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Fluid Mechanics
Dr Farid Khan
1
Bouyancy and floatation
•Cruise Ships •Power boats
2
Bouyancy and floatation
•Aircraft carrier •Submarine
3
Bouyancy and floatation
Why a needle or stone sinks while ship (weighing thousands of tons) floats?
4
Bouyancy and floatation
• A floating body is in equilibrium
• Weight of the body = upward thrust exerted by liquid • The upward thrust is called buoyant force
A E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F
• Tendency of liquid to cause buoyant force on a body is ca

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Dr Farid Khan

1

Cruise Ships Power boats

Aircraft carrier Submarine

Why a needle or stone sinks while ship (weighing thousands of tons) floats?

A floating body is in equilibrium

Weight of the body = upward thrust exerted by liquid The upward thrust is called buoyant force

A E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F

5

F1 = Force acted by liquid on surface AOC F1 = Weight of liquid above surface AOC = VAEFC A

F2 = Force acted by liquid on surface ADC F2 = Weight of liquid above surface ADC = VADCFE

E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F

6

F1 > F2

Net force = F2- F1 = (VADCFE VAEFC) = VADCO = weight of liquid displaced A Net force = FB W = FB

E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F

7

Case 1: If W > FB then body will sink Case 2: If W < FB then body will float and will A rise until W = FB

E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F

8

Archimedes principle

1. If a body is fully immersed in a fluid, it is lifted up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it

2. When a body is floating in a liquid, it displaces only sufficient volume of liquid to just balance its weight

E F

F1

G A W B F2

C FB D

9

Archimedes principle

dFB dF2 dF 1 dFB p2dA p1dA dFB ( p1 h)dA p1dA

dFB hdA

A h C dF1 O

dFB dV

dF2

dF

dV

FB V

FB gV

10

Archimedes principle

dFB dF2 dF 1 dFB p2dA p1dA

A dF1 O h1 C

h2

dF2

dF

V1

dV1

V2

dV2

FB 1V1 2V2

11

Archimedes principle

FB 1V1 2V2 Wdisp_ fluids

For air 1 <<< and can be neglected

dF1 O h1 A C

FB 2V2 FB 2V2 W

h2 dF2

12

1 3 2

13

Submerged bodies

FB

FB

14

Submerged bodies

FB

FB

15

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