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Bai 3 Oxi Hoa Anot Hop Kim Nhom HC1_Layout 1

Bai 3 Oxi Hoa Anot Hop Kim Nhom HC1_Layout 1

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Soá chuyeân ñeà (01)/2012

Hoùa hoïc & ÖÙng duïng
9
Trunq nqhien cuu nay chunq tui thuc hien vJi dien
aµ trunq µham vi tu 18Ov – 88Ov, bJi vi qua trinh uxi
hua sinh ra mut luJnq lJn tia lua J anut (anudic sµark
deµusitiun) |5j. 0ua trinh uxi hua anut hJµ kim nhum
|G,7j thuJnq duJc thuc hien tuJnq dui nqhiem nqat
nhu: thJ i qian thu c hie n tu 8O · GO µhu t, nhie t du
tuJnq dui cau, sau khi ket thuc qua trinh uxi hua µhai
tien hanh bit kin cac lu nhu tren lJµ µhu. Su lua chun
uxi hua anut hJµ kim nhum J dien aµ cau la du qua
trinh tien hanh khunq qay u nhiem mui truJnq, thuc
hien qua trinh uxi hua hJµ kim nhum vJi mat du dunq
thaµ (8A⋅dm
·2
)nham tiet kiem nanq luJnq. heu qua
trinh uxi hua thuc hien trunq thJi qian qua nqan thi
lJµ manq uxi hua tau ra rat munq, du day chi tu vai
µm |Oj. vi vay de nanq cau duJc cac yeu cau: du day,
kha na nq chu nq a n mu n cu a lJ µ µhu cu nq nhu be
mat lJµ µhu µhai bunq, sanq va khunq cu khe hJ thi
qua trinh µhui che dunq dich µhai J du chinh xac va
hJµ li cau. Trunq nqhien cuu nay chunq tui tien hanh
uxi hua anut hJµ kim nhum vJi dien aµ cau trunq ba
he dunq dich die n µha n kha c nhau la : ha
2
Si0
8
,
ha
2
hF0
4
va haAl0
2
, nham muc dich nqhien cuu va su
sanh su anh huJnq cua mui he muui tJi: thJi qian uxi
hua, du day cua lJµ µhu, hinh danq be mat va kha
nanq chunq an mun cua lJµ µhu (lJµ manq uxi hua).
SUMMARY
In order to compare the effects of oxygen acid salt in electrolytes on the film thickness and the oxi-
dation time in the process of high voltage anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy 6063, the oxidation films were
prepared by anodic oxidation of the aluminum alloy in the three electrolyte systems of Na
2
SiO
3
, Na
2
HPO
4
,
NaAlO
2
. The film thickness was determined by TT230 eddy current thickness gauge. The corrosion resist-
ance of Na
2
SiO
3
system was evaluated through dropping corrosion testing. The surface morphology of ox-
idation film was observed by the scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results show that the thickness
and corrosion resistance of the film can be significantly increased after tungstate was added in the three
electrolytes. Oxidation time was extended and the hardness of the film was increased after adding sodium
exametaphosphate in the three electrolytes. When two additives of tungstate and sodium hexametaphosphate
was simultaneously added in silicate nm electrolyte according to the proportion of 1:1, compact film with
high corrosion resistance was formed.
Keyword: High-voltage, Alkaline salt, anodic oxidation, electrolytes, corrosion resistance.
0II h0k k00¡ h0P kIN 0h0N 0 0IE0 kP 0k0
¡ß000 0000 0|0h N00I kIEN
T8 hû0YEh X0kh h0kh
Trucrç Lai |cc 0crç rç|icp TF |c 0|í Mir|
I. ÑAËT VAÁN ÑEÀ
II. VAÄT LIEÄU VAØ THÖÏC NGHIEÄM
1. VaI IIau va IhIaI b} Ihur nghIam
Thuc nqhiem su dunq ban hJµ kim nhum vJi quy
cach 8O × 4O × 2.Omm, thanh µhan chu yeu (% khui
luJnq) cua cac nquyen tu la: O.2-O.G Si, O.85 Fe, O.1O
Cu, O.1O Mn, O.45-O.O Mq, O.1O Zn, cun lai la Al. hua
chat tinh khiet: K0h, ha
2
Si0
8
, (haF0
8
)
G
, ha0h,
ha
2
hF0
4
, haAl0
2
, ha
2
B
4
0
7
.
Thiet bi thuc nqhiem: nquun dien mut chieu cu the
dieu chinh tu O-88O v; may hien vi dien tu quet SEM
(JSM2G8GO, hhat Ban); may thuc nqhiem ma sat vi
mu (uMT–íí, Trunq 0uuc); may dunq xuay ki thuat su
du du day (TT28O, Trunq 0uuc).
Z. Thur nghIam
0uy trinh cunq nqhe cua qua trinh uxi hua anut dien
aµ cau: danh bunq hua huc →dunq nuJc tay sach cac
iun → uxi hua anut dien aµ cau → tay sach cac iun
hunq khu → tien hanh du luJnq cac chi tieu cua manq
uxi hua.
0ua trinh uxi hu a ba t da u J ma t du du nq la O
A.dm
·2
, trunq 1O qia y da u ma t du du nq ta nq le n
8A.dm
·2
; trunq qua trinh uxi hua dien aµ lien tuc tanq
cau, mat du dunq cu dinh la 8A.dm
·2
. Khi dien aµ dat
tJ i 872 v thi khu nq ta nq nu a, lu c na y ma t du du nq
ba t da u qia m va khi qia m tJ i 1,G A.dm
·2
thi qua trinh
uxi hu a ke t thu c. Trunq qua trinh uxi hu a cu su du nq
duJ nq u nq la m la nh va ma y khua y de khu nq che
nhie t du luu n J duJ i 4O. Sau khi ke t thu c qua trinh
thu c nqhie m, qhi la i thJ i qian va tie n ha nh kie m tra
du luJ nq ca c chi tie u, tinh na nq cu a ma nq uxi hu a.
a. F|a c|c cac |c Jurç Jic| Jicr p|ar
Lua chun µha che ba he dunq dich dien µhan cJ
ban, sau du them vau mui he tren muui va chat µhu
qia. Cac he dunq dich dien µhan duJc µha che nhu
banq 1, trunq du C
4
h
4
0
G
ha
2
la chat µhunq chunq su
µhat hua va h
8
B0
8
la chat dunq de dieu chinh µh.
10
Soá chuyeâ n ñeà (01)/2012
Hoùa hoïc & ÖÙng duïng
III. KEÁT QUAÛ VAØ THAÛO LUAÄN
|. F|ucrç p|a p t|u c rç|ic m vc Jc c|c rç a r
mc r cu a ma rç cxi |c a
Tha nh µha n cu a cha t a n mu n: K
2
Cr0
7
8 qam, hCl
25cm
8
(d =1.1O), nuJ c ca t 75cm
8
. Chu 1 qiu t dunq
dich cha t a n mu n le n be ma t cu a lJ µ ma nq uxi hu a
da duJ c la m sa ch va du nq thJ i qhi thJ i qian, khi qiu t
dunq dich vua chuyen thanh mau xanh thi thi nqhiem
ke t thu c. La m la i thi nqhie m 8 la n, la y qia tri trunq
binh, dua tren ket qua du se danh qia duJc kha nanq
chu nq a n mu n cu a lJ µ ma nq uxi hu a.
1. hIan Iuong Ihí nghIam
Tien hanh uxi hua anut hJµ kim nhum dien aµ cau
vJi ba he dunq dich dien µhan tren. Khi thi nqhiem
bat dau, du cu su tac dunq cua dunq dien 1 chieu vau
dunq dich dien µhan lam chu tren be mat cua anut hJµ
kim nhum xay ra qua trinh uxi hua dien hua, tau nen
lJµ manq uxi hua munq, sau du lJµ manq uxi hua day
dan len, de mat du dunq un dinh thi dien aµ cua dunq
dien 1 chieu µhai lien tuc tanq. Khi dien aµ vuJt qua
qiJi han 22Ov, tren be mat lJµ manq uxi hua cu hien
tuJnq µhunq dien va kem theu hien tuJnq chay sanq
cun qui la hu quanq dien |1j. Bui vJi 8 he dien µhan
tren thi thJi qian hu quanq dai nqan khac nhau. he
ha
2
Si0
8
va haAl0
2
, du manq uxi hua hinh thanh va µhat
trien rat nhanh nen thJi qian hu quanq chi khuanq 2O
qiay. Bui vJi he ha
2
hF0
4
trunq thanh µhan dunq dich
cu muui ha
2
B
4
0
7
nen qua trinh lanq dunq cham hJn su
vJi hai he kia. vi vay manq uxi hua µhat trien cham,
thJi qian hu quanq la 52 qiay.
Z. 8u anh huong rua muoI dan IhoI gIan oxI hoa
va do day rua Iop mang oxI hoa
a. 8u ar| |ucrç cua muci ratri|cxamctap|ctp|at
- (|aFU
3
)
6
Jcr t|ci çiar cxi |ca
Ba he dunq dich dien µhan duJc µha che nhu J banq
1, sau du them vau ba he tren muui (haF0
8
)
G
vJi cac
nunq du khac nhau. Ket qua thuc nqhiem duJc bieu thi
J hinh 1.
Muui natrihexametaµhutµhat la luai chat µhan tan
vu cJ thuJnq dunq |2,8j, nu cu kha nanq lam µhan tan
cac chat vu cJ khu hua tan trunq nuJc, can trJ hay can
thieµ tJi luJnq ket tinh cua muui vu cJ khu tan tren be
mat kim luai.
hình 1. MoI quan ha gIua nong do (haF0
B
)
6
Irong
rar ha dIan phan kha r nhau va Iho I gIan oxI ho a
Su cu mat cua (haF0
8
)
G
trunq he ha
2
Si0
8
lam qiam
ru ret luJnq Al(0h)
8
va Si0
2
ket tua tren be mat kim
luai, vi vay trunq µham vi nunq du nhat dinh cu the
keu dai thJi qian uxi hua; khi nunq du cua (haF0
8
)
G
dat tJi 1 trJ len thi thJi qian uxi hua cua he ha
2
Si0
8
khunq thay dui. Bui vJi he ha
2
hF0
4
, them (haF0
8
)
G
vJi mut luJnq nhat dinh se lam tanq nunq du cua quc
trunq dunq dich, cu lJi chu viec tau manq, tuc du tau
manq tanq thi thJi qian uxi hua canq nqan; khi nunq
du cua (haF0
8
)
G
vuJt qua 1, tac dunq µhan tan va tuc
du tau manq qiam lam chu thJi qian uxi hua tanq len
|8j. Trunq he haAl0
2
, nunq du cua iun rat cau nen
tuc du tau thanh Al(0h)
8
lJn, tac dunq µhan tan cua
(haF0
8
)
G
khu nq ru ra nq, thJ i qian uxi hu a thay du i
khunq lJn. Tum lai, nunq du cua (haF0
8
)
G
J muc hJµ
li la tu 2q.L
·1
∼5q.L
·1
.
|. Ar| |ucrç cua rcrç Jc muci ratrivcrframat -
|a
?
WU
4
tci Jc Jay cua març
Chat µhu qia ha
2
w0
4
cu tac dunq lam tanq hieu
sua t ta u ma nq, li du la khi nu nq du cha t µhu qia
ha
2
w0
4
ta nq le n, la m ta nq danq ke su hinh tha nh
ca c trunq ta m ta µ cha t |1Oj tre n be ma t hJ µ kim
nhum, lam chu dien tich khu vuc hu quanq tanq len
ru re t, du du du da y cu a ma nq khu nq nqu nq ta nq
len. Khi µha che, mui he dunq dich dien µhan deu
them vau 2 qam.L
·1
(haF0
8
)
G
(µhunq nqua kha nanq
dunq dich dien µhan bi duc khi bi uxi hua), cuui cunq
them vau muui ha
2
w0
4
. Su anh huJnq cua nunq du
muui ha
2
w0
4
tJi du day cua manq uxi hua duJc trinh
bay J hinh 2.
hình Z. MoI quan ha gIua nong do ha
Z
W0
4
Irong rar
ha dIan phan khar nhau va do day rua mang oxI hoa
Bui vJi he ha
2
Si0
8
va he ha
2
hF0
4
khi them mut
luJ nq nha t dinh muu i ha
2
w0
4
la m chu du da y cu a
manq uxi hua tanq len ru ret. Khi nunq du cua muui
ha
2
w0
4
tanq len hJn 5 q.L
·1
, du day manq uxi hua
cua he ha
2
Si0
8
tieµ tuc tanq len, trunq khi du J he
ha
2
hF0
4
du da y ma nq uxi hu a la i khu nq ta nq, ma
cu n qia m xuu nq; nu nq du cu a ha
2
w0
4
vuJ t qua 1O
q.L
·1
, dunq dich cua he dien µhan uxi hua ha
2
Si0
8
trJ
nen duc, anut hJµ kim nhum bi dut chay. 0uan sat thi
nqhiem nhan thay ranq, khi uxi hua dunq dich dien
µhan san sinh ra rat nhieu hat vat chat nhu lam chu
dunq dich trJ nen duc. Trunq he haAl0
2
, muui ha
2
w0
4
cu nq cu ta c du nq nhu tre n, tuy nhie n hie n tuJ nq
khunq ru ranq, khi nunq du ha
2
w0
4
vuJt qua G q.L
·1
thi dunq dich dien µhan cunq trJ nen duc.
hhu nq ke t qua tre n chu tha y: muu i ha
2
w0
4
vJ i
nunq du thaµ cu lJi chu qua trinh uxi hua anut hJµ
kim nhum, nu cu the lam tanq du day manq uxi hua,
cai tien chat luJnq va lam chu manq uxi hua bunq
sanq hJn; khi nunq du cua muui ha
2
w0
4
cau lam chu
dunq dich duc, vat lieu bi dut chay. hunq du hJµ li
cua muui ha
2
w0
4
dui vJi mui he dien µhan la khac
nhau. Bui vJi he ha
2
Si0
8
, dunq dich dien µhan rat un
dinh, du day manq dat duJc tut nhat.
c. Ar| |ucrç cua |am |ucrç muci (|aFU
3
)
6
tci Jc
Jay març cxi |ca
Chu muui (haF0
8
)
G
vJi cac nunq du khac nhau vau
mui he dien µhan tren. Ket qua thi nqhiem duJc the
hien J hinh 8.
hình B. MoI quan ha gIua nong do (haF0
B
)
6
Irong
rar ha dIan phan va do day mang oxI hoa
Tu hinh 8 nha n tha y ra nq, ne u the m mu t luJ nq
thich hJµ muui (haF0
8
)
G
thi du day manq uxi hua se
tanq len, dieu nay duJc li qiai bJi muui (haF0
8
)
G
cu
kha nanq keu dai thJi qian lanq dunq de tau manq.
Bu i vJ i 2 he ha
2
Si0
8
va haAl0
2
, khi nu nq du cu a
(haF0
8
)
G
da t tJ i 1O q.L
·1
thi du da y ma nq uxi hu a
khunq thay dui.
0 he ha
2
hF0
4
, nu nq du cu a iun 0h· tuJnq u nq
thaµ, trunq qua trinh uxi hua ti le hua tan cua manq
nhu, µhan unq µhan tach uxi yeu, du du ma nq uxi
hua tau ra bunq sanq va min; quan sat be mat cua
manq banq kinh hien vi dien tu nhan thay: du xuµ cua
Soá chuyeân ñeà (01)/2012
Hoùa hoïc & ÖÙng duïng
11
manq tu t hJn 2 he kia. Khi che du dunq truc tieµ,
dien aµ ’’danh thunq’’ (breakduwn vultaqe) cua manq
uxi hua va dien trJ |4j cua manq uxi hua trunq dunq
dich dien µhan cu quan he truc tieµ vJi nhau, vi vay
ma J he ha
2
hF0
4
cunq J dieu kien dien aµ nhu nhau
nhunq du day manq uxi hua dat duJc rat munq. Su
vJi hai he cun lai, khi uxi hua anut dien aµ cau vJi he
ha
2
Si0
8
, du day manq uxi hua dat duJc rat cau khi
nunq du cua (haF0
8
)
G
canq nhu.
B. 8u anh huong rua muoI kIam IoI kha nang
rho ng a n mo n va hình da ng hình Iha I ho r ru a
mang oxI hoa
a. Ar| |ucrç cua muci |a
?
WU
4
, (|aFU
3
)
6
tci k|a
rarç c|crç ar mcr cua març cxi |ca
Chun he tuJnq dui un dinh ha
2
Si0
8
de nqhien cuu,
he ha
2
Si0
8
cu thanh µhan nhu J banq 1. Chu lan luJt
2q.L
·1
5q.L
·1
1Oq.L
·1
muui ha
2
w0
4
va (haF0
8
)
G
vau he
nqhie n cu u. 0u nq thi nqhie m qiu t nhu de kie m tra
kha na nq chu nq a n mu n cu a ma nq. Ke t qua duJ c
trinh bay J banq 2.
12
Soá chuyeâ n ñeà (01)/2012
Hoùa hoïc & ÖÙng duïng
Tu ket qua J banq 2 nhan thay ranq: khi them muui
ha
2
w0
4
du day manq va kha nanq chunq an mun tanq
cau; cun khi them muui (haF0
8
)
G
thi su anh huJnq la
khunq lJn, bJi vi thJi qian uxi hua qua dai, du runq
cua lJµ µhu tuJnq dui lJn (cac lu nhu li ti tren be mat
manq uxi hua du su thuat khi tau ra), du vay ma kha
nanq chunq an mun cua manq uxi hua thaµ.
|. Ar| |ucrç cua muci |a
?
WU
4
va (|aFU
3
)
6
tci
|ìr| Jarç |c mat cua març
Kha nanq chunq an mun la chi tieu khau sat chu
yeu, thunq qua µhuJnq µhaµ thuc nqhiem truc qiau,
chu vau he ha
2
Si0
8
cac muui ha
2
w0
4
va (haF0
8
)
G
vJi
nunq du hJµ li nhat la 5q.L
·1
. hinh danq be mat cua
manq uxi hua hJµ kim nhum trunq he dien µhan
ha
2
Si0
8
trinh bay J hinh 4.
Tu hinh 4 nha n tha y ra nq, ne u khu nq chu the m
chat µhu qia be mat manq uxi hua rat thu (san sui).
Sau khi them ha
2
w0
4
, cac lu (du su thuat khi qay ra)
tren be mat manq rat it, hinh danq be mat cua manq
dat tieu chuan ve hinh danq va cau tau, kiem tra cac
tieu chuan cua manq: du day, du cunq, kha nanq chiu
duJc su ma sat, kha nanq chunq an mun tanq len rat
cau. Khi them (haF0
8
)
G
, be mat cua manq trJ nen qu
qhe , xua t hie n nhie u lu nhu , ke t qua kie m tra chu
thay: du day manq khunq thay dui, du cunq tanq, kha
nanq chunq chiu su ma sat cunq nhu an mun thaµ.
Tien hanh cac thi nqhiem khi them dunq thJi hai chat
µhu qia vJi ti le khac nhau ta thay vJi ty le 1:1 la tut
nhat, J hinh d chunq ta cu the nhan thay khi su sanh
vJ i hinh b va c: be ma t ma nq ra t de u da n, bu nq
sanq, rat it lu nhu. Kiem tra cac chi tieu cua manq J
vat lieu d, thay ranq be mat manq rat µhanq, deu,
bunq sanq, du day G,8 µm, du cunq 85O hv, thJi qian
thi nqhiem an mun qiut nhu 25 µhut. Ket qua thuc
nqhiem chu thay, su µhui che hua chat J mau d thu
duJc ket qua tut hJn su vJi ba mau cun lai.
Soá chuyeân ñeà (01)/2012
Hoùa hoïc & ÖÙng duïng
13
IV. KEÁT LUAÄN
1. Muui (haF0
8
)
G
cu kha nanq keu dai thJi qian uxi
hua cua qua trinh uxi hua anut hJµ kim nhum dien aµ
cau, nanq cau du cunq cua manq uxi hua, tuy nhien
nu lai lam chu be mat cua manq san sui, nhieu lu
nhu, kha nanq chunq an mun thaµ; them ha
2
w0
4
vJi
nunq du thich hJµ se nanq cau duJc du day, du cunq
cunq nhu kha nanq chunq chiu duJc su ma sat va an
mun, nunq du cua ha
2
w0
4
qua cau se lam dunq dich
dien µhan trJ nen duc, anh huJnq tJi du un dinh cua
he; khi them dunq thJi ca hai chat µhu qia vJi luJnq
thich hJµ manq uxi hua dat duJc nhunq tinh nanq tut
hJn rat nhieu.
2. 0 mat du dunq 8A⋅L
·2
, he dien µhan µhu hJµ nhat
chu qua trinh uxi hua anut dien aµ cau hJµ kim nhum
la he ha
2
Si0
8
, su µhui che cu the: K0h 2 q.L
·1
, ha
2
Si0
8
15 q.L
·1
, C
4
h
4
0
G
ha
2
vJi luJnq thich hJµ, chat µhu qia
ha
2
w0
4
va (haF0
8
)
G
nunq du thich hJµ la 5 q.L
·1
, khi
them vJi ti le 1:1 manq uxi hua thu duJc cu cau truc
chat che, kha nanq chunq an mun cau.
8. ThJi qian uxi hua duJc keu dai va du cunq cua
lJµ manq uxi hua tanq len sau khi them natrihexam·
etaµhusµhat vau ba he dien µhan nui tren. Khi them
dunq thJi natrivulíramat va natrihexametaµhutµhat vau
he dien µhan natrisilicat vJi ti le 1:1 thi ket cau lJµ
manq uxi hua rat vunq chac va kha nanq chunq an
mun rat cau. Ket qua nqhien cuu nay cu the unq dunq
runq rai trunq dJi sunq, nunq nqhieµ, cunq nqhieµ
xay dunq va dan dunq, khai thac che bien dau khi...
TAØI LIEÄU THAM KHAÛO
1. Yerukhin A L,Lyubimuv vv, Ashitkuv R v. Fhase íurmatiun in ceramic cuatinqs durinq µlasma elec·
trulytic uxidatiun uí aluminium alluys |Jj. Ceramics ínternatiunal,1OO8, 24 (1): 1·G.
2. Jun Yuan, Murray haydn h. The imµurtance uí crystal murµhuluqy un the viscusity uí cuncentrated sus·
µensiuns uí kaulins |Jj. Aµµlied Clay Science, 1OO7, 12: 2OO.
8. Zaman Abbas A, Sharad Mathur. íníluence uí disµersinq aqents and sulutiun cunditiuns un the sulubility
uí crude Kaulin |Jj.Culluid and ínteríace Science, 2OO4, 271: 124.
4. wanq Y K, Shenq L, Xiunq R Z. Study uí Ceramic Cuatinqs Furmed by Micruarc 0xidatiun un Al Matrix
Cumµusite Suríace.|Jj.Suríace Enqineerinq, 1OOO, 15 (2): 112·118.
Ngöôøi phaûn bieän: T8 Tßkh Th[ Thkhh Th0Y ♥

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