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# Statics

Statics is the study of how forces act and react on rigid bodies which are at rest or not in motion. This study is the basis for the engineering principles, which guide the design of all structures, since before we can begin d i b i to design any structure we must first fi know the forces applied to it.
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Forces
Forces are vectors, and because of this they vectors have both magnitude and direction.

Resultant Forces
In solving statics problems, often it is an problems advantageous to replace all the forces, which act on a body with a single force. This single force, called a resultant force, must produce the same movement and effects that all the original forces would produce on the body.
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Resolution of Forces
y F
F sin

F cos

Force Polygons
The resultant of two vectors can be found by placing the two vectors (which act at the same point) in a tip-to-tail fashion and completing the triangle with a vector.
b c a a b
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The resultant vector (c) is the sum of the original two vectors (a and b) and therefore replaces the original two vectors. By using Cosine Law, c2 = a2 +b2 2*a*b*cos C

The resultant vector c is the sum of the original vectors a and b and therefore replaces the original two vectors. p g
f f e r e d d

Moment of a force
Moment of a force is a measure of the turning effect of the force. The magnitude of a moment is dependent on two items --- the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance between the point or axis of rotation and the force involved. Moment of a force about a point = force x perpendicular distance from the point i.e. M = F x d

Example The frame is loaded as shown in the following diagram. Calculate the moment caused about point A at the base of the frame.
0.25 0 25 m

0.5 m

10 kN

## Moment , M = Force x Perpendicular Distance = 10 x 0.25 = 2.5 kNm

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Principle of moments
When an object is in equilibrium, the sum of equilibrium the clockwise moments about any point is equal to the sum of anti-clockwise moments about that point. i.e. M 0

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Equilibrium of Forces
A structure is considered to be in equilibrium if it remains at rest when subjected to a system of forces and bj t d t t ff d moments. If a structure is in equilibrium, then all its members and parts are also in equilibrium. For a structure to be in equilibrium, all the equilibrium forces and moments (including support reactions) acting on it must balance each other.
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For a plane structure subjected to forces in its own plane, the conditions for equilibrium can be expressed by the following equations of equilibrium:

F 0 F 0 M 0
x y
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The third equation above states that the sum of moments of all forces about any point in the plane of the structure is zero. p

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Example Find T1, T2 hanging 5kg by graphical method (using scale 1cm = 10N) ? Solution W = (5kg)(10 m/s2 ) = 50N ; In the space diagram: mark region between W & T1, W & T2, 50N T2 & T1 as A, B, C respectively In the force diagram: draw a line 5cm vertically from point a to point b ab = ? representing W(50N); Draw a line parallel to T2 from point b & draw another line parallel to 50N); T1 from point a. These 2 lines intersect at point c. Measure bc & ca ? bc = 4cm & ca = 3cm T2 = 40N & T1 = 30N >>

C
T1 900 T2 1430

a
900

A
W

B b
1430 Scale 1cm = 10N 5kg Force Diagram 14

Space Diagram

## Newtons first law of motion ( (Law of inertia) )

Every object remains in a state of rest or of uniform speed along a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force. force

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## Newtons second law of motion

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the unbalanced force acting on it, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object:

F = ma
Unit: F(N), m(kg), a(m/s2)
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## Newtons third law of motion

For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Mass
Mass (m) is a measure of the inertia of an object and is an unchanging quantity. Unit: kg
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Weight
Weight (W) is the force of gravity on an object. Unit: N

W = mg
where g: acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 m/s2
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Example
100N 10kg 30N a

Calculate: (a) the net force acted on 10 kg mass, and (b) the acceleration of 10 kg mass.
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Example
A 3 kg mass is hung from a spring balance which is suspended from the ceiling of a lift. If the balance reads 40 N, what is the acceleration of the lift?

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Friction
Friction arises whenever an object slides over another. It always acts in the opposite direction to the motion. It is produced by the interlocking of p y g irregularities of the surfaces in contact.

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There are two types of friction that can act on objects namely static friction and kinetic friction. Static friction refers to the frictional force developed on the object prior to motion. Kinetic friction refers to the frictional force that acts on an object while motion is occurring.

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It must be realized that static frictional forces develop in response to any magnitude of push on the object. As a push or sliding force is applied and increases in magnitude, the frictional force must likewise increase if the object is to remain stationary As the applied sliding force exceeds the stationary. static frictional force at its maximum value, motion occurs.

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Coefficient of friction
friction(f f i ti (f) coefficient of f i ti ( ) ffi i f friction( x normal reaction(R)

f R
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The normal force is the reaction which occurs perpendicular to the moving object and the surface over which it moves. Normal Force = Weight of the object

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Example A block weighing 50 kN rests on a level surface as shown. If the coefficient of static friction between the surfaces is 0.3, determine the force needed to start the block d t i th f d d t t t th bl k in motion.

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Solution
Since the force system is concurrent, the equations of equilibrium that are needed are

F
F
F=*N Therefore, in this case, F= P = 0.3 * 50 kN = 15 kN
x

F
P=F

N = 50 kN

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Fluid Mechanics
A fluid is a material whose particles are free to move their position. Liquids and gases are both fluids. Fluids can move and change the external p shape to suit the container.

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Density
The density of a substance is defined to be its mass per unit volume.

Density
Unit: kg/m3

mass volume

## Density of water = 1000 kg/m3

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Archimedes Principle
When an object is wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, the upthrust on the object is equal to the weight of fluid displaced.

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Example
A block of aluminium has a volume of 0.1 01 m3 and a density of 2700 kg/m3. Calculate
(a) the weight of the aluminium block, (b) the upthrust acting on the block when immersed in water of density 1000 kg/m3. (c) the apparent weight of the block when immersed in water.
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Law of Flotation
A floating object displaces its own weight of fluid in which it floats.

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Example
A block of wood of volume of 0.1 m3 and 01 density of 700 kg/m3 floats in water of density 1000 kg/m3.
Calculate (a) the weight of the block, (b) the weight of water displaced by the block, (c) the volume of the block immersed in water.
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Pressure
Pressure on a surface is defined as the force acting at right angle on that surface divided by the area of the surface. y

F A

The force that acts on the area which is submerged at a depth in a fluid is equal to g p q the weight of the column above the area. The pressure is then this weight divided by the area
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p gh
where p = pressure at a point in a fluid (N/m2 or Pa) = density of fluid (kg/m3) h = vertical depth from surface of fluid to the point (m)

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## Principle of Fluid Pressure

Pressure at a given depth of fluid is equal in all direction. Pressure always acts at right angles to the containing surfaces. Pressure is the same at points of equal depth, p q p , irrespective of volume or shape.

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## Force on Immersed Surface

The force on a surface can be calculated from the pressure on the surface and the area of the surface.

F paverage xA
The centre of pressure is the point where the line of action of the resultant force passes.
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Water is contained by a vertical surface produces a triangular pressure diagram. The total force produced acts through the centroid of the triangle, i.e. one-third of the height.

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Example
A rectangular gate is 1 6 m wide and is 1.6 retaining water to a depth of 0.8 m. (a) calculate the lateral force on the gate produced by the water; ( ) (b) calculate its centre of pressure; p ; (c) calculate the moment acting about the base.
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0.8 m Gate

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## ( ) (b) Location of Centre of Pressure

= 0.8*1/3 = 0.267 m

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