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# Downhole Hydraulics

Agenda
1.Basics Hydrostatic, Applied Pressure, Differential Pressure 2.Buoyancy (Archimedeslaw review) 3.Hook Load and Buoyancy Factor (300.037 of field DH)
Open ended pipe Plugged Pipe
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4.Neutral Point (important when undoing a thread) 5.Changes in Tubing Length (TBG, DP, DC)
Due to Temperature Due to Stress (own weight) Due to Ballooning/Reverse Ballooning (= added Tbg pressure or annulus pressure)

6. Free Point

Basics
Pressure = Force / Area Force = Pressure x Area

Hydrostatic Pressure: Pressure caused by a column of fluid Phyd (psi) = Density (ppg) x Length (ft) x 0.052 Applied Pressure : Usually associated with a pump, or pressure from the formation. Differential Pressure: The difference between pressures acting on different sides of a body (a pipe, a piston, etc...

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## Differential Pressure Example

3,000 psi surface

Calculate the differential pressure acting on the tubing just above the packer (10,000 ft)

9 ppg brine
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6,000 ft

10,000 ft

Solution
P annulus = 9 ppg x 10,000 ft x 0.052 = 4,680 psi P tubing = 3000 + [( 9 ppg x 6,000 ft ) + ( 16 ppg x 4,000 ft )] x 0.052 = 9,136 psi P differential = P tbg - P ann = 9,136 - 4,680 = 4,456 psi

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## Pann = 4,680 psi

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## Ptbg = 9,136 psi Pdiff = 4,456 psi

Buoyancy
Any body immersed in a fluid will receive an upward force called buoyant force F The buoyant force F is equal to the weight of the volume of the fluid displaced by that body. The bouyancy force is proportional to the weight of the fluid.

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Buoyancy
Any body immersed in a fluid will receive an upward force called buoyant force F. The buoyant force F is equal to the weight of the volume of the fluid displaced by that body.

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DPhyd F

## The force F = DPhyd x Area

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This is the actual weight supported by the hook when a string is in the well It combines the weight of the pipe with buoyancy due to fluid hydrostatic pressure Also called : effective weight

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## HOOK LOAD = Weight in Air - Buoyancy Force

Given Bull Plugged Pipe 51/2 Casing 17 lb/ft Calculate the Hook Load
10 ppg BRINE
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5,000 ft

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Solution
A = [ p x (5.5)2 ] / 4 P. hyd Buoy. Force Weight in Air Hook Load A = 23.76 in2 = 2,600 psi = 61,776# = 85,000# = 23,224#
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= 5,000 ft x 10 ppg x 0.052 = 2,600 psi x 23.76 in2 = 5,000 ft x 17#/ft = 85,000 # - 61,776 #

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B. Force = 61,776 #
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## Weigh in air = 85,000 # Hook Load = 23,224 #

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GIVEN
15.8 ppg CMT
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## 30 Csg / 196#/ft @ 1,000ft,

ID = 28.27 Displace with 8.5ppg Sea.W. Calculate Hook Load at the end of cement job

Sea Water

950 ft 1,000 ft

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Solution
Outer Area = ( p x 302 ) / 4 = 706.85 in2 Inner Area = ( p x 28.272 ) / 4 = 627.68 in2
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Internal Pressure

## = 0.052 [ ( 950 ft x 8.5 ppg) + ( 50 ft x 15.8 ppg) ] = 461 Psi

External Pressure
Hyd Force (inside) Weight in air

## = 0.052 x 1,000 ft x 15.8 ppg = 822 Psi

= 461 psi x 627.68 in2 = 289,363 # = 1,000 ft x 196 lb/ft = 196,000 #

## HOOK LOAD = (196,000 + 289363) - 581,030 = - 95,667 #

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## THE CASING WILL FLOAT !

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GIVEN 5 1/2 Csg / 17#/ft @ 5,000ft 10 ppg MUD ; Open End
5 1/2 Csg 17 lb/ft
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10 ppg MUD

5,000 ft

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Solution
Area = p / 4 ( OD2 - ID2 ) Area = 0.7854 x [(5.5in)2 (4.89in)2] P hyd = 5,000 ft x 10 ppg x 0.052 Buoy. Force = 2,600 psi x 4.962in2 Weight in Air = 5,000 ft x 17 lb/ft HOOK LOAD = 85,000 lb - 12,900 lb

## = 4.962 in2 = 2,600 Psi = 12,900 # = 85,000 # = 72,100 #

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Buoyancy Factor
Buoyancy Factor = 1 - ( Mud Weight / 231 x density of pipe )
with steel density = 0.2833 lb/in3

## BF = 1 - ( 0.01528 x Mud Weight )

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Note 1:

-->

The buoyancy factor for different mud weights can be found in the handbook, page 300.037.

Note 2:
The buoyancy factor can only be applied when using the same fluid inside and outside the pipe, so there is no differential pressure between annulus and tubing.
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## Buoyancy Factor on Example 1

Given 5000.ft of 17 #/ft Casing 10.ppg Mud
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-->

Solution

## B.F. Eff Weight Hook Load

=1- (0.01528x10) = 0.8472 = 17#/ft x 0.8472 = 14.4 #/ft. = 5000' x 14.4#/ft= 72,000#

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## True Hook Load in Deviated Well

In deviated well we have to take into account the fact that the pipe is in contact with the wellbore

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## True Hook Load in Deviated Well

q
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R T W

W = Bouyant weight of the string R = Reaction against wellbore T = Tension in the string = HL

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## True Hook Load in Deviated Well

Static Condition Tension T = W cos q R.I.H q
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## Tension T = W cos q - Friction

P.O.H Tension T = W cos q + Friction

R T W

## W = Bouyant weight of the string

Only a pull test RIH can confirm the R = Reaction against wellbore T = Tension in the string true Friction drag force
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## True Hook Load in Deviated Well

Hook load of a static string is equal to:
Weight in air -- buoyancy -- weight supported by the hole

## Hook load of a dynamic string is equal to:

Static hook load + drag forces ( + while POH / - while RIH )

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## Drag = Total of normal forces x Friction Coefficient

Drag will change when buckling/helical buckling occurs in the well Confirmation of the exact drag can be done only by doing RIH/POH tests prior to the job
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Neutral Point

Neutral Point:

It is the the point in a string which is not under tension nor under compression.

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Neutral Point
Neutral Point:
It is the point in a string which is nor under tension nor under compression.

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## NEUTRAL POINT (off bottom because of bouyancy force)

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Neutral Point
Neutral Point: It is the UNIQUE point in a string which is not under tension nor under compression.

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If we slack off 10,000lb to set the packer the neutral point will move up

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Neutral Point
Neutral Point:
Is the point in a string which is not under tension nor under compression If we slack off 10,000lb to set the packer the neutral point will move up

10,000lb

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NEUTRAL POINT ??

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Neutral Point
Neutral Point: Is the point in a string which is not under tension nor under compression

10,000lb

Tension

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NEUTRAL POINT
If we slack 10,000lb to set the packer the neutral point will move up
Compression

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## Neutral Point Calculation

Calculate the effective weight of the pipe (lbf/ft effective using the bouyancy factor table)
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Divide the weight required on the packer by the effective weight of the pipe (lbf/ft) That result is : the length of pipe required to effectively have the required weight on the packer.

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## Neutral Point - Example 1

GIVEN 5 DP - 19.5#/ft, in 10ppg fluid PKR @ 10,000ft set with 15,000# CALCULATE the position of the Neutral Point
5 DP 19.5 lb/ft
10 ppg MUD
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15,000 lb 10,000 ft

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Solution
Buoyancy Factor DP effective weight DP total Weight in Fluid = 1 - ( 0.01528 x 10 ) = 0.8472 = 19.5 x 0.8472 = 16.52 lb/ft
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## = 10,000 x 16.52 #/ft = 165,200 lb

Neutral Point Depth

## = 165,200lb - 15,000lb (on Packer) = 150,200lb

= 150,200ft / 16.52#/ft = 9,092 ft

We can also calculated the Neutral Point position from the Packer:

## Neutral Point (from Packer) = 15,000 / 16.52 = 908 ft

Neutral Point Depth= 10,000ft - 908ft = 9,092 ft

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## Answer NP @ 9,092 ft from surface NP @ 908 ft from Packer NP depth = 9,092 ft

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## Neutral Point - Example 2

GIVEN 3000ft of 5 DP - 19.5 lb/ft 500ft of 6 DC - 79.4 lb/ft PKR @ 3,500ft set with 15,000#
10 ppg MUD

5 DP 19.5 lb/ft
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6 DC 79.4 lb/ft

15,000 lb

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## Neutral Point - Example 2

SOLUTION
DP effective weight DC effective weight = 16.52 lb/ft
10 ppg MUD

5 DP 19.5 lb/ft
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= 67.27 lb/ft

## DP total weight = 49,560 lb

DC total weight = 33,635 lb Hook Load = 68,195 lb

6 DC 79.4 lb/ft

As the Hook Load is > than DP weight, the neutral point is In the drill collars section Neutral Point depth = 3,277 ft

15,000 lb

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Example 3
Due to emergency situation in off shore , the well has to be shut down temporarily. 9-5/8 in DLT Packer + 61/8 in Storm Valve planned to be set around 1000 ft depth. At the same time client wants to have the bit 500 ft off bottom when the packer is set.
DLT + SV At 1000 ft

10 ppg MUD

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Questions : 1. What is the total hook load before you set the Packer? 2. Is the 6-1/8 in Storm Valve able to perform this job? Why? 3. What will be the Hook Load you need to have before unscrewing the Storm Valve (after the packer set)? 4. What will be the total tensile load supported by the DLT Packer? 5. Is the 9-5/8 in DLT packer able to support this load? Why?

5 DP 19.5 lb/ft

## 6 DC 79.4 lb/ft 600 ft lenght

10,000 ft

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Solution
Q1 Bouyancy Factor = 1 (0.01528 x 10 ppg) = 0.8472 Total DC length = 600 ft Total DP length = 10,000 ft 500 ft 600 ft = 8,900 ft Total DC eff. wt = 0.8472 x 79.4 lb/ft x 600 ft = 40,360.6 lbs Total DP eff. wt = 0.8472 x 19.5 lb/ft x 8900 ft = 147,031.6 lbs Total Hook Load = 40,360.6 lbs + 147,031.6 lbs = 187,392.2 lbs Q2 Yes, because tensile load max of 6-1/8 in Storm Valve is 363 klbs

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Solution
Q3 Total DP length = 1,000 ft (from surface to SV depth) Total DP eff. wt = 0.8472 x 19.5 lb/ft x 1,000 ft = 16,520.4 lbs
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Q4 Total DC length = 600 ft Total DP length = 9,500 ft 600 ft 1000 ft = 7,900 ft Total DC eff. wt = 0.8472 x 79.4 lb/ft x 600 ft = 40,360.6 lbs Total DP eff. wt = 0.8472 x 19.5 lb/ft x 7900 ft = 130,511.2 lbs Total Hook Load = 40,360.6 lbs + 147,031.6 lbs = 171,141.8 lbs

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Solution
Q5 Yes, because hang off weight max of 9-5/8 in DLT Packer is 375 klbs
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## Changes in Tubing Length L

Factors that can affect tubing length:
Temperature Stress Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning
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Changes in Temperature

Temperature will change due to : Production Injection If Temperature Increases => Decreases =>

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## Pipe Expands Pipe Contracts

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Changes in Temperature
Temperature Effect:

DL = Lo x x DT
where:
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Lo = original length of pipe = temperature elongation factor (6.9 x 10-6 /F) DT = change in average temperature If both end of the tubing are fixed a force F will be generated F = 207 x A x DT

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## Changes in Temperature - Example

GIVEN 15,000 lb weight on Packer Pumping Fluid @ 70o.F CALCULATE Force left on Packer when string Temperature is down to 70o F SOLUTION Area = D Temp = Force applied =
BRINE

## 70 .F 3.1/2 Tbg 12.8 lb/ft

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15,000 lb

150 .F

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A = P/4 ( 3.52 - 2.7642 ) A = 3.62 in2 Temp. Average = ( 150 deg F + 70 deg F ) / 2 = 110 deg F DT = 70 deg F 110 deg F - 40 deg F F = 207 x A x DT = 207 x 3.62in2 x (- 40) deg F F = - 29,974 lb

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## Changes in Temperature - Example

GIVEN 15,000 lb weight on Packer Pumping Fluid @ 70o.F CALCULATE Force left on Packer when string Temperature is down to 70o F SOLUTION Area D Temp. Force applied = 3.62 in2 = 40o F = 29974 lbf - 15000 lbf = 14974 lbf BRINE THE PACKER IS UNSET !!
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## 70 .F 3.1/2 Tbg 12.8 lb/ft

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15,000 lb

150 .F

L Due to Stress
The stretch caused by stress is calculated with the Hooke's law:

FxL S = ----------ExA
Where: S = Stretch (= elongation) (ft.)

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F = Force pulling on tubing (lbf) L = Original length of tubing (ft.) E = Youngs Modulus (30 x 106 psi)

## A = Cross sectional area (in2)

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L Due to Stress
Hook Load is Maxi at the top of the string and zero at the bottom

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L Due to Stress
Hook Load is Maxi at the top of the string and nil at the bottom

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L Due to Stress
Hook Load is Maxi at the top of the string and nil at the bottom

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## We can average the stress to calculate the stretch DL.

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L Due to Stress
Hook Load is Maxi at the top of the string and nil at the bottom

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Average Stress

10,000 ft

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## DL Due to Stress - Example

GIVEN
3.1/2 tbg / 12.8 #/ft Mud = 10 #/gal
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SOLUTION
Average Stress

10,000 ft

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## Buoyancy factor Hook Load Average Stress

= 0.8472
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Pipe Weight in mud = 12.8 #/ft x 0.8472 = 10,84 #/ft = 10.84 #/ft x 10,000 ft = 108,400 # Hook Load / 2= 54,000 #

= 4.99 ft

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## DL Due to Stress - Example

GIVEN 3.1/2 Tbg / 12.8 #/ft Mud = 10 #/gal Calculate the change in length caused by stress
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SOLUTION
B.F. (from handbook) =0.8472 Pipe Win mud =10.84 #/ft
Average Stress

Stretch DL

=108,400 #
=4.99 ft
10,000 ft

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## Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

Internal Tubing Pressure will create

## Ballooning => Shorten the Tubing

External Tubing Pressure ( Annulus ) will create

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## Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

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Depth
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## Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

Ballooning

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???? ft

Pressure

Depth
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## Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

Ballooning Reverse Ballooning

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Pressure

???? ft

Depth

Pressure ???? ft

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## Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

If tubing is free to expand or shorten we will have to deal with Ballooning Stretch: DPtb - R2 DPan DL = 2L x 10-8 x ----------------------------R2 - 1 Where :
DPtb DPan

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## Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

If the tubing is not free to expand or shorten we will have to deal with Ballooning Force:
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## F = 0.6 [ ( DPtb x Ai ) - ( DPan x Ao ) ]

Where : Ai = Internal Section Area Ao = External Section Area

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Ballooning - Example
GIVEN 3.1/2 Tbg / 12.8 #/ft Mud = 10 #/gal
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## Calculate the change in length or force due to Ballooning

3000psi

SOLUTION

10,000 ft

???? ft

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Solution
If the string is allowed to shorten : L = 2L x 10-8 [ ( Ptb - R2 Pan ) / ( R2 - 1 ) ] R = 3.5 / 2.764 = 1.2663 R2 - 1 = 0.6035 L = 10,000 ft Ptb = 3,000 psi Pan = 0 L = 2 x 10,000 ft x 10-8 [ ( 3,000 ) / 0.6035 ] L = 0.994 ft = 12 in ( shorter )

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Ballooning - Example
GIVEN 3.1/2 Tbg / 12.8 #/ft Mud = 10 #/gal Calculate the change in length or force due to Ballooning SOLUTION If pipe Free DL = 12 in shorter If pipe not Free F = 10,800 # tension 10,000 ft ???? ft
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3000psi

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Free Point
Definition: Free point is the point in the string above which a stuck pipe is free (drilling incident)
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Determination: Apply an upward force, F1, to ensure that all the string is in tension. Mark a reference point on the pipe. Apply more upward force, F2, ( below the yield strength of the pipe ). Measure the stretch S in inches. Calculate the Free Point from Hooke's Law.

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## Free Point Calculations

The free point can be calculated from Hooke's Law as: EAS L = ----------------12 DF Where: S = Pipe Stretch ( in ) DF = F2 - F1 ( lb ) L = Free Point (ft) E = Young's Modulus ( 30 x 106 psi ) A = Cross sectional area ( in2 ) For steel pipes of linear weight = W (lb/ft) L = 735 x 103 W S / DF
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## Free Point - Example

10,000 ft of 3.1/2" Grade E D.P. ( 13.3 #/ft ) are stuck in a hole. The driller obtained the following data, after pulling on the pipe: F1 = 140,000 lb F2 = 200,000 lb S = 4 ft QUESTIONS : 1. Check that F1 is above the string weight. 2. Check that F2 is less than the yield strength of the pipe. 3. Calculate the Free Point position.

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## Free Point - Example

SOLUTION 1. String weight = 13.3 #/ft x 10,000 ft = 133,000 lb

## (Should be less with buoyancy effect)

2. Yield strength of 3 1/2in, Grade E Drill Pipe > 240,000 lb 3. Free point:

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## L = ( 735 x 103 x 13.3 x 4 x 12 ) / 60,000 Depth = 7820 ft

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Module Summary
1. Review Hydrostatic Applied Pressure Differential Pressure 2. Buoyancy 3. Hook Load and Buoyancy Factor Open Ended Pipe Plugged Pipe 4. Neutral Point 5. Changes in Tubing Length Due to Temperature Due to Stress Due to Ballooning/Reverse Ballooning 6. Free Point

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