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Work Safety

Background of work safety Work safety is the most important field that must be taken into consideration before and during the project. At a company level, the NCC construction Denmark estimates the cost of an accident between 80-100,000 Kroner (13,330 EURO) on average and the company saves approximately 15-20 million Kroner (2,670,000 EURO) per year by concentrating on health and safety and the reduction of absence due to accidents. At a national level, in comparison with other industries, construction is seen as a highly unsafe sector. According to the The Danish construction industrys cartel (BAT) there was in the period 1997-2001 an average reported of 4700 accidents per year in the construction industry, with an average expense of 25.500 Kroner per accident, this is a combined expense of 120 million Kroner (16,000,000 EURO) per year, plus an increased total earning of 2,2 billion Kroner to cover the direct costs.

Clients Obligations The clients obligations in connection with health and safety on site should be of: Work done in connection with the erection, alteration and extension to building, constructions and in connection with the mounting of prefabricated elements. Establishment and alterations to roads, tunnels, bridges, harbors and similar installations. Excavation and ground works in connection with the above. Pipe and cable works. Repair and maintenance of above Demolition and removal of the above or parts thereof.

According to WEA Guidelines F.1.2, in general, the Danish Working Environment Act imposes four obligations on the client. Accordingly, he is under an obligation to: Demarcate the safety measures in the common areas.

Prepare a health and safety plan for the conditions on and operation of construction sites.

Coordinate the health and safety work on the construction site. Notify the Danish Working Environment Authority of the Construction Site.

Demarcation of the safety measures in the common areas Before initiating building and civil engineering works, the client must, on the basis of the specific project material, identify the areas on the construction site where circulation will take place and where work will be performed by several employees, i.e. the so-called common areas. Examples of common areas: Circulation and access routes; Areas for storage of various materials; Areas for storage of waste; Work platforms; Runways; Scaffolding; Site huts; Specific work areas where several enterprises are to perform work simultaneously.

Examples of safety measures in the common areas include: Safeguards at flights of stairs and concrete edges; Covering of recesses and holes in decks, etc; Scaffolding in order to prevent persons from falling when working at heights; Winter cover of raw houses and scaffoldings; Safe access routes outside and inside buildings; Drainage of outdoor circulation areas; Orientation lighting in indoor and outdoor circulation areas, including supply of power to these; Supply of installations for site huts;

Waste handling.

Health and safety plan The client must ensure: That existing underground installations are identified and checked and that the installations are secured in so far as necessary and clearly marked before worked is commenced. Other special hazards in the area are identified and assessed and that they are met in so far as necessary and clearly marked before work is commenced. That the necessary technical installations are established and provided to the users in due time and that they are adequately checked and maintained. That circulation on the construction site can at any time take place under completely safe conditions, including with the necessary lighting of the circulation routes. That appropriate technical equipment can be used as far as necessary. Where materials can be unloaded at the appropriate places and on stable ground. Those areas where work processes involving special hazards are carried out are, wherever possible, not at the same time used as working area or circulation area by others. That a procedure for continuous checking of installations, safety measures and any special hazards has been laid down. That emergency, evacuation and drill plans have been coordinated to the necessary extent. The plan must include an organization chart in which the names and addresses of the client, project planner, construction management, coordinator and the contractors must be specified. Also a construction site drawing must be done so detailed that it indicates the location/placing of: The hazards identified in the area with a specification of their nature. Access, transport and escaped routes. Cranes, hoists and scaffolding. Areas set aside for storage of materials, temporary workshops and wasted containers.

Areas set aside for site huts, lavatories, etc. Electricity, water and sewer connections. Alarm, fire-fighting, rescue and first aid equipment.

Then a time schedule in which: The client is responsible for the specifications of time. The client must , among other things, help to ensure that the construction works can be carried out in a safe manner within the time schedule. The time schedule must specify when the individual contractor has tasks on the construction site and the amount of time allocated for the individual works or work phases. It must also specify in which periods work involving special hazards is to be performed.

Coordination of Health & Safety on site

The client must coordinate the safety work among all the employers represented on the construction site, including any sub-contractors with whom he has not himself entered into a contract. The client must coordinate the safety works by: Appointing a coordinator; Ensuring that the coordinator holds common safety meetings; Ensuring that the coordinator is in personal contact with the construction site.

The coordinator must fulfill the following qualification requirements: Specialist expertise in field of the building and civil engineering, including knowledge of the participants involved in construction projects. This means that the coordinator through his own work in the sector must have knowledge of the building and civil engineering sectors participants and the sectors general practices as well as knowledge of the course of the construction process, etc. Practical experience in management of building and civil engineering work, e.g. as building manager, as project planning manager or as coordinator pursuant to the former rules.

Necessary knowledge of health and safety issues of particular importance to the building and civil engineering sector. Completion of i.e. the special training program which the members safety group must complete.

Designers and Consultants If several designers/consultants deliver a project, each is responsible for their part of the project. A designer who has part of a project designed by another designer must ensure that the total project live up to the conditions stipulated in the Departmental Order. Where the Departmental Order names the designer, this is also valid for the consultant. Where it names project, this is also valid for consultation. The designers obligations and duties: The designer of a construction or civil engineering works must ensure that the rules in the Work Environment Act can be implemented in connection with the implementation of the works and their maintenance. The designer of technical auxiliary (secondary or supplementary) systems or production plants must ensure that his advice will enable the rules stipulated in the Work Environmental Act to be adhered to in connection with the implementation of the works, the final product and be able to take account of the apparent risks in connection with the operation thereof. The designer must advise the client about which studies must be made regarding health and safety in connection with the implementation of the project and the maintenance of the finished product. The designer must stipulate in the drawings and specifications, which risks and other special conditions are connected with the specific project and may have a bearing on health and safety in connection with the implementation and maintenance of the project. The person delivering a construction or civil engineering project must advise the client about his/her obligations in accordance with the Health and Safety Act in relation to the projects expected character and extent.

Punishments Unless higher punishment is given in accordance with the Work Environment Act, the following will be punishable by fine or imprisonment of up to 2 years: Violation of 4, subs.2 and 3, subs 6-13. Any instructions not followed that are given in accordance with the present Departmental Order. Punishment can be allocated to companies, etc. (judicially responsible persons) in accordance to criminal law, Chapter 5.

References 1. www.at.dk 2. www.bar-ba.dk