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B GIO DC V O TO

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TRNG I HC CN TH
KHOA NNG NGHIP & SINH HC NG DNG
B MN BO V THC VT
ng 3/2, khu 2, Tp. Cn Th.
E-mail: tvhai@ctu.edu.vn, Cell phone: 0913 675 024

GIO TRNH
HA BO V THC VT

PGs. Ts. TRN VN HAI

Nm 2009

THNG TIN V TC GI
PHM VI V I TNG S DNG
CA GIO TRNH HA BO V THC VT
I.THNG TIN V TC GI
H v tn: TRN VN HAI
Sinh nm: 02-03-1955
C quan cng tc:
B Mn Bo V Thc Vt, Khoa Nng Nghip v Sinh Hc ng Dng,
Trng i Hc Cn Th
E-mail: tvhai@ctu.edu.vn
II.PHM VI V I TNG S DNG
-Gio trnh c th s dng cho cc ngnh: Nng hc, Trng trt, Bo v thc
vt, Kinh t nng nghip, K thut nng nghip v S phm ha.
-C th dng cho cc trng: Trung hc k thut, i hc nng nghip, S
phm
-Cc t kha: cn trng, bnh cy, c di, thuc tr dch hi, bo v thc
vt, c cht, th nghim, hu hiu, d lng. hot cht
-Yu cu kin thc trc khi hc mn ny: cn trng, bnh cy, c di v
ha hc hu c.
- in thnh gio trnh ti th vin i hc Cn Th

MC LC
CHNG M U ...................................................................................................................... 1
I. V TR v VAI TR CA MN HC .................................................................................. 1
1. Dch hi v mc tc hi ................................................................................................. 1
2. Cc bin php bo v thc vt ............................................................................................ 1
3. u im, nhc im v v tr ca ngnh Ha BVTV hin nay ........................................ 2
II. Lch s php trin ngnh Ha BVTV .................................................................................... 3
III. C s mc ch v i tng mn hc ................................................................................. 4
Cu hi n tp ............................................................................................................................. 4

CHNG 1: C CHT HC NNG NGHIP ........................................................................ 5


1.1 CC KHI NIM V CHT C v S NHIM C.................................................. 5
1.1.1 Cc khi nim c bn..................................................................................................... 5
1.1.2 Nhng yu cu i vi mt ha cht dng trong bo v thc vt ................................. 6
1.1.3 Phn loi thuc tr dch hi ........................................................................................... 7
1.2 S XM NHP CA CHT C VO C TH SINH VT........................................ 9
1.2.1 S xm nhp ca cht c vo t bo .......................................................................... 10
1.2.2 S xm nhp ca cht c vo c th cn trng.......................................................... 10
1.2.3 S xm nhp ca cht c v c th loi gm nhm ................................................... 11
1.3.2 S bin i ca cht c trong t bo sinh vt ............................................................ 12
1.3.3 Cc hnh thc tc ng ca cht c ........................................................................... 13
1.3.4 Tc ng ca cht c n dch hi ............................................................................. 14
1.4 NHNG NHN T NH HNG N TNH C CA CHT C...................... 15
1.4.1 S lin quan gia tnh cht ca cht c v tnh c ca cht c.............................. 15
1.4.2 S lin quan gia c im ca sinh vt vi tnh c ca cht c ............................ 16
1.4.3 nh hng ca mt s ngoi cnh n tnh c ca cht c..................................... 19
1.5 THUC BO V THC VT V S BIN I CU TRC QUN TH SINH VT
................................................................................................................................................... 20
1.5.1 Thuc BVTV vi qun th dch hi............................................................................. 21
1.5.2 Thuc bo v thc vt vi nhng sinh vt c ch ........................................................ 21
1.5.3 Thuc bo v thc vt i vi cy trng ..................................................................... 21
Cu hi n tp ........................................................................................................................... 22

CHNG 2: CC PHNG PHP S DNG v TH NGHIM THUC TR DCH HI


....................................................................................................................................................... 23
2.1 CC DNG CH PHM DNG TRONG BO V THC VT.................................. 23
2.1.1 Nhng ch phm cn ha long trc khi s dng ..................................................... 24
2.2.2 Nhng ch phm khng ha long trc khi p dng ................................................. 24
2.2.3 Cht ph gia ................................................................................................................. 25
2.2 CC PHNG PHP S DNG THUC TR DCH HI ......................................... 26
2.2.1 Phun thuc ................................................................................................................... 26
2.2.2 Rc ht ......................................................................................................................... 30
2.2.3 Ni liu php thc vt.................................................................................................. 30
2.2.4 Xng hi ...................................................................................................................... 31
2.2.5 X l ging .................................................................................................................. 32
2.2.6 Lm b c................................................................................................................... 33
2.3 CC PHNG PHP XC NH TNH C V HIU LC CA THUC TR
DCH HI................................................................................................................................. 33
A. CC PHNG PHP XC NH TNH C CA THUC TR DCH HI TRONG
PHNG TH NGHIM ............................................................................................................ 34
2.3.1 Nguyn tc th nghim ................................................................................................. 34
2.3.2 Phng php xc nh tnh c ca thuc tr su ....................................................... 34
2.3.3 Phng php xc nh tnh c ca thuc tr nm...................................................... 35
2.3.4 Phng php xc nh tnh c ca thuc tr c......................................................... 36
B. CC PHNG PHP XC NH HIU LC CA THUC TR DCH HI TRN
NG RUNG........................................................................................................................ 37
2.3.5 B tr th nghim .......................................................................................................... 37
2.3.6 Xc nh hiu qu ca vic dng thuc tr dch hi.................................................... 38
C. CC PHNG PHP TNH TON HIU QU DNG THUC .................................. 39
2.3.7 hiu ca thuc tr su ............................................................................................ 39
2.3.8 Ch tiu nh gi thuc tr nm................................................................................... 42
2.3.9 Ch tiu nh gi thuc tr c...................................................................................... 42
D. SO SNH TNH C CA CC LOI THUC TR DCH HI ............................... 43
Cu hi n tp ........................................................................................................................... 44

CHNG 3: THUC TR DCH HI ...................................................................................... 44


A. THUC TR SU.............................................................................................................. 44
3.1 THUC TR SU CLO HU C ................................................................................... 44
3.1.1 U IM ............................................................................................................................ 44
3.1.2 NHC IM.................................................................................................................... 44
3.1.3 MT S C IM KHC.............................................................................................. 44
3.1.4 DDT (Dichlodiphenyl trichloetan)....................................................................................... 45
3.1.5 BHC ..................................................................................................................................... 46
3.1.6 THUC TR SU TECPEN CLO HA........................................................................... 47
3.1.7 THUC TR SU CYCLODIEN ..................................................................................... 47
3.2 THUC TR SU GC LN HU C ......................................................................... 49
3.2.1 METHYL PARATHION (MP) (Metaphos, Wofatox, Folidon M, Metacid, Bladan - M).. 50
3.2.2 SUMITHION (Fenitrothion, Metathion, Methylnitrophos, Folithion)................................ 51
3.2.3 LEBAYCID (Fenthion, Mertophos, Baycid, Baytex) ......................................................... 51
3.2.4 BASUDIN (Diazinon) ......................................................................................................... 52
3.2.5 DDVP (Dichlorovos, Nuvan, Vapona, Nogos, Desvap...)................................................... 52
3.2.6 NALED ................................................................................................................................ 53
3.2.7 DIPTEREX (Clorophos, Trichlorfon, Diloc, Tugon, Nevugon...) ...................................... 53
3.2.8 MOCAP (Enthorophos, Ethoprop, Prophos) ....................................................................... 54
3.2.9 METHIDATHION............................................................................................................... 54
3.2.10 BIAN, BI58 (Dimethoate, Phosphamid, Rogor, Phostion, Rostion, Thimetion) .............. 55
3.2.11 PHOSPHAMIDON (Dimecron, Cibac-570, Dixion, OR-1191, Apamidon)..................... 56
3.2.12 AZODRIN (Monocrotophos, Nuvacron, Monocron, Bilobran) ........................................ 57
3.2.13 ZOLONE (Benzophos, Rubitox) ....................................................................................... 57
3.3 THUC TR SU CARBAMATE .................................................................................. 58
3.3.1 SEVIN.................................................................................................................................. 59
3.3.2 MIPCIN................................................................................................................................ 59
3.3.3 BASSA................................................................................................................................. 60
3.3.4 FURADAN .......................................................................................................................... 61
3.3.5 Cc loi thuc Carbamate khc......................................................................................... 61
3.4 THUC TR SU GC PYRETHROIT (GC CC TNG HP)............................... 63
3.4.1 CYPERMETHRIN .............................................................................................................. 63
3.4.2 ALPHA CYPERMETHRIN ................................................................................................ 64
3.4.3 DELTAMETHRIN .............................................................................................................. 65
3.4.4 CYHALOTHRIN................................................................................................................. 65
3.4.5 FENPROPATHRIN............................................................................................................. 66
3.4.6 FENVALERAT ................................................................................................................... 66
3.4.7 PERMETHRIN .................................................................................................................... 67
3.4.8 CC LOI THUC PYRETHROIT KHC...................................................................... 68
3.5 THUC TR SU SINH HC......................................................................................... 68
3.5.1 HORMON (Hc mn) ......................................................................................................... 68
3.5.2 PHEROMON (Cht dn d gii tnh) ................................................................................. 69
3.5.3 MT S CH PHM SINH HC TR SU PH BIN................................................ 69
3.5.4 THUC TR SU VI SINH BACTERIN ......................................................................... 74
3.6 THUC TR NHN ......................................................................................................... 75
3.6.1 ACRINATHRIN .................................................................................................................. 75
3.6.2 AMITRAZ ........................................................................................................................... 76
3.6.3 BINAPACRYL .................................................................................................................... 76
3.6.4 PROPARGITE..................................................................................................................... 77
3.6.5 CC LOI THUC TR NHN KHC ......................................................................... 78
3.7 THUC TR CHUT....................................................................................................... 79
3.7.1 BRODIFACOUM (Klerat, Talon) ....................................................................................... 79

3.7.2 PHOSPHUA KM (Zinc phosphide) .................................................................................. 79


3.7.3 WARFARIN (Coumafne) .................................................................................................. 80
3.7.4 WARFARIN SODIUM + SALMONELLA var. I7F - 4 ..................................................... 80
B. THUC TR BNH CY................................................................................................. 81
3.8 PHN LOI THEO KIU TC NG ........................................................................... 81
3.9 PHN LOI THEO NGUN GC HA HC ............................................................... 81
3.9.1 THUC TR NM CHA NG ................................................................................... 81
3.9.2 THUC TR NM GC LU HUNH.......................................................................... 84
3.9.3 THUC TR NM GC THY NGN .......................................................................... 89
3.9.4 THUC TR NM DICACBOXIN .................................................................................. 89
3.9.5 THUC TR NM HU C NI HP........................................................................... 90
3.9.6 Thuc tr nm tng hp hu c khc .................................................................................. 97
3.10. THUC KHNG SINH .................................................................................................. 99
C. THUC TR C .............................................................................................................. 102
3.11.1 nh ngha........................................................................................................................ 102
3.11.2 c im c di ............................................................................................................... 102
3.11.3 Kh nng cnh tranh vi la ............................................................................................ 102
3.11.4 Phn loi c di................................................................................................................ 102
3.11.5 Thuc tr c ..................................................................................................................... 104
Cu hi n tp ......................................................................................................................... 107
TI LIU THAM KHO ............................................................................................... 108

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng m u

CHNG M U
I. V TR v VAI TR CA MN HC
1. Dch hi v mc tc hi
Dch hi trong nng nghip (pests): l nhng loi sinh vt v vi sinh vt gy hi cho cy
trng v nng sn, lm tht thu nng sut hoc lm gim phm cht nng sn, thc phm. Cc
loi dch hi thng thy l su hi, bnh cy, c di, chut, nhn , tuyn trng...
Tht thu hng nm do cc loi dch hi gy ra chim khong 35% kh nng sn lng
ma mng (khong 75 t la); trong thit hi do su l 13,8% (29,7 t la); do bnh cy l
11,6% (24,8 t la); do c di l 9,5% (20,4 t la) (theo Cramer H. H., 1967). Nu tnh cho
din tch nng nghip ca th gii l 1,5 t hcta, khng k ng c v bi hoang th thit hi
bnh qun l 47- 60 la trn mt hcta. trnh tht thu, hin nay c nhiu bin php c
p dng phng tr cc loi dch hi.

2. Cc bin php bo v thc vt


Ni chung, trong t nhin c rt nhiu yu t lm hn ch s pht trin ca dch hi. Tuy
nhin trong trng trt, phng tr dch hi, tc ng ca con ngi nhm tiu dit hoc ngn
nga s pht trin ca cc loi dch hi l rt quan trng v cn thit. t c mc ch trn,
con ngi c th dng nhiu bin php, tc nhn c kh nng gy nguy him cho i sng ca
dch hi. Cc bin php tc nhn ny thng tiu dit dch hi, hoc ngn nga s ly lan ca
chng t vng ny sang vng khc, hoc lm gim mt s ca chng trong mt vng nht nh.
Hin nay cc bin php sau y thng c s dng ring r hoc ng thi phng tr dch
hi:
a. Bin php kim dch thc vt: Nh nc ban hnh cc qui nh, lut l, nhm kim
sot v hn ch s ly lan ca dch hi t vng ny sang vng khc, t nc ny sang nc khc.
b. Bin php canh tc: Bng cch lm t, bn phn, ti tiu cn i v y , chm
sc cy trng ng mc, p dng lun canh hp l, chn thi im gieo trng thch hp... c th
lm tng sc chng chu ca cy trng v to iu kin bt li cho s pht trin ca cc loi gy
hi, t s hn ch c s pht trin ca cc loi ny.
c. Bin php c hc: Nh bt su bng tay, nh c...
d. Bin php l hc: Bng cch cy i, phi t, t ng... c th tiu dit c nhiu
loi dch hi tr n trong t, trng su, mm bnh, mm c, chut... Ngoi ra ngi ta cn dng
by n, nh sng, m thanh kt hp vi cc cht c thu ht v tiu dit cc loi cn trng
gy hi.
e. Bin php ha: L bin php dng cc ha cht c phng tr dch hi.
f. Bin php sinh hc: L bin php s dng cc loi thin ch c ch trong thin nhin.
Phng tr tng hp: Ngy nay trn th gii ang pht trin xu hng phng tr dch hi
bng cch s dng kt hp mt cch hi ha, hp l nhiu bin php, k c vic pht huy nhng
nhn t c sn trong t nhin c kh nng gy bt li cho s pht trin ca dch hi. Trong s cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PGs. Ts. Trn Vn Hai

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng m u

bin php phng tr dch hi k trn, hin nay bin php ha BVTV vn cn chim u th, mc
d ngi ta ch ra nhiu nhc im ca vic dng ha cht c trong phng tr dch hi.

3. u im, nhc im v v tr ca ngnh Ha BVTV hin nay


~ u im
- Dit dch hi nhanh, c kh nng chn ng c s lan trn ph hoi ca su, bnh v
cc sinh vt gy hi khc. c bit l khi xy ra cc trn dch, s dng ha cht phng tr t
ra hu hiu.
- Cho hiu qu trc tip, r rt, tng i trit , nht l khi dng tr dch hi (su,
chut...) trong nh knh, kho cha nng sn, hng ha.
- Thng nng cao nng sut, phm cht nng sn mt cch r rt.
- D ng dng rng ri nhiu ni, nhiu vng khc nhau.
~ Nhc im
- D gy c cho ngi trc tip p dng thuc (pha ch, phun thuc...), cho gia sc, sinh
vt c ch chung quanh khu vc p dng thuc. Nu s dng khng ng cch, i khi thuc
cn gy c cho thc vt, hoc cn lu b trong nng sn v gy c cho ngi hoc gia sc n
phi.
- Nhiu trng hp thuc nh hng su sc n qun th sinh vt v cn bng sinh thi,
nht l nhng vng m bin php ha BVTV c s dng trn qui m ln.
- Gy nhim trn mi trng sng, nht l i vi cc loi thuc c bn ln, d lu
tn trong t vi mt thi gian kh di. Phi mt khong 10 nm phn hy 95% DDT, hin
nay DDT thy hin din trong t nhiu ni.
- Gy ra hin tng qun th dch hi khng thuc, thng xy ra nht l khi dng mt
loi thuc lin tc trong nhiu nm ti mt a phng. y l mt vn rt quan trng ang
c quan tm, nht l i vi cc loi su, nhn gy hi, do chng rt d hnh thnh tnh khng
thuc.
Vi nhng nhc im trn, hin nay trn th gii ang c xu hng hn ch s dng cc
ha cht c trong BVTV, ng thi c gng tm ra nhng loi thuc mi c nhng u im v
trnh c nhng nhc im k trn. Ni chung vi nhng u im m cc bin php khc
cha c c, p ng c yu cu ca sn xut, bin php ha BVTV hin nay vn cn
c s dng rng ri.
Nhu cu v ha cht BVTV trn th gii ngy cng tng, lng thuc tiu th tnh thnh
tin trong nhng nm gn y l:
+ 1986: 14.400 triu la M
+ 1987: 20.000 triu la M
+ 1990: 21.800 triu la M

II. Lch s php trin ngnh Ha BVTV


C th chia lm ba giai on nh sau:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PGs. Ts. Trn Vn Hai

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng m u

- T th k XVIII tr v trc: Cng tc BVTV ni chung v bin php Ha BVTV ni


ring ch c tin hnh l t, t pht, cha c c s khoa hc v khng c ngha thc tin.
Ch yu con ngi s dng nhng cht c c sn trong t nhin nh lu hunh c trong tro ni
la, cy c c cha cht c... phng tr dch hi.
- T th k XVIII n trc nm 1939: khi sn xut nng nghip mang tnh cht tp
trung hn th thng xy ra cc trn dch su bnh, i khi lan trn t nc ny sang nc khc,
cho nn i hi v cng tc BVTV tr nn cp bch hn. Nh cc khoa hc v cn trng, bnh
cy v nhng ngnh khoa hc t nhin c lin quan khc bc vo giai on hin i, cc
bin php phng tr dch hi khoa hc, tin b mi dn dn c p dng vo sn xut nng
nghip.
Nm 1807, Benedict Prevot chng minh c rng nu nc si trong ni ng c tnh
c i vi bao t nm bnh than en, tip sau , Millardet nghin cu s hn hp gia
ng sulphate v vi to ra hn hp Bordeaux phng tr bnh sng mai trn nho (1882 1887). Nm 1889, Aceto asenate ng- hp cht cha Asen khng tan u tin c dng
phng tr su Leptinotasa decemlineata Say hi khoai ty nhiu nc Chu u. Nm 1897
Rabate s dng H2SO4 v Martin dng st sunfate tr c cho ng cc....
Nhn chung t gia th k XIX tr i, bin php Ha BVTV ngy cng c ch
trng v bc u pht huy c tc dng trong sn xut. Tuy nhin vn cn nhiu hn ch
do nhng hp cht ha hc dng trong giai on ny - ch yu l cc cht v c - cn mang
nhiu nhc im: d gy c cho ngi v gia sc, km an ton i vi cy trng.
- T nm 1939 n nay: T khi ng Muller cng b cng trnh nghin cu ca ng v
thuc tr su DDT th bin php ha hc phng tr su hi c mt chuyn bin cn bn. Sau
hng lot cc hp cht Clo hu c v cc hp cht tng hp hu c khc (ln hu c, Cc-bamat, Pyrethroid tng hp...) ra i v c s dng ngy cng rng ri phng tr su hi.
i vi nm bnh, bt u bng cc thuc tr nm cha ng, ngy nay ngi ta dng nhiu
hp cht hu c tng hp nh cc thiocarbamate, cc hp cht thy ngn hu c, cc hp cht
benzimidazol, cc thuc khng sinh... phng tr nm v vi khun. n nm 1945, khi nhng
thuc tr c Phenoxy (2,4-D, MCPA...) ra i th bin php ha hc phng tr c di mi tht s
c ngha trong sn xut nng nghip.
Trong nhng nm gn y, bin php Ha BVTV c nhng bc tin mnh m,
xut hin nhiu loi nng dc vi bn cht ha hc hon ton mi, c nhiu u im so vi cc
hp cht so vi cc hp cht dng trc y nh: an ton hn vi ngi v ng vt mu
nng, cy trng, dit c nhng loi dch hi khng vi cc loi thuc s dng trc y...

III. C s mc ch v i tng mn hc
C s khoa hc ca bin php Ha hc BVTV l c cht hc nng nghip.
+ c cht hc: (Toxicology) l mn khoa hc chuyn nghin cu cc cht c v tc
ng ca chng n c th sng; cch phng v chng tc dng c hi ca chng.
+ c cht hc nng nghip: l mt ngnh ca c cht hc, chuyn nghin cu cc cht
c dng trong nng nghip nhng cht tr dch hi; tm hiu nhng bin i xy ra trong c
th sinh vt di tc ng ca cc cht c ; tm hiu s pht sinh, pht trin ca nhng bin
i trong c th sinh vt. Nh vy i tng ca c cht hc nng nghip l thuc tr dch
hi v c ch ca s tc ng .
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PGs. Ts. Trn Vn Hai

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng m u

+ Tnh c ca mt cht c i vi sinh vt ph thuc vo 3 yu t sau:

c im ca cht c (tnh cht ha hc, tnh cht vt l, kh nng tc ng sinh l,


liu lng...).
c im ca sinh vt b thuc tc ng: cc c im di truyn nh cu to hnh thi
gii phu, h thng men, hot tnh sinh l v cc c im khc nh th trng, tui
tc, tnh trng sc kho...
iu kin ngoi cnh khi cht c tc ng ln c th dch hi, cc yu t thng
gy nh hng l nhit , m , gi, ma... cc yu t ny mt mt tc ng ln
dch hi lm nh hng n tnh mm cm ca n; mt khc nh hng n tnh cht
l, ha hc ca thuc, t lm tng hay gim hiu qu dng thuc.

Mc ch ca ngnh c cht hc nng nghip l nghin cu s tc ng ca thuc ln


c th sinh vt trong mi quan h gia 3 yu t nu trn t :
+ ra nhng yu cu ca sn xut nng nghip i vi mt loi thuc tr dch hi m
ngnh ha hc cn gii quyt.
+ ra cc bin php dng thuc hp l nht, nhm pht huy n mc ti a hiu lc tr
dch hi v hn ch n mc ti thiu tc hi ca thuc trn ngi, gia sc, cy trng, mi trng
v cn bng sinh thi.

Cu hi n tp
Cu 1: Hy cho bit v tr v vai tr ca ngnh Ha Bo V Thc Vt trong nng nghip?
Cu 2: Hy cho bit u v khuyt im ca ngnh Ha Bo V Thc Vt trong nng
nghip?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PGs. Ts. Trn Vn Hai

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

CHNG 1: C CHT HC NNG NGHIP


1.1 CC KHI NIM V CHT C v S NHIM C
1.1.1 Cc khi nim c bn
a. c cht hc (Toxicology)
L mn khoa hc nghin cu v cht c v s tc dng ca n ln c th sng, cch
phng v chng tc dng c hi ca chng. c cht hc nng nghip l mt ngnh ca mn
c cht hc, chuyn nghin cu cc cht c dng trong nng nghip, cc thuc tr dch hi; v
tm hiu nhng bin i c th xy ra trong c th sinh vt di tc ng ca cht c khc
nhau.
b. Cht c (Toxicant)
* Cht c: l mt cht khi xm nhp vo c th vi mt lng nh cng c th gy ng
c, ph hy vi chc nng ca c th hay gy t vong cho c th .
* Tnh c (Toxicity) ca cht c: l kh nng gy c cho c th ca cht trong
nhng iu kin nht nh, tnh c ca mt cht ph thuc vo cc yu t sau:
- Tnh c ph thuc vo bn cht ca cht c (c im ha hc, l ha, sinh vt hc...
ca cht c).
- Tnh c biu hin tu theo i tng tc ng, cht c c th gy ng c c hay
khng cn tu thuc vo c im ca c th sinh vt b tc ng. Mt cht c th c vi sinh
vt ny m khng c vi sinh vt khc. Ansen v stricnin l nhng cht c c dng lm
thuc tr chut, nhng cng c ng dng trong y hc lm thuc cha bnh cho ngi.
- Cht c ch c kh nng gy c mt liu lng nht nh no (t liu lng
ngng tr ln). Khi lng cht c trong c th sng di mt lng no n s khng c
kh nng gy c na.
- Tnh c ca mt cht cn tu thuc vo iu kin v phng php p dng. S c mt
ca axit HCL trong dch v l mt iu bnh thng nhng nu tim axit ny vo mu th li gy
ng c.
- Thc o c ca thuc c i vi mi c th sng l liu lng c (Toxic dose).
c. Liu lng c (Toxic dose)
L lng cht c cn c gy c mt tc ng nht nh trn c th sinh vt. Liu
lng c c th tnh bng g hay mg cht c trn mt c th. Tuy nhin, do c s sai khc v
ln ca c th cng nh s sai khc v mn cm ca c th cho nn din t mt cch chnh
xc hn, c ca mt cht thng c tnh bng lng cht c cn gy c cho mt
n v th trng (n v l g/kg, mg/kg hay g/kg th trng). Liu lng c cng nh th tnh
c ca cht c cng ln. Liu lng c c th c phn bit thnh cc mc nh sau:
* Liu lng gy cht trung bnh(LD50): l liu cht c trong nhng iu kin nht nh
gy cht cho 50% c th dng trong nghin cu.
* Liu lng ngng: l liu cht c ti thiu trong nhng iu kin no , c th gy ra
nhng bin i khng ng k cho c th nhng cha gy hi n sc khe mt cch r rng c
th cm thy c.
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Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

* Liu lng c: L liu cht c lm cho c th lm vo tnh trng xu nh gy ht hi,


chng mt, nhc u... nhng cha a n t vong.
* Liu lng gy cht: l liu cht c nh nht c th gy cho c th nhng bin i
khng th hi phc c, dn n t vong. Ngoi ra ngi ta cn a ra mt s khi nim khc
v liu lng c nh sau:
* Liu lng di liu gy cht: L liu cht c c th gy ra s hy hoi vi chc nng
ca c th nhng cha dn n t vong.
* Liu lng gy cht ti thiu: l liu cht c nh nht trong nhng iu kin nht nh
c th gy cht cho c th.
* Liu lng gy cht tuyt i: L liu cht c thp nht trong nhng iu kin nht nh
c th lm cht ton b s c th dng trong nghin cu.
d. Mc dng (liu dng, liu lng p dng)
L lng hot cht hoc ch phm ca n dng trn mt n v th tch, din tch hoc
khi lng cn x l bo v cy trng v nng sn, nhm thu c hiu qu k thut v hiu
qu kinh t cao nht. Mc dng c tnh bng n v trng lng ca vt cht hoc ch phm
trn mt n v trng lng, th tch hoc din tch ca i tng cn x l. n v mc thng
dng l kg(lt) hot cht/ha. i khi ngi ta ch khuyn co nng s dng cng vi yu cu
l thuc phi c phun u khp b mt cn x l.

1.1.2 Nhng yu cu i vi mt ha cht dng trong bo v thc vt


a. Hp cht dng trong bo v thc vt phi c tnh c cao i vi sinh vt gy hi, c
kh nng tiu dit hoc ngn chn s ph hoi ca mt hay nhiu loi dch hi. y l iu kin
tin quyt v nu mt i tnh cht ny th vic dng ha cht BVTV chng c ngha g c.
b. An ton i vi cy trng, vi ht ging v khng nh hng xu n phm cht nng
sn liu lng, nng v phng php s dng qui nh.
c. An ton i vi ngi s dng thuc (ngi pha ch thuc, phun thuc...).Vi ngi v
gia sc tiu th nhng sn phm thu hoch t cy trng c phun thuc. Nhng thuc ny phi c
c cp tnh i vi ng vt mu nng thp; khng tch ly trong c th ng vt; khng
phi l tc nhn gy ung th, qui thai v cc bnh mn tnh him ngho khc.
d. Hp cht ny phi c tnh chn lc cao, khi s dng trn ng rung chng phi t hoc
khng nh hng xu n s pht trin ca nhng sinh vt c ch nh cn trng bt mi v k
sinh, ong mt, c, cua...
e. Khng gy nhim mi trng sinh sng. Cc hp cht ny khng phi qu bn vng
trong iu kin s dng; khng tn ti qu lu trong cy trng v nng sn, trong t, ao, h,
sng, sui, nc ngm...Sau khi c phun, ri trn ng rung, trong mt thi gian ngn, thuc
phi dit c nhng sinh vt gy hi v sau phi phn gii thnh nhng cht khng c cho
ngi v ng vt.
f. Cc ch phm dng trong BVTV phi khng i hi cch s dng, bo qun v chuyn
ch qu phc tp, v iu ny khng ph hp vi trnh k thut v c s vt cht nng thn,
nht l i vi nng thn nc ta.
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Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

g. Cc ch phm phi khng c qu t tin, phi em li hiu qu kinh t cao khi s


dng chng. Ngy nay cng nghip ha cht v ang c nhiu n lc ch to ra nhng hp
cht p ng ngy cng tt hn nhng yu cu ni trn. Tuy nhin cn phi thy rng cha c
ha cht no p ng tht y tt c nhng yu cu trn. Vi k thut dng thuc ng n,
trn c s hiu bit tht y v c cht hc nng nghip s gp phn khc phc nhng mt
hn ch v nng cao gi tr s dng ca cc ha cht c trong lnh vc phng tr dch hi. Nu
chng ta coi thuc BVTV nh mt v kh chng li nhng sinh vt gy hi cho cy trng th
kt qu thng li hay tht bi ca trn nh u phi ch ph thuc vo v kh? R rng ngi s
dng v kh ng vai tr quyt nh.

1.1.3 Phn loi thuc tr dch hi


C nhiu cch phn loi thuc tr dch hi, sau y l mt s cch phn loi thng dng
nht:
a. Phn loi theo ngun gc v thnh phn ha hc
Thuc tr dch hi c chia thnh cc nhm sau:
- Cc thuc c ngun gc thc vt: Cc b phn ca mt s thc vt c cha cc hp cht
alcaloid, nicotin, albazin, pyrethrin, rotenone, v mt s cht khng sinh c s ch hoc trch
ly hot cht s dng.
- Cc thuc v c: Gm cc hp cht v c cha ng, lu hunh, cc hp cht asenit...
- Cc thuc tng hp hu c: Gm cc hp cht thuc nhm chlor hu c, nhm ln hu
c, nhm carbamate, nhm cc hp cht d vng, nhm pyrethroid tng hp... Cc li thuc c
ngun gc vi sinh vt: Cc thuc khng sinh.
b. Phn loi theo i tng tc dng
Cc thuc tr dch hi (pesticide) c chia thnh: Thuc tr su (insecticide), thuc tr
bnh (fungicide), thuc tr vi khun (bactericide), thuc tr c di (herbicide), thuc tr chut
(ratticide), thuc tr tuyn trng (nematocide), thuc tr nhn (acaricide), thuc tr c sn
(limacide, molluscide), thuc git ng vt (zoocide). Trong mt s trng hp, thuc tr dch
hi cn c chia thnh tng nhm da vo kh nng gy c ca thuc n mt giai on sinh
trng nht nh ca ch hi: Thuc tr su non (larvicide), thuc tr trng (ovicide)...
c. Phn loi theo phng php thm thu v c tnh tc dng
Tu theo con dng m cc cht c xm nhp vo c th dch hi, c th phn cc loi
thuc tr dch hi theo cc nhm sau:
- Thuc v c (thuc ni tc ng): L nhng thuc xm nhp vo c th cng vi thc
n qua con ng tiu ha, thng dng dit cc cn trng nhai gm, lim ht, chut...
- Thuc tip xc: Xm nhp vo c th qua da, biu b, thng dng dit cc cn trng
sng khng n nu, cc vi sinh vt gy hi, tr c...
- Thuc xng hi: Qua dng hi thuc khuych tn vo khng kh chung quanh dch hi
v xm nhp vo c th qua ng h hp. Ngoi ra ngi ta cn phn bit:

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Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

- Thuc lu dn v thuc khng lu dn: Thuc lu dn l nhng thuc khi c p


dng trn b phn ca thc vt (nh l hoc r) th n c kh nng xm nhp vo bn trong v
dn truyn theo mch nha n cc b phn khc lm cho c th thc vt tr nn c i vi
dch hi (thuc tr su, bnh); hoc ton b c th thc vt b gy hi (thuc tr c). Thuc
khng lu dn l tt c nhng thuc khng c c tnh trn, cc thuc c c tnh lu dn thng
c a chung hn do t b ma ra tri, t gy hi n thin ch.
- Thuc c tc ng chn lc v khng chn lc: Thuc c tc ng chn lc l nhng
thuc ch c tc dng trn mt s loi dch hi v khng nh hng xu n cc loi thin ch
(cn trng bt mi v k sinh) hay nhng sinh vt c ch khc (gia sc, c, th, thin ch (cn
trng k sinh) hay nhng sinh vt c ch khc (gia sc, c, th rng...). i vi thuc tr c, tnh
chn lc ca thuc biu hin kh nng khng gy hi i vi thc vt.
Thuc Bo V Thc Vt dng trong nng nghip cn c phn nhm theo cc ch tiu
c hi i vi ngi v ng vt mu nng, cng nh theo tnh bn vng ca chng trong mi
sinh. c tnh ca thuc i vi VMN c tnh qua mt ln a thuc qua d dy (qua
ming), bi thuc ln da (tip xc qua da) v khi ht hi thuc, v s tch ly ca thuc trong c
th ng vt. (Trch theo Kinh t v t chc Bo V Thc Vt; trang 205 phn Phn loi v
sinh thuc Bo v Thc vt. A.F. Chenkin, theo Vin Nghin cu Khoa hc Ton Lin Bang v
V Sinh v c hi ca Thuc BVTV), NXB Nng nghip - H Ni, 1988.
d. Phn loi theo mc bay hi
- Cht rt nguy him: Nng bo ha nng c hi.
- Cht nguy him: Nng bo ha > nng bc chy.
- Cht t nguy him: Nng bo ha < nng bc chy.
e. Phn loi theo c s y hc
*Theo c cp tnh qua da:
LD50 (mg/kg)
< 300
300< LD50 <1000
1000<

H s da
1-2
3
>3

Mc c (c tnh)
c tnh mnh
c tnh trung bnh
c tnh yu

*Theo c cp tnh qua ming hay ng rut (biu th bng LD50, th nghim trn chut),
cc loi thuc tr dch hi c chia thnh cc nhm nh sau:
Bng phn chia nhm c qua ming theo qui nh ca B Nng Nghip
& PTNT v Cng Ngh Thc Phm, 1995.
Phn nhm
v k hiu
nhm c
I
Rt c
ch en trn
bng mu
II
c cao

Biu tng
nhm c

c cp tnh LD50 (mg/kg)


qua ming

Th rn

Th lng

u lu xng cho

<50

<200

Ch thp en

50-500

200-2000

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Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

ch en trn
bng mu vng
III
Nguy him
ch en trn
bng mu xanh
nc bin

Chng 1

Vch en khng
lin tc

>500

>2000

f. Phn loi theo dng tch ly


Thuc tr dch hi c kh nng tch ly trong c th sinh vt di cc dng sau:
+Tch ly ha hc: xy ra khi cht c ha hc c hp thu vo c th vi tc nhanh
hn l bi tit ra ngoi. Mi ln cht c ha hc xm nhp vo c th u khng thi ra ngoi
hon ton, s tch t ca cht c xy ra khin c th dn dn b ng c v cht.
+ Tch ly ng thi (tch ly chc nng): mi ln cht c xm nhp vo c th u b
thi ra hon ton, tuy nhin hu qu ca s tc ng ca liu cht c vn cn v c tng
thm do qua cc ln xm nhp sau.
Kh nng tch ly trong c th ca mt cht c biu th qua cc h s tch ly:
LD50 (MN TNH)
H s tch ly K = .......................................
LD50 (CP TNH)
K<1

: Cht c tch ly rt ln (siu tch ly)

K= 1-3 :

ln (tch ly r rt)

K= 3-5 :

trung bnh (tch ly va phi)

K> 5 :

yu (tch ly khng r rt)

Ngoi ra y hc cn da vo mc to khi u ngi v ng vt, phn loi cc cht


c theo mc gy c theo mc gy t bin gen, gy qui thai...
g. Phn loi theo kh nng phn hy
Da vo chu k bn hy (DT50: Disappearance Time) ca ha cht l thi gian phn hy
phn na lng cht c.
- DT50 < 1 thng

: bn vng thp

- DT50 = 1- 6 thng

: bn vng trung bnh.

- DT50 = 6 thng - 1 nm : bn vng cao.


- DT50 > 1 nm

: bn vng rt cao.

1.2 S XM NHP CA CHT C VO C TH SINH VT


Cht c xm nhp vo c th theo nhng con ng khc nhau: qua ng tiu ha
(thuc v c), qua ng h hp (thuc xng hi), qua da hay biu b (thuc tip xc). Cho d
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Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

xm nhp vo c th bng con ng no i na, cc cht c mun gy ra mt tc ng no


ln c th sinh vt u phi xm nhp c vo bn trong t bo ca sinh vt .

1.2.1 S xm nhp ca cht c vo t bo


a. S lc v cu to t bo
T bo trng thnh in hnh cu to c bn gm c: mng nguyn sinh, nguyn sinh cht,
nhn, b my golghi, ty th v cc vi th khc. Ring i vi t bo thc vt v mt s vi sinh
vt, bn ngoi mng nguyn sinh cn c mng t bo - l mt mng cellulose cng bo m
cho t bo c bn vng.
b. S xm nhp ca cc cht vo bn trong ca t bo
Mng t bo c kh nng thm thu rt ln i vi cc cht khong v cc cht hu c.
Thng qu trnh hp thu cc cht i qua mng ny xy ra nh vo s hp thu phn t, s trao
i ion hoc lin kt ha hc.
Mng nguyn sinh cht c cu to chuyn ha rt phc tp v l vt cng th hai trn con
ng cc cht thm nhp vo c th do cc yu t sau:
Tnh thm chn lc: cc cht i qua mng t bo vi tc khc nhau, iu ny
lm cn tr kh nng khuych tn ca nhiu cht vo t bo. Tuy nhin tnh thm
ny c th thay i khi c t bo b mt tc ng no . Nh khi chu s tc ng
ca tc nhn gy hi, t bo c th b kch thch hoc b tn thng v khi tnh
thm ca mng t bo tng ln r rt, lc cc cht - k c cht c s khuych
tn nhanh chng v bn trong t bo cho n khi cn bng v p sut c xc lp
Kh nng hp thu ca ton khi nguyn sinh cht: kh nng ny c c trng bi
mt h s no . Khi b cht c tc ng th h s ny tng ln do tnh hp thu
ca khi nguyn sinh cht tng ln, kt qu l cht c xm nhp vo t bo vi
mt tc nhanh hn.
Kh nng hp ph ca mng nguyn sinh cht: c bit l i vi cc kim loi nng nh
Hg, Cu, As... Cc cht c ny thng phn ng vi cc nhm thio v amin ca mng t bo,
trong nhiu trng chng ph hy mng t bo i vo bn trong. Nhn chung cc cht hu
c thng xm nhp vo t bo bng con ng khuych tn di dng phn t qua cc khe
lipoprotein ca mng t bo. Cc cht c v c nh cc hp cht ca Cu, Fe, Zn... thng xm
nhp vo t bo di dng ion hoc phn t.

1.2.2 S xm nhp ca cht c vo c th cn trng


Cc thc tr su xm nhp vo c th cn trng theo 3 con ng: qua b my tiu ha
(thuc v c); qua biu b (thuc tip xc) v qua con ng h hp (thuc xng hi). Vi tng
cch xm nhp, cht c s b chuyn ha theo nhng hng khc nhau v gy ra nhng tc
ng khc nhau.
a. Tc ng v c
- S hp thu cht c: Cc thuc v c cng vi thc n i vo c th cn trng. T lc
bt u vo ming, i qua ng thc qun, cho n khi vo ti thc n, cht c c chuyn ha
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10

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

t dng khng ha tan sang dng ha tan. Khi n rut gia, qu trnh ng ha cht c xy ra
mnh m. Bng cch thm thu hoc ph hyvch rut gia, cht c t rut chuyn vo huyt
dch. Cng vi huyt dch, cht c vn chuyn i khp c th, xm nhp v tc ng vo cc
trung tm sng quan trng (nh h thn kinh, h men), hoc gi trong cc m (nh m m).
- S bi tit cht c: trong qu trnh tiu ha thng khng phi ton b s lng cht c
u c c th hp thu v ng ha. Mt phn cht c khng kp hoc khng c chuyn
ha thnh trng thi ha tan s b thi ra ngoi bng con ng bi tit qua rut sau v l hu
mn. Nh vy i qua rut vi tc cng nhanh, cht c b bi tit i ra ngoi cng nhiu, v
do cng t tc ng n c th dch hi. Mt s cht nh Asen gy ra s co bp rut gia
khin cho cht c mt phn b tng ra khi c th cn trng.
b. Tc ng tip xc
- Biu b cn trng c cu to ch yu bi 3 lp: biu b trn, biu b ngoi v biu b
trong. Lp biu b trn ngoi cng c dy khong 0,2 - 0,8 cu to t mt hn hp acid
bo, cholesterin v protein. Biu b, ch yu l lp biu b trn l vt chng ngi quan trng
nht trn con ng xm nhp ca nhng cht khng tan trong sp v lipit. Thng biu b
chn v m chn ca cn trng tng i mng nn cht c xm nhp qua nhng ni ny
tng i d dng. mt s cn trng, biu b cn c bao bc bi mt lp sp bn ngoi
(nh rp sp).
- Thng thng ch c nhng cht hu c ha tan c trong lipoit v lipoprotein mi xm
nhp c qua biu b. Sau khi qua c bu b, cht c s lan vo huyt dch v truyn i khp
c v tc ng nh trong trng hp cc cht v c.
- Mt s thuc tr su nht l cc loi du, tinh du c th to thnh mt lp mng bn
vng bao ph c th cn trng lm cn tr qu trnh h hp ca chng, v do cc cht ny c
th git cn trng ngay c khi cha xm nhp c vo c th. V d nh du khong DC Trons
Plus do hng Caltex sn xut, du khong SK do Hn quc sn xut.
c. Tc ng xng hi
Bng dng hi, cht c xm nhp vo c th cn trng qua h thng kh qun. Chng
khuych tn qua vch kh qun v vi kh qun vo huyt dch, lan truyn trong thn v gy ng
c cho cn trng. Khi tip xc vi cc cht c xng hi, cn trng thng phn ng t v
bng cch ng cc l th li. Nh c lng oxy cha trong kh qun, chng c th chu ng
c mt thi gian nht nh. Cho n khi ht lng oxy d tr, chng mi buc phi m cc l
th ra; do tiu dit c dch hi, ta phi gi cho khng kh chung quanh dch hi lun
cha kh c nng gy cht trong mt thi gian tng i di th mi c hiu qu. Chnh v
vy m cht c xng hi ch pht huy tc dng khi c p dng nhng ni c khong khng
gian c nh nh kho, khoang tu, nh knh...

1.2.3 S xm nhp ca cht c v c th loi gm nhm


Thng l ch ng dng nhng cht v c hoc xng hi tiu dit nhng loi gm
nhm.
- Cht v c sau khi i vo b my tiu ha cc loi gm nhm c ng ha d dy.
Sau cht c nguyn cht hoc cc sn phm chuyn ha ca n thm qua vch rut vo mu
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11

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

v c mu truyn i khp ni trong c th. Cc loi gm nhm c khu gic v v gic rt


pht trin li rt a nghi nn chng c th phn ng t v bng cch ln trnh, khng n b c
hoc bng cch nn ma b c ra ngoi.
- Cht c xng hi xm nhp d dng vo phi ca loi gm nhm v t c mu vn
chuyn i khp c th. Ngoi kh nng theo huyt dch n cc c quan khc v gy tc ng,
cht c xng hi cn c kh nng tc ng ln chnh huyt dch, lm mt kh nng vn chuyn
kh oxy, kh carbonic v cc cht khc lm nh hng n ton b c th.

1.3.2 S bin i ca cht c trong t bo sinh vt


a. Bin i ha hc
Cht c phn ng vi cc thnh phn ca t bo ch yu l vi cc protein hoc vi cc
thnh phn kim loi trong cc hp cht protit. V d nh: formaldehyd khi xm nhp vo t bo
s tc dng vi cc amino acid to thnh cc methylamin.
b. Bin i sinh hc
- Cht c c th c ch hot ng ca cc enzym nh nhng enzym esteraza (cholin
esteraza, methyl butyrat esteraza, phenyl acetat esteraza...) v nhiu enzym khc trong t bo,
lm nh tr cc hot ng ng ha v d ha ca t bo, thuc tr c Natrichlorate c ch hot
ng ca enzym catalaza trong c, cc thuc tr su ln hu c c kh nng c ch hot ng
ca men cholinesterase (ChE.) v mt s men khc m cc men ny dng thy phn
Acetylcholin. Acetylcholin c trong t bo thn kinh v tham gia vo qu trnh truyn xung ng
thn kinh. V th khi cholin-estaza b c ch, acetylcholin b tch ly lm ri lon s dn truyn
xung ng thn kinh, nhng cht gi l thuc c thn kinh. C loi cht c tc ng bng
cch ngn cn s to thnh vitamin trong t bo hoc lm mt tc dng ca vitamin ny i vi
t bo. Cc dn xut ca hydroxicumarin c kh nng c ch s to thnh vitamin K rut cc
loi chut, gp phn gy bnh mu khng ng chut.
- Tt c cc enzym u l hp cht cha protein, tu theo cu to ca n, ngi ta chia lm
hai loi: Loi th nht trong thnh phn ch cha protein; loi th hai ngoi protein cn c thnh
phn khc nh kim loi. Cc hp cht c th kt hp vi thnh phn protein hoc thnh phn
kim loi lm cho enzym b bt hot hoc b ph hy hon ton. Enzym b bt hot i khi c th
c phc hi khi ta tch cht c ra khi t bo.
- Cc enzym c bit rt d mn cm vi cht c. Do cc enzym gi vai tr xc tc cho
qu trnh sinh hc trong t bo. S ng c ca bt k enzym no u lm cho c th suy yu,
thm ch b cht. Khi c mt enzym no trong c th b c ch, ta ni c th b tn thng
sinh ha.
- Tt c nhng cht c ch enzym, trong c thuc tr dch hi c chia thnh hai
nhm:
+ Nhm c kh nng c ch ton phn: Thng l cc mui ca cc kim loi nng (Pb,
Hg), lm lng, kt ta protein dn n c ch hon s hot ng ca cc enzym.
+ Nhm c kh nng c ch chuyn bit: Thuc c ch lin kt vi mt v tr no trong
phn t protein (nh phn kim loi) to thnh nhng lin kt bn vng v c ch hot ng
ca enzym. Nh H2S c th lin kt vi phn t st trong enzym ca t bo h hp lm c ch
qu trnh h hp.
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12

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

c. Bin i l hc
Mi loi cht c u c kiu tc ng c trng i vi t bo do cc cht c bn cht
khc nhau s tc ng ln nhng thnh phn khc nhau ca t bo, nhng nhn chung tt c
nhng tc ng ny u dn n s bin i trng thi keo, nht v kh nng nhum mu ca
nguyn sinh cht. S thay i trng thi keo biu hin bng s kt t cc phn t keo trong t
bo to thnh nhng phn t ln hn, km theo l phn tn b gim st v c xy ra s
kh nc khin cho i lc ca cc phn t nc b gim. Cng vi s kt ng nguyn sinh cht,
thng din ra s to thnh nhiu khng bo, chng t s thay i quan h gia cc phn t keo
ca t bo i vi nc. Do s kt t keo, nht ca cht nguyn sinh lc u b gim i;
nhng sau li tng ln, c th l do s gel ca keo nguyn sinh, hoc do s thay i v hnh
dng phn t. Trong t bo bnh thng, cc cht nhum mu nh xanh methylen, trung tnh...
khng nhum mu nguyn sinh cht v nhn m thng kt ng li thnh nhng ht nh hoc
lin kt vi mt vi thnh phn ca t bo (i vi t bo ng vt). Lc t bo b tn thng,
cc cht ny nhm mu u c nguyn sinh cht v nhn. Vi nhng bin i l ha hc ni trn,
t bo khng hon thnh c chc nng sinh l bnh thng ca mnh na v c th cht.
Ngoi biu hin ph hy t bo, c khi ngi ta cn quan st thy nhng biu hin kch
thch ca ha cht c i vi t bo. Naxonop v Alexendrop a ra thuyt bin cht gii
thch hin tng ny. Thuyt ny da trn c s l cc protein nguyn th, thnh phn quan
trng v ph bin nht trong nguyn sinh cht, c tnh khng n nh v rt nhy cm vi tc
ng ca nhiu tc nhn khc nhau. Phn ng thng dn n s bin i cu hnh bnh
thng ca protid. Khi ch c mt lng nh cht c tc ng n t bo th cht c mi ch
tc ng n mt s thnh phn ca nguyn sinh cht v c th thc y cc phn ng trong t
bo xy ra nhanh hn lm tng cng s trao i cht trong t bo. Nhng khi lng cht c
tng ln th s bin cht s xy ra su sc v bao trm ln ton khi nguyn sinh cht, lm cho t
bo b tn thng. Trng thi tn thng ny lc u c tnh thun nghch, ngha l nu tch t
bo ra khi tc ng ca cht c th cht nguyn sinh c th phc hi li trng thi bnh thng.
Trng thi ny gi l trng thi cht hoi gi (paranecrosis). Nu b tn thng mc su sc
hn, s bin cht khng cn mang tnh cht thun nghch na, m chuyn sang trng thi cht
hoi tht (necrosis). Nh vy vi cng mt cht, nu cht c xm nhp vo t bo ch vi mt
lng nh th c th gy kch thch, thng vi lng ln th li gy ng c cho c th.

1.3.3 Cc hnh thc tc ng ca cht c


C nhiu hnh thc tc ng khc nhau, tu theo c tnh ca tng loi cht c, c im
ca i tng v iu kin p dng.
a. Tc ng cc b v tc ng ton b
+ Tc ng cc b (tc ng tip xc): Cht c ch gy tn thng nhng b phn ca
c th tip xc vi n m thi.
+ Tc ng ton b (tc ng lu dn): Cht c c tnh hp thu, c kh nng xm nhp v
lan truyn i khp c th, lm nh hng n nhiu c quan hoc c khi nh hng n ton b
c th.
b. Tc ng tch ly
Cht c xm nhp vo c th xy ra s tch ly ha hc hoc tch ly ng thi (xem 3.e).

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13

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

c. Trng c cp tnh v mn tnh


- Trng c cp tnh (Acute toxicity): Thng xy ra khi cht c thm nhp vo c th
ngay mt ln vi lng ln, ph hy mnh m cc chc nng ca c th, biu hin bng nhng
triu chng rt r rng, c trng cho mi loi hay mi nhm ha hc. Thuc tr su gc ln hu
c th hin r nht.
- Trng c mn tnh (Chronic toxicity): Xy ra khi cht c xm nhp vo c th vi
lng nh, trong nhiu ln v trong mt thi gian di. Cc cht c kh nng tch ly trong c th
nh nhng thuc tr su Clo hu c thng gy ng c mn tnh. Tuy nhin cng c nhng
trng hp cht c khng c c tnh tch ly vn c kh nng gy c mn tnh.
d. Tnh c d hu
Mt s cht c khi xm nhp vo c th th khng gy cht cho c th m ch ph hoi
nhng chc nng sinh l ca cc c quan ring bit, lm cho chng khng pht trin bnh thng
c na, v sau ny gy thoi ha hoc c khi gy cht cho th h con ci.

1.3.4 Tc ng ca cht c n dch hi


a. Tc ng ca cht c n c th cn trng v ng vt gy hi
Mi loi hoc mi nhm cht c c th gy cho cn trng nhng phn ng c trng,
nhng triu chng trng c c bit. Khi tc ng n h thn kinh, cc b phn ca cn trng
thng khng c kh nng c ng nhp nhng, n khp vi nhau. Lc u cht c c th gy
hng phn cho cn trng ri sau lm cho c th b t lit dn. Cc cht c tip xc c th
gy ra cht bng trn da, biu b, hoc lm bin i mu sc da. Khi n phi nhng cht c v
c nh hp cht Asen, cn trng c th nn ma, tiu chy. Cc cht c v c c th lm
thnh ng tiu ha b tn thng, ng tiu ha b nht mu, rut b nhn nheo, p sut rut cng
c th b bin i.
Trong c th, cht c c huyt dch dn i khp ni; ngoi ra chnh cc men nm
trong huyt dch cng b tc ng lm bin i thnh phn ha hc v hnh thi hc ca huyt
dch. Di tc ng ca cht c, c trng hp m thn kinh ca cn trng b phn hy, cc m
tuyn b cht... i vi nhng loi gm nhm, cht c cng gy ra bin i bnh l cc c
quan ring bit: h thn kinh, h tiu ha, h tun hon, h h hp. Khi cht c tc ng ln h
thn kinh, nhng ng ny cng c nhng biu hin co rt, hng phn, t lit. Trong nhiu
trng hp cht c lin kt vi hemoglobin trong mu, nh hng n h hp, khin cho chng
b cht v ngt th.
b. Tc ng ca cht c n tc nhn gy bnh
Trong t bo nm, vi khun gy bnh, cht c c th gy ra nhng tc ng sau:
- Ph hy cc thnh phn cu trc ca t bo: Cht c c th tc ng trc tip, ph hy
mt hoc nhiu thnh phn trong t bo nm bnh (vch t bo, mng t bo, ty th, vi th hoc
nhn). Trong t bo nm bnh, do mi cu t c mt chc nng nht nh c lin quan n s
hot ng sinh l bnh thng ca ton b t bo nn khi mt cu t no b hy hoi n mt
mc nht nh th hot ng sinh l ca t bo b ri lon v cui cng lm cho c th b cht.
- Ngn cn s tng hp cc cu t ca t bo: Tc ng ny thc s thng qua s c ch
hot ng ca cc men iu khin qu trnh tng hp hoc ngn cn ngay s tng hp men.
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14

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

- Tc ng n h sn sinh nng lng ca t bo hoc lm cho nng lng d tr b


phng thch ba bi. Cht c c th gy cht cho t bo vi sinh vt (fungicide - cht dit nm,
batericide - cht dit vi khun), nhng cng khi ch lm ngng tr s sinh trng v sinh sn ca
t bo, nhng cht ny gi l cht nm tnh ha (fungistate - cht nh ch hot ng ca nm), vi
khun tnh ha (bacteriostate - cht nh ch hot ng ca vi khun), dc tnh ha (genostat,
cht ngn cn s to thnh bo t). Tuy nhin ngi vn gi chung nhng cht ny l thuc tr
nm.
c. Tc ng ca cht c n c di
Nhiu loi thuc tr c gy ra cho c di nhng triu chng rt in hnh. Nhng triu
chng thng thy l: l c b trng ra tng mng hoc c nhng m b chy; l c th b xon,
ho vng ton b ri li, rng i. Nhng thuc tr c phenoxy lm cho ngn b xon, l mc d
dng, thn cong v c nhiu r trn thn... Cc cht c c nhng tc ng rt khc nhau n
hot ng sng ca c di: gy ri lon sinh trng, ngn cn s phn chia t bo, ph hy dip
lc, c ch hot ng quang hp, thc y hot ng h hp, lm mt cn i trong hot ng
trao i cht ca c di, ngn tr s vn chuyn in t, ngn tr s tng hp cc acid amin, cc
cht lipid... Cui cng lm cho c di thiu nng lng, cy di b cht.

1.4 NHNG NHN T NH HNG N TNH C CA CHT C


gy c mt tc ng no n c th sinh vt, cht c phi xm nhp c vo c
th, lu li trong mt khong thi gian nht nh v c c th ng ha, t tc ng ln
cc c quan, hy hoi cc chc nng ca th sng. Tnh c ca cht c ph thuc vo cc nhn
t sau: tnh cht ca cht c, c im ca sinh vt b cht c tc ng v nhng yu t mi
trng khi p dng cht c.

1.4.1 S lin quan gia tnh cht ca cht c v tnh c ca cht c


Cc c tnh sau y ca phn t cht c c lin quan cht ch n cht c:
- S hin din ca gc sinh hc c trong phn t cht c. Gc sinh hc l mt nguyn t
hay mt nhm nguyn t to nn tnh c ca cht c, chng thng gy ra nhng triu chng
ng c c trng khi tc dng ln dch hi. ng vi tng gc sinh c thng c mt dy cc
hp cht c kh nng gy c, t nhng hp cht ny ngi ta chn ra mt s hp cht dng
trong BVTV. V d nh cc hp cht thy ngn c tnh c nh s c mt nguyn t thy ngn
trong phn t, mt vi hp cht thy ngn c chn lm thuc tr su, bnh (falizan...).
- Hot tnh ha hc ca cht c cng cao th tnh c ca n cng cao. Anhydricasenno
(As2O3) do c hot tnh cao hn nn c tnh c cao hn Anhydric asenic (As2O5). Vi cc cht
hu c, thng cc hp cht khng no c hot tnh cao hn do c tnh c cao hn so vi nhng
hp cht no.
- Thnh phn ha hc ca phn t cht c: S thm, bt hoc thay th mt nhm nguyn
t no trong phn t, d nhm c mt gc sinh c hay khng u dn n s thay i t
nhiu tnh c ca hp cht. Khi thay th gc ethyl trong phn t thuc tr su parathion bng
cc gc methyl s thu c thuc tr su mi l methyl parathion (wofafox); khi nh thm mt
gc mthyl vo vng phenyl ca phn t methylparathion li thu c mt loi thuc tr su
khc l sumithion. Tnh c ca 3 loi thuc trn khc nhau r rt: LD50 i vi chut ca
parathion ch c 6-8 mg/kg, ca methyparathion tng ln n 25-50mg/kg v ca sumithion li
cn tng ln nhiu na: 242-433mg/kg.

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15

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

C2H 5O
C2H 5O

Chng 1

O
P O

Parathion
LD50: 6-8 mg/ kg

NO 2

CH 3O
CH 3O

S
P O

NO 2

M etyl parathion
LD50: 25-500 mg/ kg

CH 3O
CH 3O

S
P O

NO 2
CH 3

Sumithion
LD50: 242-433 mg/ kg
- Cu trc phn t: Cch sp xp cc nguyn t trong phn t i khi c nh hng rt ln
n tnh c ca hp cht . Cc ng phn khng gian thng c tnh c rt khc nhau.
Trong s cc ng phn ca BHC ch c ng phn gama l c c cao nht, cc ng phn
kia rt t c i vi cn trng.
- Tnh phn cc ca cht c: Cc cht phn cc khng c s phn b din tch ng u
trong phn t v c xu hng d tan trong cc dung mi phn cc, cc cht ny thng xm
nhp vo t bo bng cch chui qua nhng l nh trn mng nguyn sinh, do khi th tch phn
t cng tng th tc xm nhp ca chng cng gim. Cn cht khng phn cc thng c xu
hng d tan trong cc dung mi khng phn cc, do chng thng thm thu qua cc lp
lipoit xm nhp vo t bo. Th tch phn t cht khng phn cc cng ln th tc xm
nhp vo t bo cng ln nu nh s tng kch thc phn t dn n s gim phn cc.
Trong cc hp cht hu c th cc nhm gy phn cc ph bin nht l hydroxyl, cacbonyl v
cc nhm amin. Ngc li, cc nhm metyl, etyl, phenyl t gy phn cc phn t.
- Mc in cng nh hng n tc xm nhp ca cht c vo t bo. Cc cht
phn cc mnh c th phn ly ra thnh cc ion. Cc ion t do, ngay c trong trng kch thc
ca chng nh hn kch thc l trn mng nguyn sinh, cng c khi xm nhp rt km hay
thm ch khng xm nhp c vo t bo. iu ny c gii thch l do s tch in b mt
ca mng nguyn sinh cht v lc ht tnh in gia mng tch in ny vi cc ion t do. Cng
c khi cc ion bm trn mng nguyn sinh cht ph hy mng ny xm nhp vo t bo.
- Kch thc cc ht thuc rn cng nh hng n s xm nhp ca thuc vo c th cn
trng, ht thuc c kch thc qu ln s kh vo ming cn trng. Mt khc, kch thc ht
thuc cng nh th tng din tch b mt ca n cng ln v do chng c ha tan v hp thu
vo c th dch hi cng d dng.

1.4.2 S lin quan gia c im ca sinh vt vi tnh c ca cht c


a. Tnh mn cm v tnh chng chu ca sinh vt i vi cht c
Sau khi p dng thuc tr dch hi, thng thng phn ln cc c th dch hi b tiu dit,
ch c mt s t cn sng st v nhng l do sau:
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16

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

- Do cc c th ny khng tip xc vi thuc hoc thuc ch xm nhp vo c th chng


liu lng di liu gy cht.
- Do chng tr thnh chng chu i vi thuc. Trong cc l do trn, l do th ba l
quan trng nht.
Chng ta thng ch quan tm n s dch hi b tiu dit (t l su, c di, chut b dit
l bao nhiu? Ch s bnh, t l bnh gim bao nhiu?). Tt nhin s quan st ny l cn thit l
mi quan tm trn l ng n. Tuy nhin c mt s iu quan trng khc ng c quam tm
l cc c th cn sng st sau khi p dng thuc, s c th ny c th s pht trin thnh nhng
trn dch, tai ho tht s i vi sn xut. Khi p dng mt loai thuc tr dch hi, cc c th cn
trng hay cc tc nhn gy hi khc mn cm vi loi thuc s b tiu dit. C th mt s c
th s khng b tiu dit nh c kh nng chng chu c vi thuc liu lng, nng p
dng. Ni chung, tnh chng chu thuc ca dch hi ph thuc vo thnh phn loi, tui, tnh
trng sinh l, cu to hnh thi, thnh phn men trong t bo... tu thuc vo bn cht ca thuc
v iu kin p dng thuc.
Do cn trng v nhn l nhng dch hi c kh nng khng thuc mnh nht, nn di
y, ch yu chng ta cp n tnh mn cm v tnh chng thuc ca cc loi ny.
* Tnh mn cm thuc ca dch hi:
- Tnh mn cm thuc ca dch hi thay i theo tng loi thuc. Mt loi dch hi c th
mn cm vi loi thuc ny nhng li chng chu c vi loi thuc khc. BHC c hiu lc
cao trn nhiu loi su n l nhng li km tc dng i vi b ry, trong khi cc thuc
carbamat nh: Mipcin, Bassa li c hiu lc cao i vi cc loi b ry.
- Tnh mn cm thay i theo qu trnh pht trin ca c th. Thng thng th vi cng
mt loi thuc, giai on trng v nhng, cn trng c sc chng chu cao hn so vi cc giai
on khc (u trng, thnh trng). i vi u trng th tnh chng chu ca chng thng tng
theo tui, trc khi lt xc cn trng chng chu kho hn l sau khi lt xc. Cn trng thi k
nh dc qua ng c kh nng chng chu rt cao i vi thuc. Gia con c v con ci cng
c s sai khc v tnh chng chu, ni chung con c thng mn cm vi thuc hn con ci.
- Tnh mn cm ph thuc vo tnh trng sinh l v hot tnh sinh l ca sinh vt. Khi
hot tnh sinh l ca cn trng tng ln th kh nng ng ha cht c cu n cng tng ln, lm
cho cht c c hp thu v chuyn ha cng nhiu.
Ngi ta cn phn bit cc c th chng chu thuc ra thnh nhng c th c kh nng chu
ng c thuc v nhng c th c tnh khng thuc.
* Thut ng chu ng c dng ch nhng c th dch hi c kh nng chu ng
c mt lng cht c cao hn so vi liu lng thng dng ch trong vng i ca c th .
Tnh chu ng thuc ca dch hi thng thay i theo tng c th, tnh trng sinh l ca c th.
* Thut ng khng thuc (cn gi l tnh quen thuc hay tnh min dch) dng ch
nhng c th dch hi c kh nng chu ng c cht c liu lng, nng bnh thng
hoc cao hn v c tnh ny c th di truyn li cho th h sau.
Hin tng dch hi khng thuc l mt qu trnh chn lc t nhin trn c s bin d v di
truyn. Trn thc t, y l mt trong nhng v d in hnh v s tin ha theo hc thuyt
Darwin, nhng ch khc l din ra vi mt nhp ht sc nhanh chng. S bin d thng
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Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

xuyn xy ra trong qun th dch hi- ngay c khi khng b thuc c tc ng, v c tnh
khng thuc cng ch xut hin mt cch ngu nhin. Cc c th c c c tnh ny s khng
b dit bi thuc c sau khi p dng thuc v do chng s dng lun phn thc n ca nhng
c th khng c c tnh khng thuc b tiu dit, iu ny lm cho mt s cc c th khng
thuc tng ln rt nhanh. Mt s dch hi tng theo cp s nhn, nn lc u mt s thng tng
chm nhng sau tng nhanh mt cch t ngt, gy ra nhng trn dch c sc tn ph rt ln.
Hin nay hin tng dch hi khng thuc kh ph bin v ng lo ngi, nht l i vi su
hi v nhn. nc ta, su t hi bp ci Plutella xylostella nhiu vng trng rau khng rt
mnh thuc nh DDT, Wofatox, Dipterex... Ngoi ra kh nng khng thuc ca rp Myzus
persicae hi rau h ch thp H Ni, ca ry nu Nilaparvata lugens hi la ng Bng
Sng Cu Long cng kh quan trng.
Ngi ta phn bit hai kiu khng thuc ca dch hi: khng chuyn bit v khng cho.
+ Khng chuyn bit (hay tnh chng chu chuyn bit, specific resistance): Dch hi ch
khng thuc thng xuyn c p dng phng tr n ti mt vng nht nh.
+ Khng cho (tnh chng chu bt cho, cross resistance): L hin tng khi mt loi dch
hi hnh thnh tnh khng i vi mt loai thuc ny th ng thi n c kh nng khng
c nhng loi thuc khc m n cha h tip xc. Nhng loi thuc m mt loi dch hi
khng c s hp thnh ph chng chu (resistance spectra) (hay ph khng cho - cross
resistance spectra) ca loi dch hi . Nhng thuc ny c th c nhng c im nh thnh
phn, cu trc v tc ng tng t vi thuc, thm ch i khi khc hn vi thuc m dch hi
quen.
+ Trng hp ngc li, tc l khi dch hi quen vi mt loi thuc no th li tr
nn rt mn cm vi mt loi thuc khc, c gi l hin tng chng chu bt cho m. V d
nh b ry xanh ui en N. cinticeps v b ry nu Laodelphax striatellus khi quen vi
Malathion th tr nn rt mn cm vi DDT v Lindane.
Kh nng chng chu thuc ca cn trng thng do cc nguyn nhn sau:
- Nh cc phn ng t v ca cn trng: nn ma, tiu chy, ng l th...
- Nh cc c trng cu to hnh thi gii phu ca sinh vt, (cu to biu b, lng bn
ngoi biu b...).
- Nh cc phn ng ha hc, phn ng sinh ha phn gii cht c xy ra d dy, huyt
dch, trong t bo.
b. C ch hnh thnh tnh chng chu thuc ca cn trng
Cc loi cn trng c th chng chu c vi thuc c th do:
+ Thay i v cu to hnh thi ca c th. Nhiu tc gi chng minh rng cc loi rui
nh khng DDT c t bn chn dy hn, kh thm thuc hn so vi rui mn cm vi thuc
ny. Otto D. (1976) cng nu ln nhng thay i v cu to ca lipoit, sp v protein trong
cutin, hoc s gia tng kt cng biu b ca cn trng lm gim kh nng xm nhp ca thuc
tr su vo c th cn trng.
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18

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

+ Tnh chng thuc ca cn trng c trng hp do kt qu ca s hnh thnh nhng tp


tnh c bit, c tc dng ngn chn hoc hn ch s tip xc ca cn trng vi thuc tr su.
Nhng cn trng thng gy hi vo ban m v tr n ban ngy nh su xm, nu p dng
thuc vo ban ngy th n t c kh nng b nhim c thuc.
+ S gim st nhy cm ca nhng v tr tc ng ca thuc. Nhiu tc gi cho rng nhng
qun th su chng thuc to thnh mt lp lipit c tc dng ngn cn s xm nhp nhanh
chng ca cht c vo cu trc tinh t ca h thn kinh, v dn dn lm cho thuc mt tc dng.
C nhiu loi cn trng v nhn chng c cc thuc tr su ln hu c v carbamat do men
nhy cm cholinesteraza tr nn tr (km mn cm) i vi cc thuc ny.
+ C ch chng thuc quan trng nht, ph bin nht l tnh chng chu sinh l. Cn trng
tng cng s gii c thuc hoc lm gim hot tnh ca thuc bng cc qu trnh chuyn ha.
Trong c th cn trng chng thuc DDT, men DDT- aza c kh nng kh Hydrocarbon ca
DDT di s hin din ca men DDT- aza lm cho hp cht ny b thoi bin. Trong c th cn
trng chng cc thuc Cyclodien, thuc b c lp bi cc th protein...
Trong s cc c ch trn, hai c ch sau quyt nh kh nng khng thuc ca cn trng.
S hnh thnh tnh khng thuc ca dch hi th hin kh nng thch nghi tn ti ca
sinh gii trn c s bin d v di truyn theo qui lut tin ha ca sinh vt, v vy ta ch c th
lm gim tc ch khng th ngn chn s hnh thnh khng thuc ca dch hi. Trn c s l
lun v c trong thc tin cho thy rng nu ch da vo bin php ha hc phng khc
phc tnh khng thuc th sm mun g cng tht bi. Trn thc t, c nhiu ngi tng liu
lng, tng nng thuc, tng nhp phun thuc u khng lm gim bt tc quen thuc
ca ch hi, thm ch dch hi cn hnh thnh tnh khng thuc nhanh hn. Cch tt nht c th
kim hm tc quen thuc ca dch hi l xy dng h thng cc bin php phng tr tng hp.
Trong cn ch trng mt s bin php sau:
- Xy dng mt ch lun canh cy trng hp l. Tuy nhin cc cy trng lun canh
phi khng nm trong ph k ch ca loi ch hi tng gy hi trc y.
- Thc hin kim tra cht ch v x l kp thi ngun su u v, tp trung cc vn
m cy con thnh mt khu kp thi pht hin su mi n v phun thuc tr.
- Thc hin cc bin php khc ngoi bin php ha hc lm gim mt s su trn
ng rung nh xen canh vi nhng cy trng c tc dng xua ui su (nh c mc, c chua
xen vi bp ci...).
- Khi cn thit phi phun thuc, phi tun th nguyn tc 4 ng: dng ng thuc,
dng ng lc, ng liu lng (hay nng ) v ng cch.

1.4.3 nh hng ca mt s ngoi cnh n tnh c ca cht c


Cc yu t ngoi cnh gm nh sng, m, nhit ... mt mt c th nh hng n l,
ha tnh ca cht c, mt khc cng nh hng n trng thi sinh l v hot tnh sinh l ca
dch hi.
a. Cc yu t ngoi cnh i vi dch hi
Tnh thm ca mng nguyn sinh cht c th thay i r rt theo iu kin ngoi cnh (pH
mi trng, nh sng, nhit ...). di tc ng ca tia t ngoi, ca nhit , tnh thm ca t
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19

Gio Trnh Ho Bo V Thc Vt

Chng 1

bo tng ln r rt. Khi nhit tng n im ti thch, hot ng sng (h hp, trao i cht...)
ca cn trng v cc loi dch hi tng ln mnh m, km theo l s tng tc hp thu cc
cht, a n kt qu l tng kh nng ng c ca dch hi. Tuy nhin trong mt s trng hp,
s tng nhit mi trng lm tng tnh chng chu ca dch hi. S tng nhit trong mt
gii hn nht nh lm tng hot tnh phn gii ca men DDT- aza,lm cho kh nng phn
gii DDT ca cc loi rui nh c cha men ny tng ln. m trong t v trong khng kh
cng nh hng n qu trnh sinh l ca dch hi, t nh hng n mc mn cm thuc
ca chng.
b. Cc yu t ngoi cnh i vi thuc tr dch hi
- Nhit i khi cng nh hng rt ln n tnh c ca thuc tr dch hi; nht l i
vi cc loi thuc c tnh xng hi, khi nhit tng, cc thuc ny bay hi cng mnh, lm
tng nng tc ng v do tng kh nng tr dch hi.
- m khng kh v m t thng c nh hng nhiu n s ha tan v thy phn
ca cht c. m khng kh gip cho bordeaux ha tan thnh dng c th gy tc ng ln
nm bnh. Cc thuc tr c thng ch pht huy tc dng khi t m.
- Lng ma va phi lm tng m t, do lm tng tnh ha tan ca thuc trong t.
Sau khi ma, nu phun thuc bt th thuc s bm dnh trn l tt hn. Tuy nhin, lng ma
qu ln thng lm cho thuc phun trn l b ra tri, thuc phun trn t b cun i theo nc
hoc lng xung nhng lp t su, va khng c tc dng tr dch hi, va gy nhim mi
trng. Do cc keo t c kh nng hp ph cc cht, trong c c cc cht c dng lm
thuc tr dch hi, nn nhng ni t c nhiu st, nhiu cht hu c th kh nng hp ph cht
c cng cao. Nhiu khi thuc dit dch hi tt, cn phi tng liu lng ln cao hn so vi
khi dng trn nhng t ngho cht hu c, thnh phn c gii nh. iu ny c bit quan trng
i vi nhng thuc tr c c tc ng chn lc km, cho nn cn ch khi s dng va t
hiu qu cao va khng nh hng n cy trng. Mt trong nhng tc nhn quan trng phn
hy thuc trong t l cc vi sinh vt sng trong t, nu iu kin t ai cng thun li cho s
pht trin ca nhng vi sinh vt ny th cht c b phn gii cng nhanh chng.pH trn cy
trng v trong t cng nh hng rt ln n tnh c ca thuc, nhng ni c pH t cao, khi
s dng nhng thuc k kim nh Kitazin 10H, chc chn hiu qu ca n s b gim. Mt khc
pH t cng nh hng kh nng phn gii thuc.

1.5 THUC BO V THC VT V S BIN I CU TRC QUN TH


SINH VT
H sinh thi l mt phc h bao gm cc yu t nh t ai, kh hu, thy vn, ng vt,
thc vt, vi sinh vt... H sinh thi t nhin rt a dng, phc tp v c tnh cn bng ng nn
kh n nh. S khai khn, trng trt ca con ngi bin h sinh thi t nhin ny thnh h
sinh thi nng nghip n gin, d bin ng. Cc bin php thm canh, canh tc c bit l vic
dng cc ha cht c phng tr dch hi cng pht trin th s mt cn bng ca h sinh thi
cng tr nn nghim trng. S pht sinh thnh dch ca cc loi gy hi l mt bng chng hin
nhin ca s mt cn bng ny. Khi phn tch vic phun thuc, ngi ta c tnh ch c khong
10-20% lng thuc dng bt v 20-25% lng thuc dng lng bm trn cy; cn lng
thuc thc s xm nhp, tc ng n su hi ch chim khong 1%. Ngoi ra khi l rng, lng
thuc bm trn l cha phn hy ht s tch t li trong t. Phn thuc d tn ny s tc ng
ln nhng sinh vt khng thuc i tng phng tr. Khi p dng thuc BVTV, cc tc ng
xy ra ng k nht l:
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1.5.1 Thuc BVTV vi qun th dch hi


Sau khi p dng thuc, phn ln cc c th loi gy hi b tiu dit, tuy nhin mt s c th
c tnh khng thuc s khng b cht, s ny s tng ln theo cp s nhn v nhanh chng tr
thnh mt qun th dch hi khng thuc. Di tc ng ca thuc, mt s loi gy hi th yu
cng b tiu dit. Tuy mhin c khi mt s loi gy hi th yu c kh nng khng thuc mnh s
pht trin thnh loi gy hi ch yu rt kh phng tr. Khong nm 1950, loi gy hi ch yu
trn bp ci c ghi nhn l su xanh, nhng sau mt thi gian dng thuc ha hc lin tc, su
t tr thnh loi gy hi ch yu vi tnh khng thuc rt mnh. Phng tr su t l mt vn
nan gii hin nay.

1.5.2 Thuc bo v thc vt vi nhng sinh vt c ch


Thuc bo v thc vt mt mt tiu dit hng lot cc c th gy hi, lm cho cc loi thin
ch thiu thc n, mt khc chnh cc loi thin ch ny cng b thuc tiu dit. Cc loi sinh
vt c ch khc cng b nh hngi khi rt nghim trng. l ong, bm v hi gip cho cy
th phn, giun t v cc loi cn trng sng trong t chuyn n tn tch thc vt, lm cho t
ti xp v cung cp thc n cho cc loi vi sinh vt tip tc phn gii thnh nhng cht dinh
dng cung cp cho cy trng, duy tr mu m ca t. Cc thuc tr dch hi, nht l cc
thuc tr nm, c th tiu dit nhng vi sinh vt c ch khc nh nhng vi khun nitrat ha, vi
khun nitrit ha, c nh m trong t. Ngoi ra thuc BVTV cn nh hng n gia sc v cc
ng vt c xng sng vng c p dng thuc.

1.5.3 Thuc bo v thc vt i vi cy trng


a. Tc ng c li ca thuc bo v thc vt i vi cy trng
Cc thuc bo v thc vt tiu dit cc loi k sinh hoc cnh tranh iu kin sng vi cy
trng (nh su, nm bnh, c di), gip cho cy trng pht trin tt, cho nng sut cao. Nu
khng tr c th cy la ch hp thu mt lng N bng 52-70% so vi tr c, do nng sut c
th b gim 18-43% (Arai Masao A., 1996). Mt s thuc bo v thc vt cn c kh nng kch
thch qu trnh sinh trng v pht trin ca cy trng: Nng cao t l ging ny mm, ci thin
s pht trin ca b r, tng chiu cao cy, s ht trn bng, trng lng ht, t l ht chc, hoc
lm cho cy trng vng vng, cng cp hn. Thuc tr nm kitazin P dng ht khi bn vo
rung tr bnh o n hi la lm cho thn la mp hn, hn ch chiu cao cy nn chng
c lp .
b. Tc hi ca thuc BVTV n cy trng
Nu s dng khng ng thuc, khng ng liu lng, phng php thuc c th gy hi
cho cy trng. Triu chng v mc b hi kh a dng.
Cht c c th gy hi trc tip ngay ti ni thuc tip xc vi cy trng, triu chng b
hi thng rt c trng v c th biu hin ngay sau hoc sau mt thi gian di.
Cc thuc tr nm thy ngn hu c, thuc gc ng nu dng nng qu cao, mt
ngy sau khi dng thuc l v nhng chi non c th b ho v en; thi tit cng nng, tc hi
cng ln. Thuc tr c 2,4-D c th lm cho thn c chua b cong queo, l mc d hnh... Mt s
thuc khng gy hi cho cy trng nhng li nh hng n phm cht nng sn. BHC k ngh
c th lm cho c khoai ty, ch, thuc l c mi hi rt kh chu.

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Ni chung, tc hi ca thuc BVTV ph thuc vo nhiu yu t: Bn cht ca thuc, loi


cy trng, iu kin ngoi cnh. an ton ca thuc BVTV i vi cy trng c th biu th
bng ch s ha tr liu:
c
K= ...........
t
K: Ch s ha tr liu
c: Liu gy cht ti thiu ca thuc i vi dch hi
t: Liu ti a ca thuc m cy chu ng c (toxic tolerant)
Tr s K cng nh, thuc cng an ton i vi cy trng, thng nhng thuc c tr s k
1 ch c dng lm b c hoc x l trn nhng khu t khng c cy trng pht trin. C
th thuc ch gy hi cho mt s cy trng. DDT, BHC t ra an ton i vi nhiu loi cy trng,
nhng cy thuc h bu b li rt mn cm vi cc loi thuc ny. Thuc tr c DCPA c th
gy hi cho nhiu loi cy trng, nhng c dng tr c cho la do la c kh nng chu
ng thuc ny rt tt.
iu kin mi trng i khi cng h tr cho iu kin gy hi cy trng ca thuc.
Thuc tr nm lu hunh bt khi s dng trong iu kin nhit mi trng cao c th gy
chy l. Nhng thuc BVTV c bn vng ln, c th tch t li trong t v gy hi cho cy
trng cc v sau. Trn t ct pha ven sng y H Ni, khi dng Simazin v Triazin phun
cho ng vi lng 4-5kg/ha c tc dng tr c cao. Tuy nhin sau khi thu hoch ng, lm t
gieo tip u hoc la m cc cy trng ny s b gy hi nng (pht trin km, cht cy con,
nng sut thp).
Bn cnh nhng yu cu thng c t ra i vi thuc BVTV nh kh nng dit dch
hi cao, an ton i vi con ngi, cc sinh vt c ch, thin ch, cy trng...cng cn c nhng
lu thch ng n tc ng ca thuc ln cn bng sinh thi, s tn d v gy nhim mi
trng ca thuc. Hin nay ngi ta ch s dng nhng thuc c tc dng dit dch hi cao
nhng bn va phi ( c th phn hy trong mt thi gian ngn sau khi tiu dit dch hi);
nhng thuc c tnh chn lc cao, nhng thuc c kh nng lu dn.
-------oOo--------

Cu hi n tp
Cu 1: Phn loi thuc tr dch hi theo phng php thm thu v c tnh tc dng?
Cu 2: Hiu th no v s xm nhp ca cht c vo c th cn trng?

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CHNG 2: CC PHNG PHP S DNG v TH NGHIM THUC


TR DCH HI
2.1 CC DNG CH PHM DNG TRONG BO V THC VT
Cc ch phm dng trong BVTV cha hai thnh phn ch yu l hot cht v cht ph gia. Thnh
phn ch yu ca thuc l hot cht (cht hot ng - active ingredient, a.i.), l thnh phn mang hot
tnh tr dch hi. Trong sn xut cng nghip, cc hot cht thng c ln mt t tp cht, c gi l
thuc k thut hay thuc ng k ngh. Ngi ta t khi s dng hot cht dng nguyn cht m
thng l gia cng to thnh cc ch phm khc nhau bng cch trn thm vo cc cht ph gia nh
cht n, cht nh ha... Cc cht ph gia s gip cho vic pha ch, chuyn ch, bo qun v s dng
c thun tin hn, hu hiu hn. Cc ch phm dng trong BVTV c th chia thnh hai nhm sau.

2.1.1 Nhng ch phm cn ha long trc khi s dng


Nhng ch phm ny thng c ha vi mt lng dung mi nht nh cho n khi t
c nng s dng c qui nh cho tng loi ch phm. Dung mi thng dng l nc.
Trong mt s trng hp c th s dng nhng dung mi khc, nh thuc tr c PCP
(pentaclophenol) c ha chung vi du diezen phun tr c. Nhm ny gm c cc dng
sau:
a. Bt thm nc (BTN, BHN - bt ha nc WP - water wettable powder, DP - water
dispersible power): cc ch phm ny thng cha 25-80% hot cht, khi ha vo nc s to
thnh mt huyn ph tng i bn vng.
Yu cu: kch thc cc ht phai ng u v ng knh nh hn 3; khi ha thuc
vo nc, dng huyn phi nhanh chng c to thnh nhng chm lng ng; tnh thm t,
tnh tri rng v tnh loang tt, sau khi nc bay hi, thuc phi cn bm li trn b mt x l
trong mt thi gian di. Mt s dng thuc khc khi ha vo nc cng to thnh huyn ph:

Bt keo (colloidal powder): Ging nh thuc BHN nhng kch thc cc phn t rt
nh nn rt lu lng, bm dnh tt m khng cn thm cht bm dnh hay cht n
nh. Cc thuc gc ng v cc thuc gc lu hunh nguyn t thng c c tnh
ny.

Huyn ph (HP, Suspension): Ch phm dng huyn ph m c, pha long


dng nh thuc BHN (nh Oxychlorur ng 20 HP).

Thuc nho (Paste): Ch phm dng nho nh kem, c hm lng v cch dng
nh thuc BHN. Thuc c pha thnh dng huyn ph m c qut ln vt
thng ca cy hoc dng x l ging, cng c khi pha long vi nc s dng
nh BHN (thuc Bordeaux thy c bn di dng ny).

b. Nh du (ND: thuc sa, thuc sa m c; EC: Emulsive concentrate): dng ch


phm nay thng cha 30-50% hot cht, khi ha vo nc s to ra nh tng kh n nh. Ch
phm thng c thm vo cc cht hot ng b mt khng ion ha hoc anion lm cht
nh ha.
c. Thuc lng tan trong nc (SS: soluble, DD: dung dch hay L- Liquid, SC:
suspension concentrate, FL: flowable Liquid): Khi ha vo nc, thuc s tan hon ton trong
dung dch.
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d. Bt tan: (SP: soluble powder): Khi ha tan vo nc s to thnh dung dch.

2.2.2 Nhng ch phm khng ha long trc khi p dng


Gm nhng thuc c th p dng trc tip ln cy trng hoc nhng i tng cn x
l khc m khng phi ha vo dung mi no c. Nhm ny gm nhng dng sau:
a. Bt phun (Bt rc - BR, D - Dust): Kch thc ht thng nh hn 44. Ch phm
thng cha 4 - 10% hot cht, c dng phun dng kh nh bi.
Yu cu: t trng v kch thc ht phi c ch to sao cho va nh khi phun, gi
c th mang thuc i mt lng ng k nhng ch trong phm vi phng tr, lng thuc lng
im cch my phun 5m v im cch my phun 20m phi tng ng nhau.
So vi cc thuc phun lng nh BTN, cc thuc phun bt d s dng hn, nht l
nhng ni thiu nc pha thuc, d p dng trn nhng din tch ln; tuy nhin lng thuc bt
b hao ph trn mt n v din tch nhiu hn do thuc d b gi cun i v do bm dnh km
nn d ri xung t. tng cng tnh bm dnh, ngi ta thng gn hot cht ln nhng
cht mang.
b. Thuc ht (H,G = granule): Ht to ng knh thay i trong khong 297-1680.
Thuc c dng ri bng tay hoc bng my ln rung, sau trn u vi t bng cc
cng c. Lng thuc dng trn mt n v din tch thng phi ln hn so vi nhng phng
php khc. Loi thuc ny thch hp cho nhng trng hp cn thuc c tc dng lu di.
Ngoi ra cn c cc dng trung gian gia thuc bt v thuc ht nh thuc bt ht (dust granule) hay cn gi l vi ht (microgranule) vi ng knh ht thuc nm trong khong 44 297 gm c hai dng: thuc bt th (coarse dust) c c ht t 44 - 105 v thuc ht mn (fine
granule) c c ht t 105 - 297. Ngi ta cn dng cc thuc hn hp ca nhiu c thuc ht
k trn.
c. Thuc phun m (aerosol), thuc phun th tch cc thp (UVL), th tch cc - cc thp
(UULV): Nhng thuc ny gm c hot cht c trn vi mt t dung mi hu c v thng
c dng nguyn dng ch phm ch khng ha long. Cc dng thuc ny c s dng
dng lng bng nhng my bm c bit nh my phun m, my ULV.
d. Thuc xng hi: Thuc dng lng rn hay kh nn. Khi dng, thuc bin i thnh
dng kh hay dng hi (c i khi dng thng hoa) ha vo khng kh v t tc ng ln
dch hi.

2.2.3 Cht ph gia


L nhng cht c trn vi hot cht nhm ci thin tnh cht l, ha hc ca thuc,
to iu kin cho vic pha ch, chuyn ch, bo qun v s dng c d dng, tin li hn. Cc
cht ph gia thng c dng l:
a. Cht n (cht mang, cht ti - carrier): gm nhng cht c tc dng lm gim bt hm
lng cht c c trong ch phm, nhm lm cho vic ri mt lng cht c nh trn mt n
v din tch ln c d dng hn. Cht n phi mang tnh tr, khng tc dng vi cht c,
khng gy hi cy trng,v.v... Nhng cht n nh Attapulgite, kaolin, bt talc, pyrophyllite,
bentonit, diatonit, thng c mt trong cc dng thuc bt v thuc ht.
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b. Cht to huyn ph (suspensible agent): L nhng cht to nn s tng hp gia


nc v cc ht thuc rn, qua to iu kin hnh thnh mt huyn ph bn ca thuc trong
nc. Thuc BTN thng cha khong mt vi phn trm cht to huyn ph nh bt kh du,
bt b hng, bt b kt.
c. Cht nh tng ha (emulsible agent): L nhng cht to nn s tng hp gia nc
v cc git cht c th lng thuc nh du, lm bn nh tng to thnh. V d nh cc cht
nh tng ha.
d. Cht tm t (wetting agent), cht loang (cht tri rng - spreader): C tc dng lm
t mt phun v lm cho cc git thuc (huyn ph, nh tng, dung dch) loang u trn mt
vt phun.
e. Cht kh ng t: lm tng tnh bn ca huyn ph bng cch ngn cn cc ht thuc
lin kt li vi nhau thnh nhng phn t ln hn.
f. Cht dnh (sticker): gip thuc gn cht vo b mt phun, gp phn to nn mt lp
thuc bo v bn cht trn b mt vt phun. Cht dnh thng dng l nhng loi du, nhng
glixerit khan, canxi sunphat, nhm hydroxyt v.v.
g. Cht trung ha (cht bo v cy): C tc dng kh nhng cht c hi cho cy cn ln
trong ch phm.
h. Cht ho ha: ni chung nhng cht ny c tc dng ci thin cc tnh cht vt l ca
ch phm. V d trong thuc bt, nu ta thm vo 3 - 5% du khong (du xola, du nng, du
bi trn my). Du s gip cho cc ht nh kt t li, khng b gi cun i xa v lm tng tnh
bm dnh ca thuc .
Trong nhiu trng hp, mt cht ph gia c th tc dng nhiu mt: nh ha, tm t,
n nh, bm dnh... c bit l nhng cht hot ng b mt nh x phng, b ru - sunphit
m c. Cc cht hot ng b mt c th phn ly thnh ion trong nc thnh cc ion, cng c
cht hot ng b mt khng phn ly. Trong nng nghip thng s dng nhng cht hot ng
b mt mang in tch m hoc khng mang in tch.
* Nhng cht hot ng b mt thng dng l:
- X phng lng, x phng rn, x phng naptenic. Cc loi x phng c dng lm
cht n nh, cht nh ha, cht dnh, cht hot ha.
- B ru - sunfit m c, l sn phm ph ca ngnh sn xut giy xellulose, c thnh
phn ha hc l mui canxi ca axit licnosunphonic hn hp vi cht kh v cht khong v c.
Trong nng nghip, b ru sunfit m c c sn xut di dng lng, rn, bt. Cc sn
phm ny c hot tnh b mt cao v c dng rng ri lm cht n nh. Ngoi ra cn c nhiu
ch phm tng hp khc c dng lm cht tm t, cht long nh casein, canxi cazeinat,
saponin, cc axid sunfonic thm v bo, ru v..v.

2.2 CC PHNG PHP S DNG THUC TR DCH HI


2.2.1 Phun thuc
Vic phun thuc nhm lm cho thuc c tri u trn khp b mt din tch cn c
bo v ca cy trng, nng sn hay t tiu dit hoc ngn chn s ly lan, ph hoi ca cc
loi dch hi, bo v cy trng v nng sn. Thuc bo v thc vt c phun bng cc loi eo
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vai thng thng, my bm eo vai, my bm gn trn my cy, trn my bay. C nhiu kiu
phun thuc khc nhau, chng c phn bit ty theo trng thi vt l (rn, lng, kh), theo
ln ca cc phn t thuc (git thuc, ht thuc) v lng dng trn mt hecta. Phun thuc lng
l phng php c dng ph bin nht hin nay.
a. Phun dng lng
Cc dng thuc tr dch hi di dng BHN, ND, DD, c ha vo dung mi (thng l nc)
to thnh cc dung dch phun (nc phun). Thuc phn tn vo nc thnh cc dng huyn ph, nh
tng hay dung dch tht. Dng phun lng thng c a chung hn thuc bt phun kh do thuc
phun u hn, thuc bm dnh trn b mt x l tt hn. Trong cc dng thuc phun lng, thuc dng
huyn ph t xm nhp vo cy, tri hn so vi dng nh du nn t lu b c hn.
Yu cu: hot cht phi bn vng trong nc thuc, khng b phn hy khi pha long. H phn
tn phi tng i bn vng, lu lng t. Nc thuc phi c tnh thm, tnh loang tt v bm dnh bn
lu trn b mt vt phun (Khi ri ln b mt vt phun, trc tin git thuc phi dnh vo b mt vt
phun, tm t c b mt ny ri mi loang ra; khi kh nc, thuc vn cn bm cht trn b mt
vt phun. m bo c yu cu trn, git thuc phi c sc cng b mt nh. C th lm gim sc
cng b mt ca git thuc bng cch thm vo thuc cc cht hot ng b mt. Ngoi ra, ngi ta cn
thm vo thuc cht bm dnh gip cho thuc bm cht vo b mt vt phun, to nn mt lp thuc
bo v khi nc bay hi ht. Khi phun thuc, p sut phun phi ln thuc c phun ra u v
ht thuc c ng nng dnh vo b mt x l).
Vi cc thuc to thnh huyn ph trong nc phun: tc lng ca ht cht rn trong
huyn ph ph thuc vo trng lng ring ca thuc v nht ca mi trng. Trng lng
ring ca thuc c tnh bng khi lng thuc (tnh bng g) trn mt n v th tch (tnh
bng g/m3) thng trng lng ring ca thuc nm trong khong 0.5 - 0,8 kch thc phn t
nh hn 3 l tt. Khi thuc chm kt lng hoc ni ln, thuc phun ra u, t b nght vi
phun, bo m kh nng tr dch hi cao. C th lm tng nht ca thuc bng cch thm vo
ch phm cc cht n nh. Vi dng thuc nh du, kch thc phn t i hi phi nh hn
0,1. Ngi ta thng ngn nga s phn lp gia hot cht v dung mi, s hp nht cc git
nh thnh cc git ln hn v lm cho thuc phn tn u hn trn b mt vt phun bng cch
thm vo ch phm cc cht n nh, cht nh ha.
C nhiu loi bm phun khc nhau c th dng phun thuc lng, tu theo yu cu v tu
theo thit b s dng, kch thc phun c th rt khc nhau. Tu theo kch thc git thuc c phun ra,
c nhiu kiu phun c p dng:
Phng php

Phun nc (1)

ln git

Lng nc phun (lt/ha)

thuc (m)

Cy hng nm

Cy lu nm

>150

>200

>600

(200 - 800)

(600 - 1000)

Phun ma bi (2)

50 - 250

50

200

Phun ma bi mn (3)

25 - 125

3 - 20

3 - 20

(80 - 160)

(1 - 6)

(1 - 6)

<30

3-6

3-6

Phun m (4)

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(80 - 120)

(< 0,5)

(< 0,5)

(1): Phun th tch trung bnh v cao.


(2): Phun th tch thp.
(3): Phun th tch cc thp (ULV).
(4): Phun th tch cc cc thp (UULV)
+ Kiu phun nc vi th tch cao thng c thc hin bng cc bnh 10 lt, 20 lt
eo vai bm tay, hoc c gn ng c.
+ Xn kh (aerosol, phun khi - vi thuc rn, phun m - vi thuc lng): bng nhng
dng c c bit, c th phun thuc dng lng hay rn vi kch thc phn t rt nh, gi l
nhng xn kh. Cc ht thuc ny s l lng trong khng kh trong mt khong thi gian nht
nh v gy c cho dch hi. Phng php ny thng c dng tr su, nhn, nm bnh
trong cc phng kn (kho, nh knh, toa tu...) v tr nhng cn trng bay nhy nhiu trn ng
rung. Do kch thc ht rt nh nn phng php ny c mt s u im sau:

Hot tnh cao do thuc c phn tn cao, xm nhp vo vt phun d dng.

Tnh bm dnh tt.

c vi dch hi cao hn do nng thuc cao. Lng nc cn dng nh


(khong 20 lt ). Vi nhng phng php phun vi th tch cc thp (ULV) v th
tch cc cc thp (UULV), th tch dung mi dng ch khong 1 - 4,6 lt/ha.

Tuy nhin thuc cng c nhng nhc im nh l lng rt lu trong khng kh, rt lu
lng ng, d b gi cun i. c hot tnh vt l cao m khng b gi cun i xa, kch thc
ht thng c yu cu phi nm trong khong 0,5 - 100 .).
Thnh phn ca thuc gm c: hot cht ha tan vo du khong c nhit si tng
i cao nh du xola, du my bin p, du diezen...; c th dng cc dung mi d bay hi nh
CCl4... to thnh nhng git m, c th phun thuc di p sut hng trm atmosphere bng
nhng thit b c tc vng quay hng vn vng/pht; hoc bng cch un ha nhit dung dch
du ca thuc trong ni hi hoc qua nhng ng rut g lm ht thuc c bn ra khi my
di p sut 7 - 8 atmotphe, ha vo khng kh lnh bn ngoi v ngng t thnh m c
phn tn cao (ng knh git thuc nh hn 1). trnh dng p sut qu cao v trnh s
phn hy thuc mt phn do nhit, ngi ta c th phi hp c hai phng php trn bng cch
cho mt dng hi nng i qua dung dch thuc bc u to ra nhng git thuc c kch
thc nh, nhng git thc ny khi n ming vi phun mi c un nng v bay hi, hoc
phi hp c hai cch.
b. Phng php ti t
dit tr nhng dch hi sng trong t hoc vi nhng thuc ni hp c th ha thuc vo nc
n nng bng nng phun v ti vo t. C th ti vo lc trc hoc sau khi ht ny mm,
bng nhng bnh ti hoc bnh phun. Lng nc thuc phi c tnh ton sao cho thuc c th ngm
n su khong 10 - 15 cm. Thuc cng c dng ti vo gc cy vi lng nc khong 50 200 ml/gc.
c. Phun bt kh
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Thuc bo v thc vt hin din dng bt, bt ht, bt th, ht mn pha ch sn sng phun
ln cy hoc ln mt t bng cc my phun bt vi lng ch phm dng cho mi hecta khong 20 - 40
kg. Thuc ht ch yu dng phun hoc rc vo t vi lng ch phm khong 20 - 30 kg/ha.
Yu cu: Bt phun ra phi bao ph u khp b mt x l, khng b gi cun i qu xa,
bm dnh v gi li tt trn b mt x l. Cht lng bt phun ph thuc nhiu vo c tnh vt
l v ha hc ca thuc bt, vo c im b mt vt phun.
* Tc ri ca cc phn t thuc bt c tnh theo cng thc:

V =

2 gr 2
(D a)
Y

Vi: v = tc ri t do ca cc phn t (cm/s).


g = gia tc trng trng (981 cm/s2).
r = bn knh ca cc phn t (cm).
Y = ln ca kh quyn ( 10 - 30oC vo khong 0.00076 - 0.00086).
D = t trng ca thuc bt.
a = t trng khng kh (0.0001225).
g, Y, a: xem nh hng s, v vy tc ri ca ht thuc ph thuc ch
yu vo ln v t trng ca ht thuc bt.
Thi gian ri ca cc phn t t cao h c tnh theo cng thc sau:
t: thi gian ri ca cc phn t.
t =

h
vt

h: cao.
vt: tc ri t do theo phng thng ng.

T hai cng thc trn ta thy rng khi phun thuc bt c c ht to, t trng ln th tc
ri t do s ln, thuc khng bay ra xa ni phun thuc. Tuy nhin nu c ht qu to, t trng
qu ln th thuc li kh bm gi trn b mt vt phun. V kch thc, nhng ht c hnh cu d
b ri khi mt l cy hn so vi nhng ht hnh a din.
Hin tng bm dnh ca ht thuc ln b mt vt phun cn c gii thch nh sau:
trong qu trnh chuyn ng, cc ht thuc bt c th nhim in do ma st; du v cng
in tch ph thuc vo bn cht thuc v vn tc di chuyn ca ht. Khi ht thuc n gn b
mt vt phun th theo qui tc cm ng in t s xut hin trn b mt vt phun in tch tri du
a n kt qu l ht thuc bm gi cht vo b mt vt phun.
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tng tnh bm dnh ca thuc, ngi ta thng trn thm cht ho ha, cht bm
dnh... Hoc gn cc hot cht ln nhng cht mang. Kh nng bm dnh v gi li ca thuc
cn ph thuc vo tnh cht b mt vt phun, thuc bt bm dnh v gi li tt hn trn nhng l
nm ngang, c np nhn nheo, c lng hoc trn l m t do sng hay ma; kh bm gi li
trn nhng l thng ng, mt l phng, lng, trn l kh.
* u nhc im ca phng php phun bt so vi phng php phun lng:
+ u dim: n gin, thit b nh nhng, r tin hn v c th s dng trong nhng
iu kin a hnh bt li. Thch hp vi nhng ni khng c sn ngun nc v cn phun trn
din tch ln.
+ Nhc im: Phi dng mt lng thuc nhiu hn so vi phun lng trn mt n v
din tch. Trn mi ha cy trng, lng ch phm thng dng l 30 - 50 kg/ha. Lng thuc
hao ph ln do b cun tri bi ma, gi. Lng d tha ny d lm nhim mi trng.

2.2.2 Rc ht
Thuc tr dch hi dng ht thng dng rc vo t tr cc loi dch hi sng
trong t, cc loi thuc lu dn khi rc vo t c r hp thu v dn truyn ln cc b phn
pha trn mt t dit tr su hi (rp, b phn trng Bemisia trn rau, c chua...) hoc cc loi
nm bnh trong mt thi gian kh di.
Cc thuc ny cn c dng rc ln cy nhm dit tr su c thn, su c ngn
(Nh cc thuc tr su clo hu c, ln hu c thng c dng rc ln non ng tr cc su
n l sng trong loa kn).
Thuc c th c rc u trn ton b din tch x l bng tay hay bng my phun ht,
my bay... hoc c th ch ri theo lung, theo tng gc cy.
Yu cu: Thuc phi c rn chc nht nh, khng b v vn trc khi rc, khng b
phn r qu nhanh khi p dng ln cy hoc ln t. Ht thuc rc vo t phi tan c dn vo
nc t t cung cp cht c tiu dit cn trng, nm bnh, c di. thuc c rn chc,
trong qu trnh ch bin ngi ta thng thm vo cc cht kt dnh. m ca t nh hng
rt ln n ha tan ca thuc vo t, nhng thuc ht c tnh lu dn s khng pht huy
c tc dng trong iu kin kh hn. Nhng thuc c tnh xng hi t chu nh hng ca m
, c nhiu trng hp phi trn lp t mt hn ch s bay hi ca thuc vo khng kh v
gi thuc nng cao trong t, lm tng hiu qu dit dch hi.
Ngoi tc dng bo v cy lu di, thuc ht rc bng my bay hoc my phun thuc ln
t t lm chy l cy, t gy nhim khng kh trong vng rc thuc. Phng php rc thuc ht
tr c ngy cng c s dng rng ri.

2.2.3 Ni liu php thc vt


L phng php a nhng thuc lu dn vo trong h thng cy trng, nhm gy ra mt
trong nhng tc ng sau:
+ Lm cho cy tr nn c i vi dch hi (cn trng, nhn, nm, vi khun...) trng
hp ny, cy c th chng li c c nhng dch hi chuyn tnh ln khng chuyn tnh.
+ Trung ha nhng c t hnh thnh trong cy do tc ng ca dch hi hay ca nhng
yu t khc.
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+ Lm thay i thnh phn ca dch t bo ca cy, v bin i c im ca qua trnh


sinh l, sinh ha ca cy, khin cho cy tr thnh khng cn ph hp vi dinh dng cc loi
gy hi na. Trong trng hp ny, thng thuc ch c tc dng bo v cy chng li nhng
loi dch hi chuyn tnh hp, v d nh nhng cc loi su n thc, nm v vi khun ch
chuyn tnh cao.
+ Lm cho cy tr nn min dch i vi mt loi dch hi (min dch nhn to).
+ Cc yu cu khi thc hin bin php thc vt: nhng thuc lu dn ny phi xm nhp
vo c bn trong cy, vi mt nng nht nh no gy hi cho dch hi, nhng thuc
phi khng c cho cy v c kh nng phn hy trong cy trng sau mt thi gian nht nh
tr thnh v hi i vi ngi v gia sc s dng nng sn, thc phm vng phun thuc.
+ Ni liu php bo v thc vt c th thc hin bng nhiu cch khc nhau vi nhng
thuc lu dn: trn ht ging vi thuc, bn thuc vo gc cy, co lp v ngoi ca thn cy ri
buc vng vi tm thuc, phun thuc lng ln cy.
+ Tc xm nhp ca thuc vo trong cy, s lan truyn, s tn ti ca thuc trong
cy ph thuc vo c im ca thuc, loi cy, thi k sinh trng ca cy, iu kin ngoi
cnh.

2.2.4 Xng hi
Dng nhng thuc c kh nng bay hi lm khng kh xung quanh dch hi b nhim
cht c, nhm u c dch hi qua ng h hp. Phng php xng hi t ra c hiu qu cao
khi c dng tr nhng sinh vt gy hi n nu nhng ni kn o nh k tng, trong cc
kho hng, kho lng thc, khoang tu ch nng sn, trong nh knh, trong t. Phng php ny
c dng tr chut, su hi, nhn, tuyn trng, nm, vi khun... Thuc dng xng hi c
th dng rn, lng c p sut hi ln hoc dng kh nn. Cc thuc ny c th khuych tn
trong khng kh trng thi kh hoc hi, i khi cn dng thng hoa.
* Cc yu t sau y c nh hng n hiu qu s dng thuc xng hi:
+ Khng gian: Phi m bo duy tr khong khng gian dng thuc kn trong mt
khong thi gian nht nh. Phng php xng hi thng ch c thc hin nhng ni kn
o, do thuc c th kh hoc hi c kh nng khuych tn mnh, nn nu khng tin hnh
trong mt khng gian c nh th hi c, kh c b ha long vo khng kh, khng duy tr
c nng thuc tiu dit dch hi.
+ Cc c im vt l, ha hc ca thuc: nhng c im c nh hng mnh m n
hiu qu dng thuc nh: bay hi, t trng hi, tc bay hi, kh nng khuych tn vo
khng kh, kh nng b hp ph bi b mt vt c x l.
+ bay hi: L khi lng ti a ca cht c trong mt n v th tch khng kh
mt nhit v p sut nht nh. n v tnh: g/m3. bay hi ca mt cht t l thun vi
nhit mi trng, t l nghch vi p sut v nhit si ca cht xng hi. D nhin cht
xng hi ch c tc dng khi bay hi ca thuc cao hn nng gy c cho dch hi.
+ Tc bay hi: c xc nh bng khi lng hi bay ln t 1cm2 b mt rn hoc
lng ca cht xng hi trong thi gian mt giy. Tc bay hi t l thun vi nhit xng hi
v t l nghch vi nhit si v p sut. Nhit khng kh v din tch b mt cao lm tng
tc bay hi.
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+ Tnh khuych tn ca thuc vo khng kh: Cht xng hi c kh nng khuych tn


cng mnh cng d xm nhp vo cc khe h trong ng hng ha, thc phm. Tnh khuych tn
ny c lin quan n nhit ni x l thuc v cc cht hng ha.
+ Kh nng b hp ph hay hp thu bi vt x l: Cht c c th b hp ph hay hp
thu vo vt x l. Khi nng thuc trong khng kh s b gim, lm gim hiu qu s dng
thuc. Ngoi ra s hp thu cn khin cho vic kh kh c trong hng ha xng hi xong (s gii
hp) gp nhiu kh khn. Nhng nng sn, hng ha c b mt tip xc ln hay c xp cao
thng ht cht xng hi nhiu, cho nn d xng hi c hiu qu thng phi tng nng x
dng thuc.
+ T trng hi: T trng hi ca thuc c lin quan nhiu n k thut dng thuc. Nu
cht xng hi c t trng ln hn 1 (nng hn khng kh) th khi s dng phi t thuc v tr
cao v ngc li.
+ Tnh d bt la, d bc chy: Cc cht d bt la, d bc chy thng t c dng
xng hi. i khi c th s dng nhng cht ny bng cch trn thm nhng cht chng chy,
n.
+ Tnh d nhn bit: nhng cht c mi c bit thng d nhn bit ngay c khi nng
thp, v do c th d dng pht hin tnh trng r r, v c bin php i ph kp thi, bo
m an ton lao ng. khc phc tnh trng ny, i khi ngi ta trn thm cc cht c mi
hoc lm chy nc mt vo thuc xng hi lm cht bo hiu.
Khi dng cc cht xng hi, cn phi lu n kh nng thuc lm han r kim loi, lm
hng cc dng bng vi, da, t si.v.v. Phng php xng hi thng c dng ty trng
cho hng ha, nng sn trong kho, khoang ch hng trn tu, xe la, cho cc ng hng ha
c che ph bng cc tm bt trng cao su, trong nh knh, trong t.
Mun xng hi kho hng ha th cc kho ny phi c chun b chu o: dn kn trn v
tng, dn cc khe h li, sp xp hng ha sao cho thuc c th xm nhp d dng t mi pha,
di chuyn nhng th c th b thuc lm h hi. Thi gian xng hi tu thuc vo c im ca
thuc v vt x l. Sau khi xng hi, nu thuc b hng ha, nng sn hp thu, phi tin hnh
gii hp.
xng hi trong t, c th o rnh nh u nhau trn mt rung hoc nhng h nh,
thuc vo v lp t li. Cng c th ti thuc vo t v xi ln cho thuc trn u vo t.
Phng php xng hi cng c dng tr chut bng cch tm thuc xng hi dng lng
vo gi, nht vo hang chut v lp t li.

2.2.5 X l ging
Ging cy trng (ht ging, c, hom...) trc khi gieo trng c th c trn hoc ngm
vi cc loi thuc tr cc mm su, bnh, tuyn trng... Lu tn trong ht c kh nng gy hi
cho ht hoc cy con (thi ht, ho r cy con); c khi thuc cn gip cho cy trng sau ny c
kh nng chng li cc loi dch hi cc giai on sau (cc thuc lu dn). Yu cu i vi
bin php x l ging l thuc phi bm dnh tt, c kh nng kh c cao m khng gy hi
cho s ny mm ca ht ging v s pht trin ca cy con. Ht ging c th c x l bng
cc bin php vt l nh dng nhit, nc nng, nh nng mt tri, hoc bng bin php ha
hc: s dng cc ha cht, hoc kt hp c hai bin php trn. Khi x l ht ging bng ha cht,
tu theo trng thi vt l ca thuc x l, c im sinh hc ca sinh vt gy hi, cu to v c
im ca ht ging, c th chn mt trong ba phng php x l ging sau:
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+ X l kh ( trn ging ): Dng thuc dng bt kh trn vi ging, to nn mt lp


thuc bao bc bn ngoi ht. Sau khi trn ging vi cc thuc ny phi trong nhng thng kn
khong mt vi tun trc khi gieo trng. Phi xc nh thi gian hp l sao cho thuc dit
c mm bnh m khng gy hi ging. x l nhng ht ging c kch thc nh thng
phi dng mt lng thuc nhiu hn so vi khi x l nhng ht to. Phng php trn ging c
u im l k thut n gin, sau khi trn xong, c th gieo ht ngay hay chm mt thi gian.
Tuy nhin trong qu trnh trn, thuc ht c th bay ra xung quanh gy c cho ngi, lm
nhim mi trng.
+ X l t (ngm ging): Dng thuc dng BHN hay ND ha vo nc theo nng
nh ri ging vo ngm theo mt khong thi gian nht nh. Trong trng hp nm hay
vi khun gy bnh xm nhp su vo trong ht, c th kt hp vi phng php dng nhit.
Ta c th ngm ging trong nc nng trc khi ngm vo thuc, hoc c th ha thuc vo
nc nng ngm ging. Phng php ny c u im l thuc d dng tip xc vi tc nhn
gy bnh ngoi v ht v c bn trong v ht. Nhng ging ngm thuc xong phi gieo ngay,
khng th v mt l do no (nh ma nhiu lm t t) m tr hon c.
+ X l na kh (na t, h nho): Thuc thng c pha nng cao hn so vi
ngm ging. Ging c tri ra sn gch hay ximng, dng nc thuc phun u ln, c th xo
trn ging cho thuc ngm u hn. Lng nc thuc dng thng l t (khong 3 lt/t ging),
do sau khi x l m ca ht ging thng tng ln khng qu 0,5%, sau khi x l c th
cho ngay ht ging vo my gieo m khng cn phi hong kh.
Ngy nay, ngi ta hay dng phng php na kh x l ging. Ht ging c bao
bc mt lp thuc dng nho trong nhng my x l ht quay lin tc. i khi ngi ta trn
ht ging vi thuc ngay trong cc my gieo ht, bin php ny cho php loi tr trng hp
ngu nhin d tha mt lng ht ging x l thuc.
X l ging l mt phng php dng thuc c nhiu u im: lng thuc tiu dng t,
kh nng dit dch hi cao, chi ph s dng thp, ngn chn tt s pht sinh v ly lan ca dch
hi. V vy phng php ny ngy cng c a chung v c xem nh mt th tc cn c
tun th khi gieo trng.

2.2.6 Lm b c
B c l mt hn hp gm thuc c v mi. Mi thng l nhng thc n m dch hi
a thch. B c ch yu dng tr chut v i khi cng dng by bm, bt su. t
hiu qu cao, khng nhng thuc phi c tnh c cao i vi cn trng hay cc loi gm nhm
gy hi m mi dng by cng phi tht hp dn, thu ht c dch hi. Mi loi dch hi li
a thch nhng loi mi khc nhau. Tu theo loi dch hi m c th dng cc mi nh cm, ht
ng cc, cc loi bt, cht chua, cht tanh...
* C nhiu phng php lm b c:
+ B kh: lm bng cch trn thuc vi mi dng kh. i khi ngi ta thm nhng
cht dnh nh du tho mc, h...
+ B t: mi c tm bng huyn ph hay dung dch thuc.
+ B lng: mi l cht lng c pha thm cht c, thng vo nhng a nh t
b nhng cn trng n thc n lng (rui, bm...).

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Lm b c dit dch hi c u im l lng cht c tiu ph t hn so vi phun lng


hay phun bt. Nu tm c loi mi c sc hp dn dch hi mnh th phng php ny s t
hiu qu kinh t rt cao.

2.3 CC PHNG PHP XC NH TNH C V HIU LC CA THUC


TR DCH HI
Thng thng trc khi em ra s dng i tr mt loi thuc no , ngi ta em trc
nghim tnh c v hiu lc ca thuc trong phng th nghim v ngoi ng trong iu kin
thc t.

A. CC PHNG PHP XC NH TNH C CA THUC TR DCH HI


TRONG PHNG TH NGHIM
2.3.1 Nguyn tc th nghim
c kt qu chnh xc, ng tin cy, cc th nghim v thuc c tin hnh da trn
nhng nguyn tc sau y:
+ Thuc th nghim khng qu c, c bo qun tt. Phi bit r tnh cht l hc, ha
hc v tc ng sinh hc ca thuc.
+ i tng dng th thuc: Thng ngi ta chn nhng dch hi quan trng trong
sn xut, hoc nhng dch hi c sc sinh sn nhanh, vng i ngn, k thut nui cy, nhn mt
s khng qu phc tp. Cc c th em th nghim thuc phi tng i ng u v kch thc,
tui, thi gian sinh trng. Thng m bo yu cu ny, ngi ta phi nhn ging su, bnh,
c di trong phng th nghim.
+ Dng c th nghim: Phi m bo chch xc, cc dng c phun thuc phi c kh
nng tri mt lng thuc nh u khp trn b mt vt phun.
+ iu kin mi trng phi ng nht v n nh trong sut qu trnh th nghim.
+ B tr th nghim: Phi c i chng so snh kt qu vi cc nghim thc dng
thuc. C trng hp cn so snh tnh c ca mt loi thuc mi vi nhng loi thuc thng
dng hay mt thuc chun. Cc nghim thc phai c t nht 3 ln lp li (thng t 3-5 ln lp
li). C th quan st v m t thm triu chng ng c ca dch hi.

2.3.2 Phng php xc nh tnh c ca thuc tr su


a. Phng php xc nh tnh c v c
Phng php lm khoanh l tm thuc.
+ i tng th nghim: Cc loi cn trng nhai gm.
+ Cch tin hnh: Dng nhng l cy su thng n cn ti em ct thnh tng
khoanh nh ng knh 2cm bng nhng ci c bng kim loi. t cc khoanh l ny ln mt
tm knh hay ba cng c kch thc v trng lng bit trc. t tm knh hay ba cng vo
thng phun thuc ri phun thuc bt hay lng ln. Sau khi phun thuc, ta cn li tm knh hay
ba cng tnh ra lng thuc c trn mi n v din tch, t suy ra lng thuc c trn
tng khoanh l. Dn mt lp mng keo hay h bt ln b mt c phun thuc ca khoanh l v
dn chng vo nhau thnh tng cp, sao cho cc mt l c phun thuc p vo nhau tht kht. Cho
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vo cc a petri mt s lng nht nh su v khoanh l tm thuc, mi a thng cha


khong 25 con su v vi chc khoanh l, sp xp theo tng nghim thc ring bit. a tt c
cc a petri trn vo phng c nhit , m n nh. Quan st s su sng, cht, lng l b
su n sau mt thi gian nht nh. Nu su khng n ht cc bnh l, c th t nhng mu bnh
l su n cn tha ln mt t giy k ly, t tnh ra lng thuc su n. C th cn trng
lng tng con su ring r trc v sau khi n bnh nhn c tnh ra lng thuc gy cht
su.
* Ngoi ra c th s dng mt s phng php khc nh: nh mt lng thuc nht nh
vo ming su, cho su ht b c dng lng (i vi su chch ht, lim ht).
b. Phng php xc nh tnh c tip xc ca thuc
xc nh tnh c tip xc ca thuc tr su, c th dng cc phng php sau:
+ Phun bt, phun lng trc tip ln mnh su.
+ Nhng su vo dung dch thuc lng.
+ Cho su tip xc vi thuc trn giy lc, trn knh, nh thuc ln c th su.

Phng php phun thuc bt hay lng ln mnh su: Cho su th nghim vo cc lng
hoc chu nh c np li, t cc lng ny vo thng phun thuc, phun cho thuc bao
ph u khp c lng, chu ln su hi. Sau mt gi, chuyn su sang lng hoc chu
sch, cho su n v ghi nhn s su sng, cht sau tng khong thi gian nht nh.

Phng php ngm: Cho su vo nhng ti vi mng, nhng ngp vo dung dch thuc
trong 2-3 pht ri nht ln, t ln giy lc thm bt thuc, sau chuyn sang hp
nui su c thc n v quan st tnh trng ng c ca su. i chng thay dung dch
thuc bng nc l.

Phng php nh thuc ln c th su: Dng thuc dng lng cho vo ng tim c gn
vi my nh git vi lng ri nh thuc ln mnh lng, ngc hoc vo bng ca tng c
th cn trng. Phng php ny phi x l tng con mt, tn nhiu thi gian. Nu i
tng th thuc l cn trng hay bay nhy, c th t chng vo t lnh mt thi gian
trc khi th thuc.

c. Phng php xc nh tnh c ca thuc tr su ni hp


Gieo ht ging cy cn th nghim (u, la...) trong nhng chu nh c kch thc
bng nhau, cha mt lng t bng nhau. Khi cy c 2 - 3 l tht th c th cy rp hoc nhn
vo tng cy, vi ngy sau c rp non trn cy, dit nhng con qu ln hoc qu nh, mi
cy ch gi li khong 25 - 30 con tng i ng u. Pha thuc theo nng nh v ti
vo mi chu mt lng nc thuc bng nhau.
Trng hp loi thuc th nghim ngoi tc ng ni hp cn c tc ng xng hi, nu
mun loi tr tc ng xng hi ca thuc, c th t chu th nghim vo nhng thng g che
kn chu t, ch h cy ra ngoi, trong thng g c b tr my ht hi thuc c khng
bc ln pha trn. Ngi ta c th dng phng php thuc vo dung dch dinh dng v
trng cy trn .
d. Phng php xc nh tnh c ca tnh xng hi
Dng mt bnh thy tinh c dung tch khong 20 lt, ming y nt cao su tht kht vi
thnh bnh, gia nt cao su c hai ng thy tinh c kho xuyn qua. Cho su vo cc ng nghim
hai u bt li thp, t vo trong bnh ri y nt cao su li. M kho A v dng bm ht bt
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khng kh trong bnh ra. Sau , ng kho A li v m kho B thuc vo trong bnh. Cui
cng ng kho B li ngn hi c thot ra khi bnh. Nu thuc th rn, c th m nt cao
su cho thuc vo.

2.3.3 Phng php xc nh tnh c ca thuc tr nm


Tnh c ca thuc tr nm biu hin qua kh nng c ch s ny mm ca bo t v kh
nng c ch s pht trin ca khun lc. Th nghim ca thuc tr nm thng gm cc bc:
thu thp ngun nm, vi khun em v phng th nghim nui cy, tch rng, nhn mt s v em
th nghim. Qu trnh th thuc thng phi tin hnh trong phng kn v v trng. Sau y l
mt s phng php thng dng:
a. Phng php th kh nng c ch s ny mm ca bo t
- Dng kim khu ly bo t nm em ha vo nc ct ng trong bnh tam gic, ly
mt git dung dch bo t cho ln mt lam knh vo knh hin vi v m mt s.
- Pha thuc nhng nng khc nhau, cho vo mi ng nghim dung dch bo t v
dung dch thuc theo t l th tch l 1: 1, khuy tht u ri ly t hn hp ra 1- 2 git nh
ln mt tm lam lm. t lam vo mt cc thy tinh, bn di c nc, bn trn y bng mt
cc thy tinh nh hn, c lt giy ht m bn trong nhm to mi trng c m cao. Sau
mt thi gian nht nh (vi gi n vi ngy) ly lam ra, nh thm vo mt git lactophenol ri
a ln knh hin vi quan st 100 - 200 bo t, ghi chp s ny mm v o chiu di mm bo t.
b. Phng php th trn mi trng thch agar
- Nm hoc vi khun th nghim c nui cy trn mi trng thch mt thi gian nht
nh. Khi em th thuc, mi trng cha nm hoc vi khun c ct thnh nhng khoanh nh
ng knh 8 cm cy ln mi trng c cha thuc nng cn trc nghim. mi
trng trn thuc vo cc a petri, ngui v cy nm hoc vi khun ln b mt mi
trng, em cc a petri ny vo t m hoc trong phng kn c nhit n nh. Quan st
s pht trin ca khun ty, ghi nhn ng knh khun ty sau mt khong thi gian nht nh (24
gi, 48 gi,..) v so snh vi i chng.
Cng c th th nghim bng cch cy khoanh giy lc tm thuc ln mi trng thch
agar c cha nm hay vi khun. Quan st kh nng c ch pht trin ca vng v khun, ghi
nhn bn knh hnh vnh khn vng v khun sau mt khong thi gian nht nh (24 gi, 48gi
...) v so snh vi i chng.

2.3.4 Phng php xc nh tnh c ca thuc tr c


C nhiu phng php nh gi hot tnh ca thuc tr c:
a. Trng c trong chu t, cho vo thng phun thuc bt hay thuc lng, phun lng
thuc qui nh, hoc ti thuc vo gc nh phng php trc nghim thuc ni hp ri quan
st tc dng ca thuc n sinh trng v pht trin ca thc vt.
b. Ly ct thch anh, ra sch bng axit HCl, tri mt lp u trn y a petri (ng
knh khong 10 cm), pha trn lp ct t mt ming giy lc, sau ti nc ct vo cho giy
lc v ct m u. t a petri vo thng phun thuc lng v phun thuc tr c ln mt giy.
Tip theo, gieo ht c ln giy lc phun thuc. Nu ht nh (ng knh 1 - 1,5 mm), mi hp
gieo khong 30 - 40 ht; ht trung bnh (ng knh 2 - 4 mm), mi hp gieo khong 20 - 25 ht;
ht ln (ng knh 5 - 6 mm), mi hp gieo khong 10 ht. i chng phun nc ct thay cho
thuc .
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Ngoi ra, cn c th xc nh hot tnh dit c bng cch dng mi trng cha: 5g
MgSO4; 5g K2HPO4; 1g Ca3(PO4)2; 0,2 g FeSO4; 5 lt nc ct v 40g thch agar. vo mi
hp a petri 50 ml mi trng trn v 2 - 3 ml nc thuc tr c nh th nghim cc nng
khc nhau v trn u vo mi trng thch. Khi mi trng thch ng li th gieo ht ln
trn. Ch tiu ghi nhn: t l ht mc, t l cy cht, chiu di r, mm, trng lng cy con.

B. CC PHNG PHP XC NH
TR DCH HI TRN NG RUNG

HIU

LC

CA

THUC

2.3.5 B tr th nghim
thu c kt qu chnh xc, khi b tr th nghim kho st thuc tr dch hi cn lu
cc im sau y khi a ra k hoch th nghim:
- Tham kho ti liu: Trc khi lp th nghim, cn c nhng hiu bit chnh xc v:
+ Loi dch hi em th nghim (c im sinh hc, c im gy hi, mc tc
hi...).
+ Loi thuc th nghim (c tnh l hc, ha hc, c ch tc ng...
+ nh hng cc yu t mi trng n hiu qu thuc. Cc phng php s
dng thuc tr dch hi.
- Cc yu t nn phi ng nht (phng hng, k thut canh tc, phn bn, nc, gi
mt dch hi...). Ch s dng mt loi bnh phun, mt cch phun, mt ngi phun thuc, phun
mt thi im nht nh, khng th x l mt nghim thc vo bui sng, khi tri mt, t gi,
v nghim thc kia vo bui tra nng, gi mnh.
- Kch thc l th nghim phi ln v phi c cha nhng hng cy bo v xung
quanh trnh hin tng ly lan ca dch hi v trnh tnh trng thuc ca l ny tc sang l
kia. Thng ngi ta b tr l hnh vung vi din tch khong t 25m2 (5m x 5m) n 100m2
(10m x 10m); nu l th nghim trn nhng cy lu nm (cam, c ph, ch...) th mi l bao gm
ti thiu 5 cy tr ln. S ln lp li mi nghim thc c th t 3-5 tr ln.
- K thut dng thuc phi ng n; thi im dng thuc phi hp l (thuc pht huy
c tc dng cao nht, khng gy hi n cy trng); khi pha long thuc phi ch khng cho
thuc b vn cc, lng ng; phi phun thuc u trn khp b mt x l (2 hai mt l, thn,
cnh...).
- Ghi nhn ch tiu: Ch nn mt ngi ly ch tiu t u n cui tt c cc nghim
thc. i vi bnh hi hay loi su hi t di chuyn c th ly mu trn tng ; i vi nhng
sinh vt qu nh nh nhn c th ngt mt s l v m s lng di kinh hin vi. Vi
nhng loi su bay nhy nhiu nh ry, b xt, th dng phng php vt: va i va vt (10-15
ci) v m s lng trong tng l th nghim trong mi ln ly ch tiu. Vi su b n np trong
thn, tri ta thu thp ngu nhin mt s thn l mi l, em v ch ra v m s lng su.
- Trng hp su hi sng thnh tp on vi s lng qu ln, c th nh gi mt s
su bng cch c chng s lng hoc phn theo cp bc, v d nh:
+ Cp 0: khng c rp trn l.
+ Cp 1: c bit vi im trn l c tp on nh su hi.
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+ Cp 2: trn mt di l c tp on gy hi kh ln.
+ Cp 3: cc l u c tp on su hi kh ln.
- Nn ly ch tiu trc khi phun thuc v vi ln sau khi phun thuc. m s lng
su trong t, c th dng nhng khung tre kch thc 0,5m x 0,5m t im ly ch tiu ri
bi tm su trong phm vi khung. Hoc c th ly mu t em v cho vo chu nc, khuy u
cho cn trng ni ln trn mt nc v m s lng. Cng c th nh gi hiu lc ca thuc
qua mc thit hi ca l, cy trc v sau khi phun thuc. nh gi hiu lc ca thuc i
vi b xt mui hi ch, hay i vi su c thn la, c th kim tra s bp ch b hi, bng la
b bc cc im iu tra.
- nh gi hiu lc ca thuc tr c, thng da trn 2 ch tiu l s cy c v trng
lng c ti cc im ly ch tiu trong l th nghim. Tu theo mt c, c th tng hay gim
din tch ly ch tiu. Khi c lng bng mt, nu thy c khong 100 - 150 cy c/m2 th din
tch ly ch tiu l mt 1m2, nu mt c khong 150 - 500 cy/m2 th din tch ly ch tiu l
0,5m2, nu mt trn 500 cy/m2 th ch cn ly ch tiu l 0,25m2 mi im. Khi xc nh
din tch ca im, c th lm nhng khung bng tre hoc g mng c kch thc thch hp
mi khi ly ch tiu th t khung ny vo im ly ch tiu v quan st c trong khung. Thng
khung c hnh vung, hoc hnh ch nht. Ngoi vic m s lng c, c th ly ch tiu trng
lng c ti bng cch ct c im ly mu em v ngm trong nc cho c ti u, vy
cho ro nc ri em cn. C th sy c cho n khi kh v em cn trng lng kh. Cc loi
c khc nhau c th ly ch tiu ring hoc chung ty theo yu cu ca tng th nghim. Ch
cc ln ly ch tiu sau khng nn ly ch tiu im c, thng phi cch im c khong
0,5m. Nu trc nghim thuc tr c hu ny mm th trc khi phun thuc phi ly ch tiu trc
khi phun thuc mt ln, sau khi phun thuc cn phi ly ch tiu vi ln khong cch 7 - 10
ngy.
Ngoi cc nghim thc dng thuc v i chng khng dng thuc, i khi ngi ta
thm vo cc nghim thc thuc thng dng v nghim thc lm c bng tay so snh ng
thi c tc dng gip cho vic pht c nh hng ca thuc (kch thch hoc kim hm) ca
thuc i s sinh trng, pht trin v nng sut ca cy trng. Ngoi nhng ch tiu nghi nhn
nh gi hiu lc ca thuc tr dch hi, cn c nhng ghi nhn thm v nhng tc ng ca
thuc n cy trng, n nhng sinh vt c ch, con ngi; nh hng ca yu t ngoi cnh n
tnh c ca thuc i vi dch hi cy trng v gia sc.

2.3.6 Xc nh hiu qu ca vic dng thuc tr dch hi


Khi phn tch hiu qu ca vic dng mt loi thuc tr dch hi no , ngi ta thng
phn bit: qu k thut, hiu qu kinh t v hiu qu tng sn ca vic dng thuc.
+ Hiu qu k thut thng c biu th bng phn trm dch hi b thuc dit hoc c
ch, thi gian c hiu lc ca thuc, hoc mc lm gim thit hi do dch gy ra cho cy
trng. Ni chung mt loi thuc c c cng cao th hiu qu k thut cng cao. Tuy nhin
hiu qu ca thuc cn ph thuc vo nhiu yu t khc ( bm dnh, t trng... ca thuc),
iu kin mi trng (gi, ma...).
+ Hiu qu tng sn c xc bng s lng v cht lng nng sn tng ln khi dng
thuc so vi i chng. Hiu qu tng sn c lin quan mt thit vi hiu qu k thut theo t l
thun. Tuy nhin nu mt loi thuc c hiu lc tr dch hi cao nhng c nh hng xu n
cy trng hay cn trng th phn cho cy...th khng em li hiu qu tng sn. Ngc li, c th
c loi thuc ch c hiu qu k thut va phi nhng c tc dng kch thch cy trng th lm
cho nng sut v phm cht nng sn tng ln nhiu.
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+ Hiu qu kinh t c tnh bng cch so snh chi ph dng thuc (tin thuc, tin cng
phun thuc, tin khu hao thit b...) vi s tng thu nhp do hiu qu tng sn em li. Hiu qu
tng sn cng cao, chi ph dng thuc cng thp (thuc r, my mc tt, c cng sut cao...) th
hiu qu kinh t cng cao.
Hiu qu ny c biu th bng:
Hiu qu bin t (MRR = Marginal Rate of Return)

Mc tng li nhun
MRR (%) = ---------------------------- x 100
Mc tng chi ph
+ Mc tng li nhun: Tng thu l c x l thuc - Tng thu l kim chng.
+ Mc tng chi ph: Tng chi ph l c x l thuc - Tng chi ph l kim chng.

C. CC PHNG PHP TNH TON HIU QU DNG THUC


Trong cc th nghim xc nh tnh c v hiu lc ca thuc tr dch hi trong phng th
nghim cng nh trn ng rung, nghim thc i chng mt s dch hi vn b cht mt d
khng tip xc vi thuc. Hin tng ny c th l do su hi b bnh, b k sinh, do iu kin
ngoi cnh khng ph hp. T ta c th thy rng s dch hi b cht nghim thc c x l
thuc khng phi hon ton ch do tc dng ca thuc m cn do nhiu yu t khc. S lng
dch hi cc l i chng i khi khng gim m li cn tng ln do dch hi ni khc n,
dch hi sinh si pht trin thm...
Do nhng hin tng trn, phi chnh l li cc kt qu th nghim kho st thuc tr
dch hi, c trong phng th nghim ln ngoi ng c c nhng nh gi ng n hn v
hiu qu ca thuc i vi dch hi. Hiu qu k thut ca thuc thng c nh gi qua
hu hiu:

2.3.7 hiu ca thuc tr su

hu hiu ca thuc
thng c tnh theo

C-T
hu hiu (%) = ------------- x 100

cng thc Abbott:

Vi C : T l % su sng nghim thc i chng.


T : T l % su sng nghim thc c x l thuc.
Ngoi ra cn c mt s cng thc khc cng c th dng tnh hu hiu ca thuc,
cc cng thc ny nhn chung u thu c kt qu tnh ton tng t nh cng thc Abbott:
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- Cng thc Schneider - Orelli

b-K
hu hiu (%) = ------------- x 100
100 - K

Vi b : T l % su cht cng thc x l thuc.


K: T l % su cht cng thc i chng.
Cc cng thc trn cng c dng cho th nghim trn ng rung di dng:

% b hi C - % b hi NT x l thuc
hu hiu (%) = ---------------------------------------------------------- x 100
% b hi i chng

Khi p dng cng thc Abbott hay cng thc Schneider-Orelli ch cn ly ch tiu mt
ln sau khi x l thuc; v trong ln quan st ny phi quan st c c s su hay c di sng
ln vi s su, c cht, hoc mt s l b hi ln khng b hi. Trong nhng th nghim nu ch
quan st c s c th sng v c th quan st c hai ln: trc v sau khi lm th nghim, c
th p dng mt trong ba cng thc sau y tnh hu hiu ca thuc:

(Ab - Ba )
hu hiu (%) = --------------- x 100
Ab

Vi A : S c th sng nghim thc phun thuc trc khi th nghim.


b: S c th sng nghim thc i chng sau khi th nghim.
B: S c th sng nghim thc phun thuc sau khi th nghim .
a: S c th sng nghim thc i chng trc khi th nghim.

- Cng thc Henderson - Tilton

Ta x Cb
hu hiu (%) = (1 - ---------------- ) x 100
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Tb x Ca
Vi Ta: S c th sng nghim thc phun thuc sau khi th nghim.
Tb: S c th sng nghim thc phun thuc trc khi th nghim.
Ca: S c th sng nghim thc i chng sau khi th nghim.
Cb: S c th sng nghim thc i chng trc khi th nghim.

- Cng thc Sun - Shepard


m2
Pt = 100 ----------Pt + Pck

m1

hu hiu (%) = -------------- x 100


100 + Pck

n2 - n1
Pck = --------------- x100
n1

Vi m1: S c th sng nghim thc phun thuc trc khi th nghim.


m2: S c th sng nghim thc phun thuc sau khi th nghim.
n1 : S c th sng nghim thc i chng trc khi th nghim
n2 : S c th sng nghim thc i chng sau khi th nghim.

Ba cng thc trn a li nhng kt qu tnh ton ging nhau v thc ra l ba dng
khc nhau ca mt cng thc.
Ngoi ra cc cng thc trn, Swingle v Snapp cn a ra mt cng thc p dng trong
nhng th nghim quan st c c s c th sng v s c th cht trc v sau khi th nghim.
( ax - z )
hu hiu (%) = ................... x 100
ax
Vi:
% s c th sng i chng sau khi th nghim
a = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
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% s c th sng i chng trc khi th nghim

x: % s c th sng nghim thc phun thuc trc khi th nghim.


z: % c th sng nghim thc phun thuc sau khi th nghim.

2.3.8 Ch tiu nh gi thuc tr nm


i vi thuc tr nm, c hai ch tiu thng c dng biu th hiu lc ca thuc l:
T l bnh (tiu biu cho mc ph bin ca bnh) v ch s bnh (tiu biu cho mc bnh
nng hay nh).

S cy (cnh, l) b bnh
TLB trn cnh, l (%) = ------------------------------------------ x 100
Tng s cy (cnh, l) quan st
(ai x ni)
CSB (%) = ------------- x 100
AxN

Vi ai: S l b bnh cp i.
A: Tng s l quan st.
ni: Cp bnh (t 0 n N)
N: Cp bnh cao nht.
Cp bnh thng c tnh da vo phn trm l b bnh. V d nh bnh chy l la c
th c nh gi nh sau:
Cp 0: khng c vt bnh.
Cp 1: vt bnh chim di 5% din tch l.
Cp 2: vt bnh chim 5 - 20 % din tch l.
Cp 3: vt bnh chim 20 - 50 % din tch l.
Cp 4: vt bnh chim trn 50 % din tch l.

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2.3.9 Ch tiu nh gi thuc tr c


nh gi hiu lc ca thuc tr c, thng da trn hai ch tiu l s cy c v trng
lng c ti cc im ly ch tiu trong l th nghim.

D. SO SNH TNH C CA CC LOI THUC TR DCH HI


Cc phng php xc nh hu hiu cha cho php so snh mt cch chnh xc tnh
c ca cht c. hu hiu cng cha din t c ng thi ca tc dng ca cht c i
vi sinh vt gy hi. Tnh chng chu ca cc c th i vi cht c l khng ging nhau. liu
lng gy cht trung bnh, cht c gy cht cho nhng c th c tnh chng chu cao hn mc
trung bnh. Nn xc nh chnh xc tnh c ca mt cht c i vi mt loi sinh vt gy
hi, cn tm liu lng gy cht trung bnh LD50 ca cht c i vi loi sinh vt .
tm LD50 ca mt cht c i vi mt sinh vt no , ngi ta thng tin hnh mt
th nghim trong phng th nghim thng gm nhiu liu lng thuc t thp ti cao (thng
thng l 5 liu lng khc nhau). Quan st kt qu th nghim, tnh t l su cht tng
nghim thc.
V th m tung biu th t l % c th b cht cc nghim thc, honh biu th
liu lng ca cc nghim thc. Ni cc im trn th c ng cong ch S rt in hnh.
ng cong ny cho thy rng tng t l cht (trc tung) nh nht cc khong gn t l
cht 0% v 100% v ln nht gn khong 50%. iu ni ln rng s tng ng nht liu
lng c th gy nhng bin i rt khc nhau v hu hiu. ng cong ch S ny c nhc
im l khi dng n tm ra LD50 ( bng cch k mt ng song song vi trc honh c tung
bng 50 v t im ct ca ng song song vi ng cong S, h mt ng thng ng
xung trc honh) th kh c mt con s chnh xc.
khc phc nhc im ny, phi bin i ng cong S thnh mt ng thng bng
cch chuyn cc tr s trc honh thnh logarit ca liu lng v cc tr s trc tung thnh
probit ca % c th b cht. Probit l lch bnh phng trung bnh ca hm phn b chun
c cng thm 5. Bills lp thnh mt bng tnh sn trong c t l cht c chuyn thnh
probit. ng thng v c khng phi l i qua tt c cc im trn th, m ch l mt
ng i gn st nht cc im nm trn th m thi.
LD50 cho ta mt khi nim tnh v tc ng ca cht c, cn cong ca ng biu
din cho ta mt hnh nh ng v tc ng ca cht c. i vi cng mt loi sinh vt , mi
loi cht c c tr s LD50 v c ca ng biu din khc nhau v l c s so snh
tnh c ca cc cht c khc nhau.
so snh tnh c ca nhiu loi thuc i vi mt loi dch hi, c nhiu trng hp
cn dng LC50 (nng gy cht trung bnh) v LT50 (thi gian gy cht trung bnh). tm tr
s LC50 ca mt loi thuc i vi mt loi su hi hoc mt loi bo t nm bnh, cng phi
tin hnh mt th nghim trong phng. Nhng su hi hoc bo t nm bnh vo nhng dung
dch thuc pha nng t thp n cao trong mt khong thi gian thng nht. Sau , quan
st t l su cht (t l bo t khng ny mm), ri ghi kt qu ln mt biu m trc tung l
Probit % su cht (hay s bo t khng ny mm) v honh biu th log ca nng (mg/l),
t tnh ra LC50 tng t nh trng hp LD50.
LT50 ca mt cht c i vi mt loi sinh vt (cn trng, c...) c xc nh bng
cch x l loi sinh vt vi cht c nng hoc liu lng cho trc ri quan st thi
gian k t khi bt u x l cho n khi trn 90% sinh vt th nghim b cht. Kt qu cng c
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biu din trn mt th trong tung biu th phn trm c th cht, honh biu th thi
gian (tnh bng pht) ng vi mi t l cht khc nhau, t tnh ra LT50.
- - - - - o0o - - - - -

Cu hi n tp
Cu 1: Cho bit cc phng php x l ging bng thuc ha hc?
Cu 2: Cch xc nh hiu qu ca vic dng thuc tr dch hi?

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Chng 3

CHNG 3: THUC TR DCH HI


A. THUC TR SU
3.1 THUC TR SU CLO HU C
Sau chin tranh th gii ln hai, DDT v sau l mt lot thuc tr su hu c khc ra
i. Do c hiu lc tr su ln cha tng c so vi cc thuc tr su v c v tho mc trc ,
cc thuc tr su Clo hu c c sn xut v s dng vi mt qui m ln, nh du mt
bc pht trin mnh m ca ngnh Ha Bo V Thc Vt. Cng thc ha hc c cha: C, H, O,
S... Cl . Cc thuc tr su thuc nhm Clo hu c c nhng c im chnh nh sau:

3.1.1 U IM
- Qui trnh sn xut tng i n gin, gi thnh ca ch phm thp, d ch bin hot
cht thnh nhiu dng ch phm khc nhau (BTN, ND, BR, H...). Do d s dng trn nhiu
loi cy trng v nhng iu kin ng rung khc nhau.
- Cc thuc ny thng c ph tc ng rng, hiu lc kh cao, thi gian hiu lc di
thch hp cho vic phng tr ngoi ng, nht l i vi cc loi cy cng nghip. bn ha
hc ln trong nhng iu kin thng thng nn d bo qun tn tr.

3.1.2 NHC IM
- Do bn ha hc ln nn thuc d lu b trong t ai, cy trng, nng sn, thc
phm. Chng lm cho mi trng b nhim trong mt thi gian lu di. Thi gian phn gii
95% hot cht trong iu kin t nhin ca DDT l 10 nm; Lindane l 6,5 nm; Diendrin l 8
nm; Clodan l 3,5 nm. B thuc lu tn khng nhng lm cho phm cht, hnh thc ca nng
sn b xu i m cn gy c cho ngi hay gia sc s dng nng sn , nh BHC thng
li mi kh chu trn nng sn nh khoai ty, rau u...
- C kh nng gy trng c tch ly mnh. Qua s tip xc vi thuc nhiu ln hay qua
chui thc n hm lng thuc trong c th, ch yu trong m m tng ln rt nhiu; n mt
lng no n biu hin cc triu chng ng c rt him ngho nh ung th, qui thai...
- c i vi c v thin ch ln.
- Khi s dng mt loi thuc Clo hu c ti mt a phng trong nhiu nm d gy ra
hin tng cn trng khng thuc. Do nhng nhc im trn, ngy nay nhiu thuc tr su gc
Clo hu c b cm hoc hn ch s dng nhiu nc.

3.1.3 MT S C IM KHC
- Cu to ha hc: Trong phn t ca cc hp cht ny u c cha nguyn t Clo v cc
vng Benzen hay d vng.
- Tnh cht vt l: Thuc k ngh u dng rn, khng tan hoc t tan trong nc, tan
nhiu trong dung mi hu c, v thng c mi hi kh chu.
- Dng ch phm thng gp l ND, BTN, H, bt phun cc hm lng khc nhau.
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- Tnh cht ha hc: Cc thuc Clo hu c thng c bn ha hc ln, tn ti lu di


ngay c iu kin ngoi ng, phn ln u b phn hy trong mi trng kim.
- Tnh c: c thuc i vi ng vt mu nng u t trung bnh n cao, trong
cc hp cht nhm DDT, BHC, nhm Cyclodien c kh nng tch ly trong c th ngi v
ng vt (tr thiodan). Cc thuc Clo hu c thng c tc dng v c v tip xc ln cn
trng, mt s cn c c tnh xng hi. Cc thuc ny thng tc ng ln h thn kinh bng
cch c ch men cholinesteraza (ChE.) v tc ng ln mt s c quan khc lm ri lon hot
ng ca c th cn trng dn n cht.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Cc thuc ny u c ph phng tr rng, dit c nhiu loi
su hi c kiu ming nhai gm v mt s t cn trng chch ht.
- Tuy nhin thuc khng c c tnh chn lc nn d gy hi cho cc loi thin ch v
cc sinh vt c ch.
MT S THUC TR SU CLO HU C
THNG DNG TRC Y

3.1.4 DDT (Dichlodiphenyl trichloetan)


-

Tn gi: DDT, POLAZOTOX, NEXOID, GESAROL, ZEDAN

Dng ch phm thng gp: 30ND, 75BHN, 10BR, 5H...

Tn ha hc: 1,1,1- Trichloro- 2,2 bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane.

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: DDT k ngh l mt hn hp nhiu ng phn, trong ng phn


para c c cao nht i vi cn trng. Sn phm cng nghip th rn, mu trng ng c
mi hi.
- Tnh cht ha hc: Thuc rt bn iu kin thng nhng d b kim phn hy to
thnh DDE, nht l khi hin din cc mui st. B tia cc tm phn hy.
- c tnh: LD50 (chut) = 113mg/kg; thuc c kh nng tch ly trong c th ngi v
ng vt, nht l cc m m, m sa, n khi lng gy c th thuc s gy ra cc bnh
him ngho nh ung th, sinh qui thai. DDT c mnh vi c v ong mt. DDT an ton i vi
cy trng, tr nhng cy thuc h bu b. Thuc b cm s dng.
- Ph phng tr: Rng vi tc dng v c v tip xc, thuc tr c rt nhiu loi su
hi sng khng n nu, nht l cc loi nhai gm trn nhiu loi cy trng khc nhau.
Vi cng dng:
Trn LA: Dng tr cc loi su n l (su keo, su eo, su cn gi, su phao...). Vi
thuc DDT 30ND dng 2,5 - 3 lt/ha nng 1:200-300; Vi DDT 75BHN dng 1,5 - 2 lt/ha
nng 1: 400 - 500. Cn phun tht u vo thn, l, nch l (nhng ni su thng tr n) lc
su non va xut hin.
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Thuc cn c dng tr nhiu loi su n l, su c thn, su c ngn, su c n,


su c qu, ry trn bng vi, ay... Trn bng vi c th dng hn hp thuc gm 1 lt
Wofatox 50ND + 3-5 lt DDT 30ND (hay 1,5-2 kg DDT 75BHN) + 1500 lt nc/ha. Trn ay:
liu lng 2,5 - 3,5 lt DDT 30ND/ha, nng 1: 300.
X l t: dng 2,5 - 3,5 lt DDT 30ND pha nng 1:200-300 phun u trn mt t
trc khi cy xi ln cui tr c su xm, sng trng, sng ba ci, d, kin.
Hn hp thuc: tng hiu lc s dng DDT, c th trn thuc ny vi cc thuc nh
BHC, Toxapen, cc thuc ln hu c khng c tnh kim mnh (Thiophos, Wofatox, DDVP, Bi
58...).
Lu : khng dng DDT tr rp v nhn do DDT do c kh nng dit thin ch rt
ln. Trnh dng thi k ra hoa do thuc c th gy hi cho ong mt v cn trng c ch khc.
Trn mt s loi cn trng, DDT dng nhit thp c hiu qu cao hn dng nhit cao
do kh nng phn gii DDT ca cn trng tng theo nhit . Khng ng thuc trong bnh st.
Thi gian cch ly: 30 ngy.

3.1.5 BHC
- Tn gi: LINDAFOR 90, lindane, BHC, HCH...
- Tn ha hc: Benzen hexa chlorit.
- Cng thc ha hc: C6H6Cl6
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: BHC nguyn cht dng kt tinh mu trng, gm nhiu ng phn
khng gian, trong c ng phn gammar c kh nng thng hoa nhit cao.
- Tnh cht ha hc: BHC rt bn vng trong iu kin bnh thng, bn vi tc ng ca
nh sng, cht oxy ha, mi trng axit nhng b phn hy trong mi trng kim, nht l trong
cc dung mi ca BHC.
- Tnh c: LD50 = 125mg/kg. Thuc c kh nng tch ly trong c th ngi v ng
vt. Thuc b cm s dng.
Hm lng gammar BHC trong thuc cng cao th thuc cng t lu b trong nng sn,
cng t tch ly trong c th ngi v ng vt, t gy hi cho cy trng, tr mt s cy thuc h
bu b v cy thuc l con. Nu thuc c nhiu tp cht, n c th nh hng n hng v ca
thuc l, khoai ty v mt s loi rau, u.
- Cng dng: Vi tc ng tip xc, v c, xng hi, ni hp nh, thuc c ph tc dng
rng v c th s dng trong nhiu lnh vc khc nhau: x l t, x l ht, phun ln cy, kh
trng kho, x l g. BHC c hiu lc cao i vi cn trng thuc b cnh u (nh mi), b
cnh khng u (nh ry xanh, ry bng vi), b cnh cng, b cnh mng v mt s b khc.
Trc y thuc cn c dng trong y t v th y phng tr hu ht cc loi cn trng ph
hoi cy trng v k sinh trn gia sc nh gh, ve. Sau y l mt s ng dng ca Lindane
90BTN:
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+ X l ht: bo v ht ging u phng, c ci, i mch, bp, thu du, la... khi
b su xm v cc loi cn trng khc trong t tn cng. Dng 50 gram thuc/kg ht.
+ X l t: Dng 0,75 - 2 kg thuc/ha hoc 1g/gc c ph, tiu phng tr mi. Trn
thuc su n 10 - 12 cm.
+ Phun ln cy trng: Dng 300 gram thuc/ha phng tr nhiu loi su hi trn la,
rau u, hoa mu, cy cng nghip, cy rng.
+ X l kho: Phun thuc vi nng 50 - 100g/100 lt nc.
+ X l g: nga mi, c th tin hnh bng nhiu cch: xng khi, phun thuc,
nhng, qut, thm su di chn khng...
Lu : Khng hn hp thuc vi thuc c tnh kim. Thi gian cch ly: 30 ngy. Trnh
dng trong nh hoc trn gia sc. Thuc c th gy c mn tnh. Thuc c hm lng gammar
BHC cao t c cho ngi v gy hi cho cy trng hn. nng cao hiu lc tr dch hi,
ngi ta cn dng mt s loi thuc ha hn hp gia BHC v DDT.

3.1.6 THUC TR SU TECPEN CLO HA


Tecpen l thnh phn ha hc ch yu ca du thng, khi clo ha du thng s thu c
nhiu loi thuc tr su khc nhau: TOXAPHEN, POLYCLOPYNEN. Cc thuc tr su
Tecpen clo ha khng c dng rng ri trong phng su hi nh nhng thuc khc. Mt trong
nhng nguyn nhn chnh l do nguyn liu (du thng) thng c dng iu ch nhng sn
phm qu hn, c gi tr kinh t cao hn (hng liu, dung mi ca nha, sn...). Mt s thuc
thng dng:
3.1.6.1 TOXAPHEN
- Cng thc ha hc: C10H45C18
- L thuc v c v tip xc. Tc ng n su hi chm nhng hiu lc ko di hn
DDT; thuc ch pht huy tc dng khi nhit mi trng ln hn 200C. Thuc c c cp
tnh cao vi ngi, gia sc, c nhng c bit t c i vi ong mt. An ton i vi cy trng,
ngoi tr mt s cy mn cm nhng da chut, da b.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Cc dng thuc ND, BTN, BR cha 50% hot cht thng
c s dng nng 0,2 - 0,4% tr nhiu loi su nhai gm v chch ht trn cy n qu,
cy cng nghip. C th dng 4 - 5 lt Toxaphen 50ND pha vi 400 - 600 lt nc phun cho mt
hecta phng tr chut.
3.1.6.2. POLYCLOPYNEN
Ch phm polyclopynen 65ND, 20ND thng c dng tr su n l, su chch ht hi
c ci ng, cy n qu v cy rng liu lng 2 - 4 kg/ha, nng 0,7 - 1%.

3.1.7 THUC TR SU CYCLODIEN


L nhng thuc tr su tip xc, v c. Mt vi loi nh Heptaclo, Andrin cn c tc
ng xng hi. Triu chng trng c cc thuc ny cn trng rt ging nh trng hp
DDT. Mt s c im chung ca nhm ny l:
+ Ph phng tr rt rng, tuy nhin khng phng tr c nhn .
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+ An ton i vi cy trng, c nhiu trng hp cn kch thch cy sinh trng v pht


trin tt.
+ Do c tnh c cao i vi ngi v ng vt mu nng, li c bn ln nn mc d
c hiu lc tr su cao, cc thuc ny ngy nay b hn ch s dng nhiu nc. Thuc v
nhm ny c cc thuc nh: CLORINDAN (CLODAN), HEPTACLO, ANDRIN, DIENDRIN,
ENDRIN, IZODRIN, THIODAN, ALODAN.
3.1.7.1 ANDRIN
- Tn ha hc: 1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexaclo-1,4,4a,5,8-hexahydro exo-1,4 endo 5,8 dimetylen
naptalin.
- bn ha hc ln, khng b nh sng, kim v acid phn hy. Tc dng tip xc, v
c v c xng hi, trong t v trong cy thuc chuyn ha thnh Diendrin. Khi phun thuc
ln cy, thuc dit su tng i nhanh nhng khng lu di; khi phun ln t tc dng tr su
ko di nhiu ngy.
- Tnh c: LD50 (chut) = 40 - 70mg/kg. Thuc c kh nng tch ly trong c th ng
vt; rt c i vi c.
- Cng dng: X l ht ging vi lng 100 - 200g ai/ha hoc phun tr cc cn trng
sng trong t (su xm, d nhi, b hung hi r ma, di c thn u...) vi liu lng 2 - 4kg
ai/ha
3.1.7.2 DIENDRIN
- Tn ha hc: 1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexaclo-6,7-epoxi-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a- octahydro 1,4 endo 5,8 dimetylen naptalin.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

exo-

- c im ha hc rt ging Andrin.
- c cp tnh cao hn Andrin, LD50 (chut) = 25 - 30mg/kg.
- Thuc c tc ng tip xc v v c. Khi phun ln cy hiu lc ca thuc c th ko
di n 2 tun. Thuc Diendrin 18,5ND c dng nng 0,1 - 0,5% phun tr su n l,
su c thn, su hi thuc l, bng, ay.
3.1.7.3 ENDRIN
- ENDRIN l mt ng phn khng gian ca Diendrin, c c tnh l, ha hc tng t
Diendrin. Tnh c ca Endrin kh cao, LD50 (chut) = 7- 35mg/kg. Endrin c dng tr su
hi bng, ma, thuc l, ng... vi dng ch phm 19,5% dng nng 0,2 - 0,5%.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc ENDRIN:

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3.1.7.4 HEPTACLO
- Tn ha hc: 1,4,5,6,7,8,8 - Heptaclo - 3a,4,7,7a - tetrahydro - 4,7- metyleninden.
- Thuc t b kim phn hy hn DDT. Heptaclo c LD50 (chut) vo khong 90mg/kg.
Vi tc ng tip xc, v c, heptaclo c dng tr cc loi su sng trong t hi ng,
bng v cc loi hoa mu khc v c coi l c hiu lc tt hn BHC. Lng thuc c dng
bn vo t l 2 - 3kg ai/ha.
3.1.7.5 THIODAN
- Tn ha hc: 1,2,3,7,7 - hexaclo - bicyclo - (2,2,1) - 2 - hepten - 5,6 - bis -oximetylen
sunfit.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Sn phm cng nghip l nhng tinh th nh, mu hung, d b kim phn hy thnh
nhng cht khng c. Thiodan c mt s u im so vi nhng thuc khc nh:
+ t c i vi ong mt v mt s loi cn trng c ch khc n tht hoc k sinh trn su
hi.
+ Tuy c c cp tnh cao LD50 (chut) l 40-100mg/kg nhng Thiodan khng c tnh
tch ly, trong c th ng vt hot cht nhanh chng b phn hy thnh nhng cht khng c
v c thi ra ngoi. Thiodan l loi thuc tr su tip xc v v c c ph phng tr rt rng.
Thuc dng nh ND, BTN, bt phun thng c dng phun tr su trn la, ng, u ,
bng hay thuc l, c ph vi liu lng 350-700g ai/ha. Thiodan thuc nhm c I, nm trong
danh sch hn ch, nay c chuyn sang danh mc cm s dng ti Vit Nam.

3.2 THUC TR SU GC LN HU C
* Mt s tnh cht chung
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- Cng thc ha hc c cha: C, H, O, S... P


- Ph rng, dit c nhiu loi su hi (thuc cc b chnh nh: Coleopterra,
Lepidoptera, Hemynoptera, Hemiptera...)
- Tc ng rt nhanh: tip xc, v c, xng hi (rt mnh).
- Khng tn ti lu trong mi trng, hiu lc dit su nhanh.
- Gy c cp tnh rt cao do tc ng h thn kinh rt mnh, tch ly nhanh.
- Thi ra ngoi qua ng nc tiu, cht gii c l Atropine.
- Rt c i vi ng vt mu nng v thin ch.
- D phn hy bi acid v mi trng kim.
- t tan trong nc nhng d tan trong dung mi hu c.

3.2.1 METHYL PARATHION (MP) (Metaphos, Wofatox, Folidon M, Metacid,


Bladan - M)
- Dng ch phm thng gp: 50ND, 1,5BR
- Tn ha hc: O,O-Dimetyl-O-(p-nitrophenol) thiophosphat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C10H14NO5PS
-

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: Hot cht tinh khit khng mu, nng chy 35 - 360C, d bay hi
nht l khi nhit mi trng cao, t tan trong nc, tan tt trong nhiu dung mi hu c
(DMHC).
- Tnh cht ha hc: Thy phn yu trong mi trng acid v trung tnh, thy phn mnh
trong mi trng kim. Sn phm cui cng ca s thy phn l H3PO4 v H2S. D b nh sng
v nhit phn hy.
- Tnh c: LD50 (chut) = 25-50mg/kg, c cp tnh cao (nhm c I) nhng khng
tch ly trong c th ngi v ng vt. An ton i vi cy trng liu lng khuyn co.
Thuc b cm s dng.
- Cng dng v cch dng: thuc c tc ng tip xc, v c, xng hi v thm su, ph
tc dng rng, c kh nng dit trng ch yu phng tr su nhai gm v mt s cn trng
chch ht. MP cn c hiu lc trn mt s loi nhn gy hi cy trng (cam, qut). Tc ng dit
dch hi nhanh, nht l khi nhit mi trng cao. Thi gian c hiu lc tr su iu kin
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ngoi ng khong 2-3 ngy. Trong c th su MP b oxy ha thnh Paraoxon c c cao


hn, tc ng mnh hn ln men cholinesteraza.
+ Trn LA: Tr su n l, su cun l, su c thn mi n b, ry non, b xt hi, b
xt en, b tr, b gai... vi liu lng 1-1,5 lt MP 50ND/ha, pha nng 1:800 - 1000.
+ Trn BP, MA: Tr su khoang, su cn l, rp, su c thn, c qu.
+ Trn RAU, U: Tr su xanh, su o, su khoang, rp dnh, di c thn, di c l.
Liu lng v nng ging nh trn la.
+ Trn TR, C PH, CA CAO, THUC L: Tr ry xanh, b xt mui, su cn l, ry
mm, rp dnh, b cnh cng, mt c qu vi liu lng 1,5 - 2,5 lt MP 50ND, nng 1:600 800.
+ Trn BNG VI: Hn hp 1 lt MP 50ND vi 3,5 lt DDT 30ND v 1500 lt nc/ha
tr ry xanh, su c ngn, n, qu.
Ch : Phun thuc giai on su mi n, cn non, phun k vo nhng ni su thng
n np nh b l. MP rt c vi ngi, gia sc, c v ong mt, nht l khi tri nng, nn phi rt
cn thn khi s dng, vn chuyn, bo qun. Khng hn hp thuc vi nhng cht c tnh kim
mnh. Thuc tng hiu lc khi hn hp vi Bassa, DDT, Toxaphen... Khng dng thuc vi
nng qu cao, d gy chy l, nht l khi tri nng. Bo qun ni kn o, kh, mt.

3.2.2 SUMITHION (Fenitrothion, Metathion, Methylnitrophos, Folithion)


- Dng ch phm: 10, 50, 80ND; 3, 50B; 25, 40DD...
- Tn ha hc: O,O-dimethyl 0-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate.
- Cng thc ha hc: C9H12NO5PS
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht l - ha hc: Rt ging MP. Tuy nhin trong nc v mi trng kim,
sumithion thy phn chm hn so vi MP.
- Tnh c v hot tnh tr su: t c hn i vi ngi v VMN (LD50 (CT, V, C) =
142-1000mg/kg. Mt s ging to, o mn cm vi thuc ny.
- Cng dng v cch dng: cng ging nh MP.

3.2.3 LEBAYCID (Fenthion, Mertophos, Baycid, Baytex)


- Tn ha hc: O,O- Dimetyl-O(4- me to-3-metyl phenyl)-thiophosphat.
- Tnh cht ha hc: Bn vng hn MP, b thy phn v nhit phn chm hn so vi MP.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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- Tnh c: LD50 (CT, V, C) = 215-245mg/kg.


- Cng dng v cch dng: ging nh MP. Ch phm Lebaycid 50ND thng c dng
nng 0,05-0,2%.

3.2.4 BASUDIN (Diazinon)


- Tn ha hc: O,O - dietyl - O - (2 - izopropyl - 4 metyl pyrimidin - 6) -thiophosphat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C12H21N2O3PS
- Tnh cht vt l: Diazinon tinh khit dng du khng mu, c p sut hi v bay
hi cao hn MP, t tan trong nc v tan nhiu trong DMHC.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht ha hc: Thy phn trong c mi trng axit ln mi trng kim.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Diazinon 10H c dng bn vo t vi lng 1020kg/ha tr su c thn, su nng hi la, b phn truyn bnh xon l c chua... Diazinon
20-60ND c dng nng 0,05-0,1% tr cc loi su nh MP.

3.2.5 DDVP (Dichlorovos, Nuvan, Vapona, Nogos, Desvap...)


- Dng ch phm: 50ND, ht, thuc tr rui, mui.
- Tn ha hc: O,O-Dimethyl-O(2,2-Dichlovinyl) phosphat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C14H17Cl2O4P
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: DDVP l mt cht lng khng mu, mi tng i d chu, tan tt
trong hu ht cc DMHC nhng t tan trong nc (khong 1% nhit thng), bay hi
cao thch hp cho vic xng hi.
- Tnh cht ha hc: DDVP l cht k m, kim, b thy phn chm trong mi trng axit
v trung tnh, nhanh hn trong mi trng kim. DDVP kt hp vi cc Halogien to thnh
nhng hp cht khc c tnh c i vi dch hi, nh khi kt hp DDVP vi hn hp C12Br2 s
thu c hp cht Dibrom.
- Tnh c: LD50 (chut cng c)= 80mg/kg. Trnh dng trn cc loi da, bu b c l
mng, dy yu. Thuc rt c nn c xp vo danh mc hn ch s dng.
- Cng dng v cch dng: DDVP tc ng rt nhanh chng trn nhiu loi su nhai gm
v chch ht, c dng rng ri trong BVTV v trong v sinh phng dch. Thuc dit c
nhiu loi su, ry ph hoi rau, ci, cy n tri, ng cc, cy cng nghip... nh ry la, b gai,
rui c qu, su keo, su cn gi, ry mm, b lch... thuc cn dit c c nhn . Liu
dng: 1-2 lt ch phm 50ND/ha, nng 0,1-0,2%, thng pha 600 lt nc cho 1 ha la, 800
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lt/ha u; phun ngay khi thy su ry xut hin. Thuc cn c dng xng hi tr rn,
rp, rui, mui, mi, mt trong nh.
Lu : Thuc pha xong nn phun lin, khng lu. Thi gian cch ly 10-15 ngy.
Thng phm Demon 50 EC ch c s dng trn cy lm nghip, cy cng nghip (tr Tr) v
cy n qu trc thi k ra hoa. Khng c s dng ni nui tm, c, nng sn hoc hng
ha d tr.

3.2.6 NALED
- Tn gi khc: Dibrom, Flibol, Bromchlophos.
- Tn ha hc: 1,2-Dibrom-2,2-di cloetyl-di metylphotphat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C4H7Br2Cl2O4P.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 380,8.


- c tnh: Thuc k thut (93%) th lng mu vng, khng tan trong nc, tan trong
dung mi hu c l cc hp cht thm v Clohidrocacbon, thy phn nhanh trong mi trng
nc v kim, phn hy di tc ng ca nh sng mt tri, bn nu bo qun trong l thy
tinh mu, ng trong dng c kim loi b tch brm hnh thnh DDVP; thuc nhm c I, LD50
per os: 430mg/kg, LD50 dermal (th): 1100mg/kg, MRL: rau qu 0,2, ng cc, khoai ty, ht c
du 0,1, sn phm t bt m 0,05, sn phm khc 0,02mg/kg, PHI: 4 ngy. Thuc c i vi
ong mt, t c i vi c.
S dng: Naled c tc dng tip xc, ng rut, thm su v xng hi, dng ch yu
tr rp, di hi thc vt v tr mui, rui. Naled c gia cng thnh dng sa 96%, dng phun
bt 4% dng phun ln mt nc tr b gy, tr mui v phun ln cy trng tr rui c l, qu.
Loi Naled 96% cn c dng pha vo b nh rui c qu c cht dn d Metyl-Eugenol.
Naled khng lm nh hng n cht lng dn d ca Metyl- Eugenol. Liu s dng: Pha 5-7%
Naled (loi 96%) vo Metyl- Eugenol. Pha Naled vi cht dn d phi tin hnh trong iu kin
kh, khng dng dng c pha ch bng kim loi, gi nhng hn hp dn d phi kh.

3.2.7 DIPTEREX (Clorophos, Trichlorfon, Diloc, Tugon, Nevugon...)


- Tn thng mi: Sunchlorfon 90 SP
- Tn ha hc: O,O-dimethyl-1-(oxy-2,2,2 tricloethyl) phosphonas.
- Cng thc ha hc: C4H6Cl3O4P
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Dng ch phm: 50L, 50WP, 2,5-5 Bt - ht.


- Tnh cht vt l: Dipterex l cht kt tinh mu trng, mi d chu, nhit nng chy
83-840C, ha tan c trong nhiu DMHC , tan kh trong nc (12,3g/100g nc 200C),
bay hi 200C l 0,11mg/m3.
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- Tnh cht ha hc: Rt bn nhit phng. B phn hy trong mi trng kim, ni


chung pH > 5,5 n chuyn ha chm thnh DDVP; dung dch cha nc ca dipterex nu
lu s c tnh axit.
- Tnh c: t c i vi VMN, LD50 (CT, V, chut cng c) = 630mg/kg. Kh
nng c ch men cholinesterza ph thuc nhiu vo pH ca mi trng; trong dung dch axit
khng xy ra c ch ny.
- Cng dng v cch dng: tc ng v c, tip xc, thm su. Thuc dit c nhiu
loi cn trng nhai gm v lim ht. Thuc rt c i vi cn trng nht l su ming nhai. Tc
ng v c i vi rui th hin rt nhanh. Cn tc ng thm su, dipterex cng dit c
nhng su k sinh trn l. Thi gian c hiu lc trn cy tng i ngn sau khi phun ln cy,
khi thuc kh th khng gy hi cho ong mt. Cc dng 80BHT, 90 SP, 50ND thng c
dng nng 0,1% CP phun tr su hi rau, cy n qu, bng, ch, ng... Dipterex cn
c dng trong y t tr rui.
Lu y: Khi tn tr, Dipterex b chy nc, mt phn b thy phn v c tnh axit i vi
c cha HCl, H3PO4, (CH3)2HPO4. Khi pha long trong nc v a ra nh sng thuc b phn
hy nhanh chng.

3.2.8 MOCAP (Enthorophos, Ethoprop, Prophos)


- Cht tc ng: O-Ethyl-Sdi-an-propyl- phosphodithioate.
- Cng thc ha hc: C8H19O2PS2
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- c im: Tan t trong nc, tan nhiu trong cc DMHC, d phn hy trong mi trng
kim. Cc dng thng mi chnh: MOCAP 10%G, 72%ND, 6EC.
- Cng dng v cch dng: MOCAP 10H c th ngn chn hon ton s tn cng ca
tuyn trng v cn trng trong t. Mc dng dit tuyn trng trn din tch i tr l 50100kg ai/ha. Theo Quc Vit (1982), MOCAP 10H v FURADAN 3H c hiu qu tng
ng nhau i vi tuyn trng gy bnh tim t sn.

3.2.9 METHIDATHION
- Tn gi khc: Ultracid, Supracide, Suprathion
-Tn ha hc: S-2, 3-Dihydro-5-methoxi-2-oxo-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-3-yl-metyl-O, Odimetylphotphorodithioat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C6H11N2O4PS3
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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- Phn t lng: 302,3


- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht (tinh khit) dng tinh th khng mu, khng tan trong
nc, tan trong hu ht cc loi dung mi hu c nh ru metylic, axeton, xilen, benzen, khng
n mn kim loi, tng i bn trong mi trng trung tnh v axit nh, thy phn nhanh trong
mi trng kim; thuc nhm c I, LD50 per os: 25-54mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 1546-1663mg/kg,
ADI: 0,005mg/kg, MRL: cam, cy gia v, ch, c ph 2,0; nho 0,5; cam khng v 0,1; sn phm
khc 0,02mg/kg; PHI: 21-28 ngy, c chua 7 ngy. Thuc c i vi c v ong mt.
S dng: l loi thuc tr cn trng v nhn c tc dng tip xc v v c, tr c
nhiu loi su ming nhai v chch ht, c bit c hiu lc cao i vi rp sp, lng dng 3060g a.i/100 lt nc i vi cy n qu v 250-800g a.i/ha i vi cy hng nm. Methidiathion
c gia cng thnh dng sa 20 v 40% (Supracid 20EC v 40EC), bt thm nc 20% v 40%
(Supracid 20 v 40WP), dng ULV 25% (Supracid, Ultracid UlVair 250UL). Supracid 40EC
cha 420g a.i/lt, dng pha nc 0,1-0,15% tr rp sp, di, su n l, nhn , b phn trng hi
cy n qu. Dng lng ch phm 0,8-2,0 l/ha tr ry, rp, b phn trng, nhn hi bng; 1,02,5 l/ha tr su xanh, su hng hi bng, su t, su bm trng hi rau ci; 0,5-1,0 l/ha tr b
nhy, rp, b tr hi rau.
THUC TR SU NI HP LN HU C

3.2.10 BIAN, BI58 (Dimethoate, Phosphamid, Rogor, Phostion, Rostion, Thimetion)


- Dng ch phm thng gp: 20BTN, 3BR, 40ND, 50ND.
- Tn ha hc: O,O-Dimethyl-S-(N-methylcarbamidomethyl) dithio-phosphat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C5H12NO3PS2
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: Dng tinh khit l nhng tinh th mu trng, dng k ngh l mt cht
d tan trong DMHC, tan kh nhiu trong nc 39g/lt. bay hi khng ng k (0,107mg/m3
200C). Nhit phn s to thnh O,S-Dimethyl-S-(N-methyl carbamidomethyl) dithiophosphat.
- Tnh cht ha hc: kh bn trong mi trng axit, phn hy nhanh trong mi trng
kim, b nhit phn thnh ng phn khc c c cao hn Rogor. Trong gan ng vt v trn
l xanh, Rogor b Oxy ha thnh O-rogor vi c i vi su tng ln ng k, nhng c
i vi VMN tng ln rt nhiu. (O-rogor = O,O- Dimethyl-S-(N-methylcarbamidomethyl)
thiophosphat)
- Tnh c: LD50 (chut cng) = 250-285mg/kg. Trong t bo thc vt thuc b chuyn
ha cui cng to thnh H3PO4.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Tc ng ni hp, tip xc v xng hi, dit c nhng loi
chch ht nha cy, su nhai gm, c nhn v tuyn trng Rotylenchus similis Coll hi chui.
Rogor tr hu hiu rp, b xt, b cnh t, nhn trn bng, ch, cam, u, lc, ng... Nng
thng dng: 0,05-0,075% ch phm 50ND. Dng nng cao hn (0,1-0,15%) thuc dit
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c cc loi su c l nh di c l u, su v ba hi cam... nhit cao (>180C) thuc


tc ng ln cn trng nhanh hn v mnh hn. Hiu lc tr su ca thuc ko di khong 2-3
tun. Cy sinh trng cng mnh hot ng sng cng cao, thuc cng chng phn hy trong cy
thnh nhng cht khng c. Ngoi ra thuc cn c dng trong chn nui th y.
Lu : Khng nn cha Rogor trong nhng bnh bng st, thp i vi thuc c th b
phn hy nhanh chng v lm cho bnh b han r.
Nhng dn xut sau y ca acide thiophosphoric c tnh cht l ha hc v hot tnh
dit su tng t nh Bi 58.

3.2.11 PHOSPHAMIDON (Dimecron, Cibac-570, Dixion, OR-1191, Apamidon)


- Dng ch phm thng gp: 25-100% DD
- Tn ha hc: O,O-dimethyl-O-(1-chloro-1-N,N-diethyl carbamido-1propen-2-ll) phosphat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C10H19ClNO5P
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: Phosphamidon tinh khit khng mu, c mi hi kh chu, pha trn
vi nc theo mi t l, ha tan c trong ru, aceton, hydrocarbon, khng tan trong eter, du
ha. Ch phm thng c mu tm ti i vi trn vi phm nhum.
- Tnh cht ha hc: Kh bn trong mi trng axit yu hay trung tnh, phn gii nhanh
trong mi trng kim. C th n mn cc dng c bng kim loi (st, nhm, st l trng thic).
- Tnh c: Rt c i vi ngi v VMN, LD50 (chut) = 7,5-15mg/kg. Tng i t
c i vi c.
- Cng dng v cch dng: tc ng ni hp, tip xc, v c. Thuc c ph tc ng kh
rng tr c nhiu loi cn trng chch ht v nhai gm. Thuc xm nhp vo cy kh nhanh v
tr hu hiu su nch la, ry mm, b xt, b nhy, ry lng trng, b lch, rui tri cy, mng,
su c l, su c thn, cc loi cn trng cnh cng, bm, ngi, su c tri, co co, nhn
... Dng trn nhiu loi cy n qu nh: chanh, chui, ma, bng vi, thuc l, tr, cy trng
cao, hoa, c ci ng, khoai ty. Ni chung thuc tr c nhiu loi su thuc b cnh t, b
cnh thng, b cnh u, b cnh na cng, b cnh cng, b cnh vy, b 2 cnh, b cnh
mng, thuc cng tr c mt s loi nhn . Hiu lc ca thuc c th ko di 10 - 14 ngy.
Vi ch phm 50BHN, nng thng dng i vi cn trng chch ht l 0,04%, vi cn trng
ming nhai l 0,06% tr nhiu loi su hi cy lng thc v cy cng nghip, cy n qu.
Lu : Thuc c th hn hp c vi nhiu loi thuc khc. Cha thuc trong nhng
bnh bng thy tinh hoc bng polyetylen, trong mt.

* Cc thuc c c tnh tng t nh Phosphamidon l:


3.2.12 AZODRIN (Monocrotophos, Nuvacron, Monocron, Bilobran)
- Tn ha hc: O,O - dimethyl - O - (2 - methylcarbamoyl - 1- metylvinyl) -phosphat
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- Tnh cht vt l: Thuc dng lng mu nu en, mi hi, tan trong nc, aceton, cn, t
tan trong cc DMHC, du ha.
- Tnh cht ha hc: Thuc d b kim, nh sng phn hy, c th n mn cc kim loi
nh ng, thau.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh c: LD50 (chut) = 20mg/kg, thuc thuc nhm c I, cm s dng.


- Cng dng v cch dng: Tc ng ni hp, tip xc, v c, thm su. Ch phm
40ND c dng vi lng 0,6-1,2 lt/ha tr cc su ming chich ht v vi lng 1-2 lt/ha
tr cc su ming nhai hi la, bng thuc l... Ch phm 60ND dng nng 0,1-0,15%
phun cho bng tr nhiu loi su hi khc nhau (su khoang, su xanh, b xt, cc loi rp...);
trn thuc l, u tng (tr di c l, rp...). Thuc cng c dng tr cc loi rp, su
t... hi rau nng 0,05-0,1%.
Trn LA: Tr su c thn, su n l (su keo, su gai, su cn gi, su phao), cc loi
ry(ry nu, ry xanh ui en, ry lng trng), b xt hi, b xt en.
Trn CAM, QUT, BI: Tr cc loi rp, su n l. Liu dng: 1,5-2 lt/ha, nng
1:1000.
Lu : Khng phun thuc vo thi k ra hoa, khng hn hp vi cc thuc c tnh kim,
khng cha trong cc bnh bng kim loi. Thi gian cch ly: 25 ngy.

3.2.13 ZOLONE (Benzophos, Rubitox)


- Dng ch phm: PHOSALONE 350g/l ND.
- Tn ha
phosphadithioate.

hc:

S-6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2-oxobenzoxazol-3-yl

methyl-O,O-

- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: Dng tinh khit l nhng tinh th mu trng khng ht m, mi ti


nh. Nguyn liu k thut c mu nu v kt tinh tng phn. Hu nh khng tan trong nc:
1,7ppm; tan trong hu ht cc DMHC, p sut hi khng ng k. Nhit nng chy: 45-480C.
- Tnh cht ha hc: bn ha hc ln, k kim mnh v cht oxy ha. Phn hy nhanh
trong iu kin ng rung.
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- Tnh c: LD50 (chut) = 180mg/kg. C c thp i vi ong mt v cn trng th


phn, t gy hi cho thin ch. Khng gy c cho cy.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Tc ng tip xc, v c, thm su, thuc c hiu lc ln
trn nhiu loi cn trng chnh v nhn trn cy n tri v nhiu loi cy trng khc nh:
bng vi, ng cc, khoai ty, rau u, cy cnh, nho. Tr nhiu loi su nhai gm v chch ht
trn nhiu loi cy trng khc nhau nh ry mm v cc loi su trn cy n tri (dng 150 200cc thuc/100 lt nc). C th phun trong thi k ra hoa. Trn bng vi: tr ry mm, b tr,
su hng, su loang dng 2,5-3,5 lt/ha. Trn ng cc: tr ry mm, b cnh cng dng 1,5-3,5
lt/ha. Trn rau ci: tr ry mm, su xanh, b nhy, su t, bm phn, nhn dng 150-200cc
thuc/100 lt nc. Trn tr: Tr nhn , ry dng 100cc/100 lt nc. Trn nho: Zolone c
dng phun l, pha vi 200-1000 lt nc. Ch phun u khp 2 mt l. C th s dng dng
ULV.
Lu : Khng hn hp thuc vi nhng thuc c tnh kim nh Bordeaux, lu hunh
vi, thuc tm.

3.3 THUC TR SU CARBAMATE


* Mt s tnh cht chung:
-

Cng thc ha hc: Cht dn xut t acid carbamic (NH2COOH)

Ph tc dng hp hn so vi thuc tr su gc ln v clor hu c, bt u chuyn tnh


(Selective) i vi nhm cn trng chch ht.
Tc ng nhanh: tip xc, v c, mt s c tnh xng hi.
Khng tn ti lu trong mi trng, hiu lc dit su nhanh.
Gy c cp tnh kh cao, tc ng h thn kinh, tch ly nhanh.
Thi ra ngoi c th qua ng nc tiu, cht gii c Atropine.
Tng i t c i vi ng vt mu nng (thp hn nhm ln hu c). t c i
vi thin ch v c.
D phn hy bi acid v mi trng kim.
t tan trong nc, nhng d tan trong dung mi hu c.

3.3.1 SEVIN
-

Tn gi khc: Naptincarbamat, Cacpolin...


Tn ha hc: N-methylnaphthyl carbamat.
Tn thng thng: Carbaryl

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: sevin nguyn chtt tinh th mu trng, c mi nh, ha tan trong
nc 200C l di 0,1%, nhng ha tan trong nhiu DMHC.
- Tnh cht ha hc: Bn vng di tc ng ca tia t ngoi, ca nhit v oxy khng
kh, phn hy trong mi trng kim.
- Tnh c: LD50 (chut) = 560mg/kg. Khng c c tnh tch ly trong c th ng vt.
Sevin c c cao i vi ong, t c i vi c nhng n tiu dit nhng phiu sinh vt sng
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trong nc m c c th n c, do gin tip gy hi n c. An ton i vi cy liu


lng khuyn co.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Sevin l loi thuc c tc ng tip xc v v c, ging nh
DDT, thuc Sevin c ph phng tr rng, hiu lc lu di v khng c kh nng dit nhn .
Tnh c ca thuc i vi su hi tng ln khi nhit mi trng tng cao. Khi hn hp sevin
vi piperonyl butoxi, tnh c ca sevin i vi su hi tng ln mnh m do c s c ch hot
tnh men phn gii sevin trong c th cn trng. Sevin thng c c dng tr nhiu loi
su hi la (ry xanh, ry nu), hi cy n qu (su cun l, rp vi, rp...), su hi cy cng
nghip (bng, thuc l...), b ry da... Ch phm 15ND thng c dng nng 0,1250,33%; ch phm 50BHN dng nng 0,05-0,2%; thuc bt, thuc ht hm lng 2% c
phun vi lng 20-25 kg/ha.

3.3.2 MIPCIN
- Tn gi khc: IPMC, Etrofolan, Bayron, PHC, Bayer 39007
- Tn ha hc: 2-isopropyl phenyl-N-metylcarbamate.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: thuc 20ND c dng lng, mu vng, mi hi, khng tan trong nc, t
tan trong cc DMHC, ngoi tr aceton, methanol, ethyl, acetate.
- Tnh cht ha hc: Mipcin d b phn hy bi kim, t bn iu kin ng rung nn
thuc ch c hiu lc trong vi ngy.
- Tnh c: LD50 (chut) = 483mg/kg. c i vi c.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Ngoi tc ng tip xc v v c, c bit Mipcin cn c tc
ng ni hp v mt phn xng hi. Khi p dng ln cy, thuc c cy hp thu nhanh. Thuc
dit tr c cc loi b, ry la rt mnh, nhng li t hay khng gy hi n thin ch.
Trn LA: ch yu thuc c dng tr cc loi ry la (ry nu, ry xanh ui en,
ry lng trng)...; tr b xt, b tr, b gai, su nng, cc loi su n l. Vi Mipcin 20ND liu
dng 2-2,5 lt/ha nng 1:300, Mipcin 4H ri 30-50kg/ha. Trn cy n qu, rau, cy cng
nghip nh: xoi, thuc l, ca cao, tr, bng vi... Thuc tr c mt s loi ry, b xt. Dng
mipcin 20ND liu lng 2-2,5 lt/ha, nng 1:300. Cn phun k nhng ni cn trng n np
ngay t lc su cn non.
Lu : thi gian cch ly 5 ngy. Khng hn hp thuc vi nhng thuc c tnh kim.
Trc v sau khi dng mipcin 10 ngy, khng dng thuc tr c Propanil.

3.3.3 BASSA
- Tn gi khc: Osbac, Bassan, BPMC...
- Tn ha hc: 2-Sec-butylphenyl-N-metylcarbamate.
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- Tn thng thng: Phenobucarb


- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: Thuc dng lng, mi hi, mu vng hoc lt, khng tan trong
nc, tan trong acetone v chloroform.
- Tnh cht ha hc: Thuc d b phn hy trong mi trng kim.
- Tnh c: LD50 (cp tnh, ng rut, chut) = 340-410mg/kg; Thuc t c i vi c.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Thuc c tc dng tip xc, v c, ni hp. Hiu lc ca
thuc ko di trong 3 - 4 ngy. Thuc khng gy hi cho mt s loi thin ch nh: b ra, nhn
nc. Trn LA: ging nh Mipcin, liu dng 1,5-2 lt Bassa 50ND hay 50BHN/ha nng
1:400-600. Nn phun vo lc ry non n r, phun thuc vo lc tri mt v phun k vo gc la
ni ry thng tr n. Trn cc cy trng khc: tr cc loi su c l, c qu, ry xanh hi
bng, su khoang, ry xanh thuc l, liu dng 2-2,5 lt/ha cc ch phm trn, nng 1:500700, phun vo thi k u trng mi n xut hin.
Lu : Khng dng Bassa chung vi nhng thuc c tnh kim. Thi gian cch ly: 5-7
ngy.

3.3.4 FURADAN
- Tn gi khc: Carbofuran
- Tn ha hc: 3,3 - dihydro - 2,2 - dimethyl - 7 - benzofuranyl - N -metyl carbamate.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Tnh cht vt l: thuc dng ht c mu tm hay trng xm, mi nng nh, t tan trong
nc, tan nhiu trong cc DMHC.
- Tnh cht ha hc: thuc d b phn hy nhit cao v trong mi trng kim.
- Tnh c: Thuc rt c i vi ngi v VMN, LD50 (chut) = 11mg/kg, thuc thuc
nhm c I, cm s dng. Thuc an ton i vi cy trng.

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- Cng dng v cch dng: thuc c tc ng tip xc, v c, ni hp, c dng


phun, x l t nhm dit tr nhiu loi su hi khc nhau. Thuc cn tr c mt s loi tuyn
trng. Thi gian hiu lc khong 1 tun. Trn LA: phng tr cc loi ry nh: ry nu, ry
lng trng, ry xanh; b tr, b gai; su c thn, rui c l, su cun l, su n l... v mt s
tuyn trng hi r. Liu lng: 15-20kg Furadan 3H/ha khi ri phi gi mc nc rung 5-7cm
trong 7 ngy thuc c th phn tn trong nc v c cy hp thu. C th ri nh k nh
sau: t 1 ri 15 kg ch phm/ha vo ngy th 25 sau khi cy. t 2 v t 3 ri 20kg/ha vo
ngy th 45 v 65 sau khi cy (vi ging 120 ngy). Trn bp, ma, cao lng: phng tr su c
thn, su c ngn, ri 5-7 ht thuc trn ngn, 3 ln trong mt v vo ngy th 30, 45 v 60
sau khi trng, hoc ch x l khi thy su xut hin. X l t: tr su xm, d, kin, sng
trng, ba ci... dng 30kg Furadan 3H/ha, ri vo t trc khi cy xi ln cui, cch mt tun
trc khi gieo trng. Ngoi ra thuc cn c dng tr nhng cn trng chch ht nha cy
khc, l nhng mi gii lan truyn bnh i vi virus (b phn, rp o...) hi c chua, da
chut, khoai ty.
Lu : Thi gian cch ly: 14 ngy. Do Furadan rt c nn cn phi ht sc thn trng
trong khi s dng v bo qun.

3.3.5 Cc loi thuc Carbamate khc


- Aldicard (Temik): 2 - Metyl - 2 - 2 (metylthiopropionandehit) 0 - metyl cacbamely doxim, tc dng ni hp, dng tr su ming chch ht, tuyn trng. Lng dng 0,34-11,25kg
a.i/ha. Khng dng cho cy lng thc v thc phm v thuc rt c. Thuc nhm c I, LD50
Per os: 0,93mg/kg; ADI: 0,05mg/kg.
- Aldoxycarb (Aldicarb sulfone, sulfocarb): 2-metyl-2-(metyl-sulfonyl) propa-nal-0[(metylamino)cacbonyl)]oxime, l loi thuc tr su, v tuyn trng ni hp. Thuc nhm c I,
LD50 per os: 25mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 200mg/kg.
- Aminocarb (matacil): 4-dimetylamino-m-tolyl-metylcacbamat, tc dng tip xc v v
c. Dng tr cn trng v nhn hi bng, thuc l v cc loi cy khc. Nng s dng:
75g a.i/100 lt nc. LD50 per os: 30-50mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 275mg/kg.
- Benfuracarb (Oncol): EtylN-[2,3-dihidro-2,3-dimetyl-benzofuran-Xyloxicacbo-nyl
(metyl) aminothio]-N-isopropyl--alaniat, c tc dng tip xc, ni hp. Dng tr su di
t v phun tr ry nu hi la, su n l khoai ty, cy n qu. LD50 per os: 138-175mg/kg,
LD50 dermal: >2000mg/kg.
- Bufencarb (Bux): 3-(1-metylbutyl)phenylmetylcacbamat, c tc dng tip xc v c.
dng tr su sng di t, su hi la. Hiu lc cao i vi ry xanh ui en, su xm, su cn
l ng. Lng dng 2kg a.i/ha; Thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 85-105mg/kg, LD50 dermal:
680mg/kg.
- Butacarb: 3,5-di-t-bytylphenyl N-metylcacbamat, l loi thuc tr su. Thuc nhm
c III, LD50 per os: >4000mg/kg.
- Carbosulfan (FMC, Marshal): 2, 3-dihidro-2, 2-dimetyl-7-benzofuranyl [(dibu tylamino)thio] metylcacbamat, c tc dng tip xc, v c, phm vi tc ng rng, tr c
nhiu loi cn trng, nhn v tuyn trng. Thuc nhm c I, (4EC) v II (2,5EC), LD50 per os:
209mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >2000mg/kg.
- Cloethocarb (Lance): 2-(2clomethoxyethoxy)-phenylcacbamat, c tc dng tip xc v
c v ni hp, tr nhiu loi su ming nhai , chch ht hi la, rau, mu v cy cng nghip.
Thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 35.4mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 4000mg/kg.
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- Dioxacarb (Elocron) 2-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl-)phenylmetylcacbamat. C tc dng tip


xc, v c, dng tr su n l, su chch ht, tr cn trng hi kho, cn trng y t. Thuc nhm
c II, LD50 per os: 60-80mg/kg; LD50 dermal: 3000mg/kg.
- Ethiofencarb (Croneton): - etylthio - 0-tolylmetylcacbamat, c tc dng ni hp, tip
xc v v c, hiu lc cao i vi rp hi thc vt. Thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 411499mg/kg; LD50 dermal: >1000mg/kg; ADI: 0,1mg/kg.
- Furathiocarb (Deltanet, Promet): Butyl 2,3 - dihidro - 2,2 - dimetyl benzopuran- 7 - yl
NN - dimetyl - N, N - thiodicacbamat, c tc dng ni hp, dng tm ht ging, hiu lc ko di
40 ngy. Thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 137mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >200mg/kg.
- Landrin: 3, 4, 5 - trimetylphenylmetylcacbamat - 2, 3, 5 - trimetyl phenylmetyl
cacbamat. L loi thuc tr su x l t. Thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 208mg/kg, LD50
dermal: >2500mg/kg.
- Larvin - thiodicarb: Dimetyl N, N - ( thiolis (metylimino ) cacbomyloxi ) bis ( etan imidothioat ), l loi thuc tr su, c hiu lc mnh i vi trng su, tr c nhiu loi su
hi. Thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 166mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >2000mg/kg.
- Methomyl (Lanate): S-metyl N-(metylcacbanoyl) oxithioaxetimidat, c tc dng ni
hp v tip xc. Dng tr rp, su xanh, su keo, nhn . Thuc nhm c I, LD50 per os: 1724mg/kg. Thuc hn ch s dng.
- Metolcarb (MTMC, metacrate, Tsumacide): m-tolylmetylcacbamat, dng tr su hi
la. Thuc nhm c I, LD50 per os: 109-268mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 6000mg/kg.
- Mexacarbate (Zectran) 4-dimetylamino-3,5-xylyl N-metylcacbamat, l loi thuc tr
su, tr nhn v c sn. Thuc nhm c I, LD50 per os: 22- 24mg/kg.
- Oxamyl (Vydate): N,N - dimetyl - 2 metyl cacbamoyl oximino - 2 - (metylthio) acetamid, c tc dng ni hp, tip xc, dng tr cn trng, nhn v tuyn trng. Lng dng
0,28-1,12kg a.i/ha. Thuc nhm c I, LD50 per os: 5,4- 8,9mg/kg; ADI 0,03mg/kg.
- Promecarb (Carbamult): 5-metyl-m-cumenylmetylcacbamat, c tc dng tip xc, v
c, xng hi, dng tr su hi cy lm nghip, tr rui hi cy nng nghip. Thuc nhm c
II, LD50 per os: 74-118mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 1000mg/kg.
- Thiofanox (Dacamox): 1-(2, 2-dimetyl-1-metyl - thiometylpropyliden amino oxi) - Nmetylfomamit, c tc dng ni hp, dng tr cn trng v nhn hi cy trng. Thuc nhm c I,
LD50 per os: 8,5mg/kg.
- Xylylcarb (Meobal) 3,4-Xylylmetylcacbamat, c tc dng ni hp, tip xc v v c,
hiu lc cao i vi ry hi la v ch. Thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 325-380mg/kg, LD50
dermal: >1000mg/kg.
- Xylylmetylcacbamat (Macbat): 3,5-Xylylmetylcacbamat, c tc dng ni hp, dng tr
ry hi la. Thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 245-542mg/kg.

3.4 THUC TR SU GC PYRETHROIT (GC CC TNG HP)


*Mt s tnh cht chung:
-

Hot cht l Pyrethrin c ly trch t cy hoa cc Pyrethrum cinerariaetrifolium vo


nhng nm 1960. Cng thc ha hc c nhiu dng ng phn nn rt phc tp.
Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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Ph tc dng rng, chuyn bit vi cn trng chch ht v cn trng ming nhai, c


bit l u trng b cnh vy.
Tc ng nhanh: tip xc, v c, xng hi yu v khng c tnh ni hp.
Khng tn ti lu trong mi trng, d phn hy bi nh sng v nhit .
S dng liu rt thp so vi thuc gc clo, ln v cc ba mt.
Gy c cp tnh yu. Tc ng h thn kinh, gy thiu oxy; ngoi ra cn tc ng
ln h thn kinh ngc lm cn trng mt thng bng khi bay.
Cht c thi ra ngoi qua ng nc tiu, gii c ging nh nhm thuc gc ln
v cc ba mt.
t c i vi mi trng v ng vt mu nng, gy tnh khng nhanh khi s dng
nhiu.
t tan trong nc, d tan trong m v dung mi hu c.

3.4.1 CYPERMETHRIN
-

Tn gi khc: Sherpa, Ambush C, Cymbush, Peran, Cyperan.

Tn ha hc: (RS)--cyano-3-phenoxibenzyl(1RS,3RS;1RS,3RS)-3-(2,2-diclo vinyl 2,2-dimetylxiclopropancacboxylat.

Cng thc ha hc: C22H19Cl2NO3

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

Phn t lng:

416,3

- c tnh: Thuc k thut dng c st ( 60oC chuyn thnh dng dung dch lng),
hu nh khng tan trong nc, tan trong nhiu dung mi hu c, tng i bn trong mi trng
trung tnh v axit nh, thy phn trong mi trng kim, quang gii yu; khng n mn kim loi;
thuc nhm c II, LD50 per os: 215mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 1600mg/kg, ADI: 0,05mg/kg, MRL:
sa 0,01 3-4 ngy, ch kh 20mg/kg, PHI: rau n l 7-14 ngy, rau n qu 3-4 ngy, bp ci 14
ngy, rau n c (nu ti gc), hnh 21 ngy. Thuc c i vi ong mt.

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S dng: Cypermethrin tc dng tip xc v v c, c ph tc ng rt rng, tr c


nhiu loi su v nhn hi, c bit l cn trng thuc b cnh vy. Lng dng t 25-200g
a.i/ha tu thuc vo loi cy trng ngoi ng. Cypermethrin cn c dng tr ve, bt, chy,
rn cho vt nui (100-150mg a.i/lt nc tm cho vt nui), tr rui, mui trong nh (50-75mg
a.i/m2, hiu lc ko di 42- 72 ngy). Cypermethrin c gia cng thnh dng sa 10-400g a.i/lt
(Cymbus 10EC, Sherpa 10-25EC) dng ULV (5- 50g a.i/lt), dng hn hp vi Ln hu c (nh
Polytrin-P440). Ch phm Sherpa25EC cha 250g Cypermethrin/lt c dng 28- 30g a.i/ha tr
su xanh, su t, rp hi rau, su xanh hi u ; liu lng 40-50g a.i/ha tr su khoang,
nhn hi rau; liu lng 50-100g a.i/ha tr c su xanh, su hng, rp, ry, nhn hi
bng. Thuc c pha vi nc nng 0,05% phun tr rp sp hi cam; nng 0,0250,03% phun tr b xt mui, ry xanh, b cnh t hi ch, su v ba hi cam. Thuc Polytrin-P
440EC cha 40g Cypermethrin v 400g Profenofos/lt ch phm, c dng 0,5 lt/ha tr su
xanh v rp hi rau, 1 lt/ha tr su t, su khoang, nhn hi rau, rp bng ma. Thuc
c pha vi nc nng 0,1% phun tr rp sp, nhn , su v ba hi cy n qu, su
xanh, su hng, nhn , ry hi bng, ry xanh, b cnh t, b xt mui, su chm hi ch, rp,
su xanh hi thuc l. Thuc Cymbus 10EC, cha 100g Cypermethrin/lt ch phm c dng
28 - 150g a.i/ha tr cc loi su nh thuc Sherpa. Cypermethrin c th hn hp c vi
nhiu loi thuc Clo, Cacbamat v Ln hu c s dng.

3.4.2 ALPHA CYPERMETHRIN


- Tn gi khc: FASTAC 5EC
- Hot cht: 50g alpha cypermethrin/1 lt dung mi + Hydrocarbon thm v ph gia.
- c tnh: Thuc c c trung bnh i vi ngi v gia sc. liu lng khuyn co
v iu kin canh tc bnh thng, thuc t gy c cho c trn rung la. Khng c i vi
chim. t c i vi thin ch, vi cn trng c ch, giun t...
- Cng dng v cch dng: Tc ng tip xc v c. Dng tr nhiu loi su hi ng
cc, hoa ma, cy cng nghip (la, bng vi, rau, cy c du, ng cc, cc loi u, cy n tri,
thuc l...). Ch phun thuc u trn din tch x l. Liu lng dng: 200-500ml ch
phm/ha.

3.4.3 DELTAMETHRIN
- Tn gi khc: Decis, Decamethrin, K-Obiol, K-Othrin.
- Tn ha hc: (S) - - Cyano - 3 - phenoxibenzyl (1R, 3R) - 3 - (2,2 - dibromovinyl) 2,2 - dimetylxiclopropancacnoxylat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C22H19Br2NO3
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 505,2


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- c tnh: Thuc k thut (>98% Deltamethrin) dng bt, khng tan trong nc, tan
nhiu trong dung mi hu c nh axeton (500g/l), benzen (450g/l), dioxan (250g/l); bn vng
trong mi trng axit hn mi trng kim, tng i bn di tc ng ca khng kh, nhng
di tc ng ca nh nng mt tri hoc tia t ngoi b phn hu, khng n mn kim loi. LD50
per os: 128,5-5000mg/kg (tu thuc vo dung mi), LD50 dermal: >2000mg/kg, ADI:
0,01mg/kg, MRL: chui, nho, cam 0,05mg/kg, rau, ng cc 0,1mg/kg, khoai ty 0,2mg/kg, ch
en 10mg/kg; PHI: rau n l 14 ngy, cy lm thuc 28 ngy, rau nu ti thuc 21-28 ngy.
Thuc c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Deltamethrin tc dng v c v tip xc, tr c nhiu loi cn trng v
nhn hi rau mu, cy cng nghip (Decis); tr c nhiu loi su mt hi nng sn bo
qun (K-Obiol) v nhiu loi cn trng y t (K-Othrine), tr c ve, bt, chy, rn hi vt nui.
Deltamethrin c ch bin thnh dng sa 2,5% (Decis 2,5EC ); dng bt thm nc, dng ht,
dng hn hp vi Heptenophos (25g Deltamethrin + 400g Heptenophos/lt ch phm), hn hp
vi DDVP t l 16% DDVP + 2% Decis c tc dng tng hiu. Thuc Decis 2,5EC cha 25g
Deltamethrin/ lt ch phm, dng 8-10g a.i/ha tr su t, su xanh, su khoang, rp, nhn hi
rau, pha nc nng 0,025-0,03% ch phm phun tr b xt hi cy n qu, su v ba, nhn
hi cam, chanh, tr ba ba hi rau mung, su c qu, u , rp bng hi ma. Deltamethrin
d gy tnh khng i vi cn trng chch ht nh ry nu hi la.

3.4.4 CYHALOTHRIN
- Tn gi khc: Karate, PP 321.
- Tn ha hc: ( RS ) - - Cyano-3-phenoxibenzyl ( Z ) - (1RS,3RS)-(2-clo-3,3,3triflopropenyl)-2,2-dimetylxiclopropalcacboxylat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C23H19ClF3NO3
- Phn t lng: 449,9.
- c tnh: Thuc k thut (90%) th du nu, khng tan trong nc, tan trong
axeton v nhiu dung mi hu c; thy phn mnh PH > 9. LD50 per os: 56-79mg/kg, LD50
dermal: 632-696mg/kg, ADI: 0.02mg/kg, MRL: rau 0,03mg/kg, qu 0,02mg/kg, cc sn phm
khc 0,01mg/kg, PHI: 4-11 ngy. Thuc c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Cyhalothrin c tc dng tip xc, v c, c dng tr su cho rau, mu, cy
cng nghip, tr k sinh trng cho vt nui (ve, bt, rui, mui, chy, rn). Thuc c ch bin
thnh dng sa 2,5% (Karate 2,5EC), 20% (Grenada 20EC). Karate 2,5EC cha 25g a.i/lt ch
phm c dng 5-10g a.i/ha tr su t, su xanh, su khoang, rp, nhn hi rau, su v ba
hi cam. Thuc c pha nc nng 0,05-0,07% phun tr nhn , b xt mui, ry
xanh hi ch.

3.4.5 FENPROPATHRIN
- Tn gi khc: Danitol, Rody.
- Tn ha hc: (ES)-- Cyano-3-phenoxibenzyl -2,2, 3-3-tetrametyl xiclo propanm cacboxylat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C22H23NO3
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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- Phn t lng: 394,4


- c tnh: Thuc k thut th rn, khng tan trong nc, tan trong nhiu dung mi
hu c nh xilen, xiclohexan (1 kg/kg); d b phn hu trong khng kh v nh sng. Thuc
nhm c II, LD50 per os: 66,7-70,6mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 870-1000mg/kg. Thuc c i vi ong
mt.
S dng: Fenpropathrin tc dng tip xc v thm su, dng tr cn trng v nhn .
Lng s dng t 50-200g a.i/ha. Fenpropathrin c gia cng thnh cc dng sa 5%, 10%,
20%, 30%, (Danitol 5EC, 10EC, 20EC, 30EC), dng hn hp vi Fenitrothion (Danitol-S).
Thuc Danitol 10EC (cha 10g Fenpropathrin/lt) dng 100g a.i/ha tr rp, nhn hi rau,
cam, ch, bng, thuc l; tr su t, su xanh, su khoang, b nhy hi rau.

3.4.6 FENVALERAT
- Tn gi khc: Sumicidin, Pydrin.
- Tn ha hc: (RS)--Cyano-3-phenoxibenzyl (RS)-2-(4-clophenyl)-3-metylbu - tyrat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C25H22ClNO3.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 419,9.


- c tnh: Thuc k thut th lng, khng tan trong nc, tan trong nhiu dung mi
hu c nh axeton, xilen, tng i bn vng di tc ng ca nhit v nh nng mt tri,
bn vng trong axit hn trong kim (bn vng pH = 4); khng n mn kim loi, thuc nhm
c II, LD50 per os: 451mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 5000mg/kg, ADI: 0,02mg/kg, MRL: sa, lc nhn
0,1mg/kg, bt m 0,2mg/kg, m mn 0,5mg/kg, tht, rau, nho 1mg/kg, ng cc, qu 2mg/kg, sn
phm khc 0,05mg/kg, PHI: rau n qu 34 ngy, rau n l, bp ci 14 ngy, ng cc, khoai ty,
cy c du, cy n qu 21 ngy, khng dng cho cy lm thuc. Thuc c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Thuc tc dng tip xc v v c, tr c nhiu loi cn trng v nhn,
lng dng t 25-250g a.i/ha, tr ve, bt cho vt nui (200-300g a.i/lt). Fenvalerat c gia
cng thnh dng sa 25-300g a.i/lt, dng ULV, dng hn hp vi Dimethoat (Mikantop), vi
Fenitrothion (Sumicombi). Thuc Sumicidin 10EC v 20EC cha 100g v 200g Fenvalerat/lt,
dng t 80-120g a.i/ha, tr su t, su khoang, su xanh, rp, b nhy, nhn hi rau, ry xanh,
b xt mui, b cnh t, nhn hi ch, nhn , su v ba hi cam v tr rp ng.
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3.4.7 PERMETHRIN
- Tn gi khc: Ambush, Peran.
- Tn ha hc: 3-Phenoxibenzyl (1RS, 3RS, 1RS, 3RS)-3-(2,2-diclovinyl)-2,2dimetylxiclopropancacboxylat.
- Cng thc ha hc: C21H20Cl2O3
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng:

391,3

- c tnh: Thuc k thut th lng v c chiu hng kt tinh nhit trong phng,
hu nh khng tan trong nc, tan trong nhiu dung mi hu c nh hexan (1kg/kg), xilen
(1kg/kg); bn trong mi trng axit, thy phn trong mi trng kim; khng n mn nhm;
thuc nhm c III, (i vi ch phm dng bt), nhm c II (ch phm Ambush dng sa),
LD50 per os: 430-4000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 4000mg/kg, ADI: 0,05mg/kg, PHI: bp ci 7 ngy,
c chua, da chut 4 ngy, khoai ty, cy n qu 14 ngy, ng 28 ngy, cy c du 56 ngy.
Thuc c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Thuc k thut tc dng tip xc v v c, tr c trng ca cn trng, c
ph tc ng rt rng, c dng tr su hi bng (100-150g a.i/ha), su hi cy n qu (2550g a.i/ha), su hi nho, thuc l (50-200g a.i/ha), su hi rau (40-70g a.i/ha), tr rui, mui, k
sinh trng gia sc (200mg a.i/m2 tng), tr gin (100mg a.i/m2, hiu lc ko di 120 ngy) v
kh trng kho tng. Permethrin c gia cng thnh nhiu dng ch phm khc nhau nh
Ambush 10EC, 25EC, Ambush bt thm nc (400-500g a.i/kg), dng ULV (50-100g/lt), dng
phun bt (2,5-10g/kg), dng hn hp vi Dimethoat, vi thiram... Thng phm Copex Tobaccoguard dng ULV gm 5% Permethrin v 95% cht ph tr dng phun tr mt hi thuc l kh
bo qun trong kho (200ml/1000 m3 kho).

3.4.8 CC LOI THUC PYRETHROIT KHC


- Allethrin (Pynamin, Pallethrin): 3-Allyl-2 metyl-4-oxoxiclopen-tenyl-2,2-dimetyl-3-(2metylprop-1-enyl)-xiclopropancacboxylat, c tc ng tip xc, v c, dng tr rp rau, cy n
qu, tr cn trng y t v th y. Thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: 685-11000mg/kg, LD50
dermal: 2500mg/kg.
- Cyfluthrin (Baythroit): Thuc c tc dng tip xc v v c, tr c nhiu loi su
hi rau, cy n qu, bng ay, ma... Thuc dng 2,5 v 5SL. Dng 40-60g a.i/ha tr su xanh,
su hng, rp hi bng, ai, lc.
- Cyphenothrin (RS) - - Cyano - 3 - phenoxibenzyl (1RS)- cis, trans-chrysanthe-mat,
c tc ng tip xc, dng tr nhiu loi cn trng hi kho tng, rui, mui trong nh. ,Thuc
nhm c II, LD50 per os: 318-2640mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 5000mg/kg.
- Esfenvalerat (Sumi-alpha): (S)--Cyano-3-phenoxibenzyl (S)-2-(4-clophe-nyl) - 3metylbutyrat, c tc ng tip xc, v c, dng tr su cho rau, bng, cy n qu nh
Sumicidin, nhng liu lng s dng thp hn Sumicidin gp 2-4 ln. Thuc nhm c II, LD50
per os: 325mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 5000mg/kg.
- Resmethrin (Benzofurolin): [5-(phenyl metyl)-3 furanyl]metyl 2,2-dimetyl-3-(2metyl1-propenyl)xiclopropancacboxylat, tc ng tip xc, v c, dng tr nhiu loi cn trng
hi kho tng, tr mui trong nh. Thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: 2500mg/kg, LD50 dermal:
(th) 3000mg/kg.
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- Tetramethrin (Phthalthrin): Cyclohex-1-ene-1,2-dicacboximidometyl (1RS) -cis-trans2,2-dimetyl-3-(2-metyl(prop-1-eny)xiclopropancacboxylat, c tc ng tip xc, gy hin tng


chong c rt nhanh i vi rui, mui, gin v cc loi kho tng. Thuc nhm c IV, LD50
per os: 5000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 5000mg/kg.
- Ngoi nhng hp cht nu trn cc hp cht Pyrethroit khc nh Barthrin,
Biopermethrin, Bioresmethrin, Cismethrin, Cyclethrin, Dimethrin, Esbiol, Fenpro-panat,
Furethrin, Furemethrin, Indothrin, Kadethrin, Triclomethrin... ang c nghin cu kho st
c tnh v hiu qu sinh hc.

3.5 THUC TR SU SINH HC


dt hiu qu cao v lu di trong BVTV, ng thi m bo an ton cho con ngi,
cc sinh vt c ch, trnh gy nhim mi trng, s dng cc ch phm sinh hc l mt hng
i mi y trin vng.
phng php ny, ngi ta dng cc hp cht c kh nng lm thay i qu trnh pht
trin sinh hc bnh thng ca tng c th hoc ca c qun th cn trng theo chiu hng xu
i vi chng. Nhng hp cht ny c chit xut t c th su hi, t thc n ca chng hoc
c tng hp ha hc v c p dng bng nhiu phng php khc nhau. Mc d vn cha
c kh nng ng dng rng ri cc cht ny, song trong qu trnh nghin cu v thc nghim c
mt vi trng hp mang li hiu qu r rt. Cc hp cht c nghin cu l: cc hormon,
pheromone, cht dn d, cht c ch dinh dng v cht trit sn.

3.5.1 HORMON (Hc mn)


Tnh cht ca cc hormon ca cn trng
- Hormon l nhng cht do cn trng tit ra t cc tuyn ni tit iu khin qu trnh
bin i sinh hc bn trong c th.
- Cc hormon thng ch tc ng ln cn trng mt thi im nht nh trong vng
i ca n, trong khi qun th dch hi ngoi t nhin khng ng u v tui, nn mt
trong nhng yu cu s dng cc hormon phi tng i bn vng iu kin ngoi ng.
- Cc hormon thng c tnh chn lc nn ch c th dng kt hp vi cht dn d.
- Cc hormon hu nh khng gy c trc tip v tc thi cho cn trng gy hi, nn cc
chp cht ny khng thch hp cho vic dp dch, khc phc nhc im ny, ngi ta
thng hn hp vi cc thuc ha hc.
Trong cc loi hormon, ch c hormon Juvenin (tr ha) l c nghin cu v c ng
dng nhiu hn c. Hin ny c khong 500 hp cht tng t hormon Juvenin c tng
hp, trong s vi cht c sn xut v ng dng nh Applaud. Applaud l mt Juvenoid
c hiu qu cao khi dng tr ry nu hi la v mt s cn trng khc.

3.5.2 PHEROMON (Cht dn d gii tnh)


Pheromon l nhng cht do cn trng tit ra nhm duy tr mi quan h trong loi. Cc
Pheromon tit vo mi trng s nh hng n tp tnh v sinh l ca cc c th khc cng loi.
Cc Pheromon c tnh c hiu rt cao, mi loi ch c mt tc dng nht nh no v ch nh
hng trn mt s c th cng loi. Hin nay ch c Pheromon gii tnh l c nghin cu y
nht v c nhiu trin vng trong phng tr su hi.
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nc ta, c nhng ng dng dng Methyl eugenol c trong tinh du ca s, inh


hng, hng nhu thu ht rui Dacus dorsalis hi tri cy, tp trung chng li mt ch v tiu
dit bng thuc ha hc thu c hiu qu cao. Cht Methyl eugenol cng c tng hp,
sau phi hp vi cht ln hu c Dibrom c tnh xng hi mnh t trong by dit rui hi
tri cy. Thng phm ph bin l Ruvacon 90 L v Vizubon D.
ng dng:
- Lm by bng cht dn d sinh dc v cht dnh d bo dch hi hoc phng tr
chng.
- Ri u cht dn d sinh dc ln ng rung nh lc hng cn trng, cn tr s
tm nhau v giao phi gia chng.
- Kt hp vi thuc tr su ha hc tiu dit mt gii tnh ca qun th cn trng gy
hi, to ra tnh trng chn khng c. u im ca bin php ny l: tnh chn lc cao, t gy
nhim mi trng v hn ch s hnh thnh tnh khng cn trng.

3.5.3 MT S CH PHM SINH HC TR SU PH BIN


3.5.3.1 Buprofezin
-

Tn gi khc: Applaud
Tn ha hc: 2-tert-Bytylimino-3-isopropyl-5-phenyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahidro-2H-1,3,5thiadiazin-4-one
Cng thc ha hc: C16H23N3OS
Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 305,4


c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th, hu nh khng tan trong nc, tan
nhiu trong dung mi hu c, bn vng trong dung dch axit v kim; thuc nhm c III, LD50
per os: >2198-2355mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >5000mg/kg. PHI: la m, da chut, c chua, c 1
ngy, la, ch (thuc sa) 7 ngy, cam, chanh, bi 14 ngy, la (thuc ht) 21 ngy. Thuc c
i vi c, khng c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Buprofezin tr c nhiu loi su hi nh ry nu hi lu (0,05-0,25kg
a.i/ha), ry lng trng hi la (0,6-0,8kg a.i/ha), ry xanh ui en hi la (0,125-0,5kg a.i/ha),
ry xanh hi ch, u (0,25-0,5kg a.i/ha), rui hi rau (0,125-025kg a.i/ha), b xt hi cy n
qu (1kg a.i/ha), b xt hi la (0,05kg a.i/ha), cc loi rp hi cy n qu (0,5-1kg a.i/ha),
Buprofezin c gia cng thnh dng bt thm nc 25% (Applaud 25WP), dng dung dch
huyn ph m c 45% (Applaud 40SC), dng ht 2% (Applaud 2G), dng hn hp vi thuc
Mipcin (Applaud + Mipcin 25WP). Loi Applaud 2G cha 2% Buprofezin c dng 30-40kg
ch phm/ha tr ry nu hi la. Khi ri thuc cn gi nc trong rung lin tc trong 3 ngy
vi mc nc khong 3cm.
Loi Applaud 25WP cha 25% Buprofezin c dng pha vi nc nng 0,1%
tr ry xanh hi ch, su v rp hi u (thuc rt t c i vi tm), tr rui v nhn hi c.
Thuc c pha vi nc nng 0,05-0,1 % tr rp v rui hi da chut, c chua, ry
xanh ui en hi la.
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Loi thuc Applaud + Mipcin 25WP cha 5% Applaud v 20% Mipcin c dng vi
lng 250-500g a.i/ha, tr ry nu v b xt hi la, ry xanh hi lc, ry xanh v b xt mui
hi ch, ry bng trng hi c ph. Thuc Applaud tc ng n su hi chm. Thuc khng dit
c ry trng thnh (nu khng hn hp c vi Mipcin) v sau 3-7 ngy tc dng dit ry
non ca thuc mi th hin r v hiu lc ca thuc ko di t 21-25 ngy.
3.5.3.2 Applaud-Mipc: (hn hp applaud + mipcin)
-

Dng ch phm: hn hp applaud v mipcin 25BHN


c tr: Ry
Cng dng v cch dng: Tr ry nu, ry lng trng, ry xanh ui en trn la.
Ngoi ra cn tr hu hiu whitefly, teagreen leafthopper, white peach scale. Dng
liu lng 1,1 kg/ha. Cch dng nh applaud.

3.5.3.3 Telubenzuron
- Tn gi khc: Nomolt
- Hot cht: 1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-diflurophenyl)3-2(2,6-diflurobenzoyl)urea.
- c tnh: Tng di an ton cho ngi, gia sc, t lm nhim mi trng, LD50
(chut) >500mg/kg. Ch yu tc ng tip xc ln cn trng. Thuc c ch s hnh thnh Kitin
trong qu trnh lt xc, lm cn trng b cn cht.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Ph dit rng, hiu lc cao trn su non B cnh phn
(Lepidoptera), B cnh cng (Coleoptera). Thuc c tc dng tt i vi di c ph trn rau,
qu. Thng c s dng trn cc loi cy: cam, bng vi, c chua, rau, u, hoa, king. Liu
lng dng: 0,05-0,06% ch phm 5SC (0,4-0,5 lt/ha). Phun vo lc sng sm hoc chiu ti.
3.5.3.4 Chlorfluazuron
- Tn gi khc: Atabron.
- Tn ha hc:
diflobenzoyl)rue.

1[3,5-Diclo-4-(3-clo-5-triflometyl-2-pyridyloxi)-phenyl]-3-(2,6-

- Cng thc ha hc: C20H9Cl3F5N3O3


- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 540,66


- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th, khng tan trong nc, tan t trong mt s
dung mi hu c nh axeton (52g/l), clorofom (30g/l), bn vng di tc ng ca nhit v
nh sng; thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: >8500mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 1000mg/kg. Thuc khng
c i vi c v ong mt.
S dng: Thuc gy c qua ng rut v tip xc, dng tr u trng, cn i vi
su trng thnh thuc c kh nng lm cho trng ra b ung. Thuc c gia cng thnh dng
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sa 50g a.i/lt (Atabron 5EC). tr su xanh, su khoang, su hng hi bng dng 50-250g
a.i/ha; tr b u di hi bng (Anthonomus) dng 50-150g a.i/ha; tr su c thn ng
dng 25-100g a.i/ha; tr su khoang hi rau pha Atabron 5 EC vi nc nng 0,05-0,1%
ri phun t u ln l rau.
3.5.3.5 Diflubenzuron
- Tn gi khc: Dimilin.
- Tn ha hc: 1-(4-Clophenyl)-3(2,6-diflobenzoyl)ure.
- Cng thc ha hc: C14H9ClF2N2O2
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 310,7


- c tnh: Thuc k thut (>95%) th rn, khng tan trong nc, tan t trong dung
mi hu c phn cc v t tan trong dung mi hu c khng phn cc; bn trong mi trng axit
v trung tnh; thy phn trong mi trng kim; dng ha tan thuc mn cm vi nh sng.
Thuc khng n mn kim loi; thuc nhm c III; LD50 per os: >4640mg/kg, LD50 dermal
(th): >10000mg/kg; ADI: 0,02mg/kg, MRL: sn phm cy trng 1,0mg/kg, nm n 0,2mg/kg,
PHI: rau 14 ngy, nm n 7 ngy, cy n qu 28 ngy. Thuc c i vi c, khng c i vi
ong mt.
S dng: Diflubenzuron c dng tr u trng b cnh vy hi cy lm nghip, hi
rau qu; tr mt ht u , tr cn trng hi nm n. Nng s dng l 15-30g a.i/100 lt
nc. tr b gy dng 20-25g a.i/ha phun ln din tch b mt nc. tr rui trong chung
tri chn nui dng 0,5-1g a.i/m2. Diflubenzuron c gia cng thnh dng bt thm nc 25%
(Dimilin 25WP), dng ht, dng ULV... thuc Dimilin 25WP cha 250g Diflubenzuron/kg, khi
s dng pha vi nc nng 0,2- 0,3%.
3.5.3.6 Flufenoxuron
- Tn gi khc: Cascade.
- Tn ha hc: 1-[4-(2-Clo-, ,
benzoyl)ure.
- Cng thc ha hc: C21H11ClF6N2O3
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

PGs. Ts. Trn Vn Hai

-triflo-p-tolyloxi)-2-flophenyl]-3-(2,6-diflo-

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- Phn t lng: 488,5


- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th khng mu, mi, tan rt t trong nc (3 x
10-6g/l, 22oC), tan trong xilen (6g/l), hexan (0,023g/l); Thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os:
>3000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >2000mg/kg, t c i vi c v ong mt.
S dng: Flufenoxuron c s dng tr u trng su t, su xanh, su xm, nhn
hi rau liu 20-50g a.i/ha (nhn liu 5-15g a.i/100 lt nc), tr su hi ng, c ph, ch,
thuc l, cy n qu (20-100g a.i/ha hoc 2-25g a.i/100 lt nc).
3.5.3.7 Triflumuron
- Tn gi khc: Alsystin.
- Tn ha hc: 2-Clo-4(triflomethoxi)-phenylbenzoylure.
- Cng thc ha hc: C15H10ClF3N2O3.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 358,71.


- c tnh: Thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: >5000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 5000mg/kg.
Thuc t c i vi c v ong mt.
S dng: Dng tr u trng b cnh vy hi bng, rau v c ph; lng dng t 10-100g
a.i/ha.
Ngoi Atabron Dimilin, Cascade, Alsystin cn c Nomolt (Teflubenzuron) c s dng
nh Atabron.
3.5.3.8 Shachong shuang v Shachongdan
- Tn ha hc: 2 - N, N - Dimetylamino - 1 - sodium thio sulfonate - 3 - thiosulfonic acid
propan (shachong shuang) v 2 - N, N - Dimetylamino - 1, 1 - disodium thiosulfonate propan
(Shachongdan).
- Phn t lng: 351,4 v 333,4
- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th mu trng ging nh Padan (nhng khng
nhm ln vi Padan) tan tt trong nc, bn vng trong mi trng trung tnh, yu hn trong
mi trng acid, n nh trong dung dch dung mi hu c. LD50 per os: 126-147mg/kg.
S dng: Shachongdan v Shachong Shuang l dn xut ca Nereistoxin nhng c mt
s c tnh khc Padan (Padan khng n nh trong dung dch dung mi hu c nn khng th
gia cng dng sa hoc dung dch).
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Shachongdan v Shachong Shuang c gia cng thnh dng bt tan trong nc 90-98%,
dng dung dch 18-25%, dng 0,7-0,75kg a.i/ha tr su n l, chch ht, c nn, c l rau,
qu, ch, ma, tr su c thn la. Hai loi thuc ny l sn phm ca Trung Quc v cha c
ng k s dng nc ngoi.
3.5.3.9 Thiocyclam
- Tn gi khc: Evisect
- Tn ha hc: 5-Dimetylamino-1,2,3-trithiane hidrogenoxalat
- Cng thc ha hc: C7H13NO4S3
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 271,4


- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht th rn, tan trong nc v trong mt s dung mi hu
c; mn cm vi nh sng nhng bn vng khi bo qun trong ti. Thuc thuc nhm c II,
LD50 per os: 310mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 1000mg/kg; PHI: la 14 ngy ( dng phun bt ) v 45 ngy
(dng ht ), rau, ch 7-14 ngy. Thuc c i vi c v ong mt.
S dng: Thiocyclam l loi thuc tip xc, v c v c tc dng ni hp yu.Thuc
c ch bin thnh dng bt thm nc 50%, dng ht 4%, dng phun bt 2%, dng hn hp
vi Disulfon. Loi Evisect bt 2% c dng 30-40kg phun ln l, loi ht 4% dng rc ln
rung vi lng 30 n 40kg/ha tr su c thn la v su cun l la. Loi Evisect bt thm
nc 50% dng pha nc nng 0,1-0,2% phun tr tuyn trng hi l la, tr b tr, ry
hi ch v su t hi rau.

3.5.4 THUC TR SU VI SINH BACTERIN


Bacterin (Thuc tr su vi sinh B.T.) l mt ch phm vi sinh c sn xut t vi khun
Bacillus thuringiensis. Dng kt hp BACTERIN cc loi thuc tr su ha hc u cho hiu
lc tt hn dng n c, tng hiu lc dit c cc loi su nh su t (Plutella xylostella),
su o (Trichoplusia ni), su bm ci (Pieris brassicae)... v dit c cc loi su t mn cm
vi Bacterin nh su n tp (Spodoptera litura), su xanh (Heliothis armigera).
* Mt s loi thuc vi sinh Bacillus thuringiensis ph bin:
- Tn gi khc: BT, BTT, MPV, Biotrol, Forwabit, Aztron, Xentari, Thuricide,
Entobacterin, Bactospeine, Biobit, Biocin, Delfin, Dipel, Toarow CT...
- Tn ha hc: Bacillus thuringiensis Beliner, B. thuringiensis var israelensis, B.
thuringiensis var. Kurstaki.
c tnh: l loi thuc ngun gc vi khun, c sn xut bng phng php ln men vi
khun Bacillus thuringiensis. Sn phm ln men l c t dng m tinh th v bo t. c t
ny l nhng hp cht m cao phn t khng bn vng trong mi trng kim, mi trng axit
mnh v di tc ng ca mt s loi men; khng tan trong nc v trong nhiu dung mi hu
c, nhng tan trong dung dch kim c pH t 10 tr ln, tan trong dch rut ca u trng su
b cnh vy. ln ca tinh th c t t 0,5-2 micron. Thuc rt t c i vi mi trng v
k sinh c ch; thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: >8000mg/kg. Thuc khng c i vi c v
ong mt.
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S dng: Bacillus thuringiensis l loi thuc v c, khng c hiu lc tip xc v xng


hi. Tinh th c t tan trong dch rut, gy tn thng mng rut u trng v gy cc tc ng
sinh l khc lm cho u trng chn n v ngng n, cui cng t vong. Do tuy hiu lc git
su ca thuc biu hin chm nhng ngay sau khi phun thuc su ngng ph hoi. C hai loi
thuc BT, loi cha tinh th c t v bo t (khong 107 bo t/mg) v loi thuc BT ch cha
tinh th c t. Sau khi phun, tinh th c t gy hiu lc ngay v sau phn hy gii c, cn
bo t th c th tn ti lu (mt nm hoc lu hn).
V u trng tm rt mn cm vi thuc BT nn nhng nc trng nhiu du nui tm
ch s dng loi BT khng cha bo t. Ty thuc vo chng vi khun BT m qu trnh ln men
c th thu c cc loi tinh th c t khc nhau nh - exotoxin, - exotoxin, -exotoxin
v - endotoxin. -Exotoxin ( ngoi c t) c hiu lc cao i vi u trng b cnh vy, b
cnh cng, b cnh mng v b cnh thng. - Exotoxin ( - ngoi c t ) c hiu lc cao i
vi su thuc b hai cnh v - endotoxin (-ni c t) c hiu lc cao i vi u trng b
cnh vy. Thuc BT loi cha bo t v tinh th c t c gia cng thnh thuc bt thm nc
(16.000 i.u./mg, i.u. = international unit = n v quc t), dung dch c ( 4000 i.u./mg), thuc
phun bt ( 160-800 i.u./mg ). Thuc BT bt thm nc c dng t 300-2000g/ha tr su t
hi rau (bao gm c chng chng thuc ha hc); su xanh hi rau, ng, bng; su o hi ay;
su m hi thng; b gy. Thuc BT hn hp c vi hu ht cc loi thuc tr su khc. Ch
phm khng cha bo t c th hn hp vi nhiu loi thuc tr nm bnh song khng hn hp
c vi cc loi thuc c kim tnh mnh nh thuc vi + lu hunh, vi + phn xanh
(Boc) v phn bn ha hc.
Thuc Bacillus thuringiensis rt mn cm vi nhit cao v tia cc tm, do cn bo
qun ni mt.
C nhiu loi thuc Bacillus thuringiensis trn th trng th gii nh:
- Bacilus thuringiensis var aizawai kiu serotype, hot cht dng bo t v tinh th, ch
bin thnh dung dch c, dng tr u trng mt hi kho tng.
- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis(tn khc: Teknar) hot cht dng tinh th endotoxin to thnh qua ln men Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. israelensis, Serotype (H 14). Thuc c gia cng nhiu dng nh dung dch, bt thm nc... dng tr mui, u trng
rui.
- Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (tn khc Bakthane, Agritol, Bactospeine plus,
Biotrol...), hot cht dng bo t v tinh th - endotoxin c to thnh qua ln men Bacillus
thuringiensis Berliner, var. Kurstaki, Serotype H-3a 3b. Thuc c gia cng thnh nhiu dng
nh bt thm nc, sa huyn ph, dung dch c... dng tr u trng b cnh vy nh su
khoang, su t, su xanh v nhiu loi su khc hi rau, mu v cy n qu.
- Bacillus thuringiensis var. morrisoni, hot cht dng bo t v tinh th -endotoxin
c to thnh qua ln men Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, var morrisoni, serotype 8a 8b. Thuc
c gia cng thnh dng bt kh tan trong nc v bt thm nc, dng tr u trng b cnh
vy hi rau, mu, cy n qu, cy cnh, cy cng nghip.
- Bacillus thuringiensis var. San Diego (tn khc: Myx 1850), dng tr b cnh cng
cho khoai ty, c chua, cy xanh.

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3.6 THUC TR NHN


3.6.1 ACRINATHRIN
-

Tn gi khc: Rufast.

Tn ha hc: [1 R - [1 (S), 3 (Z)]] - 2,2 - dimetyl - 3 - [ 3 - oxo - 3 -[2,2,2 - triflo


- 1 (triflometyl) ethoxy] - propenyl] - xiclopropancacboxilic acid, cyano [3 phenoxyphenyl] metylette.

Cng thc ha hc: C26H21F6NO5

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

Phn t lng: 541,4

- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th khng mu, mi, rt t tan trong nc (<
0,02ppm, 25oC), ha tan trong aceton, dimetylfomamid v clorofom. Thuc thuc nhm c
IV, LD50 per os: >5000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >5000mg/kg, ADI: 0,02, MRL: rau, qu 0,1-0,2,
nho 0,5mg/kg, PHI: rau 3 ngy, nho 14-21 ngy, cy n qu 7-14 ngy.
S dng: Acrinathrin l loi thuc tr nhn thuc nhm Pyrethroit. Thuc c dng tip
xc, v c v hiu lc khi im rt nhanh. Thuc tr c nhn trng thnh v u trng.
Acrinathrin c gia cng dng sa, huyn ph m c, bt thm nc... Thuc sa Rufast
150g/l dng 0,25-0,5l/ha tr nhn hi cam, chanh, bi, nho, bng v rau.

3.6.2 AMITRAZ
- Tn gi khc: Mitac, Triatox, Acarac.
- Tn ha hc: N, N [(Metylimino) dimetyllidyne] di - 2,4 - xylidine.
- Cng thc ha hc: C19H21N3
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng:
PGs. Ts. Trn Vn Hai

293,4
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- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th, hu nh khng tan trong nc, tan trong
nhiu dung mi hu c; khng bn trong dung dch chua, khng n mn kim loi. Thuc thuc
nhm c III, LD50 per os: 800mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >1600mg/kg; ADI: 0,003mg/kg; MRL:
0,1mg/kg; PHI: 3 tun. Thuc c i vi c v ong mt.
S dng: L loi thuc tr nhn hi thc vt, c tc dng tip xc v v c, tr c
nhiu loi nhn mi pha pht trin ca chng. Ngoi ra thuc cn tr c nhiu loi su nh
b phn trng hi thuc l, rp sp, b xt, rp l; tr c trng su xanh, su khoang, su hng
hi bng. Thuc t c i vi k sinh c ch. Thuc c dng tr nhn v su hi cam,
chanh, bi, bng; tr ve, bt cho vt nui. Thuc c gia cng thnh dng sa 20%, bt thm
nc 50%.

3.6.3 BINAPACRYL
- Tn gi khc: Acricid, Morocid(e) ...
- Tn ha hc: 2 - sec - Butyl - 4,6 - dinitrophenyl 3 - metylbut - 2 - enoate.
- Cng thc ha hc: C15H18N2O6
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 322,3


- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th, hu nh khng tan trong nc, tan trong
nhiu dung mi hu c; khng n mn kim loi; LD50 per os: 150-225mg/kg, LD50 dermal:
750mg/kg, MRL: 0,3mg/kg i vi rau, qu; PHI: 21 ngy. Thuc khng c i vi ong mt,
c i vi c.
S dng: Binapacryl l lai thuc tr nhn tc dng tip xc v c hiu lc i vi bnh
phn trng , c s dng tr nhn (tt c cc pha pht trin) v tr bnh phn trng cho cam,
chanh, bi, bng ... Nng s dng: 25-50g a.i/100 lt nc. Binapacryl c gia cng thnh
dng sa (348g a.i/l), dung dch c (500g a.i/l). Thuc gy chy cy nu dng hn hp vi mt
s thuc gc ln hu c.

3.6.4 PROPARGITE
- Tn gi khc: Comite 73EC, Uniroyal DO14, Fenpropar.
- Tn ha hc: 2-[4-(1,1-Dimetyl) phenoxi] xiclohexyl 2-propynyl sulfite.
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- Cng thc ha hc: C19H20SO4


- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng:
350
- c tnh: Thuc k thut th du lng mu nu sng, hi mi kh sunfua, tan trong
nhiu dung mi hu c nh aceton, benzen, etanol, metanol, heptan, hu nh khng tan trong
nc. Thuc thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: 4029mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 2940mg/kg, LC50 (qua
ng h hp): 0,05ppm, c i vi c, khng c i vi ong mt.
S dng: L loi thuc tr nhn hi thc vt c ph tc dng rng, tr c nhiu pha
trng thnh, trng u trng. Ngoi tip xc thuc c c tc dng xng hi, thi gian tc dng
ko di. Thuc c gia cng thnh dng sa, bt thm nc, dng t 300-500g a.i/ha.

3.6.5 CC LOI THUC TR NHN KHC


- Benzoximate (Benzomate, Citrazon, Aazomate): 3 - Clo - - etoxiimino - 2,6 dimetoxibenzylbenzoat. Dng tr nhn hi cy n qu; nng s dng 10 -13g a.i/100 lt
nc; thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: >15000mg/kg.
- Brompropylat (Acarol): Isopropyl - 4,4 - dibrombenzilat. Dng tr nhn hi cy n
qu; thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: >5000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >5000mg/kg.
- Chlorfenson (Ovex, Ovotran): 4 - Clophenyl - 4 - clobenzene - sulfonat. L loi thuc
tr nhn c hiu lc ko di, nht l i vi pha trng. Dng tr nhn hi cy n qu, cy
cnh v rau. Nng s dng t 17-32g a.i/100 lt nc, thuc thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os:
2000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >10000mg/kg.
- Cyhexatin (Plietran): Trixiclohexylhidroxystannane. L loi thuc tr nhn khng c
hiu lc i vi pha trng, dng tr nhn hi cy n qu, cy cnh, rau; thuc thuc nhm
c III, LD50 per os: 540mg/kg, LD50 dermal (th): >2000mg/kg, ADI: 0,008mg/kg.
- Fenbutatinoxid (Torque): Bis [tris (2 - Metyl - 2 - phenylpropyl) zin] oxit. L loi
thuc tr nhn nhng khng c hiu lc i vi pha trng. Dng tr nhn hi cy n qu, rau,
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cy cnh, nho. Nng s dng l 20-50g a.i/100 lt nc; thuc thuc nhm c III, LD50 per
os: 2631mg/kg, LD50 dermal (th): >2000mg/kg, ADI: 0,03mg/kg.
- Fenson (Murvesco, CPBS, PCPBS): 4 - Clophenylbenzenesulfonat. Thuc c hiu lc
i vi tt cc pha pht trin ca nhn, thng c dng hn hp vi cc thuc tr nhn khc;
thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: 1560-1740mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >2000mg/kg.
- Flubenzimin (Croptotex): N - [3 - Phenyl - 4,5 bis [(triflometyl) imino] - 2 thiazolidinyllidene] - benzenamine. L loi thuc tr nhn v mt s nm bnh. Flubenzimin c
th tr c hu ht cc loi nhn hi thc vt v tr c bnh hi m l ch, m l c ph,
bnh m l cam, chanh, bi. Nng s dng 50g a.i/100 lt nc; thuc nhm c IV, LD50
per os: >5000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: > 5000mg/kg.
- Formetanat (Carzol, Formetanat hidroclorit): 3 - Dimetyllaminometylen aminophenylmetylcacbamat. L loi thuc tr nhn v rui, b xt, b tr. Dng tr nhn
hi rau, cy n qu liu lng l 420g a.i/ha hoc nng 19-20g/100 lt nc; thuc nhm
c I, LD50 per os: 20mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 560mg/kg.
- Hexythiazox (Acariflor, Cesar, Zeldox, Savey): Trans - 5 - (4 - Clophenyl) - Nxiclohexyl - 4 - metyl - 2 - oxothiazolidine - 3 - cacboxamid. Thuc c hiu lc cao i vi nhiu
loi nhn hi thc vt, c tc dng dit trng, u trng v nhn trng thnh. Nng s dng
25-50g/100 lt nc; thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: >5000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >5000mg/kg.
- Tetrasul (Animert): 4 - Clophenyl 2, 4, 5 - triclophenyl - sulphit. Thuc c hiu lc i
vi nhiu loi nhn hi thc vt, tr c tt c cc pha pht trin; thng c dng tr nhn
cho da chut, nho (36g a.i/100 lt nc); thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: 6810-12600mg/kg,
LD50 dermal: 10800mg/kg.

3.7 THUC TR CHUT


3.7.1 BRODIFACOUM (Klerat, Talon)
- Tn ha hc: 3-[3-(4-Bromobiphenyl-4yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl]-4hydroxycoumarin.
- Cng thc ha hc: C31H23O3Br
- Phn t lng: 523
- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng bt, tan trong aceton, chloroform, khng tan trong
nc, khng n mn kim loi. LD50 qua ming = 0.2-0.4 mg/kg, thuc nhm c I, rt c vi
c v vt nui nh ch, mo... cht gii c l vitamin K1.
- S dng: Thuc gy xut huyt ni tng v ngn cn qu trnh ng mu chut. t
vin Klerat vo ni chut hay chy qua li, cch khong 2-5m/ vin. Gi thuc cn thn trnh xa
tr em.

3.7.2 PHOSPHUA KM (Zinc phosphide)


- Tn thng mi: Fokeba 1%, 5%, 20%; QT - 92 18%; Zinphos 20%.
- Tn ha hc: Trizinc diphosphide
- Cng thc ha hc: Zn3P2
- Phn t lng: 258,1
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- c tnh: l loi bt mu xm, khng tan trong nc v ru etylic, tan trong benzen.
Trong mi trng m nht l trong mi trng axit, phosphua km phn gii hnh thnh kh c
Hydro phosphua (PH3). Tng phm cha 80-90% phosphua km. LD50 qua ming = 45,7
mg/kg, thuc nhm c I, rt c i vi c v vt nui. Cha c thuc gii c. Fokeba tc
ng ln thn kinh chut, lm cho chut ry ra v cht trong vng 2-9 ngy. Chut n cha
liu gy cht s trnh b, khng n li b . Chun b b: Cm, c, cua, thc n tha (20 phn)
trn vi thuc (1phn), t b ni chut hay qua li vo chiu ti sau khi nht ht gia sc li.
Hm sau thu nht xc chut, khng cho ch mo n phi xc chut v em chn xa nh. Bo
qun thuc xa tr em. Fokeba l thuc b hn ch s dng ti Vit Nam.
- S dng: Thuc gy c cp tnh, chut n phi b s cht ngay. Thc n lm b phi
kh ro, t ni ch chut hay i li, trnh xa tr em. S dng phosphua km phi tht thn
trng, theo ng qui trnh v an ton lao ng.

3.7.3 WARFARIN (Coumafne)


- Tn thng mi: Rat K 2% D (C.ty vt t KTNN Cn Th).
- Tn ha hc: 3-(-acetoneylbenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin.
- Tnh cht: thuc k thut dng bt, mu trng, im nng chy 159-1650C. khng tan
trong nc, tan trong cn, acetone, dioxan. Nhm c I, LD50 qua ming l 1mg/kg. L thuc tr
chut nhm chng ng mu.
- S dng: Warfarin thng c ch thnh nhng vin b. Ch phm RAT K 2%D
dng bt, trn vi mi theo t l 1 phn thuc + 50 n 100 phn mi. Mi c th l cm, cm,
bt m, cua, c, mng la... t vo ng i ni chut thng qua li hoc trc ca hang.
ngoi vn v ng rung, t cch nhau 5-10m. t thuc bui chiu, sng hm sau thu gom
nhng vin b hoc phn mi cn li chiu ti t tip. t lin tip trong vng 10-14 ngy,
n khi khng thy chut n mi na. Hng ngy thu nht xc chut em chn. Nn t thuc
ni kn hoc c ming che b trnh ma v trnh tr em, gia sc n phi.
Bo qun b trong bao nylon kn, c nhn hoc ghi tn thuc, xa tr em v gia sc.
Nu ngi v gia sc n phi vin b thuc, triu chng trc tin l mt mi, bing n, bun
nn, cn cho ung hoc tim Vitamin K1 vi liu trung bnh 10-20mg/ngy.

3.7.4 WARFARIN SODIUM + SALMONELLA var. I7F - 4


- Tn thng mi: Biorat (Labiofam Cuba).
- Salmonella var. I7F - 4 (Salmonella enteriditis Isatchenko 7F - 4): l mt loi vi khun gy
bng thng hn cho loi gm nhm. Nhiu ngi cho rng vi khun Salmonella rt d thch
nghi vi mi trng mi nn c th gy bnh cho ngi sau mt thi gian s dng tr chut.
Ngoi ra vic bo qun v s dng vi khun trong thc t cng gp nhiu kh khn, dn n hiu
qu tr chut cng khng n nh. V vy, mt s nc nh c, M, Nht... cm s dng vi
khun Salmonella lm thuc dit chut v cm nhp nng hi sn c nhim khun Salmonella.
Cn theo nh sn xut, ch phm Biorat th vi khun ny khng tn ti trong mi trng t nhin
v trong c th ngi cng nh cc ng vt khc, m ch tn ti c trong phng th nghim
v thch ng vi c th loi chut. V vy, thuc khng nh hng g n sc khe con ngi v
cc ng vt khc.
- S dng: ty theo mt v tng loi chut, dng t 25-50g thuc t gn ca hang
hoc trn ng chut hay i li. t thuc khi tri bt u ti, m gi thuc no th dng ht
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gi khng s dng gi li dng hm sau. Khng dng tay bc thuc v chut s pht hin
hi ngi m khng n.
Trong iu kin nhit bnh thng t 30-360C trong bng rm, thuc gi hiu lc
trong 21 ngy, di 300C c 28 ngy, t 4 n 160C gi c trong 6 thng.
Vi khun Salmonella cn c ng k lm thuc tr chut vi mt s ch phm thng
mi khc nh:
- B dit chut sinh hc (Vin Bo V Thc Vt): gm vi khun Salmonella I7F-4 +
Warfarin 0.05%. Cht b l thc nu chn. Trong 1g sn phm chc 2 t vi khun. Cho mt con
chut n 1-2g b, chut cht sau khi n b 5-10 ngy, chut n thuc b cht c th lm cho
nhng con khc trong by khng n b cng b nhim bnh cht (truyn bnh ngang). Thuc
khng gy tnh ngn b nn khng cn lm mi nh. S dng thuc sau khi sn xut 1-2 ngy,
lu hn phi bo qun trong t lnh.
Thuc an ton vi gi sc, gia cm. Mt con g
nng 350g cho n 50g b (100 t vi khun), ch 4 kg n 400g (800 t vi khun) khng b cht.
- Miroca 109 t bo/gam (ml) (Vin KHKT Nng Nghip Vit Nam) gm Salmonella
isatchenko 109 t bo/gam + Coumarin 0.04%.

B. THUC TR BNH CY
3.8 PHN LOI THEO KIU TC NG
3.8.1 Cc loi thuc ch c tc dng bo v cy
Cc thuc ny ch c tc dng phng nga bnh; khi s dng, thuc c phun u ln
cc b phn cn c bo v khi cy cha bnh hay chm bnh. Cc thuc bo v c th tip
xc hay lu tn.
+ Cc thuc tip xc: Cc thuc ny c th tn cng (c ch hoc tiu dit) nm bnh
ang trng thi ngh trc khi chng xm nhp vo cy k ch.
+ Cc thuc lu tn: Nhng thuc ny c ri u ln cc b phn cn c bo v ca
cy mai phc nm bnh. Khi nm bnh bm vo cy th thuc s c ch hoc tiu dit
chng.
3.8.2 Cc cht ty tr: Cc thuc ny tiu dit nm bnh ngay vng xm nhim ngay khi
chng xm nhp vo t bo cy (thuc gc thy ngn, lu hunh-vi...).
3.8.3 Cc cht ha tr liu (Therapeutant): l nhng cht c kh nng:
+ Lm gim bnh bng cch lm mt tc dng ca cht c do nm tit ra.
+ Lm cho cy tr nn khng bnh
+ Tc ng lu dn (Systemic fungicide): thuc xm nhp vo h thng cy trng v c
dn truyn n cc b phn khc hoc ton b cy trng tiu dit nm bnh.

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3.9 PHN LOI THEO NGUN GC HA HC


3.9.1 THUC TR NM CHA NG
* Mt s c im chung
- Cch dng: phun l, x l ht, x l t.
- c ch nm bnh bng tc ng tip xc v lu tn.
- Hu ht cc ch phm u t tan trong nc (1ppm), khi tc dng ln ng rung, di
tc ng ca CO2 trong khng kh, acid hu c do nm bnh v cy trng tit ra, cc hp cht
ny t t tan ra, gii phng ion Cu (II), Cu (II) s tc ng ln bo t nm hoc khun ty. Ion ny
lm kt ta hoc bin tnh cc protein, lm bt hot cc enzym. c bit cc enzym cn c nhm
Sulfhydryl hot ng rt nhy cm vi ion Cu (II).
u im: gi thnh r, ph tc ng rng, tng i an ton i vi ngi v ng vt
mu nng.
Nhc im: c th gy c cho thc vt nu hm lng ion Cu t do cao, nht l khi c
sng gi. Cc cy to, l mn cm mnh vi thuc ny. Triu chng ng c: l vng a, xut
hin nhng vt trng, sau chuyn sang nu v tm, gn l ma tm, l rng. Xut hin nhng m
nu v tm trn qu, lm chm chn.
a. Hn hp Bordeaux
- Nguyn tc v cch pha ch:
4CuSO4 + 3Ca(OH)2 CuSO4.3Cu(OH)2 + 3CaSO4
- Lng vi thng dng lng d to pH trung tnh hay kim. Dng thng dng l
Bordeaux 1% c pha ch theo t l CuSO4 : Ca(OH)2 : H2O = 1:1:100. Vi cy trng c
mn cm cao vi ng, tc ng c th gim t l ng (0,5:1:100). Huyn ph mi pha ch kh
bn v c tnh dnh rt tt. thi k cy ng ngh, c th dng nng 3-6%, nng ny
thuc tr c c ru v a y.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Thuc c tc ng vn nng, tuy nhin t hiu lc vi b nm
phn trng Erysiphales.
+ Dng phun l: phng tr c rt nhiu loi nm gy bnh m l, chy l.
Bordeaux 1% c hiu qu tt trn bnh mc sng hi c chua, khoai ty Phytophthora
infestans, bnh r st c ph Hemilia vastatrix, m en hi cam phoma citricarpa, bnh phng
l ch Exobasidium vexans, m mt cua thuc l Cercospora nicotiana...
+ Dng qut ln vt thng bng Bordeaux 5% sau khi co sch phn b nm ph hi
s phng tr c bnh x m cao su Phytophthora palmivora.
+ X l vn m: Chng vi khun Pseudomonas sp. gy bnh cht cy con thuc l v
nhiu nm bnh, vi khun khc trong t.
MT VI CH PHM THNG DNG
COPPER-ZINC, ZINC-COPPER
- Dng ch phm:
+ Zinc copper 50 WP: 35% Oxychlorua ng + 15% Zineb +50% ph gia.
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+ Copper zinc 85 WP: 60% Bordeaux kh + 25% zineb + 15% ph gia.


- Tnh cht vt l v ha hc: Thuc dng bt mn, mu xanh lc nht, khng tan trong
nc, nhng ha tan trong cc axit yu. Thuc bm dnh tt v t b ma ra tri. Thuc b axit
v kim phn hy.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Copper - zinc c nhiu u im nh s tc ng h tng
gia Oxychlorua ng v zineb nn c ph tc dng rng; ngoi ra n cn c nhiu u im
khc nhng khng gy chy l kch thch tn cy pht trin tt, c th pha trn chung vi nhiu
thuc khc. Thuc c th phng tr c ry nhiu loi nm v vi khun gy bnh trn l, thn
nh: Trn LA: m vn, chy ba l, sc trong...; Trn u nnh v u xanh: bnh r, m
phn, chm l, ho cy con, m nhn l; Trn c ph: r l, m l, n cnh, m tri...;
Trn tiu: nga bnh rng lng, cht nhc dy, chy l...; Trn chui: m l, chm tn nhang
tri...; Trn cam qut: chy l, lot thn... Ngoi ra thuc cn tr c nhiu loi nm bnh trn l
khc. Nng phun 0,25-0,4% (20-30g thuc/bnh 8 lt). Phun u khp 2 mt l, thn, cnh. p
dng khi cy va chm bnh hoc khi xung quanh ang c bnh pht trin. C th phun nh k
15 ngy/ln vo ma nng v 7 ngy/ln vo ma ma.
KH C HT GING: C th trn 2-4g thuc/kg ht trong 1 gi trc khi ngm hoc
gieo.
TI T: pha thuc nng 0,1%, ti vo gc cy nga bnh trn r vi lng 1 - 3
lt/m2; nn xi t ti trc khi ti.
COPPER B 75 WP
- Hp phn: 45% Bordeaux kh + 20% Zineb + 10% Benomyl + 25% ph gia.
- Tnh cht: Thuc c tnh tip xc v lu dn ln.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Thuc phng tr c nhiu loi bnh khc nhau nh:
+ Bnh m vn la: lc la trn mnh nu pht hin thy c bnh ny xut hin cn
phun ngay thuc Copper-B. c th phun thm ln 2 cch ln u khong 10-15 ngy. Phun thuc
u ln thn, l, nht l phn gc la. Nng phun: 0,2-0,3%.
+ Cc bnh khc nh: chy l la; ho cy con, thi nhn l, m nu, m en, chy l,
vng l...; Trn u nnh, u xanh, u phng, m, bp, ma: bnh en l, thi tri c qung trn
t, m vng l gng; m xm trn l, m en nu trn l, chy chp l, nhn en l, m en
trn tri, v trng hp rng l...; Trn cy tiu: cc bnh m nu l v tri, m cnh, rng l.
b. OXYCLORUA NG
- Dng ch phm: COC 85 WP, ng Oxyclorua 80 BTN, 50 HP
- Cng thc: 3Cu(OH)2 .CuCl2, hoc 3CuO.CuCl2. 4H2O
- L tnh: dng k ngh mu sng lc sng, khng mi, t tan trong nc v khng tan
trong cc dung mi hu c.
- Ha tnh: bn iu kin bnh thng, phn hy nhit cao, d tan trong cc acid
v c v kim, d b kim phn hy thnh nhng cht t c i vi nm v d tc dng vi
nhng mui amin to thnh phc cht bn.
- Tnh c: thuc t c i vi ngi v VMN, an ton i vi cy trng hn
Bordeaux.
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- Cng dng v cch dng: phng tr c nhiu loi nm bnh hi trn l cy trng nh
cc bnh m en, m nu, gh, b hng trn cam, qut, chanh...; bnh r st, thn th trn c
ph; bnh phng l, chm xm l tr; bnh m l, m mt cua hi thuc l, bnh gic ban
bng; bnh m nu, sng mai c chua; bnh m l, bnh r trn u...liu lng thng dng:
5-7 lt Oxychlorua ng 30HP/ha, nng 1:100:150.
Ch : khng dng chung vi nhng thuc c tnh acid hoc kim. Trc khi s dng
nn lc u chai. Thuc t hiu lc i vi bnh phn trng bu b, u, bng...
c. HYDROXID NG
- Dng ch phm: Champion 77 WP, Kocide 61 DF, Funguran 50 WP
- Cng thc: Cu(OH)2
-Tnh cht: Thuc k thut dng bt rn, mu xanh l cy, tan t trong nc v dung mi
hu c. Phn ng trung tnh.
Nhm c II, LD50 qua ming 1000 mg/kg, c vi mt, t c vi c v ong.
Thi gian cch ly 7 ngy.
- Cng dng: Phng tr bnh mc sng c chua, khoai ty; bnh sng mai, mc xm,
phn trng cho nho; bnh so v lot cam qut, bnh g st v m l c ph; bnh phng
l ch; bnh m rong, m ng tin cy n qu; cc bnh do vi khun rau mu... .
Nng 0,2-0,3% phun ln l hoc ti r.

3.9.2 THUC TR NM GC LU HUNH


3.9.2.1 Lu hunh v c
Cc thuc lu hunh v c d gy hi thc vt v khi s dng khng hn hp vi cc
thuc gc ng.
a. Lu hunh n cht
- Tc ng tip xc, lu tn, c kh nng "ti phn b" trn b mt phun nh tnh tnh
thng hoa. Tr c bnh m phn v nhiu bnh khc trn l v qu.
- C hai dng ch phm: bt phun kh v bt thm nc. Dng bt phun kh c
nghin t lu hunh th, kch thc 47-74, c thm mt t cht ph gia chng vn cc. Lu
hunh BTN gm lu hunh th c nghin chung vi cc tc nhn chng thm t nh kim
sulfit, casein, bentonite... hoc nghin lu hunh n kch thc rt nh (vi ), khi lu
hunh s c tnh keo v khuch tn rt tt trong nc. Dng bt thm nc thng c dng
liu lng 2-5 kg ch phm 80BHN/ha. Phun nga, p dng khi bnh va xut hin hon phun
nh k vi khong cch 7-10 ngy.
- C ch tc ng cha r, lu hunh c th b oxy ha thnh SO2, hoc b kh thnh
H2S, hoc b thp thu di dng nguyn cht do t bo nm bnh "nhm" lu hunh vi oxy,
hoc c th lu hunh dng vng bt gic to thnh ni ngang bn vi cc Protein v cc cu
t khc. Tnh c i vi thc vt: c th cn tr s ny mm ca phn hoa, lm gim s ng
ha SO2 mt s cy mn cm vi lu hunh. Khi nhit mi trng ln cao, thuc xng hi
mnh nhng d gy chy l.
* Thuc tr nm cha lu hunh n cht
- Tn gi khc: Elosal, Kumulus, Thiovit, Microthiol supper
- Tn ha hc: Sulphur (Sulfur, Sunfua)
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- Cng thc ha hc: Sx


- Phn t lng:

(32,06)x

- c tnh: dng tinh th hoc khng nh hnh, mu vng xm, tan trong cacbon
disunfua (CS2), t tan trong cc dung mi khc, phn ng vi st v mt s kim loi. Lu hunh
bc hi mnh nhit cao, khi t nng th bay hi v ngui th thng hoa; thuc nhm dc
IV, rt t c i vi ngi v vt nui; MRL: i vi rau, qu 25-50mg/kg; PHI: rau n qu 3
ngy, da chut, cy ly du, hnh, ti 4 ngy, rau n l 7 ngy, nho 10 ngy, cy lm thuc 14
ngy. Thuc khng c i vi ong mt v c.
S dng: Lu hunh nguyn cht c gia cng thnh nhiu dng. Lu hunh phun bt
cha 99,8% lu hunh, c mn 3-4 micron, dng vi lng 15-27kg/ha tr bnh phn
trng cho rau, la m, mch, ng. Thuc c trn vi vi theo t l 1:1 hoc 1 (vi): 3 (lu
hunh) rc cho cy hoc x l t tr bnh gh khoai ty, bnh mui en hnh, bnh
Strepmocyces v Synchytrichum. liu s dng 10-12kg/ha, lu hunh tr c nhn , nhn
trng hi cam, qut. Lu hunh keo c mn 0,01-0,1micron, cha 50-80% lu hunh ( dng
bt nho hay bt thm nc) c dng pha nc nng 0,4-0,8% phun tr bnh phn
trng cho cy trng. Lu hunh bt thm nc c mn >1 micron, cha 65-90% lu hunh
nguyn t, dng pha nc nng 0,2-0,75% v lu hunh huyn ph, cha 30% lu hunh,
dng pha nc nng 1,5-2% phun tr bnh cho cy.
b. Lu hunh vi: CaS2
- c pha ch bng cch un nu hn hp gm: lu hunh, vi sng v nc theo t l:
2,3 : 1: 10.
- Cch nu: sau khi ti vi, cho lu hunh vo, khuy u v un si trong mt gi, sau
h nhit xung, un la nh cho n khi dung dch c mu mn chn, t t trng 32
Baum (d=1,283) tr ln v cha trn 20% Canxi Polysulphite.
- Cng dng: tc ng dit tr, dng tr cc bnh m phn, thi nu v nhiu bnh
khc trn to, u, nho, mn... Phun u khp thn l khi bnh xut hin nng 0,3-0,5%
Bom (hn hp pha ch xong c pha long thm 40-100 ln phun).
Ngoi nm bnh, thuc ny cn tr c mt s loi nhn , nhn bc, rp sp, ru, a
y...
3.9.2.2 Lu hunh hu c: (Cc hp cht Dithiocacbamat kim loi)
L nhng dn xut ca acide dithiocarbamic; c dng :
- Phun l: Ziram, Ferbam, Zineb, Maneb, Nabam.
- X l ging: Thiuram.
- X l t: Vapam.
Cc thuc ny iu kh bn iu kin bnh thng v b phn hy trong mi trng
kim. t c vi ngi v ng vt mu nng, tuy nhin c th gy kch thch da, hng, mi,
tng i an ton cho cy trng.
a. Ziram:
Cng thc ha hc: (CH3)2 N-CS-S-Zn-S-CS-N(CH3)2
Bn nht trong s cc thuc nhm dithiocarbamate, ch phn hy trong mi trng kim
v acid c, nhit cao. t tan trong nc (65ppm), tan nhiu trong cc dung mi hu c t
gy hi cho cy trng, tr mt s cy mn cm vi km. Tng hp vi hu ht cc thuc tr
dch hi khc, tr nhng thuc cha cc kim loi nng (Cu, Hg, Fe) v vi. Cng dng: Tc ng
PGs. Ts. Trn Vn Hai

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lu tn, tr nhiu loi nm bnh trn l ca rau, cy n qu, cy cnh. Nng dng 0,15-0,25%
cc ch phm 70-90%, c th phun nga nh k vi khong cch 7-10 ngy.
b. Ferbam
- Tn gi khc: Fermate.
- Tn ha hc: St - tri (dimetyl dithiocacbamat).
- Cng thc ha hc: C9H18FeN3S6.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 416,5.


- c tnh: Ferbam l loi bt mu en, tan t trong nc (120-130mg/lt), tan trong
nhiu dung mi hu c, khng n mn kim loi. Khng c hn hp Ferbam vi thuc cha
ng v cht kim. Thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: 4000-17000mg/kg, ADI: 0,02mg/kg;
MRL: rau, qu 2mg/kg, da chut, c chua 1mg/kg, nng sn khc 0,2mg/kg (tnh theo
cacbondisunfua); thi gian cch ly khng qui nh, phun trc khi hoa n. Thuc khng c i
vi ong mt, t c i vi c.
c. Thiuram (thiram, TMTD, TMTDS): (CH3)2N-CS-S-S-CS-N(CH3)2
Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

Tng hp vi hu ht cc thuc tr dch hi, ngoi tr cc thuc cha Cu, Ca. Ph tc


dng rng, c th p dng bng nhiu cch:
+ X l ging: Hiu qu rt cao, ngang vi cc thuc nhm thy ngn. C th x l kh
vi t l 0,25% phng cc bnh thi ht ho r, cht cy con trn rau, ci, bu b...
+ X l t: Liu lng 15-25 kg/ha phng tr nhiu nm bnh vng r (Pythlum sp.
Rhizoctonia solani, botritis...)
+ Phun l: tr nhiu nm bnh trn l, nng dng 0,2-0,3% trn cy n qu, rau ci.
d. Zineb
- Tn thng mi: Dithane 72 WP, Tigineb 80 WP, Zin 80 WP.
- Tn ha hc: Zinc-etylenbis (dithiocacbamat )
- Cng thc ha hc: (C4H6N2S4Zn)X .
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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- Phn t lng: (275,8)X .


- c tnh: Thuc dng bt khng mu, tan t trong nc (10mg/lt), tan trong CS2 ,
khng tan trong nhiu dung mi hu c. Khi bo qun lu di tc ng ca khng kh, m
v nhit thuc b phn gii. trng thi kh thuc khng n mn kim loi. Khi b m thuc
n mn ng v st. Thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: >5200mg/kg, LD50 dermal:
>2500mg/kg, ADI: 0,05mg/kg , MRL nh Mancozeb; PHI: cy lm thc n cho tr em 42 ngy;
du ty 35 ngy, bp ci, rau n l 28 ngy, rau n c, hnh, cy dc liu 21 ngy, khoai ty,
hoa bia, cy thc n gia sc 10 ngy. Thuc c i vi c, khng c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Zineb c s dng phng tr nhiu bnh hi thc vt. Thuc Zineb bt
thm nc 80%; c dng vi lng 2,8kg/ha tr bnh mc sng khoai ty, 3kg/ha tr
bnh mc sng c chua. Thuc c pha vi nc nng 0,2% tr bnh mc xanh thuc l
(Peronospora tabaci), bnh Peronospora hi hnh, ti, bnh thi qu v bnh gh cam, qut,
nng 0,25% thuc tr c bnh g st hi cy cnh, cy dc liu. Thuc c hn hp vi
lu hunh kt hp tr bnh phn trng. Zineb cn c gia cng hn hp hoc dng hn hp
vi ng oxiclorua .
e. Mancozeb
- Tn thng mi: Dithane M-45 80WP, , Penncozeb 80 WP, Man 80 WP...
- Tn ha hc: Mangan-etylenbis (dithiocacbamat) phc hp vi mui km.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- c tnh: Mancozeb l loi phc cht ca km v Manzeb gm 20% mui mangan v


2,55% mui km. L loi bt mu vng hung, khng tan trong nc v trong nhiu dung mi
hu c, bn trong mi trng kh nhng thy phn trong mi trng nng, m v acid. Thuc
thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: 8000-11200mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >15000mg/kg, ADI:
0,05mg/kg, MRL: rau, qu 2mg/kg, da chut, c chua 1mg/kg, nng sn khc 0,2mg/kg (tnh
theo cacbondisunfua); PHI: da chut, c chua 4 ngy, thuc l, khoai ty 7 ngy, cy n qu 21
ngy. Thuc c i vi c, khng c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Mancozeb c s dng tr bnh sng mai c chua v khoai ty, bnh m l
c chua, bnh thi kh qu cy n qu, bnh g st hi cy cnh, bnh mc xanh thuc l...
Lng dng t 1,4-1,9kg a.i/ha.
Mancozeb hn hp vi metalaxyl dng bt thm nc c tn l Ridomil Mz WP (8%
Metalaxyl + 64% Mancozeb) cn c gi l Ridomil - Mancozeb dng tr nhiu loi nm
bnh nh bnh phn trng nho v hoa bia (250g/100 lt nc), bnh thi nn v thi gc da
(Phytopthora spp.) theo phng php nhng hom (750g/100 lt nc) hay phun m l (6 kg/ha),
bnh mc sng c chua, khoai ty (2,5kg/ha), bnh Peronospora hi tng (2,5kg/ha), bnh
mc xanh thuc l (300g/100 lt nc), bnh thi nhn bp ci, xu ho, x lch, bu b, mp...
(250g/100lt nc). Mancozeb hn hp vi Oxadixyl dng bt thm nc (10% Oxadixyl + 56%
Mancozeb) c tn l Sandofan - M dng t 2-4kg ch phm/ha tr bnh nh Ridomil MZ WP.
f. Maneb
- Tn gi khc: Dithane-M.
- Tn ha hc: Mangan-etylenbisdithiocacbamat.
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- Cng thc ha hc: (C4H6Mn2S4)X


- Phn t lng: (256,3)X
- c tnh: Thuc dng tinh th mu vng, khng tan trong nc v nhiu dung mi
hu c. Di tc ng ca khng kh, nhit v m thuc mt hiu lc tr nm. Thuc
thuc nhm c IV. LD50 per os: 7990mg/kg, thuc gy tiu chy v trng lng i vi gia
cm, ADI: 0,05mg/kg, MRL nh Mancozeb; PHI: khoai ty, thuc l 7 ngy, c chua 14 ngy,
cy lm thuc 28 ngy. Thuc khng c i vi ong mt, c i vi c.
S dng: Maneb c s dng rng ri tr bnh mc sng c chua, khoai ty, v
trong nhiu trng hp thy hiu qu cao hn Zineb. Ngoi ra, Maneb cn c dng tr
bnh thi nhn rau, bnh thi qu cy n qu. Nng s dng l 0,2-0,3% i vi loi Maneb
bt thm nc 80%.
g. Nabam
- Tn gi khc: Dithane D-14.
- Tn ha hc: Disodium etylenbis ( dithio- cacbamat ).
- Cng thc ha hc: C4H6N2Na2S4 .
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 256,3.


- c tnh: Thuc dng tinh th khng mu, tan trong nc 20%, khng tan trong
nhiu loi dung mi hu c; bn trong dung dch nc, nhng di tc ng ca nh sng,
m v nhit thuc b phn hy. Thuc thuc nhm c II, LD 50 per os: 395mg/kg, MRL v
PHI nh Mancozeb. Thuc khng c i vi ong, t c i vi c.
S dng: Nabam l loi thuc tr bnh c ph tc ng rt rng nhng c c i vi
cy trng cao, do ngy nay ch cn c dng x l t, x l ht ging v tr ru, a y
cho la.
h. Propineb
- Tn gi khc: Mezineb, Antracol.
- Tn ha hc: Polymeric-km-propylenebis (dithiocacbamat).
- Cng thc ha hc: (C5H8N2S4Zn)X .
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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- Phn t lng: (289,8)X .


- c tnh: l loi bt mu trng vng, hu nh khng tan trong nc v trong dung mi
hu c; phn gii trong mi trng m, chua v kim mnh; mi trng kh khng n mn
kim loi. Thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: >5000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >5000mg/kg, MRL
nh Mancozeb, PHI: c chua 4 ngy, khoai ty, thuc l 7 ngy, cy n qu 14-21 ngy, nho 42
ngy. Thuc c i vi c, khng c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Propineb c s dng tr bnh Peronospora hi nho, bnh mc sng
khoai ty, c chua, bnh nm mc xanh thuc l. Thuc c hn hp vi lu hunh tr bnh
phn trng. Loi thuc bt thm nc 80% c dng pha vi nc nng 0,2-0,4% phun
ln cy.

3.9.3 THUC TR NM GC THY NGN


C cc c im chung nh sau:
- c cao i vi ngi v ng vt mu nng, c kh nng tch ly trong c th.
- D gy hi cho thc vt: gy chy l, lm mm ht ging trng to, ri lon nhim sc
th...
- Tc ng ty tr rt tt nh c kh nng xng hi, dn n s ti phn b thuc sau khi
x l.
- Ch yu dng x l ging (ht ging, hom, c...), tr nhiu loi nm v vi khun
lu tn trong cc b phn truyn ging. Rt hu hiu i vi bnh than. Ngoi ra, thuc cn
phng tr c su hi ht ging v cy con.
3.9.3.1 Cc hp cht v c HgCl, HgCl2
Cc thuc ny d gy c cho ng thc vt, thng dng vi hm lng thy ngn cao.
Thuc lm ngng t nguyn sinh cht. Nng dng x l t v ht l 0,1% HgCl2. Thuc
ny b cm dng v rt c, ch cn s dng trong phng th nghim.
3.9.3.2 Cc hp cht hu c
Nhn chung cc hp cht hu c c thy ngn hu hiu hn cc hp cht v c, do d
thm thu qua mng t bo tc nhn gy bnh hn v d thm qua v ht ging hn. Thuc ny
tr c hu ht cc loi nm v vi khun gy bnh lu tn bn ngoi ht ging. Cc ch phm
thng dng trc y: Granozan, Mercuzan, Aretan, Ceresan, Panogen, Semesan, Falizan. Hu
ht cc loi thuc ny b cm s dng v rt c.

3.9.4 THUC TR NM DICACBOXIN


L thuc tr nm tip xc v mt phn ni hp, rt an ton cho cy trng. Thuc tr c
cc loi nm hch nh Rhizoctonia sp., Sclerostinia sp.
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3.9.4.1 Iprodione
-

Tn thng mi: Rovral 50 BHN.


Tn ha hc: 3 - (3, 5 - Diclophenyl) - N - isopropyl - 2, 4 - dioxoim - dazoli-dine -1cacboxamide.
Cng thc ha hc: C13H13Cl2N3O3
Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

Phn t lng:

330,2

- c tnh: Iprodione k thut dng tinh th, tan tt t trong nc, tan trong nhiu loi
dung mi hu c, khng n mn kim loi, tng i bn trong mi trng axit, thy phn trong
mi trng kim. Thuc thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: 2000mg/kg, LD50 dermal (th):
>2000mg/kg; ADI: 0,3mg/kg; MRL: du ty 15mg/kg, x lch, nho 10mg/kg, ng cc, ht c
du 0,22mg/kg; PHI: du ty 10 ngy, x lch 14 ngy, nho 28 ngy. Thuc c i vi c;
khng c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Iprodione c gia cng thnh dng bt thm nc 50%, thuc c pha vi
nc nng 0,1-0,2% phun tr bnh Botrytis hi nho, x lch, bp ci, hoa, cy cnh; tr
nm Monilia, Sclerotium spp., Alternaria, Fusarium, Helminthosporium, Rhizoctonia v Typhula
spp. hi rau, mu, cy n qu. tr bnh kh vn hi la dng 1,5-1,7 kg Rovral bt thm nc
50%/ha. C th dng Rovral hn hp vi Zineb tr bnh thi gc da hu, bp ci v hnh, ti.
3.9.4.2. Rovral TS
- Thnh phn: Iprodione 35% + Carbendazim 17,5%.
- Thng dng kh c ht ging liu lng 150-250g/kg ht phng tr nhiu
loi nm bnh (R. solani, Fusarium sp., Altemaria sp., Ticillium sp., Sclerotiana sp.).

3.9.5 THUC TR NM HU C NI HP
3.9.5.1 Thuc tr nm nhm ln hu c
* c im chung:
-Tc ng dit tr v c kh nng lu dn ln.
- Ph tc dng hp.
- t c vi ngi v ng vt mu nng.
- C th dit c mt s loi su hi.
KITAZIN, KITAZIN P, KIAN ( ZINAPHOS, IBP, IZOKITAZIN)
- Dng ch phm: 50ND, 10BR
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- Tn ha hc: 0,0-dietyl-S-benzyl thiophosphate (Kitazin); O,O-Dilzipropyl-S-benzyl


thiophosphate (Kitazin p).
- L tnh: hot cht l cht lng mu vng sng hoc khng mu, ha tan tt trong cc
DMHC, tan t trong nc (0,1% 180C). Thuc dng ht c mu vng hay xm.
- Ha tnh: t bn trong mi trng kim, rt bn trong mi trng axit. nhit cao,
Kitazin b phn hy tng i nhanh thnh dibenzyl sulphur.
- Tnh c: LD50 (CT,M chut nht) = 660mg/kg, trn da (chut nht ci = 5000mg/kg
TLm 48 i vi c chp = 5.1ppm. t gy c, thm ch cn kch thch lm cho cy cng cp, t
b ng v chng chu c nhiu loi su bnh. Thuc tc ng tip xc v c kh nng lu
dn ln c hp thu qua r hay b l di nc ri dn truyn ln l bng, v tip xc. Tc
ng bng cc c ch s sinh trng ca si nm v s hnh thnh bo t trn vt bnh. C tc
dng v lu di (thi gian lu tn trn la: thi k la ng ci l 10 ngy thi k la n r l
5 ngy).
- Cng dng v cch dng: Trn la thuc phng tr tt cc bnh o n, m vn, thi
gc la. i vi bnh o n (do nm Pyricularia oryzae gy ra) giai on chy l dng
Kitazin 10H vi liu lng 25-30 kg/ha ri vo lc 7-10 ngy trc khi m bnh xut hin trn
l giai on thi c gi: dng 30-40 kg/ha ri vo 5-10 ngy trc khi la tr. Vi bnh m
vn (do nm Rhizoctonia solani gy ra) ri 30-40 kg/ha hoc phun Kitazin 50ND vi liu dng
1-2 lt/ha, nng 0,2% nu bnh ti pht, phun tip ln th hai cch ln u 5-7 ngy. i vi
bnh thi gc (do nm Helminthosporium sigmoidium gy ra) ri Kitazin 10H 25-30 kg/ha thuc
cn tr ry xanh ui en, ry lng trng, ry in quang, b tr b gai... phun Kitazin 50ND vi
liu lng 2,5 lt/ha, nng 500- 600.
Lu : rung ri thuc p b bao kn gi mc nc cao 5-7cm trong t nht mt tun
nu bnh cn nng c th ri thm mt ln vo trong . Dng thuc thi k con gi c li hn
thi k sp tr v kh nng ht thuc ca r mnh hn. Vi m non khng nn ri thuc nng
cao. Do thuc ch c tc ng lu vn ln, nn khi phun phi ch phun vo gc la.
HINOSAN: (Hinosan 50ND, EDDP, Baysra 7817, Ediphenphot, Bay 78418).
- Hot cht: S,S diphenyl-O-ethyl dithiophosphate (C14 H15 OS2 )
- Phn t lng: 310,4
- L tnh: Hinosan l mt cht lng trong sut mu vng en nu nht c mi ca
thiophenol rt kh chu khng tan trong nc tan trong acetone v xylen.
- Ha tnh: thuc d b kim phn gii nhit thng.
- Tnh c: LD50 (CT, M, chut cng)= 212mg/kg: trn da chut nht =163mg/kg nh
hng i vi cy la ging.
- Cng dng v cch dng: Thuc c tc dng tip xc ni hp. Khi phun ln cy, thuc
c ch s hnh thnh v pht trin ca bo t nm; hoc c l, thn hp thu vo bn trong v
dn tuyn n khp cc b phn ca cy, c ch s sinh trng ca cc si nm trong m.
Hinosan l thuc c tr o n, nhng n cng phng tr rt hu hiu i vi cc bnh:
kh gi la (do nm Cochliobolus lyabeamus gy ra), bnh kh vn (nm Pellicularia hypochnus
sasakii); bnh thi thn. Thuc c th tn lu trong cy n 7 ngy. Ngoi ra thuc cn dng
tr cc loi ry, b xt, b tr ht la. Liu dng: 1,5-2lt/ha Hinosa 50ND nng 1: 500-800.
Khi phun tr bnh nn phun ngay vo lc nm bnh u tin va xut hin, nu bnh trm trng
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c th phun 2 ln, cch nhau 5-7 ngy. phng bnh o n trn bng (thi c gi) cn phun 2
ln t lc l ng n lc tr bng (cch nhau 7-12 ngy) khi phun tr cn trng nn phun k
vo gc la, b l, nch l vo lc c cn trng xut hin.
Lu : thi k cch ly 14 ngy. Khng hn hp vi nhng thuc c tnh kim. Ging nh
Kitazin, i khi trn l xut hin nhng chm nu , nhng khng nh hng n nng sut.
3.9.5.2 Thuc tr nm nhm Benzimidazol
* c im chung:
- t c vi ngi v ng vt.
- Ph phng tr rng, tuy nhin hiu lc km i vi lp nm Phycomycetes: Alternaria
sp., Helminthosporium sp., Sclerotium rolfsii ).
a. Benomyl
- Tn gi khc: Fundazol, Fundozol
- Tn thng mi: Bemyl 50 WP, Ben 50 WP, Bendazol 50 WP, Viben 50 WP, Benlate
50 WP...
- Tn ha hc: Metyl 1-(butylcacbamoyl ) benzimidazol-2-ylcacbamat
- Cng thc ha hc: C14H18N4O3
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 290,3


- c tnh: Benomyl tinh khit dng tinh th khng mu, khng tan trong nc, tan t
trong dung mi hu c, phn hy trong mi trng axit, kim mnh v trong iu kin bo qun
m, khng n mn kim loi. Thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: >10.000mg/kg, LD50
dermal (th): >10.000mg/kg; ADI: 0,02mg/kg; MRL: cam, chanh, bi 7-10mg/kg, nho
3mg/kg, da 2mg/kg, cc loi qu khc 1,5mg/kg , rau 1mg/kg, cam bc v 1mg/kg, da chut,
ng cc 0,5mg/kg, chui 0,2mg/kg, sn phm khc 0,1mg/kg, PHI: ng cc 35-56 ngy, cy
thc n gia sc 7 ngy, rau n l 28 ngy, ht c du, hnh, ti 14 ngy, rau n qu 4 ngy, du
ty v cc loi n qu khc 7-14 ngy, cy lm thc n tr em 28 ngy, cy dc liu 21 ngy,
thuc t c i vi c v khng c i vi ong mt.
S dng: L loi thuc tr nm bnh tc dng ni hp, c ph tc ng rng, tr c
nhiu bnh hi rau, mu, cy cng nghip, cy n qu, hoa v cy cnh. Ngoi ra thuc cn dit
tr c nhn , liu lng s dng i vi rau l 140-550g a.i/ha; i vi cy cao ln 5501.100g a.i/ha, dng x l nng sn sau thu hoch 25-200g a.i/100 lt nc. Thuc Benomyl
bt thm nc 50% dng x l ht ging hnh tr bnh Botrytis (2g/kg ht ging ); x l c
hoa layn v cc loi hoa trng bng c tr bnh thi c v nm nh Botrytis spp.. v
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Fusarium spp., nng 0,2% trong 30 pht; dng 0,3kg/ha tr bnh m en trn la m, bnh
phn trng trn rau qu; nng 0,05 % phun tr bnh phn trng hoa hng; nng 0,06%
tr bnh phn trng cy n qu, nho, du ty, nng 0,1% phun tr bnh thi nhn xu ho,
bp ci, x lch, bnh thi v vt en cy cnh. liu lng 2 kg/ha thuc cn c tc dng c
ch bnh kh vn v bnh o n pht trin.
b. Carbendazim
-Tn thng mi: Carbenzim 50 WP, Carban 50 SC, Bavistin 50 FL, Derosal 50 SC,
Carosal 50 WP, Appencarb supper 50 FL...
- Tn ha hc: 2-(Methyoxylcarbolamino)-benzimidazol
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- c tnh: l thuc ni hp, dng tr nhiu loi nm bnh hi ng cc, bng, cy n


qu, nho, chui, cy cnh ...; thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: 15000mg/kg, LD50 dermal:
2000mg/kg, ADI: 0,01mg/kg.
c tnh v hot tnh tng t nh Benomyl, nhng c mt s trng hp (nh nhm
nm Saccaromycetes), hiu lc km hn Benomyl, c l do thuc ny kh thm vo t bo hn.
3.9.5.3 Thuc tr nm nhm Triazole
y l nhm thuc tr nm quan trng, tr c nhiu loi nh: nm phn trng, g st,
than en, l c g, m vn... thuc ngn tr sinh tng hp Ergosterol, s hnh thnh r bm hay
gic mt.
a. Hexaconazole
-

Tn gi khc: Anvil

Tn ha hc: (RS) - 2 - (2,4-Diclophenyl) - 1 - (1H - 1,2,4 - triazol - 1 - yl) hexan - 2


- ol.

Cng thc ha hc: C14H17Cl2N3O

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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Phn t lng: 314

- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th, tan t trong nc (18mg/lt), tan trong
nhiu dung mi hu c. Thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: 2189-6071mg/kg, LD50 dermal:
>2000mg/kg. Thuc c c trung bnh i vi ong mt v c.
S dng: Anvil tc dng ni hp, tr c nhiu loi nm bnh. Thuc c gia cng
thnh dng dung dch huyn ph m c 5% (Anvil 5 SC), dng du (Anvil 5 OL)... Anvil 5 SC
cha 50g a.i/lt, dng tr bnh thi qu nho, bnh phn trng hi nho (30-100 g a.i/ha), tr bnh
m l lc (20-50g a.i/ha), bnh g st c ph, m nu c ph (30-100 g a.i/ha), bnh m sc l
chui Sigatoka (30-100g a.i/ha), bnh phn trng hi rau (20-50g a.i/ha), bnh phng l ch (2550g a.i/ha), bnh g st v phn trng hi cy cnh v hoa hng (25-50g a.i/ha) v bnh lem lp
ht la, bnh kh vn hi la (50-100g a.i/ha).
b. Diniconazole
-

Tn gi khc: Sumi-8, Sumi- Eight.

Tn ha hc: (E)-1-(2,4-Diclophenyl)-4,4-dimetyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol - 1-yl) -1- penten 3 - ol.

Cng thc ha hc: C15H17Cl2N3O

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

Phn t lng:

326,23

- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng bt mu xm, tan t trong nc ( 4,01% ), tan
trong mt s dung mi hu c, bn vng di tc ng ca nh sng, nhit . Thuc thuc
nhm c III, LD50 per os: 639mg/kg. LD50 dermal: > 5000mg/kg. Thuc c i vi c.

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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

S dng: Diniconazole l loi thuc tr nm tc dng ni hp. Thuc c gia cng


thnh dng bt thm nc 12,5% (cha 12,5% ng phn E-R) v 5% (cha 5% ng phn ER). Ch phm bt thm nc 12,5% dng pha nc nng 0,016- 0,03% phun tr bnh phn
trng (Uncinula necator) v bnh m nu (Guignardia bidwellii) hi nho. Thuc cn dng tr
bnh cho la mi v la mch nh bnh phn trng (62,5-125 g a.i/ha), bnh g nu Puccinia
recondita (25-50g a.i/ha), bnh g vng Puccinia striiformis (50-62,5g a.i/ha), tr bnh m l
lc (50-100g a.i/ha), bnh m sc l lc Sclerotium solfsii (25-50g a.i/ha), bnh g st lc (12,525g a.i/ha), tr bnh g st c ph (100-200g a.i/ha), bnh m l chui (75-125g a.i/ha). Thuc
Sumi-8 bt thm nc 12,5% pha nng 0,01% phun ln cy con tr c bnh phn trng,
thi qu c chua, da chut v da hu.
c. Propiconazole
-

Tn gi khc: Tilt ( nghin qu t, nhng iu k l trn th gii), Desmel,


Radar.
Tn ha hc: (+)-1[(2,4-Diclophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmetyl]-1H-1, 2- 4triazole.
Cng thc ha hc: C15H17CI2N3O2
Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

Phn t lng: 342,2

- c tnh: Thuc k thut th lng mu vng, tan trong nc (110mg/lt), v nhiu


dung mi hu c nh aceton, metylic, khng n mn kim loi. Thuc thuc nhm c III, LD50
per os: 1517mg/kg, LD50 dermal: 4000mg/kg, MRL: 0,1mg/kg i vi ng cc, ng, c ph,
PHI: 14 ngy i vi lc, 6 ngy i vi cy n qu. Thuc c i vi c, khng c i vi
ong mt.
S dng: Propiconazole l loi thuc tr nm bnh c tc dng ni hp. Thuc c gia
cng thnh nhiu dng nh sa (Tilt 100, Tilt 250EC), dng dung dch ( Tilt 125 SL) v cc
dng hn hp vi nhiu loi thuc tr bnh khc. Thuc Tilt 250EC cha 250g hot cht/lt,
dng tr bnh g st, phn trng cho hoa hng v cy cnh, bnh kh vn, tim la, m nu,
lem lp ht lu, o n hi la, tr bnh m sc Cercospora coffeicola v bnh g st hi c
ph, tr bnh m l lc, bnh g st, tim la hi ng. Ngoi ra thuc cn tr c bnh thi
qu cy n qu, bnh phn trng v g st la m, mch. Liu s dng t 0,3 -0,7 lt ch
phm/ha.
d. Cyproconazol
-

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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94

Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Tn gi khc: Bonanza

Dng ch phm: Bonanza 100DD loi chai (100cc, 50cc, 10cc)

Chng 3

- c: Thuc nhm c III. Thuc t c i vi mi trng, d lng li trong


sn phm thng rt t, nn khng lm nh hng n sc khe ngi tiu dng.
- c tnh: Thuc c tc dng ni hp, tip xc. Hp th nhanh qua l, hiu lc ko di
khong hai n ba tun sau khi phun.
- Cng dng v liu lng: Bonanza l thuc tr bnh ph rng, tr c nhiu loi
bnh trn nhiu loi cy trng. Trn u cc loi; tr bnh m l, mc trng, m phn, r, thi
gc... Trn bu, b, da phng tr cc bnh r, m vng, phn trng. Trn cy n tri tr cc bnh
gh, chy hoa, r phn trng, cht cy con. Trn la Bonanza tr c bnh m vn, vng l,
m nu... v mt s bnh khc nh: gch nu, thi thn, thi b. Liu lng s dng: 300400cc cho 1ha (pha 8-10cc/bnh 8 lt). Phun 4 bnh 8 lt cho 1000 m2; phun 1,5 bnh/360 m2 .
e. Triadimefon
-

Tn gi khc: Bayleton

Tn ha hc: 1- (4 -Clophenoxi) 3, 3- dimetyl -1-( 1H -1, 2, 4 -tri- azol- 1- yl)


butanone.

Cng thc ha hc: C14H16CIN3O2

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

Phn t lng: 293,8

- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht th rn, tan t trong nc (260mg/kg), tan trong cc
dung mi hu c thng thng nh toluen, diclometan v.v... khng n mn kim loi. Thuc
thuc nhm c III. LD50 per os: 1000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >5000mg/kg, ADI: 0,03mg/kg,
MRL: hoa bia 15mg/kg, du ty 0,2mg/kg, cc sn phm khc 0,1mg/kg; PHI: da chut 3
ngy, ng cc 35 ngy, hoa bia 14 ngy, nho 35 ngy. Thuc khng c i vi ong mt, thuc
t c i vi c.
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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

S dng: Triadimefon l loi thuc tr nm tc dng ni hp, dng tr bnh phn


trng v g st cho ng cc, c ph, nho, cy cnh, cy n qu v rau mu. Thuc c ch bin
thnh dng sa, bt thm nc. Thuc Bayleton bt thm nc 25% (Bayleton 25WP) v
Bayleton sa 25% (Bayleton 25EC) dng pha nc 0,2% nhng hom da tr bnh thi da
Ceratocys paradoxa. tr bnh g st bng dng 500-1000g ch phm/ha; tr bnh phn trng,
g st cho rau, u, da chut, da hu dng 120-250g ch phm/ha; tr bnh phn trng, g st
cho la m, la mch dng 400-500g ch phm/ha; tr bnh g st cho c ph dng 250-500g
hoc 800-1000g ch phm/ha nu bnh nng; tr bnh g st tng dng 400g ch phm/ha.
Thuc cn c pha vi nc nng 0,02-0,05% ch phm tr bnh thi trng qu xoi
(Odium mangiferae); 0,01-0,02% tr bnh thi trng nho, bnh phn trng thuc l; 0,016-0,03%
tr bnh phn trng cy cnh; 0,08% tr bnh g st hoa hng; 0.05-0.08% tr bnh phn trng
hoa hng.
f. Triadimenol
-

Tn gi khc: Bayfidan, Baytan.


Tn ha hc: 1-(4-Clophenoxi)-3, 3-dimetyl-1-(1H-1, 2, 4-tri-azole-1-yl)-butanol-2 .
Cng thc ha hc: C14H18CIN3O2
Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 295,8


- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht th rn, hu nh khng tan trong nc, tan trong mt
s dung mi hu c nh diclometan, 2-propanon, khng n mn kim loi. Thuc thuc nhm
c III, LD50 per os: 700mg/kg, LD50 dermal: > 5000mg/kg; MRL: ng cc, da chut, cy n
qu 0,5mg/kg, nho 0,3mg/kg, cc sn phm khc 0,1mg/kg; PHI: 30- 35 ngy. Thuc khng
c i vi ong mt, t c i vi c.
S dng: Triadimetol l loi thuc tr nm ni hp, dng tr bnh phn trng, g st cho
m, mch, c ph, rau, qu, bnh m l chui, bnh mc hng (Fusarium spp.) v thi en m,
mch (Septoria spp., Tilletia caries, Ustilago spp..). Ch phm Triadimetol sa 25% (Bayfidan
25EC) dng 0,4-0,5 lt ch phm/ha (5-6 lt du thc vt) tr bnh m l chui (Mycosphaerella
filensis var. difformis, Mycosphaerella musicola), dng pha nc nng 0,01-0,02% ch
phm tr bnh g st v phn trng cho rau, qu; dng liu lng 0,4-0,5 lt/ha tr bnh g st
v phn trng hi m, mch; liu 0,5-1 lt/ha tr c bnh g st c ph. Ngoi ra thuc cn
c dng tr bnh phn trng, g st cho cy cnh v cc loi hoa nh Bayleton.

3.9.6 Thuc tr nm tng hp hu c khc


a. Isoprothiolane
- Hp cht d vng, c tr bnh o n, chuyn v ln rt tt.
- Tn gi khc: Fuji-one, Fudiolan, Fuan.
- Tn ha hc: Diisopropyl 1,3-Dithiolan-2-ylidenemalonate.
- Cng thc ha hc: C12H18O4S2
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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 290,4.


- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th, tan t trong nc (48mg/kg), d tan
trong nhiu dung mi hu c. Thuc thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: 1190mg/kg. LD50 dermal:
>10,250mg/kg, PHI: 14 ngy. Thuc c i vi c.
S dng: Isoprothiolane l loi thuc c tc dng ni hp c dng tr bnh o n
hi la. Ngoi ra thuc cn c hiu lc i vi ry nu (ry cm). Thuc c gia cng thnh
dng sa 40-50%, dng bt thm nc 40% v dng ht 10-12%. Loi Fujione sa 40% c
dng vi lng 1,0-1,2 lt/ha.
b. Pencycuron
-

Tn gi khc: Monceren
Tn ha hc: 1-(4-Clobenzyl)-1-xiclopentyl-3-phenylurea
Cng thc ha hc: C19H21ClN2O
Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Phn t lng: 328,8


- c tnh: Thuc nguyn cht dng tinh th, khng tan trong nc, tan tt trong mt
s dung mi hu c nh diclometan, n mn kim loi. Thuc thuc nhm c IV, LD50 per os: >
5000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: > 2000mg/kg, MRL: i vi khoai ty 0,02mg/kg. Thuc t c i
vi c, khng c i vi ong mt.
S dng: Monceren c gia cng thnh dng bt thm nc 25%, dng phun bt 1,5%
v dng x l ht ging . Thuc bt thm nc 25% c dng vi lng 0,8 kg ch phm/ha
tr bnh kh vn hi la. Phun khi bnh mi chm pht. tr bnh kh vn c bng cn phun
trc khi la tr 2-3 tun. Monceren cn c dng tr bnh cht o cy con bng, rau,
khoai ty, cy cnh do nm Rhizoctonia solani gy nn.
c. Fosetyl-aluminium
-

Tn gi khc: Aliette, Mikal


Tn ha hc: Aluminium-etyl-hidrogenphotphonat
Cng thc ha hc: C6H18AlO9P3
Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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97

Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

Phn t lng: 354,1

- c tnh: Fosetyl- aluminium (vit tt l Fosetyl-Al) nguyn cht dng khng mu,
tan trong nc (122g/lt), khng ha tan trong nhiu dung mi hu c, bn vng trong iu kin
bo qun tt, phn hy trong mi trng kim v acid, oxi ha mnh di tc ng ca cht oxi
ha kh, khng n mn kim loi. Thuc thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: 5800mg/kg, LD50
dermal (th): > 2000mg/kg; PHI: rau, qu 14 ngy, nho 35 ngy. Thuc c i vi c, t c i
vi ong mt.
S dng: Fosetyl-Al l loi thuc tr bnh tc dng ni hp. Thuc c ch bin thnh
dng thm nc 80% (Aliette 80WP) hoc hn hp vi Captan, Thiabendazole, hn hp vi
Bendiocarb, Folpet, Mancozeb. Loi Aliette 80WP pha nc nng 0,3% phun tr bnh cht
o h tiu (Phytophthora palmivora), nng 0,25% phun tr bnh thi nn da
(Phytophthora parasitica), bnh phytophthora hi cao su, cam, qut, bi v mt s cy n qu
khc. Bnh Pseudomoperonospora, Peronospora, Bremia, Pythium hi da chut, hnh ty, cy
con thuc l.
d. Cymoxanil
- Tn khc: Curzate M8
- Tn ha hc: 1-(2-Xiano-2-methoxiiminoaxetyl)-3-etylure
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

- Thuc c tc dng ni hp, dng tr cc bnh do cc nm sau y gy ra:


Peronospora spp., Phytophthora spp. v Plasmopara spp., Plasmopara vitricola v
Phytophthora infestan. Lng dng 100-120g a.i/ha; thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os:
1100mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >5000mg/kg.
e. Metalaxyl
- Tn khc: Ridomil, Apron, Fubol.
- Tn ha hc: Metyl N -( 2-methoxyacetyl ) - N -(2, 6-xylyl) -DL-alaninate.
- Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

- Thuc c tc dng ni hp tr c nhiu loi nm bnh nh: Pseudoperonospora


humuli hi hoa bia, bnh mc sng khoai ty, c chua, bnh mc xanh thuc l, bnh thi nho,
bnh phn trng, bnh Pythium spp.; thuc nhm c III, LD50 per os: 669mg/kg, LD50 dermal:
3100mg/kg, ADI: 0,03mg/kg.

3.10. THUC KHNG SINH


* c im chung
- Thuc khng sinh l nhng sn phm ca qu trnh hot ng sng ca vi sinh vt, thc
vt c tc dng kim hm hot dng hoc tiu dit cc vi sinh vt gy bnh. Hin nay cc cht
khng sinh dng trong bo v thc vt thng c p dng bng cc cch sau:
- p dng trc tip cc vi sinh vt i khng (nh nm Trichoderma lignorum).
- To iu kin cc vi sinh vt i khng trong t nhin pht trin (nh bn nhiu
phn hu c ).
- Dng cc cht khng sinh trch ly t vi sinh vt hoc tng hp ha hc.
- Cc cht khng sinh thng c tnh ni hp mnh, tnh chn lc cao, t c i vi
ngi v ng vt. Tuy nhin chng d b khng hn so vi cc nhm khc.
3.10.1 Kasugamycin
Trch ly t mi trng nui cy nm Streptomyces kasugaensis. Dng tr bnh o n
v vi khun Pseudomonas sp. bng cch x l ging hoc phun l.
-

Tn thng mi: Kasumin 2 L, Cansumin 2 L

Tn ha hc: [5- Amino- 2-metyl-6- (2, 3, 4, 5, 6- pentahidroxi -clohexyloxi)


tetrahidropyran-3-yl] amino--iminoaxetic axit.

Cng thc ha hc: C14H28ClN3O10

Cng thc cu trc ha hc:

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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

Phn t lng: 433,8

- c tnh: Kasumin dng tinh th, tan trong nc (125g/lt), tan t hoc khng tan
trong nhiu loi dung mi hu c, khng bn vng trong mi trng acid v kim mnh. Thuc
thuc nhm c IV. LD50 per os: 22mg/kg, LD50 dermal 4mg/kg. PHI: cy n qu 14-21 ngy,
da chut, c chua 1 ngy, ci xanh, x lch, cam, qut 7 ngy, ch 30 ngy. Thuc khng c
di vi c v ong mt.
S dng: Kasumin c sn xut qua qu trnh ln men nm Streptomyces kasugaensis.
Thuc c ch bin thnh cc dng dung dch 2%, bt thm nc 2-5%, ht 2%, dng hn hp
vi ng oxyclorua (gi l Kasuran) vi Fthalide (gi l Kasurabcide). Ch phm Kasurabcide
(cn gi l Kasai) 21,2% bt thm nc gm 1,2% Kasumin, 20% Fthalide. tr bnh o n,
bnh m sc vi khun hi la dng Kasumin dung dch hoc bt thm nc 2% liu lng 11,5kg ch phm/ha. Cn phun lc la tr r tr o n c bng. Ch phm Kasuran c hai
loi u l dng bt thm nc v dng liu lng nh nhau. Loi cha 5% Kasumin + 75,6%
ng oxyclorua (45% ng kim loi), loi 2% Kasumin + 80,6% ng oxyclorua (48% ng kim
loi) Kasuran pha vi nc 0,1-0,15% phun tr bnh mc sng, bnh m l vi khun
(Pseudomonas syringae), bnh phn trng, bnh rm, thi nhn vi khun cho da, bu, b, c
chua, da hu, khoai ty, hnh, t... tr bnh gh l, m en, si cnh cam qut, bnh m nu,
g st, thi vi khun c ph, bnh chy l v bnh phng l ch.
3.10.2 Streptomycin: l ch phm c sn xut t s ln men ca nm Streptomyces, c tc
ng khng sinh.
-

Tn thng mi: Validan 3DD, 5DD; Validacin 3L, 5L (Nht),


Jing-Gang-Meisu 5 SL, 10 WP (Trung Quc).

Tn thng thng: Validamycin A

Tn ha hc: 1L-(1,3,4/2,6)-2, 3-Dihidroxy-6-hydroxymetyl-4-(1S, 4R, 5S, 6S) - 4, 5,


6-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymetylxiclohex-2-enylamino) xiclohexyl -D-glicopira-noside.

Cng thc ha hc: C20H35NO13

Phn t lng: 497,5

- c tnh: Thuc k thut (45-60%) dng bt, d ht m, bn vng di nhit


thng thng v trong dung dch kim tnh hoc acid; tuy nhin thuc b phn gii di tc ng
ca cht kim v ion kim loi (st), thuc tan trong nc v nhiu dung mi hu c. Thuc thuc
nhm c IV; LD50 per os: >20000mg/kg, LD50 dermal: >5000mg/kg, PHI: 14 ngy. Thuc c
i vi ong mt v c.

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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

S dng: Validamycin A c s dng tr bnh kh vn hi la, ng, bnh m l v


thn la, ng do Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizoctonia oryzae v Sclerotium oryzae-sativa gy nn.
Ngoi ra thuc cn tr bnh thi c, thi r khoai ty, bng, c chua v nhiu loi rau do nm
Rhizoctonia solani gy nn. C th phun dung dch thuc ln cy hay nhng r cy, x l cy
con v c (khoai ty, cy ging rau). i vi la phun khi la c ng, vo lc 5-10 ngy trc
khi tr bng tr bnh kh vn c bng, hoc phun thuc sau khi la tr bng 5-7 ngy.
Ch phm Validacin ca Nht sn xut t Validamycin A qua ln men chng nm
Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. limoncus Iwasa et al. Validacin dung dch 3% (3SL) v 5%
(5SL) mu xanh l cy, thm mi cn metanol, sc cng b mt dung dch thp (46-49,4
dyne/cm) v khng cha tp cht, c dng 1,5-1,7 lt/ha i vi loi 3% v 0,9-1,0 lt i vi
loi 5%. Nu phun cho ng dng 1,7-2,0 lt/ha (loi 3%) hoc 1,0-1,5 lt/ha (loi 5%).
Ch phm Jing-gang Meisu ca Trung Quc sn xut t Validamycin A qua ln men
chng nm Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. jinggangensis Yen. Jing gang Meisu dung dch c
hai loi. Loi 2% v 3% mu v mi khc vi ch phm ca Nht, sc cng b mt dung dch
cao (>71 dyne/cm) v c nhiu tp cht ph. Loi 2% dng 3 - 4 lt/ha v loi 3% dng 2,0-2,5
lt/ha la, 4-6 lt/ha (loi 2%) hoc 2,5-4 lt/ha (loi 3%) ng. Jing gang Meisu bt thm nc
hin c loi cha 5% Validamycin A ng vo bao bc 25g/gi, pha vi 70-100 lt nc phun
cho 660m2. Khi m gi thuc khng ng kn bt thuc rt d ht m b vn cc nhng nu
dng ngay cht lng thuc khng gim.

C. THUC TR C
3.11.1 nh ngha
C di l nhng loi thc vt mc ni m con ngi khng mong mun, lm cn tr
qu trnh sn xut nng nghip.

3.11.2 c im c di
- Sinh trng nhanh: Mt ht c lng vc cn (Echinochloa colona) s cho 50 chi sau
45 ngy, la s cho 25 chi khi trng trong chu.
- Thch ng tt vi iu kin khc nghit ca mi trng:
Chu hn: C tc hnh (Digitaria sanguinalis), c tranh (Imperata
c c (Cyperus rotundus).

cylindrica),

Mn, ngt: C nc mn (Scirpus maritimus).


- C min trng: gip ht c ngng pht trin khi b vi su trong lng t. Ht c lng
vc cn (Echinochloa spp.) kh b vi su trong t sau 4 thng s mc li.
- Pht tn xa: Ht c nh, c lng t mn nh gi a i rt xa. Ht c cha khng kh,
ni c trn mt nc nn d di chuyn sang cc rung ln cn. Ht c c mc cu nn d bm
vo lng cn trng. Ngoi ra, o qun cng c lao ng trn ng rung cng gip ht c di
chuyn i xa.

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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

3.11.3 Kh nng cnh tranh vi la


C di cnh tranh vi la v nh sng, dinh dng v nc ti. C lng vc nc (E.
crus-galli) c kh nng lm gim 25% nng sut la.

3.11.4 Phn loi c di


a. Chu k sng
- C hng nin: chu k sng di mt nm, thng chu k sng i theo chu k cy
trng. C lng vc (Echinochloa spp.), c ui phng (Leptochloa chinensis).
- C nh nin: kt thc chu k sng trong vng hai nm; nm u sinh trng, nm sau
sinh dc.
- C a nin: chu k sng trn 2 nm. Thng ra hoa u tin vo nm th hai, nm sau
li tip tc ra hoa. C mn tru (Cynodon dactylon), c c (Cyperus rotundus), rau m (Centella
asiatica).
b. iu kin sng
- Chu hn: C sng st v pht trin tr li sau khi b hn mt thi gian di nh c tranh
(Imperata cylindrica).
- a hn: C c kh nng chu c iu kin kh hn khc nghit nh c c (Cyperus
rotundus), rau dn (Amaranthus spinosus).
- Chu nc: C thch ni c nc su lin tc. Cy thy sinh nh bo cm (Lemma
minor), rau mc (Monochoria vaginalis), rau b (Marsilia minuta), rau da nc (Gussiaea
repens).
c. Hnh thi
C ha bn (Poaceae): thn thng c hnh tr trn rng, c lng, t c. B l m ly
thn, phin l di, hp, mc ng hoc hi xin theo trc thn theo hai hng dc. Gn l
song song, cu trc mt trn v di ging nhau. B v phin l phn bit r rng. Ht
ng kht, pht hoa thng kiu gi. Dnh qu, r chm. Th d: c lng vc
(Echinochloa spp.), c ui phng (Leptochloa chinensis), c lng ty (Brachiaria
mutica), c tc hnh (Digitaria spp.).
C lc (Cyperaceae): thn cng, xp, c nhiu cnh. B v phin l ng nht; phin l
di, hp; gn l song song. L mc thnh ba hng xon c dc theo trc thn. Ht ri,
pht hoa thng kiu chm, chm t tn... qu b, r chm. C chc (Fimbristylis
miliaceae), C cho (lc m) (Cyperus difformis), lc rn (Cyperus iria), c c (Cyperus
rotundus), C nng (Eleocharis dulcis).
C l rng (Broad leaf): thn thng hnh tr trn hoc hi vung cnh, phn nhnh. L
rng, a dng, mt trn v di c cu trc khc nhau. Gn xp theo hnh lng chim nh
c x bng (Sphenoclea zeylanica), rau dn (Amaranthus spinosus), rau mung
(Impomea aquatica), rau mng (Lugwigia octovalvis); gn song song xp theo hnh r
qut nh rau mc bao (Monochoria vaginalis), rau b (Masilia minuta). Hoa rt pht
trin, nhiu cnh r rt. Kiu pht hoa a dng: hoa n, hoa u, chm, tn, chm t
tn...
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S l mm: c 2 dng chnh

C mt l mm (n t dip=monocotydon): ht ch c mt t dip, cy tng trng


thnh c l hp; gn l song song, l mc hi xin hay ng, r chm. nh sinh trng
bc kn trong b l nh c lng vc, ui phng, la c...

C hai l mm (Song t dip=dicotydon): ht c hai t dip, l thng rng, gn l


hnh lng chim, mng, mm, t lng, r thng l r cc, n su, im sinh trng l ra
ngoi, hoa nhiu cnh r rt: Rau mng (Lugwigia octovalvis), c x bng (Spenoclea
zeylanica). Khng phi tt c c l rng u l song t dip.

Cch sinh sn
- Sinh sn hu tnh: hu ht c hng nin u sinh sn bng ht.
- Sinh sn va hu tnh va v tnh: c nh nin hoc a nin. Ngoi vic sinh sn
bng ht, c cn sinh sn bng thn ngm nh c ch, c g (Cynodon dactylon), rau m
(Centella asiatica).
Da vo h thng phn loi thc vt
C lng vc (Echinochloa crus-galli).
Loi : Crus-galli
Ging: Echinochloa
H

: Poaceae (Graminae)

: Poales (Graminales)

3.11.5 Thuc tr c
3.11.5.1 nh ngha
Thuc tr c l nhng ha cht nng nghip dng git cht hoc ngn tr qu trnh
sinh trng v pht trin bnh thng ca c.
3.11.5.2 Phn nhm thuc c
a. Thuc c chn lc
Thuc ch gy c cho mt s loi c ny m t hoc khng gy hi cho nhng loi cy
khc, thuc ch git vi loi thc vt trong qun th nhiu loi. V d: 2,4-D tr c l rng, c
chc, c lc; Whips tr c lng vc, ui phng
b. Thuc c khng chn lc (trit sinh)
Tiu dit mi loi c khi cht c tip xc c cy c, k c cy trng. Thuc dit tt
c cc loi trong qun th c. V d: Gramoxone 20SL (Paraquat), Basta 15SL (Glyphosinate
amonium) Glyphosan 480DD (Glyphosate), Spark 16WSC (Glyphosate).

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c. Thi im p dng
- p dng trc khi gieo trng: Glyphosate (Touchdown 48SL, Roundup 480SC,
Glyphosan 480DD), Paraquat (Gramoxone 20SL), Metolachlor (Dual 720ND).
- Tin ny mm (Pre-emergency herbicide): Thuc c tc dng dit c trc khi ht
c sp ny mm hay ngay khi c ang ny mm. iu kin thnh cng ca bin php ny l t
phi bng phng, m . Thuc xm nhp vo cy c qua r mm v l mm nh Meco 60ND
(Butachlor), Sofit 300ND (Pretilachlor).
- Hu ny mm (Post-emergency herbicide): Thuc c tc dng dit c sau khi c
v cy trng mc. Thuc xm nhp vo cy c qua l v mt phn qua r. Whips 75 EW,
Saviour 10 WP (Cyclosulfamuron), Butanil 55EC (Propanil 27,5% + Butachlor 27,5%),
Butachlor (Michelle 62ND, Echo 60EC, Vibuta 62ND), Sindax 10WP (Londax 8,25% + Ally
1,75% ), Anco 720ND (2,4-D).
-3

Thuc tin ny mm
Meco, Sofit
Echo

25 ngy

10

+3

Ngy
gieo
s

Hu ny mm sm
Sirius, Bandit,
Sunrice, Saturn,
Butanil, Saviour

Thuc hu ny mm mun
2,4-D, Wham, Whips
Sindax, Ally, Ankill A, Solito,
Nominee, Clincher

S biu din phng php s dng thuc c trn rung la

d. Da trn cch tc ng
- Thuc tr c tip xc: Thuc c tc dng git cht m thc vt ti ch hay gn ni
tip xc vi thuc. Gramoxone 20SL (Paraquat), Butanil 55EC (Propanil 27,5%+ Butachlor
27,5%).
- Thuc tr c ni hp: thuc lu dn i xa cch ni tip xc vi thuc. Hin nay a s
cc lai thuc dit c u c tnh ni hp (lu dn). Glyphosate (Touchdown 48SL, Roundup
480SC, Glyphosan 480DD), 2,4-D (Anco 720DD, Vi 2,4-D 700DD).
e. Da trn thnh phn ha hc
Thuc c v c: Thuc nhm ny hin nay rt t ph bin, do thuc chm phn
hy, lu tn lu trong mi trng.
- Cyanamid calcit Ca(CN)2
- Chlorat natri NaClO3
- Sulfat ng ngm nc CuSO4 . nH2O
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Thuc tr c hu c: rt ph bin hin nay, thng ch bin cc th mui


hoc ester.
1. Nhm Phenoxycarboxylic acid
- 2,4-D (Vi 2,4D 80BHN, Anco 720DD), Vi 2,4D 600DD,Vi 2,4D 700DD).
- MCPA (Methyl Clor Phenoxy Acetic acid).
- Tc ng nh auxin gy ri lon sinh trng, cht c lm l mt mu
xanh, bin thnh trng, vng; sau tr nn nu en, l xon trn.
- Ni hp qua l, chn lc, hu ny mm.
- Tr c l rng, c h lc.
2. Nhm Carbamate, cht dn xut t acid carbamic (NH2COOH)
- Thiobencarb (Saturn 6H, 50ND).
- Tc ng: quang hp, c ch s phn bo, ngn chn s tng hp cc cht lipid.
- Ni hp (l r, mm): tin ny mm, chn lc.
- Tr: c ha bn, c h lc, c l rng (ph rng).
3. Nhm Amides
- Propanyl (Wham 360EC), Butachlor (Cantachlor 60EC, 5G; Vibuta 62ND,
5H), Michelle 62ND, Meco 60ND, Pretilachlor (Sofit 300ND), Melolachlor
(Dual 720EC).
- Tc ng: mnh ln phn ng Hill ca qu trnh quang hp, ngn tr sinh tng hp lm
dip lc tan r.
- a s dng tip xc, tin hoc hu ny mm, c th phun trc hoc sau khi c

mc.

- Tr: c l rng, ha bn, c chc, c lc (ph rng).


4. Ur thay th
- Liuron (Afalon 50WP), Diuron (Karmex 80WP).
- Tc ng: qu trnh quang hp, nh hng phn ng Hill, ngn cn s to thnh cc
nng lng ha hc nh ATP, ADP...
- Chn lc, ni hp.
- Ch yu tr c hng nin, i khi c a nin nh cc bi rm.
5. Sulfonilureas
- Bensulfuron-methyl (Londax 10WP), Metsulfuron-methyl (Ally 20DF).
- c ch sinh tng hp, ngng phn ct v tng trng t bo.
- Chn lc, ni hp ln v xung qua r l.
- Tin v hu ny mm, hiu qu vi c hng nin v a nin.
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6. Triazine
- Ametryne (Gesapax 500DD), Atrazine (Gesaprim), Simazine (Visimaz 80BTN).
- Tc ng phn ng Hill ca qu trnh quang hp, c ch vn chuyn in t.
- Chn lc, ni hp qua r v l.
- Hiu lc i vi c mt v hai l mm.
7. Bipyridylium
- Paraquat (Gramoxone 20SC), nng dn thng gi l thuc c chy.
- Tc ng n qu trnh quang hp, ph hy lc lp.
- Tip xc, mt phn ni hp qua l.
- Khng chn lc.
- Tr c nht nin, nh nin v c a nin.
8. Ln hu c
- Glyfosinate ammonium (Basta 15DD), Anilofos (Ricozin 30EC).
- Tc ng n qu trnh quang hp, ngn tr s chuyn ha NH3, gy c
cho cy.
- Tip xc v bn lu dn, hp thu qua l, t qua r.
- Khng chn lc, hiu qu i vi c ha bn v c l rng trong vn.
9. Glycines
- Glyphosate (Glyphosan 480DD, Roundup 480SD, Vifosat 480DD, Spark 16SC).
- Tc ng n qu trnh quang hp, ngn tr sinh tng hp cc amino acid, m, lm
thay i cu trc lc lp.
- Tip xc v lu dn, hp thu qua l v r.
- Khng chn lc, tr c ha bn, c l rng trong vn cy n tri.
10. Aryloxy-phenoxy-propionates
- Phenoxaprop - P- ethyl (Whips 7,5EW), Fluazifop - P- butyl (Onecide 15EC),
Cyhalofop - butyl (Clincher 10EC).
- c ch sinh tng hp cht bo.
- Chn lc, ni hp qua l v thn.
- Hu ny mm, tr c ha bn, c chc, c lc, c l rng...

------oOo------

Cu hi n tp
Cu 1: Phn loi thuc tr su theo nhm gc ha hc?
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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

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Cu 2: Phn loi thuc tr bnh theo nhm gc ha hc?


Cu 3: Phn loi thuc tr c di theo nhm gc ha hc?
Cu 4: Cch p dng thuc tr c theo thi gian trn rung la?

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Aaron Kiess, 1994. Chemical application management.
2. Phm vn Bin, Bi Cch Tuyn, Nguyn Mnh Chinh, 2002. Cm nang thuc bo v thc
vt. Nh xut bn nng nghip.
3. Cng ty dch v bo v thc vt An Giang, 2000. S tay ngi nng dn trng la cn bit.
4. Chi cc bo v thc vt An Giang, 1998. S tay cho nh kinh doanh thuc bo v thc vt.
5. Charles R. Worthing, 1983. The pesticides manual, VII editor. The Bristish Crop Protection
Council.
6. Nguyn Th Thu Cc, Trn Vn Hai v Trn Th Thu Thy, 1995. Thuc Bo V Thc Vt
cho lp hun luyn cn b Chi Cc BVTV tnh Tr Vinh. Khoa Trng Trt, HCT.
7. Trung m, 1996. Phng php xc nh c tnh cp ca thuc. Nh xut bn Y hc.
8. Donald P. Morgan, 1989. Recognition and managment of pesticide poisonings.
9. Heinrich E. A. et al. . Manual for testing insecticides on rice. International Rice Research
Institute.
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Gio Trnh Ha BoV Thc Vt

Chng 3

10. V Thanh Hong v Lm V T, 1992. T liu photocopies c nhn.


11. Trn Quang Hng, 1999. Thuc Bo V Thc Vt. NXB nng nghip.
12. Kariankin IU. V. va I.I. Angelov, 1990. Ha cht tinh khit. NXB Khoa Hc K Thut.
13. Takanari Myrayama, 1987. Japanese pesticides guide.
14. L Vn Lng, Nguyn Nh Thnh v Nguyn Hi Yn. Ng c v x tr ng c. NXB Y
Hc
15. L Trng, 1993. S tay tra cu s dng thuc BVTV. NXB Nng Nghip Tp. H Ch
Minh.
16. L Trng, 1995. S tay cho ngi bun bn thuc BVTV. NXB Nng Nghip Tp. H Ch
Minh.
17. L Ngc T, 2006. c t hc v an ton thc phm. NXB Khoa Hc v K Thut.
18. Wayland J. Hayes and Edward R. Laws, 1991. Handbook of pesticide Toxicology, Vol I.
Academic Press, Inc.
19. Wayland J. Hayes and Edward R. Laws, 1991. Handbook of pesticide Toxicology, Vol II.
Academic Press, Inc.

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