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General

The aircraft fuel system is designed to provide the following functions : - to control tank refueling and defueling. - to deliver fuel to the engines for all operating conditions of the aircraft, - to indicate to the crew normal function of the fuel system and any malfunctions which may occur during operation so that appropriate safety measures may be taken.

FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

TANKS
General Fuel is stored in two integral wing tanks formed by the wing spar box between RIBS4 and 22 with the exception of the center section located above the fuselage. Each tank has a capacity of 2866 liters (756.6 US gal.) i.e., 2250 kg (4950 lbs) for a density of 0.785 taking into account a 2% thermal expansion volume. RIB13 located at the wing break, constitutes an anti-surge baffle.

Engine Feed System Under normal operating conditions, each engine is supplied from the associated tank by a system comprising : . An electric pump which delivers fuel to the engine during engine starting . an engine feed jet pump which delivers fuel to the engine after starting and during flight. The jet pump takes over from the electric pump automatically when the engine is running without any pilot action. . A jet pump maintains a constant fuel level in the feeder tank where the electric pump and the engine feed jet pump are installed. The feeder tank is located between RIB4 and RIB5.

Crossfeed System A crossfeed system between the two tanks is used : - to feed fuel to both engines from the same tank - to feed fuel to one engine from the opposite tank.

LP Fuel Fire Shut Off Control A fuel shut off system which serves to isolate the engine from the feed line is installed between the tank outlet and the associated engine. System controls and indicating are grouped together on the FUEL section of panel 25VU on the overhead panel in the flight compartment. The fuel LP valves are closed by action on the ENG FIRE handles described in Chapter 26, Fire Protection.

Refuel/Defuel System This system ensures refueling and distribution of fuel between the two tanks via two refuel/defuel valves. The refuel/defuel coupling is located on the leading edge of the right wing. The system also serves for defueling of the tanks by suction. The controls and indicators associated with this system are grouped on the REFUELING panel located in the right landing gear fairing. Two overwing refueling caps are also provided.

Fuel Quantity Indicating System The fuel quantity indicating system informs the crew of the quantity of fuel available in each tank during flight. The quantities are given in digital form on the FUEL QTY indicator located on the upper center instrument panel. The indicating system also includes a high level safety device in case of overfilling, by automatic closure of the refuel/defuel valves before spillage occurs.

Fuel Quantity Indicating System A high level detection system doubles the safety offered by the indicator in case of overfilling, by closing the refuel/defuel valves. This system consists of float type level sensors. Manual magnetic indicators are installed on the wing lower surface and may be used to indicate fuel quantities during refueling. A fuel quantity repeater, fuel quantity preselector and two refuel/defuel valve position indicator lights are installed on the REFUELING panel. Two magnetic indicators, located on maintenance panel 702VU, inform the crew of any failure to maintain full level in feeder tank.

TANKS
Internal Access The wing upper surface panel, comprised of two sections for each half wing : from RIB0 to RIB13 and from RIB13 to RIB23, can be removed for inspection and internal repair. Two access doors located on the upper surface at either end of each tank permit access to essential equipment without removing the upper surface panel.

TANKS
Tank Draining The wing lower surface panel is designed so that any water collects in the lowest parts of the tanks where four self closing water drains per tank are installed flush with the panel. They serve to drain water from the tanks at any aircraft attitude between 3.

TANKS
Protection against Microbiological ContaminationTo avoid deposits in the tanks due to microbiological corrosion, supports for strontium chromate tablets are installed in each tank and in the feeder tank.

TANK VENTING SYSTEM

General This system ensures tank venting in all operating phases in flight and on the ground.

TANK VENTING SYSTEM


Both tanks are vented in all flight configurations : - via a vent line routed from RIB5 to RIB22 - via a float valve located in the outer wing section. These two outlets are connected to a vent surge tank located outboard of the fuel tank. The vent surge tank is vented to atmosphere through a NACA intake, installed on the wing lower surface. The vent surge tank serves to recover fuel entering the vent line and evacuated outwards in case of skidding. The vent surge tank has a capacity of approximately 100 liters (26.4 US gal.) and can contain 5 times line contents. The fuel is then recovered by siphoning.

A water drain, installed at the lowest point of the vent surge tank, serves to avoid accumulation of water which in icing conditions could freeze up to siphon level and prevent tank venting. The NACA intake enables a slight overpressure of approximately 20 mb (0.3 psi) to be maintained in the tank and also limits overpressure in the tank. During refueling to maximum fuel level, the float valve closes due to the increase in level to enable refueling up to the high lever sensors. In the case of accidental overfilling, the excess fuel overflows through the vent line, routed from RIB5 to RIB22.

The float valve also closes when the aircraft is in turn configuration, preventing the fuel from flowing into the vent tank. For a normal refueling flow rate, overpressure is less than 120 mb (1.75 psi). A barrier composed of a plate (1) attached at right angles to the wing lower surface between the NACA intake and the engine nacelle prevents overflow fuel running to the engine. The NACA intake is located on the lower surface. Function of the breather (self-draining) : When the fuel level in the tank is below the breather (2), it acts as a drain and evacuates the fuel out of the tank vent line. When the tank is full, the fuel cannot flow into the vent line.

WING CENTER BOX VENTILATING SYSTEM General This system serves to evacuate any vapor and fuel which may collect due to leaks in the lines routed through the wing center box.

WING CENTER BOX VENTILATING SYSTEM


Two lines cross through the wing center box, located above the fuselage. - the engine fuel feed system crossfeed line - the left tank filling line. Neither of these lines has a double sheath and consequently may allow fuel to leak into the wing center box (leaks at unions). To avoid high concentrations of fuel vapors building up in the wing center box, it is ventilated and drained.

WING CENTER BOX VENTILATING SYSTEM


Ventilation air is supplied from the left side of the fuselage through a scoop located on the fillet and is ducted into the wing center box at front spar level. The two air vent ports located at the lowest points of the center box, also serve for draining, and exhaust to outside aft of the fillets on either side of the fuselage.

DISTRIBUTION
General The fuel distribution system is divided into four sub-systems. A. Engine feed system B. Crossfeed system C. LP fuel fire shut off control D. Refuel/defuel system.

DISTRIBUTION Engine Feed System


The engine feed system serves to deliver fuel pressure and flow rate necessary for correct operation of both engines throughout the flight envelope.

DISTRIBUTION
This system comprises per tank: A. One electric pump B. One engine feed jet pump permanently maintained filled by a jet pump. C. A magnetic indicator informs the crew of failure to maintain full level in feeder tank. The engine feed jet pump is supplied with fuel under high pressure taken from the engine and its operation is controlled by the motive flow valve.

DISTRIBUTION
Crossfeed System The left and right fuel feed systems are interconnected by a crossfeed line comprising a single motor solenoid valve. LP Fuel Fire Shut Off Control The engine feed system can be isolated by means of a dual motor fuel LP valve.

DISTRIBUTION
Refuel/Defuel System The refuel/defuel coupling for refueling under pressure is located on the right wing leading edge. Two refuel/defuel valves provide system opening and closing control. The controls and indicators are grouped on the REFUELING panel located in the right landing gear fairing. Gravity refueling facilities are provided by overwing refueling caps; one per half wing.

ENGINE FEED SYSTEM


General Fuel is fed to each engine from the corresponding tank by means of a feed system installed in a feeder tank between RIBS 4 and 5. The feeder tank has a capacity of approximately 200 liters (53 US gal). System controls and indicators are grouped on the FUEL section of panel 25VU located on the overhead panel in the flight compartment.

Electric Pump
A 28VDC electric pump installed in each feeder tank supplies fuel to the engine during starting. It also serves to supply the engine throughout the flight envelope, in the event of feed jet pump failure or a restart in emergency. The flow rate delivered at engine starting is 450 l/hr (119 US gal.) at a pressure of 0.9 bar (13 psi) under 16VDC supply. The electric pump outlet is equipped with a check valve and connected to a collector tank. The line between the electric pump and the engine is inclined towards the engine.

Electric Pump A vapor relief valve, located at the high point directly above the electric pump allows any air in the line to be expelled; this valve is airtight when the line is pressurized. A thermal relief valve, installed on this line, allows fuel to escape directly into the tank in the event of overpressure. The electric pump is installed in a canister equipped with a self sealing system in the wing lower surface. The pump may be removed without emptying the fuel tank.

Engine Feed Jet Pump The engine feed jet pump delivers fuel to the engine after starting. Driving flow is supplied through a return line from the hydromechanical unit (HMU). The jet pump outlet is equipped with a check valve.

Feeder Jet Pump Operated by fuel from the engine feed system the jet pump maintains the feeder tank full of fuel throughout the flight by drawing fuel from beyond RIB5. It is installed on semi-sealed RIB5.

Engine Feed Jet Pump


In normal operation, the engine feed jet pump supplies fuel to the corresponding engine throughout the flight envelope certified for the aircraft. In the event of failure of the opposite engine feed system, the jet pump supplies both engines during all flight phases other than take off. For different operating phases it supplies : - flow necessary to supply both engines (up to 860 kg/h, 1896 lb/h). - flow necessary to supply one engine at take off, between 430 kg/h (946 lb/h) and 550 kg/h (1210 lb/h). - in both cases flow necessary for jet pump operation. Pressure at the engine feed jet pump outlet, for the above flow rates should be greater than or equal to 840 mb (12 psi) to ensure correct engine fuel supply.

Feeder Jet Pump


The fuel flow supplied by the feeder jet pump is sufficient to maintain the feeder tank full in all flight configurations. In the event of jet pump failure, the feeder is connected to the tank through a flap valve installed at the bottom of RIB5 which allows the fuel to flow from the tank to the feeder tank. A magnetic indicator, associated with the feeder tank, indicates failure to maintain full level in feeder tank. The time delay of these magnetic indicators, installed on panel 702VU, is 10 mn.

Motive Flow Valve The motive flow valve is installed on the wing forward spar near the LP valve on the engine feed HP return line. It controls supply to the engine feed jet pump.

Motive Flow Valve


The electric pump is de-energized after engine starting by pressure switch installed on the engine feed jet pump outlet, when pressure supplied by this jet pump reaches 600 mb (8.7 psi). In the event of engine feed jet pump failure P < 350 mb (5 psi), pressure switch 17QA (18QA) provides electric pump opening control which ensures fuel supply to the engine. The electric pump delivers the necessary flowrate for engine consumption and the flow to the jet pump nozzle.

Motive Flow Valve


The motive flow valve is open when the valve solenoid is not energized. It opens in the presence of pressure and closes in the absence of pressure. So, whenever the solenoid is energized fuel flow to the engine feed jet pump is stopped. In closed position, a thermal relief valve allows fuel trapped between the motive flow valve and the engine to run to the fuel tank.

Motive Flow Valve


It is controlled via the PUMP pushbutton switch located on the FUEL section of panel 25VU, on the overhead panel. - aircraft network energized and PUMP pushbutton switch released (out) : solenoid energized, motive flow valve closed. - system armed before engine start : PUMP pushbutton switch pressed (in) : solenoid not energized, but absence of return pressure, motive flow valve closed. - after engine start and throughout flight, PUMP pushbutton switch pressed (in) : solenoid not energized, presence of return pressure, motive flow valve open.

Flight in Negative "G" Conditions


The system is capable of supplying fuel to the engines for 10 seconds in negative 'g' conditions via the feeder tank which has a capacity of 200 liters. The feeder tank is maintained full of fuel through the jet pump which permanently draws fuel from the fuel tank as long as the engine feed jet pump or the electric pump is operating.

F. Indications and Warnings


Low pressure in the engine feed system is detected by the fuel feed low pressure switch installed downstream of the LP valve. The FEED LO PR caution light comes on amber on the FUEL section of panel 25 VU on the overhead panel, together with associated centralized warnings (Ref. Chapter 31-50). A magnetic indicator, installed on panel 702VU, indicates failure to maintain full level in the feeder tank.

Fuel Panel 25VU

Maintenance Panel 702VU

CROSSFEED SYSTEM
The left and right fuel feed systems are interconnected by a crossfeed line incorporating a single motor electric valve. The crossfeed system allows either one engine to be supplied from opposite tank or both engines to be supplied from one tank. Crossfeed valve control and indication is located on the FUEL section of panel 25VU on the flight compartment overhead panel. Action on the FUEL/XFEED pushbutton switch sets the electric pumps .

CROSSFEED SYSTEM
The two fuel feed systems are connected by a line via the wing box center section. The crossfeed valve is installed on the line inside the wing box center section. Access is gained through an access door on the wing center box upper surface. Supplied with 28VDC, crossfeed valve control and indication is located on the FUEL section of panel 25VU on the flight compartment overhead panel.

CROSS FEED OPERATION: ONE TANK TO BOTH ENGINES

CROSS FEED OPERATION: BOTH TANKS TO ONE ENGINES

LP FUEL FIRE SHUT OFF The LP fuel fire shut off control system comprises a dual motor spherical-plug type valve, located between the tank outlet and the corresponding engine. Valve operation is controlled via the ENG1 and 2 FIRE handles located on the overhead panel in the flight compartment. Valve position is indicated on the FUEL section of panel 25VU.

LP FUEL FIRE SHUT OFF Fuel LP Valve


The LP valve is mounted on the wing front spar between RIBS 11 and 12, at engine level. Each LP valve includes a thermal relief valve which allows fuel trapped between the engine and the LP valve to flow back when the LP valve is closed. The valve is closed by a 28VDC dual motor actuator installed on the valve.

LP FUEL FIRE SHUT OFF Each valve is supplied separately either by the battery or by "GEN1(2)". If one motor fails, the other operates the valve. Valve position is indicated by a mechanical index. The line between the LP valve and the fire wall is double sheathed and drained so fuel from a leak cannot reach hot parts of the engine.

LP FUEL FIRE SHUT OFF Action on the ENG FIRE handle enables simultaneous energization of the two motors of the actuator causing valve closure and engine shut down. The resulting pressure drop causes the motive flow valve on the engine feed return line to close. The two systems are isolated. Operation of the associated annunciator on the FUEL section of panel 25VU

REFUEL/DEFUEL SYSTEM
The refuel/defuel system serves to refuel the tanks under pressure; it also serves to defuel the tanks by suction. A refuel/defuel coupling is located on the leading edge of the right wing. The controls and indicators associated with this system are grouped on the REFUELING panel, located in the right landing gear fairing. One overwing refueling cap for gravity refueling is installed on the outer surface of each wing (zones 522 and 622).

REFUEL/DEFUEL SYSTEM Pressurized Refueling


An assembly comprised of a refuel/defuel coupling with a cap and two refuel/defuel valves is installed directly on the wing spar box front spar on the right wing leading edge between. This assembly is installed in a dry bay which is drained so that any fuel leakage cannot run to the engine inside the leading edge. Access is gained to this dry bay through an access door in the wing leading edge. Each refuel/defuel valve is directly connected to two lines inside the tanks. The right tank refuel branch line is in the right tank, the left tank refuel line is routed through the wing center box. Fuel through the lines is admitted into the tanks at the tank low points and the end of each branch line is equipped with a diffuser to limit formation of foam and fuel vapor.

Each tank includes two float-type high level sensors (1 sensor comprised into each gauge Number 5 151QT/152QT and 1 sensor 11QU/12QU), which serve to close the refuel/defuel valves when 98% of the maximum fuel level is reached. They also illuminate the two HIGH LEVEL indicator lights on the REFUELING panel. These refuel/defuel valves could close by means of preselector who's selected the fuel quantity load. Total refueling rate for both tanks is 24 m3/h. (847 Ft /h) for an inlet pressure of 3.5 bars (50 psi). The tanks are completely filled 5732 litres (1513 US gal) in 17 minutes. Two restrictors installed at the refuel/defuel valve outlets provide the correct fueling rate and balance flow in the two lines so that tanks are filled simultaneously. Each 28VDC refuel/defuel valve is equipped with a manual control to operate the valve in the event of electrical control failure. Two indicator lights identified VALVE/LH/OPEN and VALVE/RH/OPEN located on the REFUELING panel come on to indicate opening of the refuel/defuel valves. Defueling is performed using the refueling system and fuel is drawn towards the tanker by suction. Maximum negative pressure at the refuel/defuel coupling is -0.77 bars (-11 psi).

Refueling Assembly
The assembly comprises the refuel/defuel coupling for connection of the tanker adapter and the two refuel/defuel valves. Three closing features are provided to prevent any inadvertent fuel spillage during flight : A- the refuel/defuel valve B- the self-sealing mechanism (closed whe tanker adapter is not connected) C- the cap.

REFUELING Panel

Gravity Refueling
Two overwing refueling caps are installed on the wing upper surface between RIBS21 and 22 (to limit lightning strike risks). Each cap includes a support attached to the structure and a filter. The cap is equipped with a locking mechanism flush with the wing upper surface. A grounding connection, installed near the cap, provides electrical connection between the refueling cap and the aircraft structure.

Refueling
Opening of the REFUELING panel door energizes a microswitch allowing electrical supply of the refuel/defuel system and the quantity indicating system from the GND/HDLG XFR BUS busbar. This microswitch also ensures simultaneous supply of the GND/HDLG XFR BUS busbar from the HOT BAT BUS busbar if no other power source is available. When the two REFUEL VALVES switches are in NORM position, the refuel/defuel valves are opened by placing the REFUEL/OFF/DEFUEL switch in REFUEL position. Two indicator lights identified VALVE/LH/OPEN and VALVE/RH/OPEN located on the REFUELING panel come on to indicate refuel/defuel valve opening. Fuel load, preselected via the fuel quantity preselector is read on the fuel quantity repeater indicator located on the REFUELING panel.

Quantity indicating system


When the fuel quantity in the tanks reaches a maximum value (4500 kg) (9900 lbs.), the fuel quantity indicator sends an electrical signal to close the refuel/defuel valves via relays 15QU and 16QU. This system can be tested by the FQI TEST pushbutton switch, which simulates a fuel quantity greater than 4500 kg (9900 lbs.), on the fuel quantity indicator causing the refuel/defuel valves to close. The two VALVE/LH/OPEN and VALVE/RH/OPEN indicator lights located on the REFUELING panel go off to indicate valve closure.

Float-type high level sensors


If the probes do not operate, the high level sensors close the refuel/ defuel valves, and the corresponding HI LEVEL indicator lights 17QU and 18QU come on. This safety device cannot be tested. In the case of partial refueling, the operation is stopped by placing the REFUEL/OFF/DEFUEL switch in OFF position. OPEN position enables refueling up to the high level sensor operating threshold : the probes cannot close the refuel/defuel valves.

Defueling
The refuel/defuel valves are opened for defueling operations by placing the REFUEL/OFF/DEFUEL switch in DEFUEL position and the REFUEL VALVES switches in OPEN position. The two refueling safety devices are inhibited.

QUANTITY INDICATING This system provides the flight crew with information concerning the mass quantity of fuel available in each tank throughout the flight. This information is displayed in digital form on a dual indicator located on the upper center instrument panel 4VU.

QUANTITY INDICATING Probes


Fuel mass is measured by five capacitance probes installed in each tank. They are attached to the tank upper surface wall and can be removed from the outside without emptying the tank. Five electrical harnesses installed inside the tank, connect the probes to the bulkhead connectors. Any change in fuel quantity results in a change in probe immersion and a consequent change in probe capacitance. The summing of the fuel quantity in a tank is performed by connecting the five probes in parallel.

QUANTITY INDICATING
Dual Indicator The fuel quantity indicator indicates the fuel mass in each tank. The two indications are given in digital form in kg or in lbs according to the aircraft version. This indicator includes two amplifiers which process electrical signals from the tanks. The two channels, supplied with 28VDC, are completely isolated. The channels include a low level detection system.

MANUAL (MAGNETIC) INDICATORS Manual magnetic indicators are installed on the wing lower surface and can be used during refueling operations. They indicate loaded fuel quantity in the event of failure of the electrical system.

MANUAL (MAGNETIC) INDICATORS


Each tank is equipped with two manual magnetic indicators; one between RIBS5 and 6, the other between RIBS21 and 22 (zones 522 and 622). Access to the indicators is gained from the wing lower surface. Each indicator comprises : - a sealed tube installed vertically in the tank, - a rod, graduated in centimeters, which slides in the tube, - an annular float which slides up and down the outside of tube. When the indicator rod is unlocked it falls under its own weight and is magnetically linked to the float. The fuel level is read in centimeters on the section of the rod which protrudes from the wing lower surface. A chart is used to convert centimeters into liters and units of weight (kg. or lbs.) as a function of aircraft roll attitude and fuel density. Roll attitude can be checked on a clinometer located on the main landing gear bay.

ATA 28 RESUME

ATA 28 RESTART

ATR 42/72 TRAINING


ATA 00 ATA 21 ATA 22 ATA 23 ATA 24 ATA 25 ATA 26 ATA 27 ATA 28 ATA 29 ATA 30 ATA 31 ATA 32 ATA 33 ATA 34 ATA 35 ATA 36 ATA 52 ATA 61 ATA 70 PW121 ATA 70 PW127 ATR DIFERENCES