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Fluid Mechanics

Dr Farid Khan
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Bouyancy and floatation


Cruise Ships Power boats

Bouyancy and floatation


Aircraft carrier Submarine

Bouyancy and floatation


Why a needle or stone sinks while ship (weighing thousands of tons) floats?

Bouyancy and floatation


A floating body is in equilibrium
Weight of the body = upward thrust exerted by liquid The upward thrust is called buoyant force
A E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F

Tendency of liquid to cause buoyant force on a body is called buoyancy

G = Centre of gravity B = Centre of buoyancy FB = Buoyant force W = weight of body


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Body fully immersed in liquid


F1 = Force acted by liquid on surface AOC F1 = Weight of liquid above surface AOC = VAEFC A
F2 = Force acted by liquid on surface ADC F2 = Weight of liquid above surface ADC = VADCFE
E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F

G = Centre of gravity B = Centre of buoyancy FB = Buoyant force W = weight of body


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Body fully immersed in liquid


F1 > F2
Net force = F2- F1 = (VADCFE VAEFC) = VADCO = weight of liquid displaced A Net force = FB W = FB
E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F

G = Centre of gravity B = Centre of buoyancy FB = Buoyant force W = weight of body


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Body fully immersed in liquid


Case 1: If W > FB then body will sink Case 2: If W < FB then body will float and will A rise until W = FB
E F1 G W B F2 FB D C O F

G = Centre of gravity B = Centre of buoyancy FB = Buoyant force W = weight of body


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Archimedes principle
1. If a body is fully immersed in a fluid, it is lifted up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it

2. When a body is floating in a liquid, it displaces only sufficient volume of liquid to just balance its weight
E F

F1
G A W B F2

C FB D

G = Centre of gravity B = Centre of buoyancy FB = Buoyant force W = weight of body


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Archimedes principle
dFB dF2 dF 1 dFB p2dA p1dA dFB ( p1 h)dA p1dA
dFB hdA
A h C dF1 O

dFB dV

dF2

dF

dV

FB V

FB gV

G = Centre of gravity B = Centre of buoyancy FB = Buoyant force W = weight of body


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Archimedes principle
dFB dF2 dF 1 dFB p2dA p1dA
A dF1 O h1 C

h2

dFB ( p1 1h1 2h2 )dA p1dA

dF2

dFB ( 1h1 2h2 )dA dFB 1dV1 2dV2

dF

V1

dV1

V2

dV2

FB 1V1 2V2

G = Centre of gravity B = Centre of buoyancy FB = Buoyant force W = weight of body


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Archimedes principle
FB 1V1 2V2 Wdisp_ fluids
For air 1 <<< and can be neglected
dF1 O h1 A C

FB 2V2 FB 2V2 W

h2 dF2

G = Centre of gravity B = Centre of buoyancy FB = Buoyant force W = weight of body


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Stability of floating bodies


1 3 2

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Stability of floating bodies


Submerged bodies

FB

FB

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Stability of floating bodies


Submerged bodies

FB

FB

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