c hidrocacbon, clnrng to X la andehit don chirc chua no, mQt nai doi C = C (chon A)

17. Cong thuc xae dinh eong thde philn tu eua mQt ankeridua vao phan tu kh6i cua han h«1Panken va H2 truoc va sau khi din qua hQt Ni nung nong
Gia

su han

hop anken va H2 ban d§.u co phan tlt kh6i la M,

Sau khi dAn hfm hop nay qua b{>tNi nung nong d~ pharr Ung xay ra hoan toan dtfc;1Cfm hop khong lam mat mau nude brom, co phan til' khoi h la M2 thl anken CnH2n cful tim co cong thire phan tlt cho bOi.cong' thirc: (M2 - 2)M1
n = --=-------==-

14(M2

-

Mt)

15

Luu j. Cong thuc treti sa dung khi H2 dung du, tuc anken da phdn ung hit, nen h8n hap sau pluin. ting khong lam mat mau nuoc bromo Thong thuang d€ cho biit H2 eon du sau pluui ung, nguai ta eho h6n hap sau pluin ung eo pluui tit luang M2 < 28 Luu y rang tuang tu nhu cong thsic 17 trong oiec am eong thuc anken dua oao pluin ung hidro h6a, ta ciing e6 cong thuc ankin dua vao pluui ung hidro h6a la
2 n=--=----..;:,.1

2(M - 2)M 14(M2 - M1)

Vi du 37. X la hon hop hoi g6m olefin M va H2, co ti khoi so v&i H2 18.5. D§n X qua bQt Ni nung nong dg phan ling xay ra hoan toan du'<;1C hon h<;1P Y co ti kh6i so voi H2 la 6,25. Vf).yM co cong thirc phan tli la hoi

A. C6H12•

B. C5HlO•

C. C4HS.
Gidi

D. CaH6.

Theo d~, M, = 10 va M2 = 12,5 Ta co n = (12,5 - 2)10 = 3. 14(12,5- 10) V~y M co cong thirc phan tli la CSH6 (chon D) Vi du 38. Hon hop khi X g6m H2 va mdt anken co kha nang cong HBr cho san pham htru co duy nhat. 'I'i kh6i cua X so vdi H2 bang 9,1. Dun nong X co xuc tac Ni, sau khi phan irng xay ra hoan toan, thu du<;1C hon hop khi Y kh6ng lam mB:t mau mrdc brom; ti kh6i cua Y so vdi H2 bang 13. Cong' thuc cau tao cua anken la

A. CHs-CH=CH-CHs

B. CH2=CH-CH2-CHs. D. CH2=CH2.
(TSDH 2009lkh6i B)

Gidi VI X cQng HBr cho mot san pham duy nhat nen X phai co cau tao d6ixtffig 2 Th eo d,::thi M = 18 ,va 'M ell
2

= 26 nen n = (26 - 2)18,2 = 4 14(26 - 18,2)
A.

Vf).yanken del cho phai la CHs-CH=CH-CHs

(chon A)

18. Cong thuc tinh hiqng. ke't tlia xuilt hi~n khi hilp thu he't mQt hiqng CO2vito dung dich Ca(OH)2ho~c Ba(OH)2'
Eket tlia
= now

-

nC02

I

Vi du 39. HB:p thu h~t 11,2 lit CO2 (dktc) vao 350ml dung Ba(OHh 1M. TInh kh6i luong ke't tua thu duqc. 16

dich

Gicii Ta co nC02
=

0,5 mol

nBa(OH)2 = 0,35 mol ~. nOH- = 0,7 mol ~ n! = 0,7 Luu n! 0,5 = 0,2 mol n! = 0,2 mol < nC02 = 0,5 mol, nen. k~t ~ m! = 0,2. 197 = 39,4 gam

y:

a day

qua tren

phu

lUJP. Ta cdn phdi ki~m tra 19i vi n~u Ba(OH)2 dung du thi khi dO

= ncoa rna khong phu thuoc oao now' Tom 19i, khi sa dung cong thuc
hay noi

tren, cdn nha di~u ki~n rang buoc gifla n! va nC02 La n! < nC02'

hhac di, n~u baza phlm ling het thi j1,9C sinh manli dan su dung cong thuc tren (hdu h~t cdc d~ thi d~u cho vCwtruang hop tao 2 muoi nen baza d~u dii phdn itng h~t) Vi d\l 40. H~p thu het 0,3 mol CO2 vao dung dich chua 0,25 mol Ca(OHh. Tinh kh6i hrong' ket tua thu duQ'c. Gicii D~ tha"y nl = 0,5 - 0,3 = 0,2, V~y ml =.20 gam Vi d\l 41. HB:p thu het 0,4 mol CO2 vao dung dich chua 0,5 mol Ca(OHh. 'I'inh kh6i hrong ket tua thu dLiQ'C. Gicii D~ tha"y Ca( OHh da dung du nen: nl = nC02 = 0,3 mol, do do m1 = 40 gam Bai nay khong duoc ap dung cong thirc da cho fJ tren vi Ca(OH)2 khong phan t1ng het. Neu ap dung thl nl = 1 - 0,4 = 0,6 > nCOa =.0,4 (vo ly, loai) Vi du 42. C6 2 thi nghiem: . + Hap thu het a mol CO2 vao dung dich chua b mol Ca(OHh dLiQ'C 20 gam ket tiia + HB:p thu het 2a mol CO2 vao dung dich chua b mol Ca(OH)2 dLiQ'c 30 gam ket tua Tim cac gia tri a, b , Gicii Thi nghiem 2 da tang gB:p doi lucng CO2 nhung ket tua chi tang gAp niai chirng to trong thi nghiem nay, CO2. da dung du tltc phai tao 2 muoi, do do ta co :

Luu

y:

2b -

2a = 0,3

(1)

17

Thi nghiem 1, Ca(OHh khong thg phan irng' het, vi ne'u Ca(OH)2 da phan ling he't d thi nghiem nay thi luong ke't tua d thi nghism 2 chi c6 thg giam.Vay CO2 trong thi righiem I da phan irng het, do d6 ta c6: a Giai ra diroc b

= 0,35

=

0,2

(2)

Vi du 43. C6 2 thi nghiem:

+ Hap thu he't a mol CO2 vao dung dich chua b mol Ca(OH)2 duQ'c
30 gam ket tua + Hap thu he't 1,5a mol CO2 vao dung dich chua b mol Ca(OHh duQ'c 1 gam ke't tua Tim cac gia tri a, b

°

Giaf
Hoan toan tirong tv nhu bai tren, d thi nghiem 2 thi Ca(OH)2 da phan irng het (vi CO2 tang gap ru6'i nhung luongket tua Iai giam), eon d thi nghiern 1 thi Ca( OH}z con du, Do d6 ta e6 he: . V~y a

j a =0,3
=
0,35

2b -1,5a

=

0,1

=

0,4 ; b

19. Cong thttc tinh 11i«jngke't tua xu't hi~n khi h'p thv. he't mQt l1i«jng CO2 vao dung dieh chua h6n h«jp gam· NaOH va Ca(OH)2 hoac Ba(OH)2
Trude het tinh nco;- = now - nC02 r5i so sanh voi nCa2+hoac nSa2+ dg xem chat nao phan irng' h~t. Vi du 44. Hap thu het 6,72 lit CO2 (dktc) vao 300ml dung dich hon hop g6m NaOH O,lM va Ba(OHh 0,6M. Tinh khdi lUQ'ngket tlia thu duoc,

nC02 = 0, 3mol nNaOH 0,03mol = nSa(OH)2 0,18mol =

I

Giai
nco~- = 0,39 - 0,3 = 0,09mol

=?

Ma nSa2+ = 0,18mol nen n1 V~y m1

=

0,09mol. .

= 0,09.197 = 17, 73gam

Luu. y: Tuong ti: nhu cong thuc a tren, trong truang hop nay ciing di~u ki~n rang buoc giita nco~- va nC02 la nco~-:S nC02'
18

co

Vi dl}. 45. Cho 0,448 lit CO2 (dktc) h~p thu het vao 100 ml dung. dich hfm h<;1IJ NaOH 0,06M va Ba(OH)2 0,12M dugc m gam ket tua. Gift tri m la: A.3,94 B.1,182 C.2,364 .D. 1,97

(TSDH 2009 I Kh6i A)

Giiii
D~ thAy nco 23

= (0,006 = =

+ 0,024) - 0,02

= 0,01 =

mol, trong khi: 0,01 mol.

nBa2+ V~y mr

0,012 mol nen n1

=

nco/-

=

0,01.197

1,97 gam (chon D)

20. Cong thuc tinh th~ tich CO2 cdn hdp th~ h~t vito mc)t dung
dieh Ca(OH)2 hoae Ba(OHh d~ thu duQ'c mc)t hiQ'ng ke't tlia theo yeu cdu Dang nay phai co hai ket qua
nC02 = n1

nC02 = now - nJ Vi du 46. HAp thu het V lit CO (dktc) vao 300ml dung dich Ba(OH)2 1M duoc 19,7 gam ket tua. Tim V.

Giiii
nC02

= nJ = 0, lmol
=

=}

V

= 2,2411t
=}

nC02 = now - n1
3

0,6 - 0,1 = 0,5mol

V = ll,2Ht

21. Cong thuc tinh thg tich dung djeh NaOH c'n

cho vito dung dieh A1 + d~ xu't hi~n mc)t IUQ'ngke't tlia theo yeu ciiu Dang nay phai co hai ket qua now

= 3.nJ
-

now = 4.nAI3+

nj

Luu y: Hai kit qua treti tuong ung ooi hai truang hop NaOH dung thiiu va NaOH dung du. : truang hop ddu kit tila chua d(1J cue dai, con truang hap sau la kit ttla dii dg,t cue dai sau do tan bat mot pluin Vi du 47. C&n cho bao nhieu lit dung dich NaOH 1M VaG dung dich chua 0,5 mol AlCls d~ duQ'c31,2 gam ket tua,

Gicii
now = 3.oj = 3~0,4mol now = 4.0AI3+
-

=}

V = 1,2lit
=}

OJ

=

2 - 0,4 = 1,6mol

V = 1,6lit 19

Vi du 48. CAn cho mot th~ tich dung dich NaOH 1M Ion nha"t la bao nhieu vao dung dich chua d6ng thiri 0,6mol AlCb va 0,2mol HCI d~ xuathien 39gam k~t tua. Giiii Luu Y rang' truong hop nay cAn them mQt hrong N aOH d~ trung hoa HCI. M~t khac, d~ tinh th~ tich dung dich NaOH Ian nhat nen chi cAn xet gia tri now (max) = 4n AI3+ n! -

=> nOW(can) nRC]+ (4.nA1a = .. => V = 2,1 lit.

n.) = 0,2

+ (2,4

- 0,5) = 2,1 mol

Vi d\l 49. Co 2 thi nghiem: + Cho dung dich chua a mol NaOH duqc 15,6 gam k~t tua

VIlO

dung dich chua b mol AlCl3

+ Cho dung dich chua 2a mol NaOH vao dung dich chua b mol AlCls duQ'c23,4 gam ket tua Dinh cac gia tri a, b Giiii Ta co n ket tua dau = 0,2 mol; n ke't ttia sau = 0,3 mol Theo cong thuc giai nhanh, de dang co h~: a = 3.0,2 = 0,6 2a = 4b - 0,3 Giiii ra dU<Jc = 0,6 ; b = 0,375 a Nhq,n xet: bai totui gidi nhanh. chong nha nluin dinh. duoc NaOH dii dung kh6ng dil thi nghiem 1 oa du thi nghiem 2
(1) (2)

a

a

22. Cong thuc ttnh thg tich dung djch HCl cain cho vao dung dieh Na[Al(OH)41 (hoac NaAI02) dg xudt hi~n mQt ltiqng k6t tua theo yeu caiu
Dang nay phai co hai ke't qua nH .. = nl nw = 4.n[AI(OH)d- 3.nl Vi dt}.50. CAn cho bao nhieu lit dung dich HCIIM vao dung dich chua O,7mol Na[Al(OH)4] (hay NaAl02) d~ thu duqc 39 gam ke't tua? nH .. nw 20 Giiii = nl = 0,5mol => V = 0,5lit

= 4.n[Al(OH)4r 3.n! = 1,3mol -

=r-V = 1,3lit

Vi du 51. Th~ tich dung dich HCI 1M cue dai cAn cho van dung dich chua d6ng thai 0,1 mol NaOH va 0,3mol Na[Al(OH)4] (hay NaAl02) bao nhieu d~ xuat hien 15,6gam ket tua?

.

Giiii
Tirong ty nhu vi dy.'i0, ta c6: nw
=

nHC1 nNaOH (4n[Al(OH)4r 3n!) = + ::: 0,1 + (4.0,3 - 3.0,2) = 0,7 mol ee V

=

0,7 lit

Vi du 52. C6 2 thi nghiem sau: - Cho 200 ml dung dich HCI a molll van 500 ml dungdich Na[Al(OH)4l b molll. Sau phan irng dugc 31,2 gam kc;t tua. Cho 300 ml dung dich HCr a molll van 500 ml dung dich Na[Al(OH)4} b molll. Sau phan ling dugc 39 gam kc;t tua. Tim cac gia tr] a, b.

Giiii
D~ thay d thi nghiem 2, HCI dii dung du, do d6 ta c6 h~: 0,2a = 0,4 0,3a = 4.0,5b - 3.0,5 Giai h~ (1) (2) duQ'ca = 0,2 va b = 1,05 23. Cong thuc tfnh th~ tich dung dich NaOH min cho vito dung dieh Zn2+ d~ xu~t hi~n mQt hi«1ngke't tua theo yeu cAu (1) (2)

Dang nay phai co hai ket qua:
now = 2nl now = 4nZn2+ 2n! Vi du 53. Tinh th~ tich dung dich NaOH 1M c§.n cho van 200 ml dung dich ZnCl2 2M d~ duQ'c29,7 gam ket tua,

Gicii
Ta co nzn2+ :::0,4 mol; n! ;:::: mol 0,3 C6 2 tnrong hop: + nOH-;::::2.0,3 = 0,6 mol. V~y VddNaOH 0,6 lit ;:::: + nOH- ;:::: 4.0,4 - 2.0,3;:::: 1 mol. V~y VddNaOH 1 lit = Luu y: Tuang tlj nhu Mi v&i Al(OHh, day truang /uJpddu xliy ra khi k~t tiia Zn(OHh chua d(Ji c~ dai, con truang hap sau xay ra khi k~t tua dli dq,t cue dai sau do tan bat m(Jtpluin. 21

a.

Vi du 54. Hoa tan he't m gam ZnS04 van mnrc duQ'c dung dich X. Cho 110 ml dung dich KOH 2M van X ducc a gam ket tua. M~t khac neu cho 140 ml dung dich KOH 2M van X thi cling duQ'c a gam ke't tua. Gia tri m la: A.20,125

B. 12,375

C.22,54 Giai

D. 17,71 (TSDH 2009 / Khc3iA) (1)
11

Theo cong thirc giai nhanh, de dang co h~ 0,22 = :~ 2a 0,28 = 4nz 2+ -99 Rut ra 4nzn2+ - 0,28 = 0,22 tire nZn2+ nZnS04 0,125. = = Do do m = 161. 0,125 = 20,125

(2)

Nh~n xet: bid toan gidi nhanh chong nha nluui dinli duoc KOH da dung kh6ng

du a thi

nghiem. 1 va du

a thi

nghiem. 2

24. Cong thuc tinh khc3i hi«1ng muc3i sunfat thu d1i«1c khi hoa tan he't han hqp kim lo:;tibAng H2S04 loang giai phong H2
§SUllfat

= mhOn + 96 hqp

nH:-1

Vi du 55. Hoa tan he't 10 gam rful X g6m Mg; Zn va AI bang H2S04 loang du'Q'cdung dichY va 7,84 lit H2 (dktc). Co can Y duQ'cbao nhieu gam h6n hop muoi khan? msunfat = Gidi 7 84 10 + 96-'= 43,6 gam 22,4

25. Cong thuc tinh kh6i hi«1ng muc3i clorua thu d1.iqckhi hoa tan he't han h«1pkim loai bAng dung djch HCI giili ph6ng H2

Vi du 56. Hoa tan he't 10 gam ran X g6m Mg; Zn va AI bang' dung dich HCl duoc dung dich y. va 7,84 lit H2 (dktc). Co can Y duqc bao nhieu gam h6n hop muci khan? Gidi melorua= 10 + 71 7,84 = 34,85 gam 22,4 22

26. Cong thuc tinh kh6i lli«;1ngmu6i sunfat thu dli«;1ckhi hoa tan he"t han hep oxit kim lo~i bAng H2S04 Ioang'
Fsunfat

= mh6n

hgp

+. 80 nH2S04i

Vi du 57. Hoa tan hoan to an 2,81 gam hem hop g6m Fe203; ZnO va MgO trong 500 ml dung dich H2S04 O,lM (vira du). Co can dung dich sau ph an irng diroc bao nhieu gam han hop mudi khan? A. 6,81 B.4,81 C.3,81 Giiti
msunfat

D.5,81 (TSDH 2007)

= 2,81 + 80.0,5.0,1 = 6,81 gam (chon A)

27. Cong thuc tinh kh6i lliqng muc5i clorua thu dliqc khi hoa tan he"t han h<jp oxit kim lo~i bAng dung· dich HCI klclorua=
mhCin hap

+ 27,5nHd

Vi du 58. Hoa tan hoan toan 20 gam han hop g6m Fe203 va MgO trong 400 ml dung dich HCl 2M (vua du). Co can dung dich sau ph an rrng' du'qe bao nhieu gam han hop muoi khan? Giiti mclorua= 20 + 27,5.0,4.2 = 42 gam 28. Cong thuc tfnh kh6i lliqng mu6i nitrat kim Ioai thu dliqc khi cho han hop eac kim loai tae dung vbi HN03 (khong co s-.:f. tao tharih NH4N03) mMuoi = mKim
loai

+ 62.(3.nNO + nN02 + 8.nN20 + 10.nN2)

(khong tao khi nao thi so mol khi d6 bAng khong) Vi du 59. Hoa tan 10 gam r&n X g6m Al, Mg, Zn bang HN03 vira du duqe dung dich chua m gam mu6i va 5,6 lit NO (dktc) la san pham khir duy nhat. Tim m. Giiti mM
0·· uI

= 10 + 62.3. 5,6 = 56,5gam
22 ,4

Vi du 60. Hoa tan h~t 22,4 gam sat trong HN03 loang duoc 6,72 lit NO(dktc) Ia san ph am duy nhtit cua st:f.khli N+5 va dung dich chua m gam mu6i. Tim m.

23

Giai
mmu6i

=

22,4 + 62.3.

6,72 22,4

=

78,2 gam

Nhi),n xet: Niu gidi bdng cacti viit phuang trinli pluin ling, bai toan se rtft did dong do co s1l tao 2 mu6i. Thtj,t vtj,y, ooi nFe = 0,4 mol va nNO= 0,3 mol tlii truac hit xdy ra phdn ling:
Fe + 4HN03
-+

Fe(N03h 0,3 mol

+

NO 0,3 mol

+

2H20

0,3 mol Fe

Sau do Fe con dzt 0,1 mol se phdn ling tiep: + 2Fe(N03h
0,2 mol

~ 3Fe(N03)2
0,3 mol

0,1 mol

V4y sau phdn ling duoc 0,3 mol Fe(NO:JJ2va (0,3 - 0,2) =0,1 mol Fe(NO:JJ3, o do m = 0,3.180 '+ 0,1.242 = 78,2 gam d
+ Gong thuc nay rtit tien dung, tuy vtj,yniu co s1l tao tluinli NH4N03

thi phdi c¢ng them vito kh6i luang NH4N03 co trong dung dicli sau pluin itng. Khi do nen gidi bai toan dti cho thea each.cho nluin electron. 29. Cong thuc tinh s6 mol HN03 c~n dung d~ hoa tan mQt han hc;tp cae kim Ioai

.-------------------~----------------~
nHN03 = 4nNO

+ 2nN02 + 12nN2 + lOnN2o + 10nNH4Noa

(khong tao san pham khli nao tht s6 mol san pham do bang khong) Vi du 61. Hoa tan het hbn hop rAn X g6m Cu va Mg cAn vira diJ x mol HN03, sau phan ltng thu duQ'c 8,96 lit (dktc) h6n hop Y gom NO va N02• Tinh gia tri x, cho biet dYI H2 = 19. •

Gild

Lliuy:

"~y

Bang phucng phap du'Ctng cheo, de dang tinh duQ'c nNO = nN02 x = 4.0,2 + 2.0,2 = 1,2 mol

= 0,2 mol

+ Gia tri x kh6ng phu thuoc vito s6 kim loai trong h6n hop

+ Tuy nhien cdn cdn trong trong truang hop han hop co stit, Vl ding stlt kim looi co thi tan tiip trong dung dicli Fe(NOsJ3 do HN03 dung thieu (nen. dii het) thea pluin ling Fe + 2Fe3+ ~ 3Fe2+. Khi do, s6 mol HNOa da dung di hoa tan h6n hap kim loai se it han so uoi tinh theo
24

cong thuc a tren. Vi thi di chinli xac thi cac bai totui c6 edt ttu: dung viii HNOa nen. n6i ro la HN03 du niu mu6n huang k~t qua v~ cacli tinli thea cong thuc da neu. Trit nhien la pluii n6i ro du baa nhieti % HN03 d€ h9C sinh tinli ra duoc s6 mol HN03 da dung trang bai totui Vi du 62. Hoa tan h€t h6n hop rAn X g6m AI va Fe bang dung dich chua x mol HNOs (Illy du 10%) duQ'c 13,44 lit (dktc) h6n hop Y g6m N2 va N02 co ti kh3i so vdi H2 la 18,5. Tinh x. Gia thiet chi xay ra 2 qua trlnh klur N+5• Gicii Bang' phuong phap dirong cheo _tIm dugc nN2 = nN02 == 0,3 mol Vf}.yx == (12.0,3 + 2.0,3) + :0°0 (12.0,3 +·2.0,3) = 4,62 30. Cong thuc tinh kh6i hiQ'ng mu6i sunfat thu d1iQ'ckhi cho han hQ'p eac kim Ioai tao dung vdi H2S04 d;)c, nong giai phong' khi 802• Vi du 63. ROll tan h€t 10gam rAn X g6m AI, Mg, Cu bang H2S04 dac, nong vira du, dugc dung dich chua m gam mudi va 10,08 lit S02 (dktc). TIm m. Gicii mMuoi . 10,08 22,4

= 10 + 96.

= 53,2gam

Vi du 64. Hoa tan he't 14 gam sAt trong H2S04 d{lc, nong duQ'c 6,72 lit 802 (dktc) III san pham khtr duy nhat, Co can dung dich sau ph an Ung duoc bao nhieu gam muoi khan? Gicii
mmuoi

672 = 14 + 96 _,_ == 42,8 gam 22,4 dung thieu.

Nhij,n xet: Bay czlng lil bai toan tao 2 mu6i do H2S04

nen gidi theo cong thuc nhu treti Iii cacli nhanh nlui: 31. Cong thuc ttnh s6 mol H2S04 d;)c, nong c~n dung d~ hoa tan mQt han hop kim Ioai d"a theo san phim khir 802 duy nbit nH2S0.1 = 2 nso21

25

Vi du 65.Hoa tan he't mot hrong hon hop gom Al, Mg, Ag can vira du x mol H2S04 dac, nong. Sau phan ling thu dU<Jc7,84 lit S02 (dktc). TIITIx.

GiiLi
nH2S04 2nS02 = 2.0,35 = 0,7 mol = Luu y: Tuang tlf nhu ooi HN03, n~u co edt trong h6n hop dang nay khi ra d~ cdn ctln tluui

32. Cong thire tinh kh6i higng mu6i thu dligc khi cho han hqp sAt va cae oxit sAt tao dung v8i lINOa du giai phong khi NO. 242 mMuo'i = (mMn hop + 24.nNO) 80 Vi du 66. Hoa tan he't 11,36 gam rAn X gom Fe, FeO, Fe203, Feg04 trong HNOs loang du dUQ"c dung dich chua m gam mudi va 1,344 lit NO. (dktc) la san pham kht1 duy nhat, Tim m. (TSDH 20081 Kh6i A)

Giiii
mmu6i= 242 ( 11 36 + 24 1,344 ) = 38 72 am 80' 22 ,4 ' g Nhfm xet: Vdi dang nay, cho du hon hop dfiu la bao nhie"u cha't trong so cac cha't (Fe, FeO, Fe20s, Fe304) cung deu cho ke"t qua nhu nhau. Vi du 67. Nung m gam bQt sAt trong oxi du duoc 3 gam hon hop rAn X. Hoa tan he"t X trong HNOs loang du duoc 0,448 lit NO (dktc), Co can dung dich sau ph an irng ducc bao nhieu gam ran khan?

Giiii
Du X la bao nhieu chat, ta luon co: 242 mMuo" -(3 = 80
1

+ 24.

0,448 ) = 10, 527gam 22,4

33. Cong thrie tinh kh6i lliqng mu6i thu dliqc khi hoa tan h6t han hqp g6m Fe, FeO, Fe20a, Fea04 bAng HNOa d~c, nong dir ghii phong khi N02• Tuong tl! nhu van de dii xet d tren, hon hop dii cho khong nhat thie't phai 180 4 chat, rna chi 180 2 hoac 3 trong 4 chat tren thi kh6i hrong mudi vAn diroc tinh theo cong thirc: 242 . mMu6i 80 (mMn hop + 8.nNOz ) =
26

Vi du 68. Hoa tan het 6 gam rAn X gfim Fe, FeO, Fe203; Fe304 trong HNOa d~c, nang du du'qc 3,36 lit N02 (dktc). Co can dung dich sau phan irng' du'qc bao nhieu gam muoi khan? Gidi mM
6i
u

=-

242 3,36 (6 + 8. --) 80 22,4

= 21, 78gam

Vi du 69. Dan mot ludng CO qua 6ng dung Fe203 nung nang thu du'qc 9 gam ran X. Hoa tan he't X trong HN03 d~c, nong du ducc 3,92 lit N02 (dktc). Co can dung dich sau phan ung diroc baa nhieu gam mu6i khan? Gidi Du X la bao nhieu chat, ta luon co:
ffiMu(f
I

=-

242 3,92 (9 + 8. --) 80 22,4

=

31, 46gam .

Lztuy
+ V6'i dang toan nay, H~Oa ph iii dir dg rnufii thu du'qc to an 1a mu6i Fe (III). Khong du'qc n6i "HN03 vita du", vi co th~ phat sinh kha nang sAt can du do HN03 da h~t se ti~p tuc tan h~t do khir Fe (III) v~ Fe (II). Khi do de se khong can chinh xac ntra, + Neu giai ph6ng hon hop NO va N02, cong thirc tinh muoi la mMuol 242

= 80 (mMn

hqp

+ 24.nNO + 8.nN02

)

Vi du 70. Dan mot luong CO qua ang dung' rAn X nung nong gfim FeO, Fe20s, Fea04 m(>t thoi gian du'qc 7 gam h6n hop rAn Y. Hoa tan het Y trong HN03 du diroc 1,792 lit (dktc) hon hop Y gfim NO, N02 va dung dich chua m gam muoi. Biet dy/
H2

= 19. Tim m. Gidi

B~ng phirong phap duong cheo, d~ dang tinh du'qc nNO

= nN02

= 0,04 mol

V~y mmu6i= 28~ (7 + 24.0,04 + 8.0,04)

= 25,047

gam

27

34.Cong thltc tinh khfii lU{1ngmufii thu dUfiekhi hoa tan htt han hflp g6m Fe, FeO, Fe20a, Fea04 bling H2S04 d{ic, nang du giiti phang khi S02 'Itrong tv

d. trim, hfm hop da xet d day khongnhat thie't phai du 4 ch~t.
hop

400 mMu6i = 160 (mhOn

+ 16.nso2 )

Vi du 71. Hoa tan 30 gam rAn X g6n FeO, Fe20a, Fea04 bang' H2S04 d~c, n6ng du duoc 11,2 lit 802 (dktc). Co can dung dich sau phan irng' dl1Q'c bao nhieu gam muoi khan? Giiii 400 mMu6i = -(30 160 11,2 + 16.--) 22,4
= 95gam

35. Cong thU'c tfnh kh6i lti«;lng s&t da dung ban dAu, bie't oxi boa hi«;lng sAt nay bAng oxi dti«;lchan h«;lp r&n X. Hoa tan he't rAn X trong HNOa Ioang' dti dti«;lcNO. Thuc ra, dang nay dua vao cong thirc ?:J (8) : 242 1 mMu6i = 80 (mMn hop + 24.nNO) <=> npe(NOa)3 = -(mMn 80

hap

.

+ 24.nNO)

=> mFe = - (mhOn hop + 24.nNO) 80 .
Vi du 72. B6t m gam sAt trong oxi duQ'c 3 gam h6n hop ran X. Hoa tan he't X trong HNOa loang du dU<Jc 0,56 lit NO (dktc). TIm m. Giiii mFe = 56 (3 + 24. 0,56) 80 22,4
=

56

2,52gam

Vi du 73. Chia 12 gam ran X gbm Fe, FeO, Fe20g va Fea04 lam 2 phan bang nhau. D§.n mQt lubng CO dir qua phan 1 nung n6ng dU<Jc gam sAt. m -. Hoa tan he't phan 2 trong HNOg loang du duQ'c1,12 lit NO (dktc). Timm. Giiii ms, = 56 (6 + 24. 1,12) = 5,04gam . 80 22,4
nn

36. Cong thltc linh kh6i llt{fng sdt dii dung ban ddu, bilt oxi hod lzt(fng sdt nay bang oxi duvc han h{lp rdn X. Hoa tan hlt rdn X trong HNOa dij.c,nang dzt dltvc N02•
trnFe

=

-

56 hop 80 (mhOn . + 8 nNO )
2

Vi du 74. B6t chay m gam sAt trong oxi dl1qc 10 gam h6n hop rAn X. Hoa tan he't X trong HNOs d~c nong du dttQ'c 10,08 lit N02 (dktc).

Ttm m,
Giai
mFe

=

56 (10 + 8 10,08) 80 224' ,

= 9 52

g

am

Vi du 75. DAn mot ludng CO qua m gam Fe20s nung nong mot thai gian dl1Q'C 15,2 gam h6n hop ran X. Hoa tan he't X trong HNOs d~c nong du dl1qc 2,24 lit N02 (dktc). Tim m. Giai Ta co:mFe/X

=

mFel

= 56 (15,2 + 8 2,24) = 11,2 gam tuc 0,2 mol Fe
FezOa

80

22 ,4

Do do nFe20a= 0,1 mol nen

m = 160. 0,1 = 16 gam

37. Cong thuc tinh th~ tich NO (hoae N02) thu d1i<jckhi cho han hep san pham sau phan ung nhi~t nhom (hoan toan hoae khfmg' hoan toan) tac dung vdi HN03
Du phan ling nhiet nhom giua AI va FexOy co xay ra hoan toan hay khong thi h6n hop rAn sau do ne'u dem tac dung voi HN03 du se giai phong khi NO hoac N02 (neu HNOa la d~c nong) theo cac cong thirc: nNO =
2

-

1

3

[3nAI

+ (3x -

2y)nFe a ]

·

y

nNO = 3nAI

+ (3x -

2y)nFe Oy

Vi du 76. Tie'n hanh nhiet nhom rAn X gcSm 8,1 gam AI va 7,2 gam FeO (khong co khong khi) m<)t thai gian dttqc rAn Y. Hoa tan he't Y trong HNOs dac nong du thay bay ra V lit N02 (dktc). Tim V. Giai V = 22,4[3 nAI 1 2y)nFe 0 ]= 22,4 [3 8, + (3 - 2 ) 7,2 ]= 22,4 lit •r 27 72

+ (3x -

29

Vi du 77. Chia r&n X gfim Al va Fe20a lam 2 phan bang' nhau: + Cho phan 1 vao dung dich NaOH dir, Sau phan U'ng du'Cjc5,04 lit H2 (dktc) + Tie'n hanh nhiet nhom phan 2 mQt thoi gian (khong c6 khong khi) duoc ran Y. Hoa tan het Y trong HN03 loang, du duqc V lit NO (dktc), Tim V

Gicii Vi H2 thu duCjc d phan 1 la 0,225 mol nen nhorn if m6i phan chiem
0,15 mol Vay: V = 22,4!
3

[3nAI

+ (3x -

2y)nFe

0
x 1

]

= 22,4!

323

[3.0, 15 + (6 - 6)nFe

0]

= 3,36

lit

Nhi),n xet: D€ hi€u duoc vi sao co ctic cong thuc tren, ta co th€ hinli dung bai toan co 3 cluit la Al, FexOy va HN03ldn luat ang voi 3 nluin vq,t A, B, C, con 86 electron rna Al va FexOy co th~ cho trong pluin ang oai HN03 ldri luat la s6 ti~n a, b co trong tui cila A va B. Khi xdy ra phdn ling nhiet nhom. la A moe tui minli ra cho B mQt it ti~n (vi ALia chtit cho electron, con FexOy la chtl: nluin electron). K~ d~n, han hop sau nhiet nhom tac dung uai HN03 thi cd A, B d~u moe h~t tui minli ra d€ cho C (vi bi HN03 day h~t len s60xi hoa cue dai) . Nlui vq,y C luoti nluin duoc t6ng s6 tien. la (a + b), du ij pluin ang nhiet nhoni truce do A co cho bat di B mQt it tien ctia minh. Noi khac di, s6 tien. C nluui duoc luon la (a + b), btit cluip A truac do co cho tien. B hay hh/mg. Dieu. nay co nghia to?ngs6 electron rna Al va FexOy trong han hop ban ddu. da cho HN03 cling bang voi t6ng s6 electron rna han hap sau nhiet nhoni da cho HN03 Vtli dang nay, khong nhtit thiit Fe.O, phdi la Fe203. Neu. Fe.O, la FeO hoq,c Fe304 thi b +: 0, la Fe203 thi b = O. Cong thuc nay ciing dung cho cd truang hap han hap dem nhiet nhom co nuii cac oxit kim loai kluic nhu CuO; ZnO ... Vi sd oxi hoa ctla Cu va Zn dii dg,t cue dai trong cdc oxit tren nen. viec co mq,t cac oxit nay trong' han hop ddu khong lam cdc cong thuc tinli s6 mol khi dii neu lJ tren thay deJi.

30

Vi du 78. X 18.h6n hop g6m AI; FeO va CuO (ti l~ mol 1 : 1 :1). Tien hanh nhiet nhom 17,9 gam h6n hop X mot thai gian (khong co khong khi) duoc h6n hop r&n Y. Hoa tan het Y trong HN03 dac, nong du duqc bao nhieu lit N02 (dktc)? Gilti

G9i a 18.so mol ffi5i cMt trong X, ta co 27a + 72a + 80a
VfJ_y = 22,4 [3 nA1 + (3x - 2y)nFe V
= 22,4[3.0,1
x

= 17,9 <=> a = 0,1

0

y

]

+ (3 - 2) 0,1] = 8,96 lit

Vi dv. 79. Tien hanh nhiet nhorn vdi h6n hop r&n X g6m Al va Fe304 duqc 96,6 gam h6n hop rAn Y. Cho Y tac dung het v6'i HN03 loang du duqc 24,64 lit NO (dktc). 'I'inh % khdi luong AI trong X. Gilti Theo dinh IUfJ_t bao toan khoi hrong ta co 27x + 232y = 96,6 Theo cong thirc dti neu ta co _!_ [3x + (9 - 8)y] 3 H~ (1), (2) cho x (1) (2)

= 24,64 = 1,1
22,4

=

1 ; y = 0,3. VfJ_y %Al

= 27~~.~00
,

= 27,95(%)

38. Ttnh pH cua dung dicb axil ylu HA . Dg ·tinh pH cua dung dich axit ye'u, nhat thiet phai biet Kaxit hoac
de?dien Ii
Q

cua axit trong dung dich pH

= - ~ (logKa + logCa) hoac ~H:;:; -log(QC~)1

Vi du 80. Tinh pH cua dung dich CH3COOH 0,1M d 25°C. Biet KCH3COOH1,8.10-5 d 25°C = Gilti pH= Luu 1 _ -2(log1,8.105+1og0,1). 2,87

y:

Cong thuc nay dung khi Ca khong qua nlu3 (Ca > O,OlM)

Di: ki~n 25°C chi la dil ki~n tham kluio, vi K; phlf thuQc uao nhiet dQ. Trong mot s6 bai totin, nguoi ta kh6ng d~ ctj,p d€n nhiet dQ vi ciing kh6ng sa dung khi tinh toano
31

Vi du 81. Tinh pH ella dung dich HCOOH 0,2M. Cho Gitii pH

KHCOOH

= 2.10-5•

= _:__! (log 2.10-5 + log 0, 2) = 2,7
2

Vi du 82. Tinh pH ella dung dich HCOOH 0,46% (D di~n li ella RCOOH trong dung dich lit a =2% Gitii

=

Lg/ml). Cho dQ

T

a co.

c,

C - 10D.C% - 10.1.0,46 MM 46 -,

° 1M

V~y pH = -log(O, 1.

"

2
100

) = 2,7

39. Tinh pH cua dung djch bazo ye'u BOH

E)g tinh pH ella dung dich bazo yeu, nhat thiet phai biet Kbazd hoac
dQ dien Ii a ella bazo trong dung dich

1 pH = 14 + 2 (log K,

+ logCb)
KNHa = 1,75.105

Vi d\183. Tinh pH ella dung dich NHa O,IM. Cho Gitii pH 1 " 14 +-(log1,75.10-5
2

=

+ logO,I)

=

11,13

40. Tinh pH eua dung dieh h&n hqp g6m axit y~u HA va mu6i NaA pH = -(log K,
C + log _a

Cm

)

Vid\1 84. Tinh pH ella dung dich han hop g6m CH3COOH O,lM va CH3COONa O,lM (j 25°C. Biet (j 25°C, x, cua CHaCOOH lit 1,75.10-5• "Boqua stl phan Ii ella nude (TSDH 20091Kh6i B). Giiii pH = -log(l, 75.10-5

+ log 0,1)
0,1

= 4,74

.

Vi du 85. Tinh pH cua dung dich h6n hop g6m HCOOH 0,1M va HCOONa 0,2M d 25°C. Biet d 25°C, x, cua HCOOH la 2.10-5• Bo qua su phan Ii ciia mloe

Giai pH = -(log 2.10-5

+ log

0,1) =5 0,2

Luu y: Dung dicli him hap g6maxit y~u HA va mufii NaA nhu tren. g9i liz dung dicli d~m. Nguai ta dung dung dicli d~m vCJi uc dich gift CM pH m cua moi truang thay d6i khOng dang k€ trong sufit thai gian phan ttng Dung dich. d~m nay co pH = 4,74. N~u ta them oao 1 lit dung dich. d~m nay 0,05 mol NaOH thi se dzl{1C dung dicli moi chua dimg thai CHsCOOH 0,05M va CH3COONa

Di cu thi, ta xet dung dicli d~m

a vi du 84.

0,15M vtJi pH =-(logl,

75.10-5

+ log ~:~:)

= 5,23. Nhu v¢y muc chenli

lech. pH la (5,23 - 4,74) = 0,49 la khong dang k€ n~u so eanh. vCJivtJi vi~c them 0,05 mol NaOH oao 1 lit nuoc d€ duo: dung dich. NaOH O,05M vt muc chenh. l~it pH trong truang hop nay la (12,7 - 7) = 5,7 Tuang tlJ n~u them 0,05 mol HCI oao 1 lit dung dich. d~m tren se duoc dung dich. moi chua d6ng thai CH3COOH 0,15M va CH3COONa 0,05M vCJi pH = -(log 1,75.10-5

+ log

~' ~:) = 4,27. Do do mac chenh. l~ch pH la

,

(4,74 - 4,27) = 0,47 ciing khong dang k€ voi oiec them 0,05 mol HCI uao 1 lit nuoc vt muc chenli lech.pH trong truang hap nay liz (7 -1,3) = 5,7 Dung dicli h6n hop g6m bozo y~u va mudi ctla no ciing la dung dich. dem. Vi du dung dicli d~m (NH3 ; NH4Cl) uai n6ng d{) m6i chat O,1M co pH = 5,13 25°C.

a

41. Cong thitc tinh hifU sudt phan z'tngtGng hl/]J NHs Ne'u tie'n hanh t6ng hop NH3 tu h6n hop X g6m N2 va H2 (co ti l~ mol tuong img 1 : 3) dU<Jc h6n h<Jp Y thi hi~u su~t tong hop NH3 Ia:

E%=2-2~1
Giai

Vi dv. 86. Tie'n hanh t6ng hop NHa ttl h6n hop X g6m N 2 va H2 c6 ti khoi hoi so vc1i H2 la 4,25 thu dircc h6n hop Y c6 ti khoi hoi so vdi H2 la 6,8. Tinh hi~u suat. t6ng hop NHa. BAng phuong phap dirong' cheo tinh dUeJc nN2 Yay H% = 2 - 2 8,5 = 75% . 13,6 33 nH2 = 1 : 3.

:

Vi du 87. Tien hanh t6ng hop NH3 ta h6n hop X g6m N2 va H2 (co ti l~ mol tircng irng' 1 : 3) thu du'gc h6n hop Y. Biet dXIY = 0,8. Tinh hieu sua:t t6ng hop NH3

Gitii
Ta co H% = 2 - 2.0,8 = 40% 42. Cong thuc tinh hieu sudt phau ung hidro hoa anken Neu tien hanh phan ling hidro h6a anken CnH2n ta h6n hop X g6m anken CnH2n va H2 (c6 ti l~ malI: 1) d1.igch6n hop Y thi hieu sudt hidro h6a Iii:

r%=2-2~1
Vi du 88. H6n hop khi X g6m H2 va C2H4 c6 ti khdi so vdi He Iii 3,75. DAn X qua Ni Dung nong, thu du'gc hon hop khi Y c6 ti khdi so vdi
<

A.25%

He Iii 5. Hieu suat cua phan U'nghidro hoa Iii: B.20% C.50% D.40% (TSCD 2009)

Gitii
BAng phuong phap du'ong cheo tinh du'Q'cnC H4
Z

: nHz

= 1:1

Yay H% .

=

2 - 2 15 20

=

50% 1) thu

Vi du 89. Hidro hoa h6n hop X g6m prop en va H2 (ti l~ malI: duQ'ch6nhqp Y. Biet dXIY

= 0,625.

Tinh hieu sudt hidro hoa

Gitii
Ta co H% = 2 -2.0,625 chuc no Neu tien hanh phan irng' hidro hoa andehit dan chirc no CnH2n 0 ta h6n hop hoi X g6m andehit CnH2n0 vii H2 (co ti l~ mol 1 : 1) diroc han hop hoi Y thi hieu suat hidro h6a la:
= 75%

43. Cong thuc tfnh hi~u sudt phan ung hidro hoa andehit don

r-r-%-. ---2-~-:--'1 =-2
34

Vi d\l90. H6n hop khi X gam H2 va andehit HCHO co ti khoi hoi so v(1i He 18.4. D~n X qua Ni nung nong, thu du<;1c an hop khi Y co ti khO'i h so v(1iHe la 5. Hieu suat cua phan ling hidro hoa la bao nhieu? Gidi Bang phuong phap duCtng cheo tinh dU<JcnHCHO Vay H% = 2 - 2 16 = 40% . 20 Vi d\l91. Dan hbn hop hoi X gam andehit CH3CHO va H2 (ti 1~moll: 1) qua bQt Ni nung nong thu dl1<Jc h6n hop hoi Y. Bi~t dXIY = 0,55. Tinh hieu suat hidro hoa, Gidi
:

nH2 = 1 : 1

Ta co H%

= 2 -2.0,55 = 90%

44. Cong thirc tinh % ankan A tham gia ph an ung tach
Luu y rang ph an ling d~ hidro hoa ankan va phan ling cracking ankan d~u diroc coi la phan ling tach cua ankan Neu tien hanh ph an ling tach ankan A, cong thirc CnH2n .. 2 du'<lc h6n hop X g6m H2 va cac hidrocacbon thi % ankan A da phan ung la

E%=

~-11
-1

Vi du 92. Tien hanh phan ling tach mot luong' butan dU<Jch6n hop X g6m H2 va cac hidrocacbon. Bie't ti khdi hoi cua X so vai H2 la 23,2. Ph&n tram butan da tham gia phan irng' tach la bao nhieu? Gidi
% butan da phan ling

= A%

=

2.23,2

58

= 25%

Cong thuc tren v~n dung neu h6n hop X khong co mat H2 rna chi g6rn cac hidrocacbon (tuc kh6ng xay ra ph an ling tach H2)

Luu

y:

45. Cong thuc xUc dinh eong thue phan til ankan A dl/a uao phdn itng tach cua A
Neu tien hanh phan ling tach v lit hoi ankan A, c6ng thirc CnH2n + 2 dU<JC hoi h6n hop X g6rn H2 va cac hidrocacbon (cac th~ tich do d V' . cung di~u kien) thi ta co:

35

Vi du 93. Thuc hien phan irng' tach v lit hoi ankan A diroc 4V lit hoi h6n hop X gam H2 va cac hidrocacbon (cac th~ tich do d cung di~u kien). Bie't tl khfii' hoi cua X so v6'i H2 la 12,5. V~y ankan A co cong thuc phan tti la

C. C6H14
Gidi Vi MA = ~ 12,5.2 = 100 nen A la C7H16

Lua

y:

Cong thuc tren luon dung du phan Ung tach co xay ra hoan

toan hay khong, hoac hon hop X khong co mat H2 rna chi gam cac hidrocacbon (tuc khong xay ra phan irng tach H2) Vi du 94. Thuc hien phan Ung tach hoan toan 2 lit hoi ankan A duQ'c 10 lit hoi hon hop X (cac th~ tich do d cung dieu kien). Bie't ti kh6i hoi cua X so v6'i H2 la 14,2. V~y ankan A co cong thirc phan tli la A. ClOH22 B. C5H12 C. C9H20 Gidi Vi MA . 1014,2.2 = 142 nen A la C1oH22 2 D. C7H16

46. Cong thuc xac dinh. kim loai M co hidroxit lztiing tinh drla virophdn ling czia dung dicb. M"+ vlfi dung dich. ki~m
DlI M la kim 10~i nao trong cac kim loai co hidroxit luang tinh (Zn, Al, Cr , Sn, Pb, Be) tht s6 mol OH- dung d~ M'" ke't tua to an bQ sau do tan vira he't cung duQ'ccho bdi cong thirc now = 4nMIl+ = 4nM Vi du 95. Oxi hoa he't 3,51 gam kim loai M bang C12. San pham sau phan U'ng dem hoa tan he't vao mrdc duoc dung dich X. Cho tli tli dung dich NaOH vao dung dich X thc1y co ke't tua, sau do ke't tua tan vira het thi ngirng, tha'y. d§ dung he't 270 ml dung dich NaOH 1M. Xac dinh kim loai M. Gidi ,3,51 T a p h al co -._

M

0,27 {::} M = --

4

= 52 . VA M l'a crom ay

.

36

Vi du 96. Hoa tan het 2,6 gam kim loai M trong lucng vua dii dung dich HCI. Cho tli tli dung dich NaOH van dung dich sau phan ling th~y co ket tiia, sau do ket tua tan vira het thi ngirng, thB:y da dung het 160 ml dung dich NaOH 1M. Xac dinh kim loai M. Gidi T a phai co al ,2,6 M 0,16. = --4 '¢:} M = 65 . V". MI' a k-em ay

46. Cong thuc xac dinh. kim loai M co hidroxit luflng tinh dua VQ;O phdn ling cua dung dich. M02n-4 (hay [M(OH)4]n - 4) viii dung dich. axit Du M la kim loai nao trong cac kim loai co hidroxit h.t6ng tinh (Zn, AI, Cr , Sn, Pb, Be) thi sO'mol H+ dung d~ ket tua M(OH)n xu~t hien t6i da sau do tan vua het cling duqc cho bdi cong thirc
nH+

= 4nM02D-4 = 4n[M<OHJ r
4

4

Vi du 97. Hoa tan het 1,3 gam kim loai M trong luong vira du dung dich NaOH. Cho tir til dung dich HCI van dung dich sau phan ling thay co ke't tua, sau do ket tua tan vua het thi ngung, th~y da dung het 80 ml dung dich HCl 1M. Xac dinh kim loai M. Gidi Ta phai co 1,3 M

= 0,08
4

'¢:}

M

= 65. Yay M 13.kern
.

Vi du 98. Hoa tan het 5,4 gam kim loai M trong luong vira dii dung dich Ba(OH)2. Cho tli tir dung dich Hel van dung dich sau phan ling th~y co ket tua, sau do ket tua tan vua het thi ngirng, th~y da dung het 800 ml dung dich HCI 1M. Xac dinh kim loai M Gidi 4 hai Ta palCO , -5, M 0,8 =4
'¢:}

M = 27 .VA . M I' nhf ay a om .

37

o CHUaNG
a1. Hoa

11
...

_
...
,

SAl TfJP AP DO"G THAM KHAO • •

.,

tan hoan toan 20,88 gam m(>t oxit sAt bang H2S04 d~c, n6ng du'C1Cung dichX va 3,248 lit S02 (dktc) la san pham kha duy nhat. d Co can X du'<1c· nhieu' gam mu6i khan? bao B. 54 gam C. 58 gam D. 48,4 gam (TSDH 2009)

A. 52,2 gam

a

2. Ha'p thu hoan toan 2,688 lit CO2 (dktc) vao 2,5 lit dung dich Ba(OHh nong' d(>a molll duoc 15,76 gam kfit tua. Gia tri a la A. 0,032 B. 0,048 C. 0,06 D. 0,04 (TSDH 2007)

a

3. S6 hop _ chat don chirc, d5ng phan ca'u tao cua nhau c6 cung cong thirc phan ta C4Hs02) d~u tac dung du'C1c oi dung dich N aOH la v (TSCD 2007)

A.3

a 4. C6 2 thi

.

B.4
nghiem:

C.5

D.6
vao 500ml dung dich AlCta b mo1Jl

+ Cho 200ml dung dich NaOH a molll
du'<?,c gam k~t tua 15,6

+ Cho 400ml dung dich NaOH a molll vao 500ml dung dich AlCta b mo1Jl du'qc 23,4gam k~t tua Gia tri a, b Mn luot la A. 3 va 0,5 B. 3 va 0,75 nghiem: C. 3 va 2,5 D. 2 va 3

a 5. Co 2 thi

Cho 300 ml dung dich HCl a molll vao 250 ml dung dich NaAl02 (hay Na[Al(OH)4D b molll thu du'<1c 23,4 gam ket tua + Cho 400 ml dung dich HCl a molll vao 250 ml dung dich NaAl02 (hay Na[Al(OH)4]) b molll cling thu du'qc 23,4 gam ket tua Gia tri a, b Mn lu'<Jtla A. 1 va 1,5 - B. 1 va 1,3 nghiem: C. 1 va 2
D. 2 va 1

o 6. C6 2 thi

+ Hap thu het a mol CO2 vao dung dich chu-a b mol Ca(OH}z du'Q'c 20 gam ket tua 38

+ Hap thu he't 1,5a mol CO2 vao dung dich chua b mol Ca(OHh cling dU<1c 0 gam ke't tua 2 Gia tzi a, b Mn IU<1ta I A. 0,2 va 2 B. 0,2 va 1,2 C. 0,1 va 0,25 D. 0,2 va 0,25
[J 7. Chia 59,4 gam rAn X g6m Al va FeO lam 2 phan bang' nhau

+ Ch6 phan 1 van dung dich NaOH du, sau phan irng thlly con 21,6 gam rAn Y khong tan + Tie'n hanh nhiet nhom phan 2 mot thai gian (khong c6 khong khi) dU<1c rAn Z. Hoa tan he't Z bang' HNOa loang, du dU<1c lit NO V (dktc) la san pham khi't duy nhat Gia trj V la A.7,84 B.8,96 C. 10,08 D.8,4
[J S. Hoa tan het

6 gam rAn X g6m FeO; Fe20a; Fea04 bang' HNOa loang, du dU<1c1,12 lit NO (dktc) la san pham khi't duy nhat, Khi't hoan toan cung IU<;1ngAn X nay duqc bao nhieu gam sAt kim loai? r B.4,48 C.5,32 D.5,04

A.4,2

[J 9. Nung m gam bt)t sAt trong oxi diroc 3 gam hem hop rAn X. Hoa

tan he't X trong HN03 du dU<;1C 0,56 lit NO (dktc) la san pham khi't duy nhat. Gia tri m la A.2,52
(J

B.2,22

C.2,32

D.2,62 (TSDH 2007)

10. SO'dipeptit
glyxin 18.

t6i da c6 th€ tao ra tli mQt h6n hop g6m alanin va B.1 C.2 D.4 (TSDH 2009)

A.3
(J

11. DAn V lit H2 (dktc) qua ong d\l'Ilg m gam Fe20a nung nong. Sau khi

.phan U'ng xong dU<1c12 gam h6n hop rAn X. Hoa tan het X trong HNOa loang, du dU<1c ,24 lit NO (dktc). Gia tri V va mlan luQ'tla 2 A. 2,24 va 12,8 C. 3,36 va 14,4 B. 3,36 va 14 D. 5,6 va 14,4

[J 12. Hoa tan het 14 gam sAt bang HNOa duoc dung dich chua m gam

mudi va 8,96 lft (dktc) h6n hop NO; N02 c6 ti kh6i so v6'i H2 la 21. Gia thiet chi xay ra 2 qua trinh khi't N+5• V~y gia tri m la A.51,2
B.60,5

C.45

D.58

39

[J 13. B6t chay hoan toan 22,2 gam chB:t hiru co A duoc 52,8 gam CO2

va 27 gam H20. A co tB:t ca bao nhisu dong phan cdu tao? B.6 C.7 D.8

A.5
+ Cho phan 1 H2 (dktc)

[J 14. Chia hc;n hop X gam Al; Fe203; CuO va ZnO lam 2 phan bang nhau
VaG

dung dich NaOH du, Sau phan irng thu du'c;1C,72 lit 6

+ Tie'n hanh nhiet nhom phdn 2 mot thai gian (khong co khong kht) du'Q'chan hop rAn Y. Hoa tan he't Y trong HNOa dac, nong, du du'Q'C lit N02 (dktc) la san pham khli duy nhat, V Gia tri Via A.6,72 B.13,44 C.16,8 D.I0,08
[J 15. Cho 2,8 gam sAt tac dung vdi oxi du'Q'c3,76 gam h8n hop rAn X.

Hoatan het X bang HNOa loang, du du'Q'c V lit NO (dktc) la san phdm khli duy nhat. Gia tri V Ia A.O,224 B.0,28 C.0,448 D.0,336
[J 16. Hoa tan het m gam bQt sAt trong

100 ml dung dich HNOa 2M. Sau khi phan ung xay ra hoan toan thu du'Q'ckhi NO la san pham khli duy nhdt va dung dich chira 13,22 gam chdt tan. Gia tri m la B. 4,2 C. 3,5' D. 3,92

A. 2,8

[J 17. Hoa tan het mQt luong h8n hop AI; Mg va Zn cAn vua dli dung

dich chl1a x mol HNOa. Sau phan trng thu diroc dung dich X va13,44 lit (dktc) h8n hop NO; N02 co ti khdi so vci H2 la 19. Them dung dich NaOH du vao dung dich X thdy bay ra 6,72 lit (dktc) mQt khi mui khai. Gia tri x lei A.4,8
[J

B.3,8

C.4.2

D.5,1

18. TrQn 0,54 gam botAl vOi Fe20a va CuO, rai tien hanh phan img' nhiet nhom lJ di~u kien khong co khong khi, thu du'Q'chon hop chat
r~ A. Hoa tan A trong dung dich HNOa du thu du'Q'c0,896 lit (dktc) hon hcp khi B gom N02 va NO. Ti khoi cua hon hop B so voi H21a A.19 B.23 C.17 D.21
-

[J 19. Hidrocacbon

mach hd A chay hoan toan cho nCOl'.

nHzO = 2nA•

V~y 1 mol A tac dung du'Q'cvdi t6i da bao nhieu mol Br2 trong dung dich brom?

A.l

B.2

C.3

D.4

[J

20. Hoa tan het 52 gam ran X gam Fe, FeO, Fe20g va Feg04 trong HNOg d~c nong du duCJc11,2 lit N02 (dktc). Cling hrcng X nay neu hoa tan het trong H2S04 dac, nong du dliCJCdung dich chua bao nhieu gam Fe2(S04h? A. 140 gam B. 70 gam

c. 120 gam

D. 112 gam

[J

21. B6t chay hoan toan a mol este don chirc, mach hd A dliCJC mol b CO2 va c mol H20, trong do b - c = 3a. M~t khac thuy ph an A (moi tnrong axit) dliCJCaxit cacboxylic X va andehit don chuc chua no (mot n6i d6i C = C) Y. V~y phat bi~u dung la: A. Axit cacboxylic X co kha nang lam melt mau mroc brom B. Axit cacboxylic X co 3 lien ket
11

trong phan tli

C. Andehit Y co nhiet dQ soi thap nhat day dang dAng D. Este A co it nhat 5C trong phan tl't
[J

22. Cho 11,2 gam Fe tac dung vci oxi thu duoc 15,04 gam hon hop rAn X. Hoa tan X bang' hrong dtr HNOg dac, nong thu duoc V lit khi N02 (dktc) la san pham khli duy nhat. Gia trj V la A.1,792 B.2,688 C.3,92 D.4,48 23. Tien hanh phan urig nhiet nhom 2,67 g hon hop X g&m AI va Fe20g (trong dieu kien khong co kh6ng khi) mQt thb'i gian thu duCJc hon hop Yo Cho Y tac dung vdi dung dich HNOg loang, du va thu duoc 224 ml NO (san pham khir duy nhat) d dieu kien tieu chuan, % khoi hrcng Fe20g trong X la: A.59,93% B.89,89% C.29,96% D.69,66%

[J

I:l 24. Hon hop X g6m anken A va H2, co ti khfii hoi so voi H2 Ia 6,4. DAn X qua bQt Ni nung nong cho den khi phan irng xay ra hoan toan dliQ'Chon hop Y co ti kh6i hoi so voi H2 la 8. A co cong thirc ph an tl't la

o

25. B6t 8,4 gam sAt trong oxi duCJ,c gam hon hop rAn X. Hoa tan m het X bang' HNOg du dU<;1c ,792 lit (dktc) hon hop NO; N02 co ti 1 khdi so vdi H2 la 21. Cho biet phan trng chi xay ra 2 qua trinh khir N+5• Gia trj m la A. 12,3 B. 11,1 C.9,8

D. 11,24
41

26. Bot chay hoan toan 0,1 mol ancol no mach hd A can vira du 0,55 mol O2. Hap thu het san phsm chay van binh runrc voi trong du thl kh6i luong' binh tang bao nhieu gam? A. 26)6 gam

B. 32)8 gam

C. 43,2 gam

D. 35 gam

027. Cho 2,67 gam o>- amino axit A vao dung dich chua 0,1 mol HCl. Dung dich sau phan irng' tac dung vira du voi 0,13 mol NaOH. V~y A co ten la: A. glyxin

B. alanin

c. valin

D. axit glutamic

o

28. Cho 21,9 gam a - amino axit A van dung dich chua 0,12 mol NaOH. Dung dich sau phan irng tac dung vira du vdi 0,42 mol HCl. V~y A co cong thirc phan tl't la: A. C2H5N02 B. C5H9N04 C. C5HllN02

D. CaH14N202

u 29.

Hoa tan he't 3,1 gam rAn g6m CuO; ZnO; AbOa va Fea04 c~n vua du 30 ml dung dich HCI 2M. Co can dung dich sau ph an Ung dugc bao nhieu gam h6n hop mu6i khan? A.5,23 B.7,36 C.6,71 D.4,75 irng' tha'y con 34 gam din X g6m Al va Fea04 lam 2 phan bang' nhau
1 vao dung dich KOH du, Sau phan

o 30. Chia

+ Cho phan ~1,6 gam rAn

+ Tien hanh nhiet nh6m phan 2 mot thoi gian (khong co khong
khi) diroc h6n hop rAn Y. Hoa tan he't Y trong HNOa d~c, nong, du duQ'cbao nhieu lit N02 (dktc) la san pham kha duy nhat? A. 11,20

B. 14,56

C. 13,44

D. 14,00

o

31. Thuy phan hoan toan tripeptit X thu du'Q'chon hop chi g8m 2 amino axit la valin va alanin. X co th~ co bao nhieu cong thltc cau tao? A.4 B.6 C.3 A duoc nC02
:

D.8
nH20 = 7: 8. V~y

o 32.

B6t chay hoan toan hidrocacbon

dot chay hoan to an 3 gam A r6i hap thu he't san pham chay van nude voi trong du duoc bao nhieu gam ke't tua? A. 20 gam B. 5 gam C. 21 gam D. 12 gam

o 33.

Tien hanh t6ng hop NHa tli h6n hop X g6m .N2 va H2 (co ti l~ mol tuong trng 1 : 3) thu du'<Jch6n hop Y. Bie't dXIY 0,78. Tfnh hieu = suat t6ng hop NHa. B. 44% C. 75% D. 66,67%

A. 54%
42

~ 34. Hidro hoa h6n hop X gam but -1 - en va H2 (ti l~ moll: du'<;fc 6n hop Y. Bie't dXIY = 0,7875. Tinh hieu sua't hidro hoa. h

1) thu

A. 52,4%

B. 42,5%

C. 87,5%

D. 83,33%

~35. D&n han hop hoi X gam propanal va H2 (ti l~ moll: 1) qua bQt Ni nung nong thu du'Q'chan hop hoi Y. Bie't dXIY = 0,65. Tinh hieu sua't hidro hoa propanal

A. 70%

B. 75%

C.40%

D. 71,11%

~ 36. Tien hanh phan ling tach mot hrong pentan du'c;1c h5n hop X gam H2 va cac hidrocacbon. Bie't tl khci hoi cua X so vdi H2 lao25. Ph§.n tram pentan da tham gia phan irng tach la bao nhieu?

A. 70%

B. 87,5%

C. 44%

D. 75%

~ 37. Thuc hien phan ltng tach .hoan toan 2 lit hoi ankan A du'<;fc lit 10 hoi h6n hop X (cac th~ tich do ($ cung di~u kien). Bie't ti kh6i hoi cua X so v6i H2 la 12,8. V?y ankan A co cong thuc phan tu la

A. C4HlO

B. C5H12

C. C9H20

D. C7H16

1:1 38. Tien hanh nhiet nhom ran X g5m 5,4 gam AI va 21,6 gam FeO (khong co khong khi) mot thb'i gian du'<;1c Y. Hoa tan he't Y trong rAn HNOg d~cnong du tha'y bay ra V lit N02 (dktc). ChI ra V.

A. 16,8

B.6,72

C. 11,2

D.5,04

1:1 39. B6t chay hoan toan 1 mol ancol no, mach h& A c§.n vua du 6 mol O2. Kh6i hrong phan tl't cua A la bao nhieu? A.112 B.136 C.106 D.120 1:1 40. D§n mQt luang h5n hop CO va H2 qua 17,4 gam Feg04 nung nong du'<;fc 15,24 gam han hop din X. Hoa tan he't X trong HNOa loang du duoc V lit NO (dktc) la san pham khl't duy nhat. Gia tri VIa: A.2,8 B.2,24 C.2,576 D. 7,728 1:1 41. Hoa tan het m gam rAn X gam FeO, Fe20g va Fea04 bang HNOa d~c nong du thay bay ra 2,8 lit N02 (dktc). Khli hoan toan cling hrong X nay dU<;fc 1 gam sAt kim loai, Gia tri m la 2 A. 29 B. 31 C.26,8 D.25,76 1:1 42. DAn mot Iuong H2 qua 14,4 gam Fe20a nung n6ng. Sau khi ph an irng' xong duqc 12 gam rAn X gam Fe, FeO, Fe20g va Feg04. Hoa tan het X bang' HNOg loang dir ducc V lit NO (dktc) la san pham khu duy nhat. Gia tri V la A. 2,8 lit. B. 2,24 lit.

c. 1,68

lit.

D. 1,7921it.
43

o 43.

Hoa tan he't 18 gam ran X g6m Fe; FeO; Fe203 va Fe304 bang' HNOa loang, du dtfQ'C 3,36 lit NO (dktc) 18.san pham khti duy nhdt. Ddn met ludng CO du qua 6ng chua cling hrong X tren dun n6ng thi sau phan trng xua:"thien bao nhieu gam sAt kim loai? B. 15,12 gam C. 14,00 gam D. 11,20 gam Cho m gam axit glutamic tac dung vdi 300ml dung dich HCI O,lM. Dung dich sau phan ling tac dung vita du vdi 650ml dung dich NaOH 0,2M. Gia tri m la: B. 7,35 C.5,88 D.2,94

A. 16,80 gam

o 44.

A. 14,7

o 45.

D6t chay hoan toan 0,2 mol mQt ancol X no, mach hd, cAn vua du 17,92 lit khi O2 (d dktc), M~t khac, ne'u cho 0,1 mol X tac dung vira du voi m gam Cu(OHh thi tao thanh dung dich c6 mau xanh lam. Gia tri cua m va ten goi cua X tuong irng la A. 4,9 va propan-l,2-diol C. 4,9 va glixerol. B. 9,8 va propan-1,2-diol D. 4,9 va propan-1,3-diol (TSDH 20091Kh6i A)

o 46.

Hoa tan he't 10 gam ran X g6m Mg, Zn va Cu bang' HN03 vita du du:qc dung dich chua m gam mu6i va 4,48 lit (dktc) han hop NO, N02 c6 ti kh6i so vdi H2 la 19. Bie't N+5 chi bi khir thanh N+2 va N+4• Gia tri m la B. 21,6 C.42,2 D.37,8 Cho 2,16 gam Mg tac dung vdi dung dich HNOa (du), Sau khi cac phan irng xay ra hoan toan thu duqc 0,896 lit khi NO (d dktc) va dung dich X. Kh6i hrong muoi khan thu duQ'c khi lam bay hoi dung dich X la A. 6,52gam. B. 8,88gam.

A.34,8

o 47.

o 48.

D§.n han hop X g6m ankin A va H2 c6 ti kh6i hoi so vdi H2 la 3,6 qua 6ng dung bQt Ni nung n6ng. Sau khi phan irng' xay ra hoan toan duoc han hop Y c6 ti khoi hoi so vdi H2 la 4,5. Ankin A c6 cong thuc phan tt't la B. C3H4 C. C4H6 D. C5HS 49. D§.n V lit (dktc) han hop X g6m C2H2 va H2 qua hQt Ni nung n6ng met thoi gian duqc h6n hop khi Y. D§.n Y qua Iucng du dung dich AgNOaINH3, sau phan irng duoc 30 gam ke't tua va thoat ra

.

C. 13,92gam. ,

D. 13,32g (TSDH 200SIKh6i B)

A. C2H2

o

44

hEmhop khi Z. H6n hop Z lam mAt mau vira du dung dich chua 40 gam brom va con lai khi T. Dot chay he't T duoc CO2 va 11,25 gam H20. V~y gia tri VIa
A. 28,0 B. 33,6 C. 42,0 D. 22,4 D 50. X la h6n hop g6m C2H4 va H2 c6 ti khoi hoi so vdi H2la 7,5. D§.n X qua bQt Ni nung n6ng dl1eJc h6n hop Y c6 tl khfii hoi so vdi H2 la 10. V~y % th~ tich C2H6 trong Y la It· A. 33,33% B. 40% C. 25%' D. 60% D 51. X Ia h6n hop g6m N2 va H2 c6 ti khoi hoi so v6'i H2la 4,25. Tien hanh phan irng' t6ng hop NH3 v6'i X duoc h6n hop Y c6 ti kh6i hoi so v6'i H2 la 5,3125. V~y % th~ tich NH3 trong Y la A. 33,33%
[J

B. 40%

C. 25%

D. 66,66%

52. X la h6n hop g6m N2 va H2 c6 ti khoi hoi so v6'i H2la 4,25. Tie'n hanh phan irng' t6ng hop NH3 v6'i X ducc h6n hop Y c6 ti khoi hoi

so v6'i H2 la 1; . V~y % th~ tich NH3 trong y'la
A.33,33% B.40% C.75% D.66,66%

o

53. Hoa tan he't 2,6 gam kim loai M trong luong vua du dung dich HCI. Cho tu tir dung dich NaOH vao dung dich sau phan irng' thily c6 ke't tua, sau d6 ke't tua tan vira he't thi ngirng, thl1y dB.dung he't 160 ml dung dich NaOH 1M. V~y kim loai M la A. Zrl. B. AI C. Cr D. Fe Hoa tan het 5,2 gam kim loai M trong Il1CJng ua du dung dich v NaOH. Cho tu tu dung dich HCI vao dung dich sau phan U'ng thay co ket tua, sau do ket tua tan vira het thi ngung, thily dB.dung het 160 ml dung dich HCI 2M. Vf}.ykim loai M la B. AI C. Cr D. Ph

o 54.

A. Zn

o 55.

86t chay hoan toan 2,2 gam cha"thOOco A thu du'<jc h6n hop chi g6m 5,5 gam CO2 va 2,7 gam H20. A c6 ta"t ca bao nhieu d6ng phan c{u tao?
B.10 C.13 D.14

A.8

a 56. B6t
A.8

chay hoan toan mQt hrong chB:thtru co' A can vira du 6,72 lit O2 (dktc), sau ph an ling thu dl1gch6n hop chi g6m 8,8 gam CO2 va 4,5 gam H20. A co tB:t ca bao nhieu d6ng phan cau tao? B.7
C.I0 D.6 45

o 57.

Hoa tan h~t 3,6 gam h6n hop g6m Cu, Fe trong HN03 du thu dllgc

2,464 lit (dktc) h6n hop NO, N02 co ti kh6i so v(ri H2 la 2 3 va dung 7 11 dich chua m gam muoi. Bi~t chi xay ra 2 qua trinh khil' N+5.

Gia tri m la A. 12,9
B. 11,1 C. 10,8 D.13,6

o 58.

Hoa tan he't 3,6 gam ran X g6m Fe; FeO; Fe203 va Fe304 bang HN03 loang, du du'c;tc2,016 lit N02 (dktc) la san pham khir duy nhat. DAn mQt lucng H2 du' qua ong chua cling hrcng X tren dun nong thi sau phan Ung xuat hien bao nhieu gam sAt kim 10~i? B. 3,024 gam C. 2,80 gam D. 3,08 gam 59. Hoa tan he't 18 gam rAn X g6m Fe; FeO; Fe203 va Fe304 bang HN03 loang, du duoc 10,08 lit N02 (dktc) Ia san pham khu duy nhat va dung dich chua m gam muoi. Gia tri m la

A. 3,36 gam

o

A. 65,34 gam

B. 60,50 gam

C. 48,40 gam

D. 67,76 gam

o

60. Dot chay hoan toan met hrong este mach hd E (chi chua chire este) du'c;tc nC02 - nH20 = 2nE• Thuy phan E (moi tru'O'ng axit) duoc axit cacboxylic X va ancol don chirc Y. Bot chay hoan toan ancol Y thu du'Q'cncoz = nH20 Phat bi@'udung la
+

A. E phai la este hai l~n este B. X phai la axit cacboxylic no C. E phai co cong thuc chung la CnH2n_202 D. Este E phai co it nhat 6C trong ph an tIt

.

o

61. B6t chay hoan toan mot luong este mach h& E (chi chua chirc este) dugc ncoz - nHzO = nE • Thuy pharr E (moi truong axit) du'c;tcaxit cacboxylic X va ancol Y (chua 1 noi doi C=C). Phat bi~u dung 18. A. E phai la este hai Un este B. X phai Ia axit cacboxylic chua no C. X cling nhu Y chay d~u tao ncoz

= nH20

D. Este E phai co it nhat 5C trong ph an tIt

o

62. D5t chay hoan to an mot hrong este mach ha E (chi chua chirc este) diroc nC02 - nH20 = 2nE 'I'huy phan E (moi trirong axit) diroc
+

axit cacboxylic X va ancol Y. D6t chay .hoan toan ancol Y thu diroc . nC02 - nHzO = ny . Ph at bi€u dung la 46

A. E phai la este don chirc B. X phai la axit cacboxylic chua no C. E phai co cong thuc chung la CnHzn - 202 D. Y phai 18.ancol hai chirc
[J 63. D6t chay hoan

este) du',!c nC02

-

toan mot hrong este mach hd E (chi chira chirc nH20 = 2nr. Thuy phan E (rnoi truong axit) du'qc

axit cacboxylic X va ancol Y. D6t chay hoan toan axit cacboxylic X thu duqc nC02 - nH20 = nx. Phat bi~u dung la A. E khong phai la este don chtrc B. X phai lam mat mau nude brom C. E phai co cong thirc chung la CnH2n - 404

D. D6t chay hoan toan ancol Y duc;1C C02 < nH20 n
[J

64. Hoa tan h~t m gam rAn X g6m Fe, FeO, Fe20a va Fea04 bang' HNOa dac, nong du thay bay ra 5,6 lit N02 (dktc). Khfr hoan toan cling hrong X nay du'c;1c 2 gam sAt kim loai, Gia tri m la bao nhieu? 4 Cho bi~t chi xay ra mt)t qua trinh khir N+5 A.58 B.62

C.52,8

D.55,76

[J 65. Hoa tan he"t m gam rAn X g6m Fe, FeO, FezOa va Fes04 bang

HNOa loang, du thay bay ra 1,4 lit NO (dktc). Khfr hoan toan cling hrong X nay duqc 14,5 gam sAt kim loai, GiS. tri m la bao nhieu? Cho biet chi xay ra mQt qua trmh khli N+5 A.11,2

B. 23,1

C.16,8

D.25,2

o

66. Hoa tan he"t 29 gam rAn X g6m Fe, FeO, Fe203 va Fea04 bang' HNOa du thay bay ra V lit (dktc) hfm hop NO va N02 co ti kh6i so vdi H21a 19. Khli hoan toan cling luong' X nay duqc 21 gam sAt kim loai, Gia tri V la bao nhieu? Cho bie"t chi xay ra hai qua trinh khli N+5 A.O,7

B. 1,4

C.2,8

D.2,24

o 67.

Hoa tan h~t 29 gam r&n X g6m Fe, FeO, Fe203 va Fea04 bang HNOa du thc1y bay ra 1,4 lit (dktc) hem hop NO va N02 co ti kh6i so vdi H2 la 19 va dung dich chua m gam mudi, Gia tri m la bao nhieu? Cho bi~t chi xay ra hai qua trlnh khu N+5

A.90,75

B.84,0

C.72,6

D.121,0
47

o CHUONG

111-----------(fi(

HUONG DAN GIAI
1. Theo cong thltc 34, ta co rnmu6i
:::::>

Bftl T6P •
= 58
gam

=

400 (20 88 + 16 3,248) 160' 22,4

Chon C

Luu y: Du. 20}88 gam ban ddu lit kh6i luang ctla cd 3 oxit, hoac ldn cd sat kim loai thi dap an udn lit 58 gam
2. B~ Y rang
nBaC03

co
n,

< nC02 nsn theo cong thltc 18 la

n!

= nOH-

-

thi 0,08 = 5a - 0,12
Rut ra a = 0,04 => Chon D 3. SO' ch~t hOO ca thoa d~ bai co axit va este. Theo cong thitc 8 va 4 thi

86 axi t

=

2n

-3

=

24 - 3 = 2

86 este = 2fl- 2 = 24 - 2 = 4
Vfiy t6ng so chat huu co can tim la 6 => Chon D 4. Theo d~ thi N aOH da dung thua {j thi nghiem 2 va dung thieu i1 thi nghiem 1, do do ap dung cong thltc 21 ta co he: 0,2a = 3.0,2 {0,4a = 4.0,5b - 0,3
{::>

{a = 3 => Chon B b = 0,75 .

5. Theo d~ thi HCl da dung thira d thi nghiem 2 va dung thieu i1 thf nghiem 1, do do ap dung cong thuc 22 ta co h~: 0,3a = 0,3 {0,4a = 4.0,25b - 0,3
{::>

{a = 1 => Chon A b = 1,5 .

6. Theo d~ thi Ca(OH)2 da dung thua i1 thi nghiem 1 va dung thie'u i1 thi nghiem 2, do do ap dung cong thuc 18 ta co h~: 12b - 0,3 = 0,2

fa = 0, 2

~

lb = 0,25

J a = 0,2

=> Chon D .

7. D~ thAy m6i phan co:
21,6 _ 72

°

7 6' ,3 rno 1 F e 0 va 29, - 21, 27nNO

°

,3 rno 1 AI

Theo cong thltc 37, ta co

=

! [3.0,3 3

+ (3 - 2) 0,3]

= 0,4

mol

.

Vfiy V = 8,96 lit => Chon B 48

8. Theo cong thuc 85, ta c6 mFe = 56 (6 + 24 1,12) 80 22,4 ~ Chon D

= 5,04 gam

9. Theo cong thuc 85, ta c6 mFe = 56 (3 + 24 0,56) = 2,52 gam 80 22,4

=> Chon A Luu y: Cau 8 va cau 9 tuy hinli thuc hoi hhac nhau nhung each. gidi gi6ng nhau, tuc dung chung mot cong thuc, vi, dinh. lugt boo toan. nguyen t6 cho DFelX = nFe kim loai can tim
10. Theo cong thuc 11 thi 86 dipeptit 11. Theo cong thitc 85, ta c6 mFe/Fe
0
23

= 22 = 4
80

~ Chon D 22,4
= 10,08

= 56 (12 + 24 2,24)
am

gam

~ m = 160.10,08
112

= 144

'g

Goi x la 86 mol H2 da dung ban dAu, dinh luat bao toan kh6i hJgng cho:
2x + 14,4 = 12 + 18x Rut ra x = 0,15. Do do V (vi nH2

= nH20)
~ Chon C

= 22,4.0,15 = 3,36 lit

12. BAng phirong phap dUdng cheo, d~ dang tim dugc nNO = 0,1 mol va nNO2 = 0,3 mol.

Do d6 theo cong thuc 28 ta c6 m = 14 + 62 (3.0,1 + 0,3) = 51,2 gam ~ Chon A
13. Ta c6 nC02
~ -<' co so C =

= 1,2

mol < nH20 = 1,5 mol nen theo cong thuc 8, A

1,2 1,5-1,2 2

= 4 ~ nA

1,2 =-

4

= ,3 rno1

°

~ MA

= 20 ,:

,

= 74 ~ A co cong thirc phan hila C4H:100

=> A la ancol hoac ete. Theo cong thitc 1 thl A c6 2
thl1 A co (4 -1)(4 - 2) ; 2
4- 2

=4

ancol va theo cong thuc 5

= 3 et e.

V~y A c6 ta't ca 7 d5ng phan cau tao (chon C)
14. Ta

co nAl =

2 nH 3

= 0,2 mol
2

49

Chu y rAng phanung giua Fe203; ZnO va CuO voi HN03 d~u khong gidi phong khi, do do theo cong thuc 87, ta co :ilN02= 3nAI = 0,6 mol. 'V~y V :;::13,44 lit (chon B) 15. Theo cong thuc 85 ta co 2,8 = 56 (3, 76 . 80 Rut ra V = 0,224 lit (chon A) 16. Theo phan ltng Fe + 4HN03 ~ Fe(N03h + NO + 2H20, ta th~y 0,2 mol HNQ~ chi tac dung dU<Jc 6i 0,05 mol Fe tao 0,05 mol Fe(N03)3 v tli'c 242.0,05 = 12,1 g < 13,22 g, chirng to 13,22 g chat tan trong bai la 2 mudi Phan ling tren eung tao 0,05 mol NO nen ap dung cong thitc 27 ta c6: 13,22 :;:: + 62.3.0,05 m
'¢:}

+ 24 _.:!_) .
22,4

m

= 3,92

(chon D)

Luu y. Neu. 13,22 gam la kh6i luang ctia Fe(NO:}3 ua HN03 du thi hlumg ap dung duac ctmg thuc 27, do do cdn pluii hiem. cluing xem day co pluii kh6i luang 2 muoi khong nhu dCi lam a tren 17. Biing phuong phap dirong' cheo thi nNO= nN02 = 0,3 mol Theo d~, phan ltng cung tao 0,3 mol NILN03. Do d6 cong thitc 28 cho: x = nHN03 4.0,3 + 2.0,3 +10.0,3 =
:=

4,8 (chon A)

18. Tli cong thitc 37, ta c~n higu d day Al da cho 3. 0,54 = 0,06 mol 27 5 electron va N+ da nhan 0,06 mol electron nay theo cac phan U'ng:

va
3a Va d . y B/H2
[J

a mol

b

b mol

Rut ra 3a + b = 0,06 va a + b :;::0,04. Giiii ra dU<Jc a
=

=

0,01; b :;::0,03

0,01.30 + 0,03.46 2.0,04

=

21 (chon D) .

19. Theo cong thitc 16 thi A co 37\', vay 1 mol A tac dung dliqc vdi t6i da 3 mol Br2 (chon C) Ta co 2 qua trinh khir trong thi nghiem (chu nhan cung s6 mol electron rna h6n hop cho) N+5 0,5
+

o 20.

y N+5 va 8+6 phiH
-+

Le 0,5 mol

~

N+4

va

8+6

+

2e 0,5

S+4

0,25 mol

V~y nsoz = 0,25 mol 50

Nen theo cong thuc 84 ta co: 400 mmu6i:::; 60 (52 1

+ 16.0,25) = 140 gam (chon A)

21. Theo cong thuc 16 thi A co 411. B~t este tren la RCOOR' thi R' co 211, nhom COO eo 1 11 nen R co 1 1\. V~y X phai 18. axit cacboxylic chua no, lam mgt mau nude brom (chon A)

o 22.
[J

Theo cong thuc 35 ta co: 11,2 56· = -(15,04 80

+ 8--)V

22,4

~V

= 2,689 lit (chon B)
.

23. Theo cong tluic 37 ta co nNO:::; Al :::;0,01 mol. n Yay %Fe203 = 2,67 - 0,01.27. . 2 , 67 89,89% (chon B) .
=

.... ' O 24• Th eo cong t h' 17 ta co n = (16 -2)12,8 uc 14(16 -12,8)

4.

V~y anken can tim la C4HS (chon C)
[J

25. BAng phuong phap dirong' cheo, ta co: DNO= 0,02 mol va .nN02 = 0,06 mol Til cong thuc 35 va 36 thi: 56 8,4 .:._80 (rn + 8.0,06

+ 24.0, 02) ~ m = 11,24 g (ChQDD)

o 26.

Theo d~ d6t chay hoan toan 1 mol ancol A c§.n 5,5 mol O2
A

" ,UC D o 4 = 2.5,5 - 1 + 2 nen t h eo cong t h" 9 th)1 A co: 3
II :::;

4 va x:::; 2, vay A co CODgthirc C4HlO02 C4H1002 0,1 mol + 5,502 4C02 + 5H20 0,5 mol

Phan irng chay cua A:
----7

0,4 mol

=>

mbinh tang

:::;

0,4.44 + 0,5.18 :::; 6,6 gam (chon A) 2 COOH, theo cong thuc 14 thl:
<e> 2,67 = MA

o 27. Gia

sa A co 1 nh6m

EA~ MA ~

0,13;0,11
51

Rut ra MA :::; 89 (chon B)

o 28.

Theo cong thirc 15 18. ~A=

r

MA

b-nal "
=MA 0,42 - 0,12 1

thi neu A c6 1 nh6m NH2, ta
¢:>

se c6 21,9

MA = 73 (loai vi amino axit phai c6 M > 15)
cong th((c 27 ta c6:

VfJ.yA phai c6 2 nh6m NH2 (chon D)

o 29. Theo

mmuo'i 3,1 + 27,5.0,03.2 = 4,75 gam (chon D) = 030. Theo cong th((c 87 ta c6: V
N02

== 224("317 -11,6
'

27

+

11,6) = 14 5611t (chon B) 232 ' .

o 31. Theo
X

cong th((c 11 ta c6 s6 cong thirc ca:u tao cua:

= 2n - 2 = 23 - 2 = 6 (chon B) Luu y: Co 23 = 8 tripeptit tao bCtivalin va alanin, nhung phdi

bd di

2 tripeptit tao bCticung mQt amino axit di tluly phan ra 2 amino axit rieng biet

o 32.

VI nco < nH
2

2

0

nell A 18.an kan CnH2n

+2 •

Theo cong th((c 8 ta

co n

e

7 --=7. 8-7

V~y ankan dB. cho 18.C7H16•

De thify nA = 0,03 mol nen
=2co H = 2 -

llco2 = 0,21 mol

va do d6 thu

dtlQ'c21 gam ke-t tua (chon C) 2.0,78 = 44% (chon B) 2. 0,7875 = 42,5% (chon B)

[J 33. Theo cong th((c 41, ta co H [J 34. Theo cong th((c 42, ta

[J 35. Theo cong th((c 48, ta c6 H = 2 - 2.0,65

= 70% (chon

A)

I:J 36. Theo cong thrtc 44, ta co % pentan phan

ung =

72 -1 = 44% 50 (chon C)

[J 37. Theo cong th((c 45, ta co

.

.

MA = 1°12,8.2
2

=

128.

VfJ.yA c6 cong thirc C9H20 (chon C)
[J 38. Theo cong th((c 87, ta co:

V = 22,4 [3 DAJ 3

+ (3x - 2y)nFe

·

0
y

]

= 22,4 (3.0,2 + 0,3) = 6,72 lit 3 (chon B)

52

' O 39. Th eo eong t h·' 9 ,ta co 5 = 2.6 - 1 + 4 nen n = 5' va x uc ·3
A A

= 4.

VfJ.yancol dB.cho la C5H1204 => MA = 136 (chon B)

o 40.

Theo cong thuc 35, ta co: 17,4.56 = 56 (15,24 232 80

+ 24nNO) ¢? nNO = 0,115

.

=> V = 2,576 lit (chon C)
041. Theo eong thue 36, ta co: 21 = 56 (m 80
[J 42. Theo

+ 8.0,125)

¢:}

m = 29 gam (chon A) .

eong thue 35, ta co:
=

14,4.2.56 160

56 (12 + 24nNO) ¢:} nNO = 0,1 => V = 2,24 lit (chon B) 80 .

o 43. Theo

eong thuc 35, ta co mFe

=

56 (18 + 24.0,15) 80

= 15,12

gam

(chon B)

o 44.

Theo eong thue 14, ta co m = 147 0,13 - 0,03 = 7,35 gam 2

(chon B)
n~ [J 45.De

' ch 0 nx : n02= 1 : 4 nen theo cong th" 9 ta co 3 = 2.4 - 31 + 2 ' «c,
A A

vfJ.yancol dB.cho co cong thirc la C3Hs02• A hoa tan Cu(OHh nen A la propan -1,2- diol. .M~t khac ta cling co nx : nCu(OHl2 = 2 : 1
=?

nCU(OH>2 0,05 mol tuc m = 4,9 gam (chon A) =

o

46. D~ thdy s6mol m6i khi m

la 0,1

mol, do do: gam (chon A)

=

10 + 62(3.0,1 + 0,1)

= 34,8

[J 47. Lt1UY rAng neu co tao NH4N03 thi

eong thue 28 phai vi6t la

mMu6i= mKim

lQ\li

+ 62.(3nNO + nN02 + 8nN20+ lOnNa + 8nNH,NO) a + mNH,NOa

day Mg cho 0,18 mol electron, nhung N+5 mdi nhan 0,12 mol electron d~ tao NO nen con 0,06 mol electron tham gia tao NH4N03• Suy ra nNH,NOs 0,~6 = 0,0075 mol, do do ta co : = m

d

= 2,16

+ 62.(3.0,04

+ 8.0,0075) + 80.0,0075 = 13,92 gam (chon C)

53

NhQ_n xet: Neu co tao NH~03, bai totui dan gidn han nhu sau Mg 0,09 mol CHO ~ Mg+2 + 2e

nen dung su cho nluui electron thi. N~N +
+

3e 0,12 mol 8e 0,06 mol ~

~

N+2 0,04 mol NH4N03 0,0075 mol

0,18 mol

=> m

=

148.0,09 + 80.0,0075

=

13,92 gam

o 48.

Luu Y rlmg tuong ttl nhu cong. thuc 17 trong viec tim cong thirc anken dua van phan ling hidro hoa, i':J day ta cung co cong thuc ankin dua van phan ling hidro hoa la n = 2(M2 - 2)M1 => n = 2(9 - 2)7,2 = 4 (chon B) 14(M2-M1) 14(9-7,2) .

[J

49. E)g Y rang X g6m C2H2 va H2 Z g6m
H2

Y g6m C2H2 du, H2 du, C2H4 va C2H6 du, C2H4 va C2H6 T g6m H2 du va C2H6 Bao toan H cho: nH/X= 2nx

.

=

2nC2H2/Y 4nC2H4 2nH20 + +

= 2 2 30

240

+4

40 160

+

2 11,25 = 2 5 mol 18 '

=> nx

=

1,25 mol va V = 22,4.1,25 = 28 lit (chon A)

NhQ_n xet: Bai nay khong can biet dft ki~n v~ CO2 thu duoc pluin ung d6t cluiy h6n hap T niu gidi theo btio toan H nhu treti

a

o 50.

D~ thay nC2H4 nH2 = 1 : 1 nen theo cong thuc 42, ta co: : 15 H=2-2-=O,5=50% 20

Nhu v~y gia. sli h6n hop d&u gcSm 1 mol C2H4 va 1 mol H2 thl dA c6 0,5 mol m3i chat phan irng' tao ra 0,5 mol C2H6• Do d6 h6n hcp sau phan ungg6m 0,5 mol C2H6; 0,5 mol C2H4; 0,5 mol H2• V~y C2H6 chiern 33,33% th~ tich h6n hop sau phanung
[J

51. D~ thay nN2 : nH2 =1 : 3·nen theo cong thuc 41, ta c6: . ..' .. 8 5 . H =2- 2 ' = 0,4 = 40% 10,625

54

Gia sli h6n hop d§.u g6m 1 mol N2 va 3 mol H2 , vi H = 40% nen ta N2 Ban dfru Ph an irng' Sau phan irng 1 mol 0,4 mol 0,6 mol 0,8.100 + 1,8 + 0,8 + H2 3 mol 1,2 mol 1,8 mol 2NHa 0,8 mol 0,8 mol C) thuc gidi nhanh. la

co

°

=> %NH3

=

0,6

= 25% (chon
.

NhQ,n xet: Thgt ra dang nay ciing

co cong
My
x

% VNH3 = M -1

That v~y ta co %NHa

=

10,625 - 1 8;5

=

0,25

= 25%

Cungap dung cong thuc nay cho bai 50 d tren ta c6 20 %C2H4 = - 1 =0,3333 = 33,33% 15

o 52.
053.

Thea cong thuc vira neu, ta

co %NHa =

34/3 8,5

- 1 = 0,3333

= 33,33%

Ta phai co 5~ = 0,:2 ~ M

= 65.V~y = 65. Yay .

M la kern (chon A) M

o

54. Ta phai c6 5,2 = 0,32 {:}M

M

4

la kern

(chon A)

.

055. Chon D. Tli di1 kien da cho tim duqc cong thirc Ala C5H1ZO Thea cong thue 1 va cong thuc 5 thi A c6 t6ng cQng 14 d6ng phan cau tao la 8 ancol va 6 ete 56. Chon B. Tu da kien da cho tim du'Q'ccong thtrc A la C4HlOO Thea cong thuc 1va cong thuc 5 thi A co t6ng cong 7 d6ng phan cau tao Ia 4 ancol va 3 ete CJ 57. ChQn A Thea d~ ta co
nNO

o

= 0,~2 mol
mmu6i

va

nN02

= 0,09

mol

Thea cong thuc 28 thi 058. Chon B Thea cong thac 36 thi CJ 59. Chon A Thea cong thuc 33 thi

= 3,6 + 62(3.0,02 + 0,09) 56 (3,6 + 8 2,016) 80 22,4

=

12,9 gam

gam

mFe

=

= 3,024

mpe<NO)
33

= 242 (18 + 810,08) =
80 22,4

65,34

gam

55

060.

Chon D

Theo cong tht1c 16 thl E co 3 11 con Y co 1 11 , NC'u E nhi chtrc thi E phai co dang R'OOCRCOOR', cong thirc nay co it nha't 411(Ioai phirong an A). V~y E phai don chrrc, co dang RCOOR'. Trong cong' thirc nay R phai co 111(loai phuong an B). Cong thtrc CnH2n _ 202 chi co 211, khong phu hop vdi dS 13.co 3 11 (loai phirong an C). V~y chon D LlIU

y:

Co the hinh dung E qua este don gian nhft 13.: CH2 = CH - COO - CH2
-

CH ::::CH2

o 61.

Chon C. Theo cong thuc 16 thi E co 211, con Y co 1 11 Co th~ hinh dung E qua este don gian nhat 13.: RCOO - CH2
-

o 62.
o 63.

CR = CR2

Chon B. Thea cong th(tc 16 thi E c6 311, con Y co 21\ C6 th~ hmh dung E qua este sau: CH2
::::

CH - COO - CH2

-

CR = CR - CR = CH2

Chon B. Theo cong thuc 16 thi E c6 311, con X co 211 Co the hinh dung E qua este don gidn nhat 13.: CH2 = CH - COO - CH2 Chon A.
¢:} -

a 64.
[J

CR ::::CH2 m = 58 gam

Theo cong th(tc 36 thl 42 = 56 (rn + 8.0,25) 80 . 65. Chon A Theo cong thuc 35, ta c6 mFe 80

= 56 (14,5 + 24_!i.i_) = 11, 2 gam
22,4

[J

66. Chon B. Thea d€ thl nNO = nN02 = a mol " Ta co
mFe

= 80 (mhh

56

+ 24nNO + 8nN02) ¢:} 21 = 56 (~9 + 24a + 8a) 80

a = 0,03125. V~y V [J 67. Chon A

= 22,4.2a =

1,4 lit

Theo d€ thi nNO = nN02 = 0,03125 mol 242 Ta c6 mFe(N03)3 = 80 (mhh

+ 24nNO + 8nN02)

242 :::: 80 (29 + 32. 0,03125) 56

= 90,75

gam

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