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Use of Principal Axis Factor Scores in a Multiple Linear Regression Model in Predicting Body Weight in a Naked Neck Chicken Genotype D. M. Ogah* , D. I. Hassan and I. S . Musa Animal Science Dept. College of agriculture pmb 33 lafia, Nasarawa State , Nigeria mosesdogah@yahoo.com

Abstract The relationship between body weight and six body measurements body length (BL), chest circumference (CC), shank length (Sl), thigh length (Tl) , keel length (Kl) and wing length,(Wl ) in adult male naked neck chicken genotype were examined by using principal axis factor scores in a linear multiple regression model .Two factors (body width and thigh length ) with eigen values greater than 1 were selected as independent or explanatory variables and used for multiple linear regression analysis . It was found that the two factors had significant (p<0.001) effect on live weight determination and account for 62.19% of the variation in adult male naked neck chicken body weight . Keywords: communality, factor scores, multiple regression, naked neck chicken Introduction There has been reports of the unique adaptive features of the local chickens in tropical regions predisposing them to adapt to the hot humid condition , there relative small size , their general flight nature , tolerance to some disease and parasites, some fancy colour pattern of mottling extension and spottling . Among this features the major genes of frizzling and naked neck are important as they enhance the thermoregulatory activity of the bird (Ikeobi et al .,1996, and Peters et al., 2002) . These chicken genotypes can be improved through breeding techniques for enhance body weight for meat supply . Selection towards meatiness improvement requires reliable and easy to apply methods for estimating the performance and breeding value of poultry species(Kleczek et al ., 2006) Multiple regression and factor analysis enable interpretation of the multivariate relationship between body weight and some body measurement . it can also be use for predicting assumed dependent variable with assumed independent or explanatory variables. The purpose of this work was to develop a multivariate statistical approach factor analysis aimed at describing objectively the interrelationships existing between body weight and body measurements of the naked neck chicken genotype and to predict body weight from the orthogonal traits derived from principal axis factoring . Materials and methods

Data on body weight and body measurements were collected from 160 adult male naked neck chicken which were reared semi intensively in rural areas of Doma , in Nasarawa state of Nigeria..The parameters considered include body length (Bl), chest circumference (CC) , shank length(Sl), thigh length (Tl), Keel length (Kl) and wing length (Wl) and body weight were measured according to (Solomon 1996).The measurements were carried out from the rural household every morning before they are released out for browsing. Kolmogorov simirnov test was used to assess normality of the variables. Pearson coefficient of correlation( r) among body weight and body measurements were estimated from the correlation matrix , data were generated for factor analysis using principal axis factoring .The determinant of the correlation matrix was used to test for multicollinearity and singularity. Anti image correlation, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy and Bartletts test of sphericity (test the null hypothesis that the original correlation matrix is an identity matrix) were computed to test the validity of the factor analysis of the data set . The appropriateness of the factor analysis was further tested using communalities and ratio of cases to variables. Cumulative proportion of variance criterion was employed in determining the number of factor to extract. Reproduced and residual correlations were used to test the validity of the number of factors extracted. The varimax criterion of the orthogonal rotation method was employed in the rotation of the factor matrix to enhance the interpretability of the factor analysis. Principal axis factor is a method which tries to find the lowest number of factor which can account for the variability in the original variable that is associated with these factors (Wood et al., 1996). If the observed variable are x1 x2 ..xn the common factor are F1 F2.Fm and the unique factor s are U1 U2.Un , the variables may be expressed as this linear function of the factors X1= a11F1+a12F2+a13F3+.a1mFm+a1U1 X2=a21F1+a22F2+a23F3+a2mFm+a2U2 Xn=an1F1+an2F2+an3 F3+anmFm+anUn Each of these equation is a regression equation, factor analysis seeks to find the coefficient a11, a12 ..anm which best reproduced the observed variables for the factors. The coefficient a11, a12 anm are weight in the same way as regression coefficients (because the variables are standardised the constant is zero). Factor scores were considered as independent variables for predicting body weight using the following multiple regression model Bwt=a+b1FS1+b2 FS2 +e Where Bwt = body weight , a=regression constant, b=regression coefficient , FS=factor scores and e =error term.

The significance of the regression coefficient was tested with t-statistics while the quality of the regression was assessed using the coefficient of determinant(R2). Data analysis was effected using SPSS 14 (2004) statistical package

Results and Discussion Table 1 presents the phenotypic correlation among body weight and body measurements. The correlation matrix were mostly significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) which conclude that these correlations coefficient may be factorable, though the correlation matrix between the body weight and body measurements were low to moderately high range 0.01-.69 Factor analysis result using principal axis factor after Varimax rotation of the factor scores two factors were extracted which accounted for 62.18% of the total variance of the original seven variables Table2. Factor pattern coefficient of the rotated factor show the relative contribution of each traits to a particular factor. The first factor which explained 46.95% of the generalised variance was characterised by high positive loading (factor variate correlation) on body width , chest circumference and body length (referred to as size factor). The variable that were associated with the second factor were thigh length and shank length .Thus termed to length factor contributing 15.24%. this similar findings was reported by Yakubu et al. (2009) on the prediction of carcass weight using some linear body measurements and weight. Factor score coefficient in Table 3. were used to obtain factor scores values. Factor score values for the selected two factors were used as independent variables in multiple linear regression analysis to determine significant factors for body weight estimate. Since use of interdependent explanatory variables should be treated with caution , particularly when multicollinearity has been shown to be associated with unstable estimate of regression coefficient (Ibe, 1989, Yakubu, 2009) rendering the estimation of unique effect of these predictors impossible. This justify the use of factor score for the weight prediction as they are orthogonal to each other and are more reliable in estimation.. The two factors selected were found to have significant (p<0.001) positive linear relationship with body weight indicating that as the body weight will be expected to increase as the values of factor 1 and 2 scores increase. Though moderate estimate of total variability (57%) on combination of the two independent factor in body weight was explained Table 4 . A number of authors have used factor scores in estimation in poultry and other livestock, Shahin (2000), Ogah et al. (2009 )derived regression equation for estimating live weight in duck, keskin et al.( 2007 )in estimating carcass weight in sheep. It can be concluded that there are considerable correlations between body weight and linear body measurement of a naked neck bird therefore since this genotype is tropical derived , improvement in its weight can be through selection considering body measurements. References

Ibe S .N. (1989 )measure of size and conformation in commercial broiler . J. Anim. Breeding Genetic.108:461-469 Keskin S.,A. Kor and S. Karaca (2007) Use of factor analysis scores in multiple linear regression model for determining relationship between milk yield and some uddertraits in goat. J Appl.Anim.Res.31:185-188 Ogah D. M. , A. A. Alaga and M. O. Momoh ( 2009) Use of factor scores in multiple regression model for estimation of body weight from some body measurements in muscovy duck Inter.J.Poult.Sc.8(11)1107-1111 Shahin K. A. (2000) Sources of shared variability of the carcass and non carcass component in pekin duckling Ann.Zootech. 49:67-72 Wood J. M. , D. J. Tataryn and R. L .Gorsuch (1996) The effect of under and over extraction of principal axis factor with varimax rotation. Psychological methods. 1:354-365 Yakubu A.( 2009) Fixing collinearity instability in the estimation of body weight from morphometrical traits of west African dwarf goat. Trakia J. of Sc.7:61-66 Yakubu A .,K. O. Idahor and Y. I. Agade (2009) using principal axis factor in multiple linear regression model in predicting the carcass weight of broiler chicken. In proceeding of 14th annual conf.of animal Sc. Association of Nigeria 14-17

Table 1 Phenotypic correction among body weight and body measurements of the naked neck chicken BL BW BL CC SL TL KL WL *=p<0.05 **=p<0.01 BW = body weight, BL =body length, CC chest circumference SL =shank length, TL= thigh length,KL= keel length ,WL= Wing length. 66** CC .38* 31* SL 57** 47** 32* TL 69** 59** 36* 66** KL 43** 40** 28* 49** 56** WL 31* 06 01 16 23 15 BO 54** 42** 46 45** 53** 36** .04

Proceedings of 34th Annual conference of Genetic Society of Nigeria 2010 TABLE 2. Explained variation associated with rotated factors along with factor loading and communalities Variables BL CC SL TL KL WL BO FI 811 624 511 567 419 030 719 3.286 46.447 46.947 F2 389 018 540 707 474 320 154 1.067 15.238 62.186 communality 417 390 552 822 400 104 541

eigen

% Variance

Cum.variance

Table 3 Factor scores for the prediction of body weight of naked neck chicken Value BL CC SL TL KL WL BD F1 127 .316 088 098 044 094 417 F2 0.011 218 180 691 128

123 -248

Proceedings of 34th Annual conference of Genetic Society of Nigeria 2010 Table 4 Multiple regression model for prediction of body weight Predictor Constant Factor1 Factor2 coefficient 1.505 0.171 0.138 0.023 0.024 7.311 5.747 0.000 0.000 1.132 1.132 stand. Error t-value sign VIF

R2

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