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UNIVERSITY OF HUDDERSFIELD

School of Art, Design and Architecture Department of Architecture and 3D Design


TMA1101

Architecture of The Soul: An exploration of Perception and Emotion in Architecture

A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Diploma Architecture By Simon A Lunn

The candidate confirms that the work submitted is their own and that appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others. 13th December 2011

Architecture is given life and spirit by all the qualities that touch the human soul: by light and colour, sound by and temperature, view might and be expansion These literal the

and compression of space, by prospect. considered created by

qualities

manipulation of materials and space, but they can go beyond the literal and touch our souls.
(Franck, 2007)

Abstract
Why are so many modern buildings unpleasant to spend any time in? Architecture deeply affects how we feel; we all spend much of our lives inside buildings; far more time than we spend looking at them. Yet many building are soulless, uninspiring beige boxes. For the best part of 100 years many architects seem to have only been concerned with the visual sense. The other senses have been ignored or banished. The result has often been soulless architecture that doesnt touch our souls. The buildings may look good, but somehow just dont feel right. Why is that? The first chapter of this dissertation attempts to answer that question by exploring how we perceive our surroundings through all of our senses. It discovers how the senses of touch (our Haptic sense) and hearing enable us to build a mental map of our word from the many pieces of the puzzle our senses are collecting and analysing unconsciously, all the time. This chapter answers why we feel good in some spaces and not in others. Chapter two explores how a number of architects have tried to manipulate the emotions of visitors to their work and analyses the results. The final chapter explores the idea that it is possible to cause emotional responses; positive and negative; by carefully considering how we respond to our environment and controlling the sensory stimulus the user receives from the building.

It transpires that an architect can indeed elicit emotional responses by controlling the environment. However, where there is no guidance how we should interpret the feeling a building evokes; the behaviour people display is often at odds with what one might expect. In the final chapter the author explains why this is, how an architect can effectively design to create emotion and how by providing guidance how to interpret the feelings created, an architect can design a building that can take a user on an emotional journey as they physically navigate the building. Finally the author theorises that there is a process that should enable architects to design buildings that really talk closely to our emotions and demonstrates this theory by using the example of a marine aquarium. The architecture provides the stage on which the drama is played out; it is key to education and done well can be the catalyst for change! However the play its self must tell the story and take full advantage of the feelings and emotions the architecture stimulates. When the two are integrated they can educate and enthuse visitors to go out into the world and educate others.

Acknowledgements
May I take this opportunity to thank Jon Bush who in 2006 offered me a place on the foundation program and again last year gave me the opportunity to come into Diploma 1. He has always been extremely helpful and an inspiration. May I thank Sophia Emmanuel, who persuaded me when in my foundation year that I hadnt made a huge mistake and I should stick at it? Thanks to Hillary Chadwick for my first year. Yun Gao for my second year, which was a good year; thanks to Carl Meddings, and Vijay Taheem, who were always firm and direct enough to keep up the momentum. May I thank Gerard for somehow always spotting that one key change that always transforms my schemes for the better. Without the help and encouragement I have enjoyed from all of my tutors I wouldnt have made it so far. Writing this dissertation has been a challenge. I have to thank Karen Dennis in the early stages. A big thank you to my Personal Tutor, Richard Fellows who has a wealth of knowledge that he has happily shared during our tutorials. Each time we have spoken, the dissertation was improved as a result. I have to give an enormous thank you to Margo Fourman, who has been an inspiration. Her ability to help me to see the wood from the trees and get down on paper my ideas has allowed me to get this finished. I could not have done this with out her. Thank you all.

Contents
ABSTRACT .............................................................................. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................ 5 CONTENTS .............................................................................. 6 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................................ 8 INTRODUCTION.................................................................... 11 THE POWER OF ARCHITECTURE TO EDUCATE ....................................... 11 HARNESSING THAT POWER........................................................... 11 AIM AND SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH ................................................. 12 CHAPTER ONE: ARCHITECTURE GETS UNDER OUR SKIN ....... 14 THE FIVE SENSES ..................................................................... 16 FIVE SENSORY SYSTEMS ............................................................. 20 THE VISUAL SYSTEM: DAYLIGHT .................................................... 21 Daylight and a connection to place ....................................... 26 THE VISUAL SYSTEM: COLOUR ...................................................... 30 Psychological affect of colour ............................................... 32 Physiological response to colour Stimulus .............................. 40 THE AUDITORY SYSTEM .............................................................. 43 THE BASIC ORIENTING SYSTEM ...................................................... 47 THE HAPTIC SYSTEM: TOUCH ........................................................ 48 THE HAPTIC SYSTEM: PERSONAL SPACE ........................................... 52 PROPORTION, BALANCE AND SCALE ................................................. 54 CHAPTER SUMMARY ................................................................... 55 CHAPTER TWO: CASE STUDIES ............................................. 57 THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM IN MANCHESTER .................................... 58 MEMORIAL FOR THE MURDERED JEWS OF EUROPE ................................. 72 LADY DIANA MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN .................................................. 79

CHAPTER THREE: ARCHITECTURE WITH A PURPOSE: AN EMOTIONAL JOURNEY, FROM VISITOR TO EDUCATOR. ......... 83 THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AQUARIA IN CONSERVATION ........................ 84 THE PROCESS OF DESIGNING FOR EMOTION ........................................ 85 An example of the process of designing for emotion in the context of a conservation focused public aquarium ............................. 87 CONCLUSION ........................................................................ 90 REFERENCES ........................................................................ 92 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................. 100 APPENDIX A: WHAT ARE WE DOING TO OUR WORLD? ....... 109 COMMERCIAL WHALING............................................................. 111 FISHERIES ............................................................................ 114 Common Fisheries Policy ................................................... 116 Sharks; we are wiping them out for soup! ........................... 118 POLLUTION & INDUSTRIAL WASTE DUMPING .................................... 123 APPENDIX B: EXTINCTION IS NOT INEVITABLE; IT IS NOT TOO LATE TO CHANGE OUR WAYS ...................................... 125 Medes Islands Marine Park Spain........................................ 130 APPENDIX C: DESIGNING FOR EMOTION ............................ 132 HOW TO DESIGN TO ELICIT AN EMOTIONAL RESPONSE .......................... 132

List of illustrations
FIG 1. ARISTOTLES FIVE SENSES (ROMAN, N.D) .................................... 16 FIG 2. GESTALT CLOSURE (BRADLEY, 2010) ........................................ 17 FIG 3. A CONTEMPORARY CITY: LE CORBUSIER (LE CORBUSIER, 1971) ........ 18 FIG 4. PARK HILL PART TWO (HYDE PARK) DEVELOPMENT SHEFFIELD BUILT IN 1962-66 (GLENDENNING, 1994) .......................................... 19 FIG 5. GREAT HALL:HAMPTON COURT PALACE (RAWLINSON, N.D) ............... 22 FIG 6. WAKEFIELD RING ROAD UNDERPASS (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) .. 23 FIG 7. MEMORIAL DE LA DEPORTATION: PARIS (ANON, NOTRE-DAME-THEDEPORTATION-MEMORIAL,

2009) ........................................... 24

FIG 8. ROSE CENTRE FOR EARTH AND SPACE: NEW YORK (JODIDIO, 2005) ... 25 FIG 9. PORTHMEAR STUDIO (CLARIDGE, 2009) ..................................... 26 FIG 10. PERSISTENCE WORKS SHEFFIELD (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2009) .... 27 FIG 11/12. SARAH VILLENEAUSS STUDIO IN PERSISTENCE WORKS (CAROL, 2009, P. 34) .................................................................. 28 FIG 13. NEWTONS PRISM (DOUMA, 2006) .......................................... 31 FIG 14. READE STREET TOWNHOUSE, NEW YORK (OJEDA, 2006, P. 72) ...... 32 FIG 15. THE BARBICAN CONCERT HALL FOYER, LONDON (AEGIANDYAD., 2011) .................................................................................. 33 FIG 16. MUSEUM FOR AFRICAN ART, NEW YORK (OJEDA, 2006, P. 103)...... 34 FIG 17. SUPERMODELS EXHIBITION, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS (OJEDA, 2006, P. 169) ................................ 35 FIG 18. VITRA FIRE STATION, WEIL AM RHEIN, GERMANY (OJEDA, 2006, P. 78) .................................................................................. 36 FIG 19. MOOD INDIGO (BOURNE, 2009) ............................................ 37 FIG 20. NISHA BAR-LOUNGE, MEXICO CITY (ARQUITECTOS, N,D) ................ 38 FIG 21. BUZIAK PENTHOUSE, NEW YORK (OJEDA, 2006, P. 136) .............. 39 FIG 22. COLOUR SPACE EFFECTS THE PERCEPTION OF ROOM PROPORTION (MEERWEIN, 2007, P. 67) .................................................. 41 FIG 23. ACCOUSTIC PROPERTIE OF SURFACE MATERIALS (CRUTCHFIELD, 19962011) .......................................................................... 45

FIG 24. MATERIAL ABSORPTION OF REFLECTED SOUND (CRUTCHFIELD, 19962011) .......................................................................... 46 FIG 25 / 26. LE CORBUSIER: NOTRE DAME DU HAUT; RONCHAMPS (RASMUSSEN, 1964, PP. 211,213) ........................................................ 48 FIG 27 SHARDS OF THE BROKEN GLOBE (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) ....... 58 FIG 28. VIEW OF THE IWMN FROM ACROSS THE MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL (STUDIO DANIEL LIBESKIND, 2011) ....................................... 59 FIG 29. . AIREAL VIEW OF THE IWMN (STUDIO DANIEL LIBESKIND, 2011) .... 59 FIG 30. THE AIR SHARD TOWER AND MAIN ENTRANCE (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) .......................................................................... 61 FIG 31. THE MAIN ENTRANCE (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) ................... 62 FIG 32. INSIDE THE AIR SHARD TOWER THAT IS THE ENTRANCE TO THE MUSEUM (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) ............................................ 63 FIG 33. ELEVATED WALKWAY (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) ................... 64 FIG 34. VIEWING PLATFORM (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) .................... 65 FIG 35. OPEN METAL GRILL FLOORING (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) ......... 65 FIG 36. MAIN EXHIBITION SPACE (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011) ............... 66 FIG 37. POLISHED WALLS LEAN PRECARIOUSLY (STUDIO DANIEL LIBESKIND, 2011) .......................................................................... 67 FIG 38. POLISHED WALLS LEAN PRECARIOUSLY (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011)68 FIG 39. POLISHED WALLS LEAN PRECARIOUSLY (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2011)69 FIG 40. MEMORIAL FOR THE MURDERED JEWS OF EUROPE (ANDERSON, 2011) 72 FIG 41. FIELD OF STELAE (DEROR, 2007) .......................................... 73 FIG 42. VISITORS WALKING BETWEEN AND OVER THE FIELD OF STEL, AND LYING
DOWN ON TOP OF THEM.

(STEVENS, NOTHING MORE THAN FEELINGS,

2009, P. 158) ................................................................ 76 FIG 43. LADY DIANA MEMORIAL, HYDE PARK (ANON, DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN, 2006 - 2011) ..................................... 79 FIG 44. THE CASCADING WATER SINGS (ANON, DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN, 2006 - 2011) ..................................... 80 FIG 45. A PLACE TO ENJOY (ANON, DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN, 2006 - 2011) ................................................... 82 9

REF 46. THE PROCESS OF DESIGNING FOR EMOTION (APPENDIX C) (AUTHORS FLOWCHART, 2011) .......................................................... 86 FIG 47. THE EARTH (XEDOS4, 2010) .............................................. 110 FIG 48. GREENPEACE BOAT TRYING TO DISRUPT JAPANESE WHALE HUNT (GREENPEACE, 2000) ...................................................... 111 FIG 49. SLAUGHTERED PILOT WHALES (ANON, E2NT, 1999-2011) ......... 113 FIG 50. COD IN CRISIS (ANON, 1.BP.BLOGSPOT.COM/, N,D) ................... 115 FIG 51. NET SIZES CATCH IMMATURE FISH (ANON, ENVIRONMENT, 1996-2011) ................................................................................ 116 FIG 52. DEAD FISH THAT CANNOT BE LANDED ARE THROWN BACK INTO THE SEA. (ANON, FISHFIGHT.NET, N,D) ............................................. 117 FIG 53. SCHOOLING HAMMERHEAD SHARKS. (GALAPAGOS ISLANDS) (ANON,
SHARKDIVING.US,

2006) .................................................. 118

FIG 54. SHARK FIN SOUP (ANON, STOPSHARKFINNING.NET, N,D) .............. 118 FIG 55. FINLESS HAMMERHEAD SHARK (ANON, MADMERMAIDS.COM, N,D) .... 120 FIG 56. RIJNBORG DUMPSHIP (NORTH ATLANTIC : 1982) (ANON,
WWW.GREENPEACE.ORG, N,D) .............................................

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FIG 57. RUSSIAN SHIP TNT27 DUMPING NUCLEAR WASTE IN THE SEA OF JAPAN (EAST SEA). 18 OCTOBER 1993. (ANON, GREENPEACE.ORG, N,D) . 124 FIG 58. CHEMICAL BURNS (ANON, SCIENCEBLOGS.COM, 2006-2011). ....... 124 FIG 59. HUMPBACK WHALE AND HER CALF TAKEN RARATONGA COOK ISLANDS SEP 2001 (AUTHORS PHOTOGRAPH, 2001) ............................. 126 FIG 60. GREY SEAL: FARNE ISLANDS (ANON,
HTTP://SCUBADIVINGSTAFFORDSHIRE.CO.UK,

2009) .................. 127

FIG 61. BASKING SHARK (DIVERNET.COM, 2008) ............................... 128 FIG 62. OCEANIC WHITE TIP SHARK AND THE AUTHOR IN MOOREA (DIVE IN PARADISE, 2001) ........................................................... 129 FIG 63. IMAGES OF MARINE PARK AND HEALTHY FISH (ANON, DIVING AT ESTARTIT AND THE ILLES MEDES, N,D)................................... 130 FIG 64. PROCESS FOR DESIGNING FOR EMOTION (AUTHORS FLOWCHART, 2011) ................................................................................ 132

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Introduction

We shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us. (Churchil, 1960)

The Power of Architecture to Educate


The key to compelling vested interests to change any significant policy or practice is to change public opinion. That change starts with education, which can lead to a ground swell of public opinion that can and does force politicians and those vested interests to change their policies and practices, or risk loosing votes or customers. Architecture creates the stage on which the drama is played out; it is key to education and done well can be the catalyst for change!

Harnessing That Power


In order to do their best work an architect must fully identify with the functions their creation will perform; they must completely understand how users will experience their work and the emotions it will evoke. In order to do this the architect must intimately understand the physiological and psychological affect every element of their creation will have on the users.

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Aim and Scope of The Research


Architecture affects all the senses; it creates emotional responses that if used correctly can motivate people to take action. This dissertation will explore the techniques an architect has at their disposal to subtly awaken positive and negative emotions. Then it will explore the practical application of this ability to subtly elicit a desired emotional response. In the context of marine conservation, that power to provoke sometimes joyous, sometimes unsettling feelings can be the catalyst, that awakens a determination to protect the oceans and the creatures that live in them, and demand change from our politicians? We perceive the world through our senses; that perception has physiological and psychological effects, and there are techniques that can be employed to influence those responses. These techniques could be applicable to any building where one wishes to elicit an emotional response; in this dissertation, a marine conservation example will be used to illustrate how these ideas can be put into practice. The aim of this research is to really understand, how techniques successfully stimulate each of the senses and ultimately to understand how to generate the appropriate emotional responses to the spaces an architect designs. The first chapter explores how we perceive our world using all of our senses and the affect different stimuli have on us, often at an unconscious level.

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The visitor experiencing a building designed using the techniques discussed should feel the building talk directly to their heart. A good building, should elicit an emotional response. In theory it should be possible to assemble an emotional tool kit that would allow a designer to take a person through an emotional journey, as they progress physically, on their journey through the building. In order to develop this tool kit, the author will explore how all the senses can be stimulated by the use of light, sound, touch and the physical proportions and geometry of a series of architectural spaces; taking the visitor on a physical and emotional journey that heightens their emotional responses and drives home the message being presented. The second chapter uses a series of case studies to illustrate how a number of architects have successfully or unsuccessfully used proportion, light, sound, and texture to create the desired emotional response in the visitors to their work. In the third chapter, the author will use the example of a public marine aquarium, to demonstrate the power of architecture to affect our emotions. This chapter will show how the techniques available to manipulate space, light, colour, texture, and sound can be used to generate support for marine conservation in those who experience the architecture. The whole building should be a catalyst for change; visitors are moved to modify their views; they in turn become the educators, passing on the message to others.

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Chapter One: Architecture gets under our skin


When we move through space with a twist and a turn of the head, mysteries gradually unfolding, fields of overlapping perspectives are charged with a range of light from the steep shadows of bright sun to the translucence of dusk. A range of smell, sound and material from hard stone and steel to the free billowing of silk returns us to primordial experiences framing and penetrating our everyday lives. (Holl, 1996, p. 11) Architecture affects us; as we move through space we unconsciously experience our surroundings using all of our senses; we absorb our surroundings and this causes physiological and psychological responses that can have a very positive, or negative effect on us.

The experience only touches our hearts when it becomes an ambience we can breath; most of the time we dont notice our surroundings and they can work on us without any conscious resistance on our part. (Day, 1990, p. 10) Modern humans have evolved over approximately 200,000 years, and by about 50,000 years ago had developed many of the social characteristics and physiological and psychological responses we would recognize today (BBC News Channel, 2005).

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Through that long evolution we have evolved instinctual (Non cognitive) reactions to environmental stimuli. Many modern instinctual responses have their roots in that evolutionary past and have evolved to keep us safe. This chapter explores how we consciously and unconsciously perceive our world through our senses, and how Architects can stimulate all of those senses to create powerful emotions as we inhabit and experience the places they create.

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The Five Senses

Fig 1. Aristotles five senses (Roman, n.d)

Aristotle listed the five senses as those of Sight, Sound, Smell, Taste, and Touch (Bloomer, 1977, p. 33); Plato had exalted the sense of sight above all others, describing sight as the purest medium for our knowledge of perfect form (Bloomer, 1977, p. 32). Ever since the enlightenment there has been a quest to find a scientific formula for beauty.

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In the early part of the 20th Century Psychologists experimenting in the Berlin Gestalt (form) school, conducting experiments into perception, found that people tend to simplify complex visual patterns in to more simple and recognizable patterns, in a process they called closure (Bloomer, 1977, p. 31). Their experiments revealed a tendency to: Simplify patterns towards horizontal and vertical rather than skew organizations; and toward symmetry rather than asymmetry; and towards basic geometric groups rather than random or less precise ones. For example, a square was shown to be the most memorable and neutral form because of its orientation and regularity. (Bloomer, 1977, pp. 31-32)

Fig 2. Gestalt Closure (Bradley, 2010)

Look at the image above; what do you see?

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The image is actually four unconnected straight lines; yet it is likely you see a square. Our brains fill in the missing information to make a single recognizable pattern (Bradley, 2010). This is an example of how the Gestalt experiments appeared to scientifically prove how humans visually perceive, simplify, and order external objects and favor rectilinear geometric forms, as they are more easily recognized (Bloomer, 1977, p. 31). This new understanding came as the pioneers of the modernist movement were formulating their ideas of mass produced, clean geometric architecture and allowed theories to be developed directly from experimental evidence (Bloomer, 1977, p. 32). This new theory of geometric, rectilinear forms, naturally more easily recognized, was the basis of a higher form of architectural expression, free from ornament, which seemed to prove a rational explanation of beauty, perfect for the new machine age (Bloomer, 1977, p. 32).

Fig 3. A Contemporary City: Le Corbusier (Le Corbusier, 1971)

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Vision had become the dominant sense in art and architecture to the point that in much modernist and post modernist architecture, the visual has become all-powerful at the expense of all the other senses. The other senses seem to have been ignored; often with disastrous consequences for the people who lived and worked in these geometric utopian new buildings.

Fig 4. Park Hill Part Two (Hyde Park) development Sheffield Built in 1962-66 (Glendenning, 1994)

The five senses had been considered to be independent passive receptors of stimuli from the outside world and research between 1830 and 1930 was concerned with the mechanisms of reception; vision through the eyes; smell through the nose; taste through the mouth and touch through the skin; touch being further broken down into the sensations of pressure, heat, cold, pain, and kinesthesis, a sensibility to motion (Bloomer, 1977, p. 33).

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Five Sensory Systems


JJ Gibson, an environmental psychologist interested in the psychology of perception, rather than the physiological workings of the reception apparatus, considered the senses to be actively seeking out information from our environment. Gibson re-classified the five senses as five active perception systems, capable of obtaining information about objects in the world, without the intervention of an intellectual process. Gibsons five active systems are classified as: The visual system, The auditory system, The taste smell system, The basic orienting system (a sense of where our body is in space), and The haptic system (a sense of touch reconsidered to include the whole body) (Bloomer, 1977, p. 33). The basic orienting system and the haptic system, seem to contribute more than the others to our understanding of three dimensionality, the sine qua non of architectural space (Bloomer, 1977, p. 33) Sine qua non is the Latin for an essential condition or requirement; literally translated as: without which not. (Harper Collins, 2006)

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The Visual System: Daylight


The architect Louis Kahn said: The Sun never knew how wonderful it was until it shone on the walls of a building. (tanizaki, 2001, p. 1) Human beings are creatures of the light; until comparatively recently our lives were governed by the passage of day and night and the passing of the seasons; waking at dawn and retreating to our shelters as the light faded in the evening. Light entering through the eyes travels to the visual cortex providing visual information, which is interpreted by the brain as sight, but light entering through the eyes also stimulates the pituitary and pineal glands that regulate the secretion of hormones that regulate body chemistry (Meerwein, 2007, p. 48). The circadian system, our in-built body clock that repeats over a 24hour period is synchronized by daylight and governs the 24-hour cycle of day and night. This inner clock induces many complex psychological and biochemical reactions regulated by the hormone melatonin. Melatonin is suppressed by light and activated by darkness and it is the increase in the level of this hormone that makes us sleepy when it is dark and wakes us as its level reduces in daylight keeping us awake until the cycle is repeated (Meerwein, 2007, p. 48). Light has a powerful effect on us; one feels joyful when one awakes to a sunny blue sky, yet in contrast, the dull gray skies we often

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wake up to in the UK can be depressing. In some people suffering from SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder), this seasonal change in the quality of daylight can have debilitating psychological effects, ranging from unusual tiredness, lethargy, loss of libido to depression and paranoia (Anon, symptoms-of-SAD, n,d). In describing the effect of moving from a smaller side lit room into the large great hall lit from two sides; common in many European manor houses, Rasmussen says Coming from one of the smaller rooms, with windows on one wall only, into this huge room flooded with light gives a feeling of relief for it is so bright and airy. (Rasmussen, 1964)

Fig 5. Great Hall:Hampton Court Palace (Rawlinson, n.d)

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Sunlight has a very positive affect our psychic; conversely poor light is degrading; for example, a dimly lit space may cause a sense of unease. In our past, predators, which might have eaten us, stalked us from the shadows. We have evolved excellent peripheral vision, which works better in low light than our main narrow colour focus vision. Perhaps to spot those moving shadows that might signal danger. A fear of the dark as a child is perfectly natural and would keep us safe if we avoided dark places, where danger might lurk.

Fig 6. Wakefield Ring Road Underpass (Authors photograph, 2011)

A gloomy underpass, instills a sense of unease, muggers might be lurking to do us harm, therefore we feel on edge because adrenaline is produced as part of the fight or flight response that prepares us to fight the mugger or run away.

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There may have been no wolf in the undergrowth or mugger in the underpass, but the physiological response, of which we have no control, does prepare us for the danger we might face and the feelings are very real.

Fig 7. Memorial de la Deportation: Paris (Anon, notre-dame-the-deportationmemorial, 2009)

The Memorial de la Deportation in Paris commemorates the 200,000 French citizens transported to the Nazi Concentration camps during World War II. The architect Georges-Henri Pingusson intending to instill a sense of foreboding and apprehension in the visitor creates a deliberately narrow claustrophobic and dimly lit space (Chapman, 2011).

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Fig 8. Rose Centre for Earth and Space: New York (Jodidio, 2005)

A light airy space flooded with natural light will feel uplifting and positively lift the mood. However a visual connection to the outside world, to nature, is also important. The Rose Centre in New York is a great example of an open airy and uplifting space.

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Daylight and a connection to place Cornwall has long been popular with artists, who have over the years established many artists colonies, drawn by the quality of the light. An experiment intended to establish what made the light so good was conducted in the artists colony of Porthmear in St Ives on the north coast of Cornwall. It was found that the air is free from the pollution found in the cities and therefore, as would be expected the light is not degraded by pollution. The studios are close to the sea, with views looking north over the beach and sea beyond; that view connects the artist to the outside environment; most of the light entering the studios is from the bluer part of the sky in the north and the intensity of the light is amplified by its reflection from the sand of the beach and the sea beyond (Carol, 2009, p. 19).

Fig 9. Porthmear studio (Claridge, 2009)

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Fig 10. Persistence Works Sheffield (Authors photograph, 2009)

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Persistence Works in Sheffield, is an award winning artists colony purpose built to provide a variety of studios for local artists. All the studios have plentiful natural daylight however, Sarah, Villeneauss studio, which is, also on the north side, is only lit by high-level clearstory windows and roof lights to the north. These give excellent daylight, but give no view of the outside world. Consequently, Sarah built a raised platform on which she sits to allow views out of the clearstory windows and establish a visual connection to the outside (Carol, 2009, p. 34).

Fig 11/12. Sarah Villeneauss studio in Persistence Works (Carol, 2009, p. 34)

Carol concluded that: This is a perfect example of how important a visual connection with the external environment can be to an artist. The reliance on roof lighting and lack of eye level windows in some spaces at Persistence Works results in a feeling of enclosure rather than the feeling of liberation that Porthmear emits. (Carol, 2009, pp. 34, 38)

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The artists colony in Porthmear has views over the beach and sea that give a strong connection to the outside world and to its place. The inhabitant is aware of the passage of time; from morning to night; the passing of the seasons from winter to summer, with all the drama the changing weather brings; this gives a strong connection to the place. The lack of eye level windows in the Persistence Works studio denies a visual connection to the outside. This comparison between Porthmear and Persistence Works illustrates the importance in architecture of not only natural daylight but also views that connect the space to its place. Consequently one can surmise that to feel uplifting, a space needs good natural light and views that connect to the wider environment. Conversely, by denying that connection an architect can create an uncomfortable feeling of entrapment.

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The Visual System: Colour


In the use of colour, Sophia Simoula in her 2009 Dissertation Colouring Architecture, says that: The atmosphere and quality that can be given to a space depending on its colour scheme can make a room appear festive, cheerful, cool, distant or calm. With the right choice of colours, the space can convey messages that influence peoples behavior or feelings, or on the other hand can be completely speechless (Simoula, 2009, p. 65) In Places of the Soul, Christopher day confirms the use of colour can affect the quality of a space and how it affects us. There are universal aspects of colour: Red, speeds the metabolism, blue slows it down. This is physiological fact everyone responds this way. (Day, 1990, p. 47) Day goes on to explain how heavy strong colours have a tendency to be too forceful for comfort. Strong colours tend to be manipulative. They force their mood on the room. Couloured light has a different effect from pigment. With light you can feel raised up into a mood, but with pigment pressed down into it (Day, 1990, p. 48).

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Fig 13. Newtons prism (Douma, 2006)

Sir Isaac Newtons prism experiment in 1672 demonstrated that the visible spectrum of natural light is made up of seven colours. Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet. (Douma, 2006) We perceive colour based on which colours are absorbed or reflected from the surface of a material. If all the colours are absorbed we see black, if all the colours are reflected we see white.

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Psychological affect of colour In the book The Powers Of Colour: creating healing interior spaces the authors Sarah O Marberry and Laurie Zagon give their explanation of the psychological effect of colour as follows:

FIG 14. Reade Street Townhouse, New York (Ojeda, 2006, p. 72)

Red Its nature symbol is the earth; it is defined often by its qualities of high energy and passion. Studies have shown that red has the ability to excite and raise blood pressure. (Marberry, 1995, p. 16) 32

FIG 15. The barbican Concert Hall foyer, London (aegiandyad., 2011)

Orange Its nature symbol is the sunset; it is defines often by its qualities of emotion, expression, and warmth. Orange is noted for its ability to encourage verbal expression of emotions. (Marberry, 1995, p. 16) 33

FIG 16. Museum for African Art, New York (Ojeda, 2006, p. 103)

Yellow Its nature symbol is the sun; it is defined often by its qualities of optimism, clarity, and intellect. Bright yellow is often noted for its mood-enhancing ability. Yellow must be carefully applied in certain settings, as it may connote aging and the yellow skin tones of jaundice. (Marberry, 1995, p. 16). 34

FIG 17. Supermodels Exhibition, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Ojeda, 2006, p. 169)

Green Its nature symbol is growth grass and trees and it is often defines by its qualities of nurturing, healing, and unconditional love. (Marberry, 1995, p. 16). 35

FIG 18. Vitra Fire Station, Weil am Rhein, Germany (Ojeda, 2006, p. 78)

Blue Its nature symbols are the sky and the ocean; it is defined often by its qualities of relaxation, serenity, and loyalty. It is known to lower blood pressure. (Marberry, 1995, p. 16)

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Fig 19. Mood Indigo (Bourne, 2009)

Indigo Its nature symbol is the sunset; it is defined often by its qualities of meditation and spirituality in that it is the exact opposite of blue and violet. (Marberry, 1995, p. 16)

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Fig 20. Nisha Bar-lounge, Mexico City (Arquitectos, n,d)

Violet Its nature symbol is the violet flower; it is defined by its qualities of spirituality. Violet is also a stress reducer and can create feelings of inner calm. (Marberry, 1995, p. 16)

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FIG 21. Buziak Penthouse, New York (Ojeda, 2006, p. 136)

Grey.

Positive: Psychological neutrality. Negative: Lack of

confidence, dampness, depression, and hibernation, lack of energy. Pure grey is the only colour that has no direct psychological properties. It is, however, quite suppressive. A virtual absence of colour is depressing (Wright, 2008 - 11). 39

Physiological response to colour Stimulus Seeing is not the only purpose of the calibration between light, eye and the brain. Besides the optical visual pathway, there is also the energetic one that directs incoming light and colour stimuli directly to the interbrain, from where it affects the metabolism and organ function. This explains why the pulse increases with a red stimulus and decreases with a blue one. Biological reactions occur on purely physiological levels. They are independent of how people think about a colour, or a combination aesthetically. (Meerwein, 2007, p. 20) Experimental evidence demonstrates colour has a physiological effect. Dr Barbara B. Brown who is Chief of Experimental Physiology at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Sepulveda, California, has carried out experiments using the polygraph (lie detector) that measures physiological reactions such as heart rate, respiration and perspiration through the skin and the electroencepholatograph (EEG) that measure brain waves to establish the physiological response to colour stimulus. She found that: In general there is a high response to colours such as red and orange, and a lower response to green and blue quite apart from what a person might think or feel about colour. (Birren, 1982, p. 20) of colours, or how they evaluate them

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Fig 22. Colour space effects the perception of room proportion (Meerwein, 2007, p. 67)

A ceiling, which is lighter than the floor and walls, will lift the space making it seem lighter and higher. Conversely a ceiling that is darker than the walls and floor will seem heavy and oppressive, pressing down on the occupants.

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It is clear that colour does have an unconscious affect on people, which can be used to good effect by the architect. Colour can be used to stimulate, or calm, it can be warm or cool and the selection of colours can also be used to manipulate the feeling of size and proportion a space has. Warm highly saturated and bright colours (orange, ochre, sand yellow) advance to the foreground. Colours that are neither clearly cold nor warm (green, violet, purple) are located in the intermediate ground. Cool and bright colours (light blue, lime green) as well as dark warm colours (dark brown, dark blue) recede into the background. (Meerwein, 2007, p. 68) In designing a space that is intended to elicit an emotional response an architect needs to understand the effect of colour. The pallet of colours and materials must enhance the desired effect.

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The Auditory System


Sound can also have a powerful effect on our emotional state; music can calm or excite; bring back memories or awaken powerful emotion. Music is often used in buildings to help create the desired atmosphere. A live Jazz band in a bar, a pianist in a romantic restaurant or piped music in an elevator or shopping mall are all intended to create the right atmosphere. This atmosphere is usually added by the proprietor of the bar or restaurant, not necessarily designed in by the architect. In order that the performance can clearly be heard the acoustics of a concert hall are carefully considered; materials are chosen to absorb unwanted sound and control reverberation. However, outside the obvious performance spaces where sound is integral to the performance, the sonic quality of buildings does not appear to concern many architects to the degree it should. Vision is directional; we look and see. Hearing is three-dimensional; sound envelopes us; we have the ability to perceive exactly where sound comes from and how far away the source is; we know if the sound comes from above, below, or behind etc. Our responses to sound stimuli, as with so many of our senses are often unconscious. Sound provides valuable information about our surroundings. It is well known that bats and dolphins use their highly developed hearing to navigate and locate prey in total darkness. Human beings have also evolved a more highly developed sense of hearing than previously thought. It has been demonstrated that when blindfold, we

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can sense an obstacle, by the subtle changes in the reflected sound as we near a wall (Cox, 2009). The blind, denied the sense of sight are renowned for having a heightened sense of hearing. We are also adept at understanding in what type of space we find ourselves from the aural information we hear. In his Radio 4 interview, professor Cox also explained: Every space has its own unique soundscape, created by a combination of the overall design, the materials used in construction and the way that humans use space. A bathroom always sounds like a bathroom. (Cox, 2009) The rhythmic sounds of breaking waves or water gently lapping against the side of a boat are relaxing; rustling leaves in a gentle breeze or the sound of a babbling brook is calming; birdsong creates a sense of safety and security, perhaps because the presence of a predator would silences the birds singing and warn us of danger. Conversely a sudden noise will trigger the release of adrenalin as part of the physiological fight or flight response that has evolved to keep us safe. Sustained loud noise levels increase stress and are damaging to our long-term health (Bronzaft, 2011). Echoes caused by the reflection of sound from hard surfaces can be fun; who hasnt shouted when in the mountains or in between buildings where the sound echoes and enjoyed playing with the sound? There is something satisfying about hearing the sound of ones own footfall or revving an engine in a tunnel, where it sounds louder!

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However, excessive reverberation can make it difficult to hear a conversation for example poorly designed open plan offices or railway stations make it hard to concentrate and raise stress levels (Cox, 2009). The amount of reflection from a surface and consequent

reverberation is dependent on the surface material. Hard materials, glass, steel and smooth stone or concrete, reflect sound. Soft materials, fabric, carpet, etc. absorb sound to a greater or lesser degree and rough surfaces tend to disperse the sound. The texture of the materials used and the material choice can make the space feel cold and hard, or warm and soft.

Fig 23. Accoustic propertie of surface materials (Crutchfield, 1996-2011)

It is essential to create a balance between reverberation and absorption in order to create a rich warm soundscape. Too much reverberation will make it difficult to hold a conversation and too much absorption of sound will make the space aurally dead.

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Fig 24. Material absorption of reflected sound (Crutchfield, 1996-2011)

The architect can choose materials depending on whether they want to reflect or absorb sound. The table (Fig 24.) shows the amount of sound absorbed by a number of materials at different frequencies. Recent research has shown that spending extended time in an aurally poor environment can have a significant negative affect on how we feel and behave (Cox, 2009) therefor specifying the righty pallet of materials for each space is essential to the wellbeing of the occupants. Understanding the reflective properties of materials and the affect sound has on human emotion empowers the architect to choose how the soundscape they create will affect the emotions of the users of their work.

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The basic orienting system


We have an acute sense of where we are in the world; which way is up, where is down and a sense of where each part of our body is in space. The mechanism of the inner ear tells us if we are moving, stationary accelerating, slowing down, climbing, or descending and how we are orientated in space. Even with our eyes closed we can touch the end of our nose with a finger. We know where all of our body is in space as if we carry with us a body image, telling is where we are in relation to others and external objects in our world (Bloomer, 1977).

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The Haptic System: Touch


Hard surfaces that echo can feel cold and inhumane, but softer tactile surface feel warmer, more comfortable. Rasmussen describes the interplay between light and texture. Explaining how good lighting, usually from the side brings out the texture of the materials used; letting the viewer see the tactile nature of the materials. In the Chapel at Ronchamp, Le Corbusier, uses side lighting to highlight the texture of the rough concrete (Fig 25.) and soft reflected light shining on the curved wall of apse to create a soft other worldly light that draws the worshipers eyes up above the alter where the light is brightest (Fig 26.) (Rasmussen, 1964, p. 214). These effects create an ambience where the pilgrim can concentrate on their devotions to the Madonna bathed in sensual light.

Fig 25 / 26. Le Corbusier: Notre Dame du Haut; Ronchamps (Rasmussen, 1964, pp. 211,213)

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Texture not only adds warmth and visual interest; it stimulates the sense of touch. A handrail can be cold steel or warm polished wood; it can be rough or smooth; flooring can be soft warm carpet, cold linoleum, or hard stone. Stimulating the haptic sense of touch; through the hand or foot; changes in texture can be used to orientate a user, subtly guide the users journey, or give important information. Changes of texture often signal special events and can trigger a slowing or quickening of ones pace. They can signal where to wait, lean, what to grip or where to sit and texture can induce movement, where to go, and how we move. (Bloomer, 1977, p. 70) It is possible to generate a whole choreography of movement through the composition of textural changes alone. In fact this has been explored in recent architecture for blind people where important spacial clues are produced by the organization of tactile experiences. (Bloomer, 1977, p. 71) In a study of perception in people who are congenitally blind and have no visual memory from a time before blindness that might influence their perception of their environment, by Jasmien Herssens and Ann Heylighen, it was found that the Haptic sense of touch, which can be active, to touch, or passive, being touched, is key to understanding their environment. ...We actively walk into our office and passively feel the warmth of the sun shinning on our skin. Dynamically we feel the weight of the door through the handle. This differs from visual sensation, which requires active visual participation; in

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real time we can always actively choose whether we want to see or not. (Herssens, 2008, p. 105) We can direct our gaze at something, look away, or close our eyes; we cannot turn off our haptic sense; it is active all of the time without our realizing it. Sighted people build up a mental map of our surroundings using visual and haptic clues, in the absence of vision in blind people, the other senses are heightened; this map is built up primarily using the haptic sense supplemented by information from our senses of hearing and smell. We have all experienced the night quest for the lavatory. Most of the time this movement happens in a dark environment, but one is able to find the door handle and the light switch. (Herssens, 2008, p. 107) In vision, we instantly see an image of the whole space; we then break down and start to understand its structure. In the haptic sense, we sequentially build up an understanding; piece by piece until we understand the whole; as if we are putting together the pieces of a giant puzzle. Heylighen quotes one of the interviewees as saying: For me good architecture exists in its imperfections. He refers to the traditional made architecture in which you feel the authenticity of its production. For example, a little twist in a wooden armrest can provide a good orientation point. (Herssens, 2008, p. 107) To a blind person a wall gives structure to a space and a sense of safety; voids give a feeling of being lost Texture and changes in

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texture allow a blind person to build up that mental map and navigate their world. (Herssens, 2008) One of Heylighens blind interviewees when describing how they navigate on their walk to the post office explained: He opens the front door, follows the wall of the house which guides him to the hedgerow. Following the line of the hedge, he suddenly feels a change in the tactile pattern of the path. A grid serving the drainage of the drive indicates the way to the postbox. To go back inside, he just walks the same path in a reverse way. (Herssens, 2008, p. 107) This shows how, deprived of sight, a blind person uses their haptic sense, which, uses the tactile information all around us to build a mental map of the environment and make sense of the world. We all have this haptic sense, which is giving us valuable information all of the time. By carefully considering the textural qualities of the materials we use and their organization, as well as the visual image which has tended to dominate architecture of the 20th and 21st century, an architect can greatly enhance the experiential quality of his architecture and make it accessible to all.

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The Haptic System: Personal Space


Throughout our patterns of inhabitation, space becomes a kind of possession. Each of us is centered in an invisible but nonetheless significant personal space or three-dimensional bubble that ensures that a certain distance will usually be maintained between our body and the bodies of others. In determining how much space is required for a room, it is vital to know not only the number of people who will occupy it, but also the kind of activity they will engage in and accordingly what spacial relationship they will maintain with each other in that culture intimate, social or public. (Hall 1966 cited Franck, 2007., p. 51) If our personal space is invaded, we feel very uncomfortable. In the UK the normal greeting is a handshake, which allows by invitation a limited, temporary intrusion into our personal space. In Europe, a hug and a kiss on both cheeks even between men is quite normal. In the UK this feels uncomfortable, too familiar; because our personal space is being invaded more than our culture has taught us to expect. Places where people are forced into close proximity with each other, e.g. crowded tube trains, or spaces where people are funneled together are uncomfortable, because peoples personal space is being invaded. In a cinema or on a bus or train, strangers will invariably choose to leave a buffer of an empty seat between themselves and a stranger, however, people will hapily sit next to someone they know, but not touch them. Where people have a close emotional bond they

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will touch. The arm around a girlfriend or a son or daughter, gives pleasure as inviting one into that space makes a connection. As you can see the amount of personal space and the circumstances when one will allow it to be broken depends on culture and the relationship between people. By designing a space where there is not enough room to maintain personal space an architect can inadvertently or deliberately create a very uncomfortable, and stressful feeling in the visitor. This invisible boundary interacts with the world and has an affect on how we feel. ...If an external boundary is very close to us, like a tall wall, we perceive our body to have shrunk, while if we are orientated to an opening in a great space by a doorway, window, vista or park, we perceive our body as having expanded. (Bloomer, 1977, p. 42) This feeling of compression or expansion can make us feel heavy, oppressed and insignificant or uplifted, light and free.

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Proportion, Balance and Scale


Everything should be done on a human scale. Too small and we feel squeezed, trapped; too large and we are dwarfed by the volume, we feel insignificant, unimportant, a number, not a person. Disproportionately low ceilings or uneven floors, as used in the Imperial War Museum in Manchester can subtly instill a sense of unease, whilst light airy spaces, which are in proportion, feel uplifting. A low ceiling in a small space can create an intimate atmosphere, for example a snug in an old world pub or a booth in a restaurant, or drapery over a four-poster bed all create a comfortable private, intimate space, where one feels safe, secure and protected from the outside world. However, in contrast, a space where the ceiling is too low for the length or width will feel heavy and oppressive; is it going to collapse and crush us? In a natural cave, the roof might cave in; roof falls in mining are common enough occurrences to reinforce that fear.

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Chapter Summary

Modern architecture has had its own conscience in reorganizing a bias towards the visual nature of designs. Architecture of the exterior seems to have interested the architects of the avant-garde at the expense of architecture of the interior. As if a house were to be conceived for the pleasure of the eye rather than the wellbeing of the inhabitants. (Grey, 1929) In 1929 Eileen Grey discussed how the modern movement only considered the visual depiction of architecture; she gave a prophetic warning that all the other senses, which have a major affect on the occupant, were being ignored. Many 20th century architects produced work, which was visually stunning from the outside, but failed to meet the needs of the occupants. Many architects produce amazing shapes, they grab the headlines, but under the veneer of glass and steel skins, the users live or work in bland soulless, beige boxes, attractive for their flexibility and efficiency to developers, but stifling and repressing for the users. In this chapter I have shown how the emotions we experience when moving through a space will vary depending on the stimulus we receive from the interplay between the spatial organisations, lighting, texture, colour, sound, and the connection to or disconnect from the outside world.

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These responses are unconscious and the recipient does not directly perceive the actual characteristics that promote the response, nevertheless they are extremely powerful. The architect by his manipulation of these elements could design in desirable characteristics, which elicit a positive response and design out negative characteristics to eliminate undesirable responses, or indeed deliberately include negative characteristics in order to elicit an uncomfortable response. An architect can manipulate how a person experiences the spaces he designs and can take that person through a physical and emotional journey as they move through and experience the different spaces in a building town or city. By remembering that we primarily give meaning to our environment through our visual, haptic, and aural senses, and that this sensory experience is universal, the architect can design places that are accessible and stimulating to all. By carefully considering all of the stimuli the users will be exposed to the architect can heavily influence the emotions. This gives the architect great power with which comes great responsibility.

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Chapter Two: Case Studies


This chapter explores how architects have taken advantage of the way we perceive our world through our senses and used techniques that stimulate some or all of these senses in order to manipulate how a visitor feels, when experiencing their work. This will take the form of a critique of some of the techniques used in the work of, Daniel Libeskind (Imperial War Museum North), Peter Eisenman (Memorial for the Murdered Jews of Europe), and, the partnership of Kathryn Gustafson and Neil Porter (Lady Diana Memorial Fountain). In their own way these architects have all used their architecture to attempt to deliver a message that educates the public. This chapter is concerned with exploring how each architect creates spaces that unconsciously talk to us to make us feel. It considers how architects attempt to talk to the senses of not only sight, but also the haptic sense (touch), basic orientation and hearing to create emotion in their buildings.

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The Imperial War Museum in Manchester

Fig 27 Shards of the broken globe (Authors photograph, 2011)

Daniel Liberskind describes the form of his Imperial War Museum in Manchester thus: The design concept is that of a globe which has been shattered into fragments and then reassembled. The buildings form is the interlocking of three of these fragments, which represent earth, air, and water. These three shards together concretize the Twentieth century conflicts, which have never taken place on an abstract piece of paper, but rather have been fought by men and women by land, sky, and sea. The IWMN is a constellation composed of three interlocking shards of space. The Earth Shard forms the museum space, signifying the open, earthly realm of conflict and war. The Air Shard serves as a dramatic entry into the Museum, with its projected images, observatories, and education spaces. The Water Shard forms the platform for viewing the Canal, complete with a restaurant, cafe, deck and performance space. (Studio Daniel Libeskind, 2011)

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Fig 28. View of the IWMN from across the Manchester Ship Canal (Studio Daniel Libeskind, 2011)

Fig 29. . Aireal view of the IWMN (Studio Daniel Libeskind, 2011)

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This concept is very poetic, however the whole form of the building (Fig 28 / 29.) can only be seen from a distance or with the benefit of a birds eye view. The whole form is not visible or comprehensible close up or from within the building. What is interesting in the context of this dissertation is how the building is designed to provoke emotion. On arrival, one is presented with an austere dark grey wall punctured by windows; the hard cold metallic skin of the roof arching over it and the very mechanical sheet metal covering of the tower leaning at four degrees from vertical that houses a viewing platform. This frames the main entrance to the museum (Fig 30.). The grey colour is the colour of depression, of grey skies bereft of colour and warmth; the hard metal is cold, mechanical, and unnatural; this is not a warm welcoming building. It has a somber austere industrial feel, in keeping with the hard brutal story, starting with the worlds first mechanized war (WW1) told inside the building. The building purposefully unsettles you from the Air Shard entrance onwards to prepare you for the emotional and revealing experience ahead. (Smith., 2002)

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Fig 30. The Air Shard Tower and main entrance (Authors photograph, 2011)

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The entrance (Fig 31.) is also offset from the vertical; it takes you under the tower (Fig 32.), which is a very industrial looking structure reminiscent of a scaffolding watchtower clad in cold inhuman metal panels.

Fig 31. The main entrance (Authors photograph, 2011)

The gaps in the paneling let in the elements, you feel, exposed, vulnerable, cold, and very insignificant. Perhaps this is metaphor for how the young men fighting in the trenches of First World War might have felt, knowing that the whistle signaling the order to go over the top was not far away and that it might signal their end.

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Fig 32. Inside the Air Shard tower that is the entrance to the museum (Authors photograph, 2011)

To reach the viewing platform, one must take the rickety elevator and traverse an elevated, vertigo inducing walkway that connects to the viewing platform 29m above the ground.

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Fig 33. Elevated walkway (Authors photograph, 2011)

The open grills of the viewing platform (Fig 34.) angle away enhancing the sense of unsteadiness. One can see the drop to the ground 29m below through the metal grill flooring (Fig 35.); this heightens the feeling one could fall. Which of course one cant? 64

Fig 34. Viewing platform (Authors photograph, 2011)

Fig 35. Open metal grill flooring (Authors photograph, 2011)

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This feeling of unease sets the scene; it is reinforced, by the uneven, slightly sloping floors (Fig 36.), taking one down to the far side of the exhibition; a number of polished metal walls (Fig 37/38.), angled away from the vertical enhance the sense of unsteadiness.

Fig 36. Main exhibition space (Authors photograph, 2011)

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Fig 37. Polished walls lean precariously (Studio Daniel Libeskind, 2011)

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Fig 38. Polished walls lean precariously (Authors photograph, 2011)

The architect designed the floor that curves in two directions to represent the curvature of the Earth away from the North Pole at the entrance. (Architects Journal, 2011) This is only a slight slope, but does instill a sense of sinking down perhaps, a suggestion of sinking 68

down into the depravity of war, before eventually making ones way back up into the light, into peace time, and out of the building. The way the ceiling curves down reduces the height of the space as the visitor moves towards the bottom of the exhibition hall and has the effect of creating a feeling of compression, of a weight pressing down oppressing and shrinking the visitor; who is now feeling small and powerless; as the people in wartime were powerless cogs in a huge machine.

Fig 39. Polished walls lean precariously (Authors photograph, 2011)

These techniques create a feeling of foreboding; an appropriate feeling for a building that houses exhibitions that show the futility of war, the waste of life and the disruption to normal life, war brings.

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The architect of the Imperial War Museum, Daniel Libeskind, born in the Polish town of Lodz in 1946 the first child of two Polish Jews who had survived the Nazi labour camps, was deeply affected by war having lost many members of his family to the Holocaust. He said of his design for the museum: When I began to work on the competition for the Imperial War Museum North, I was deeply challenged by the notion of creating a place that was at once intimate and civic. My aim was to create a building, not only intelligently programmed for the events which were to take place in it, but one which emotionally moved the soul of the visitor toward a sometimes unexpected realization. Conflict is not simply a story with a happy or unhappy ending, but an ongoing momentum that structures ones understanding of the future in relation to the past. In order to touch the passions of the visitor, and structure a building that is boldly put together, I designed a building that is emblematic of the earth shattered by conflict. As the visitor moves through this splintered globe with its fragmented curvatures, there is a feeling of vulnerability. These programmatic activities are given three dimensional depth, not in neutral containers, but in functional and emblematic spaces, each of which has a density, materiality, temperature, acoustical quality, atmosphere and gravity which are not fully accessible to the abstraction of words, but rather to concretely embodied experience.

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I hope that this building will enable the Imperial War Museum north, to accomplish its mission of inspiring, involving and educating its audiences. (Forrester, 2004, p. 75) His use of proportion compresses and then expands the space; it has the effect of making the visitor feel small and insignificant then hopeful and optimistic. The hard cold materials and the palette of greys create a sense of foreboding. The hard textures cause echoing sound that disorientate the visitor heightening the sense of unease, and creating the feeling of vulnerability Libeskind was striving for. The way he has created this sense of foreboding sets the scene; it adds to the power of the exhibits.

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Memorial for the murdered Jews of Europe

Fig 40. Memorial for the Murdered Jews of Europe (Anderson, 2011)

Peter Eisenmans Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe (MMJE) in central Berlin doesnt immediately give any visual clues that it is a memorial at all; nor does it give any direction as to how a visitor is supposed to feel or behave. Instead Eisenman creates spaces, which through the sense of touch, sound and the sense of being in the space, are intended to create feelings of unease, of being small, insignificant, and powerless. The MMJE is set out over a 2-hectare site in the former zone of the Berlin wall close to the tourist are of Potsdamer Platz. This space is covered with 2711 thick rectangular columns (Stelae), each 95 centimeters wide and 2.375 meters long, with heights varying from zero to 4 meters. The Stelae are laid out in a closely spaced grid pattern 95 centimeters apart to allow for only individual passage

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through the grid (Eisenman, n,d). This creates a grid of narrow paths between the rows of Stelae that intersect at 90 degrees.

Fig 41. Field of Stelae (Deror, 2007)

The ground which is paved undulates, dropping down as the visitor moves away from the edges of the field and at the same time the Stelae, which are small enough to sit on or lean on at the edge, become taller as the visitor moves further into the field. As the visitor moves towards the center of the memorial, the ground drops and at the same time the Stelae increase in height, creating narrow passages that increasingly tower above the visitor. This builds an increasing sense of enclosure, and is intended to build an increasing sense of claustrophobia and unease. Some of the Stelae are unevenly set and appear to lean over the visitor, further exaggerating the sense of unsteadiness, weakness, and insignificance. The Stelae are set 95 cm apart, close enough to

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touch with outstretched hands but the isles are set too narrow for companions to pass two abreast, forcing them to move in single file, unable to see past the person in front, or the ground in front of them; This is designed to cause a feeling of having no control, being powerless, alienated and alone. Much as the victims of the Holocaust might have felt. (Stevens, Nothing More Than Feelings, 2009) People are supposed to feel this memorials purpose and act it out, rather than see or think it. (Stevens, Nothing More Than Feelings, 2009, p. 167) In a person interview with Peter Eisenman, he explained that: In his use of minimalist technique that he was not trying to represent the Holocaust: he believes this is impossible, because the Holocaust is unfathomable, and representations trivialize it. (Stevens, Nothing More Than Feelings, 2009, p. 166) Figural Holocaust memorials, such as one at Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin that depicts emaciated, suffering and collapsing victims, communicate that the viewer should definitely react by feeling sad. Instead, Eisenman wanted to induce in memorial visitors physiological feelings which would be similar to those that Holocaust victims themselves experienced. One visitor, who had been in a concentration camp, who came to Eisenman in tears to tell him that his Holocaust memorial design did recreate the feelings she had. (Stevens, Nothing More Than Feelings, 2009, p. 167)

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In the southeast corner of the Stelae field is the underground Information Centre. This is accessed by two flights of stairs or a lift and presents in a series of spaces that mirror the Stelae above (Anon, Information Centre, 2011). For those people who, intended to visit the information center, which is under the field of Stelae, or come across it as they explore the site, a powerful exhibition presents the stories of the Murdered Jews of Europe. The message presented in the exhibition is designed to educate and move the visitor emotionally; it is a memorial to their suffering. A central function of the Information Centre is to back up the abstract form of remembrance inspired by the Memorial with concrete facts and information about the victims. This includes, for example, recording as many names of murdered Jews as possible. Personal and biographical details of individuals and families will also be presented as examples. (Anon, Information Centre, 2011) For the many who do not come across the information center, there is nothing to guide their emotional response; they will individually simply respond to the stimuli Eisenman creates in their own way. This lack of guidance has resulted in many visitors displaying behavior, which one might find at odds with the behavior one might expect to see at a memorial of this type.

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Fig 42. Visitors walking between and over the field of stel, and lying down on top of them. (Stevens, Nothing More Than Feelings, 2009, p. 158)

Paradoxically,

many

visitors

undoubtedly

stimulated

by

the

architecture, seem oblivious to Eisenmans intended emotional responses to the memorial; in contrast to the slow, respectful walking, and hushed tones one might expect to see at a site of remembrance; many visitors seem to use the memorial as a playground. Eisenmans use of hard concrete Stelae arranged in a regimented grid causes the sound from visitors to reverberate from the hard surfaces of the concrete, causing all the sounds to merge and mingle. This confuses the origin of the sound, heightening the sense of isolation and confusion, and the sense of being lost.

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However this confused origin of the sounds of other players also heightens the excitement and mystery of the games of hide and seek that children play in the memorial. The memorial is open on all sides and this permeability results in many incidental visitors who have no knowledge that it is a memorial at all. They may be tourists, business people taking a short cut to their offices that surround the site or families taking their children out for some fresh air, much as one would take a child to the park. The close spacing of the Stelae does, as Eisenman intended, cause a sensation of enclosure; the grid pattern can and does result in an unexpected encounter with a stranger, which will cause an uncomfortable, if temporary invasion of ones personal space. However, that same close proximity of the Stelae allows people to play on the top of the memorial, jumping from Stelae to Stelae; some sunbathe in warm weather, finding the warmth of the concrete pleasurable. The spaces below are used by children playing hide and seek, the threat of unexpected discovery adding to the excitement of the game. One reviewer on the site described the field of Stelae as being perfect for paintballing! The memorials size and its many circulation aisles mean visitors can play and observe but control their exposure to strangers, keeping their anonymity or remaining completely discreet. The actions of visitors to conventional, explicit memorials are constrained by the etiquette and rituals of remembrance. But many visitors do not comprehend the MMJEs purpose; what this illegible object encourages is playful exploration of material conditions. Eisenman consciously shunned making a representational memorial like Rodins Burghers of Calais, looking all weepy, instructing the onlooker 77

how they should feel and act. Here, visitors make their own judgments about risk and safety, possible actions, morally right and wrong behavior. (Stevens, Why Berlin's Holocaust Memorial is such a popular playground, 2008, p. 77)

Eisenman has created in Berlin a memorial that for many is not a memorial at all. It is their playground. The regimented field of Stelae force one to pass in single file, the hard concrete in places towers over the visitor, making them feel small, insignificant, and vulnerable. This is as Eisenman intended. However, for the many who do not visit the information centre, there is no guidance how to interpret the feelings of claustrophobia the monument creates. Often this lack of guidance results in play.

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Lady Diana Memorial Fountain

Fig 43. Lady Diana Memorial, Hyde Park (Anon, Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, 2006 - 2011)

The lady Diana memorial in Hyde Park is also an abstract form; although unlike Eisenmans Memorial in Berlin, it was not intended to create the uncomfortable feelings of claustrophobia, isolation, and alienation, or any senses of mourning and sadness that Eisenman intended; on the contrary, the Diana Memorial fountain is intended to bring joy to the visitors. The Diana Memorial takes the form of a ring shaped granite fountain that uses the gentle slope of the site to channel water in two directions, meeting at a tranquil pool at the bottom of the site, where the water is recycled.

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There are bridges that allow people to pass over the water and into the memorial as they wish. Unlike Eisenmans closely spaced Stelae that force people into narrow confined passages that cause strangers to uncomfortably invade their personal space; this place is open, people can be together of solitary if they wish.

Fig 44. The cascading water sings (Anon, Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, 2006 - 2011)

On its journey the water changes character as its path widens then narrow and runs over smooth channels than cascades down a series of rapids, which cause the water to sing, be calm, turbulent or tranquil as it makes its way through the memorial. Perhaps this is a metaphor for the sometimes-joyous sometimes-turbulent periods in Dianas life (Gustafson, n,d).

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The ever-changing symphony of sound created by the water as it meanders, swooshes, cascades, and splashes its way is a soothing and joyous sound. These differing sounds encourage people to sit and dip their toe in the water, actively enjoying the tactile pleasure of the cooling water on their skin, or sit and enjoy the relaxing ambience of the place. The sides of the fountain are intentionally wide enough to sit or lay. To passively feel the warmth of the granite warmed by the sun on summer days. It is not a traditional memorial, which is to be observed reverently from a far. Visually the monument only rises slightly from its grassy setting. It does not visually inform the visitor that it is a memorial or how to behave. However visually, the cascading water sparkles with the light of the sun and the calm pools reflect the sky and the trees that surround the parkland setting. This work profoundly, stimulates the senses of sight, hearing and the haptic sense of touch. This memorial is to be experienced it is a place to enjoy. The urge to paddle in the gently cascading water is so seductive that in warm weather. When the fountain first opened, some children slipped and were hurt, therefore there are now people employed to make sure people only sit on the fountain and dont paddle in it. The fountain creates happiness, which the designers Kathryn

Gustafson and Neil Porter have explained was intended to reflect Lady Dianas Character (Stevens, Nothing More Than Feelings, 2009).

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Fig 45. A place to enjoy (Anon, Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, 2006 2011)

The fountain has specific features to create different water effects like a 'Chadar Cascade', a 'Swoosh', 'Stepped Cascade', 'Rock and Roll' and a still basin at the bottom which reflect the various qualities of the Princess' life. (Gustafson, n,d) Gustafson explained that the original concept for the memorial was to reach out and let in. (Gustafson, n,d) This was never going to be a memorial to solemnly mourn the princesss untimely death. On the contrary it was to be a celebration of her character, a place to bring joy, as the princess dubbed the peoples princess, had brought joy to many in her lifetime (Stevens, Nothing More Than Feelings, 2009).

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Chapter Three: Architecture with a purpose: an emotional journey, from visitor to educator.
Architecture profoundly affects the way we feel! The previous chapters explored how we perceive our surroundings through our senses, the physiologically and psychologically affect a building can have on us and explored how a number of architects have attempted to stimulate emotion in their work. This chapter seeks to demonstrate that armed with a thorough understanding of human perception and the physiologically and psychologically affects architecture stimulates, it is possible to create architectural spaces that stimulate all the senses and elicits specific emotional responses. This ability to imbue a series of spaces with specific emotional qualities would also allow the architect to take a visitor through a powerful emotional journey as they progress physically through the building. Endowed with this knowledge the architect can design building that provokes in users the emotional responses the client really needs. The specific emotional agenda of the building being inform by the function the building is intended to perform, the clients requirements and the issues the building seeks to address. This agenda would be developed from thorough exploration of the issues and understanding of the emotions aroused by those issues. This process is illustrated by the example of a public marine aquarium, whose purpose is to educate its visitors and motivate them to champion the cause of marine conservation. A conservation centered aquarium should be designed in such a way that the visitor

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will emerge from their journey, with a sense of outrage at what is being done and a sense of wonder for the amazing underwater world. In order to bring about change, the educated are invited to become the educators. Enthused by the experience of seeing live animals in the aquaria, visitors lead a groundswell of public opinion that could compel vested interests to change their damaging policies and practices

The importance of public aquaria in conservation


The oceans cover 71% of the Earth's surface and contain 99% of the Earth's living space. This is the largest space in our universe known to be inhabited by living organisms, most of which we know very little about. The relentless exploitation of the seas by man has brought many species to the edge of extinction and is now threatening food security for some of the poorest people on Earth, who rely on the sea for their survival (Greenpeace, 2011). See Appendix A Michael J. Novacek writing about the need to engage the public in biodiversity issues for the US National Academy of Sciences explains: To engage people in biodiversity and other environmental issues, take one action must provide on the opportunity science for and enhanced reliable understanding that empowers individuals to make choices and based sound recommendations the responsibility for providing lifelong exposure to science falls to museums, botanical gardens, zoos,

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aquaria, science centers, and similar venues devoted to the public education of science One important strength of such institutions as venues for communicating science is the feeling of trust they invoke in the public. Surveys show that natural history and science museums have extremely high credibility ratings and show that acquired knowledge of a subject has a heavy influence on subsequent attitudes and behavior. (Novacek, 2008, pp. 1,2,6) Therefore museums aquaria and the like have a major part to play in educating the public about the major environmental problems facing our planet and it is critical that good architectural design maximizes the impact of that education. Because the architect has such power to influence our emotional response and our actions, he has a great responsibility to society to get this right.

The process of designing for emotion


1. The architect must through research and consultation with the client, thoroughly immerse themselves in and understand the issue the building is concerned with. 2. This will allow the architect to understand and feel the emotions raised by the issue. 3. Once the architect feels these emotions they can develop an appropriate emotional agenda for the building.

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4. From this agenda a series of spaces that communicate these desired emotions can now be designed using the techniques discussed in chapters 1 & 2 as shown in example (Appendix C) 5. This gives a formula to design each space depending on the required emotional response and a series of spaces that elicit the different emotions needed: 6. This series of spaces and the emotional response each space provokes can provide the framework for an emotional journey that will inform the design of the building.

Ref 46. The Process of designing for emotion (Appendix C) (Authors Flowchart, 2011)

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An example of the process of designing for emotion in the context of a conservation focused public aquarium From the authors research into the issues surrounding marine conservation (Appendices A&B), there are a number of key issues that should be presented in a public marine aquarium that aroused emotion in the researcher (the designer charged with designing the aquarium). These emotions can be divided into broadly four groups: Sadness Anger Optimism Wonder and Awe These distinct groups form the emotional agenda and are the framework for a series of four space; each designed to elicit emotions in a visitor to the aquarium that are similar to the emotions the researcher felt during the research phase. This process will inform the design of the aquarium and the emotional journey a visitor would take in a visit to the building. Space One: Sadness E.g. Fifteen out of seventeen of the world's largest fisheries are so heavily exploited that the reproduction can't keep up. (See Appendix A) Sadness or depression can be stimulated by.e.g. a low heavy ceiling pressing down or very height ceiling in a narrow space causing the sensation of shrinking. Space Two: Anger E.g. Japan kills more than 20,000 dolphins each year, which is sold in Japanese markets at 1000 Yen per Kilo. The lowest quality Tuna available costs three times that amount. (Bloomberg, 2010)(See Appendix A) 87

These emotions can be stimulated by..e.g red is the colour that raises the heart rate. When combined with an oppressively low ceiling or very narrow claustrophobic space, a sensation of being trapped will stimulate the fight of flight response which will cause the visitor to feel uncomfortable and on edge. Space Three: Optimism E.g. The Basking sharks in the UK are now protected and attracting shark-spotting trips, where previously they would have been hunted for their meat and liver oil. (See Appendix B) These emotions can be stimulated by.e.g. a feeling of openness will enhance the optimism. Yellow is the colour of the sun. It is warm and considered to raise the mood (Marberry, 1995, p. 16). In combination with good natural lighting and more open feel, this is a comfortable space to be in. Space Four: Wonder and Awe The Earths oceans are the largest space in our universe known to be inhabited by living organisms, most of which we know very little about. These emotions can be stimulated by.e.g. a large airy space full of natural light enjoying views that connect the interior to its place outside are needed here. Warm textural materials, perhaps pale blue the colour of the sky and sea that is thought to be a calming colour (Marberry, 1995, p. 16). The main live exhibitions are in this space. In this chapter the author has demonstrated using the example of the Marine Aquarium how, with a thorough understanding of human perception, and the physiological and psychological responses architecture stimulates, it is possible to create architectural spaces that elicit emotion. 88

This chapter has also introduced the idea that by understanding the responses to stimulus, it is possible to develop a process whereby an architect can design any building specifically to create the desired emotional characteristics a client might need. This process reverses the dominance of the visual sense in architecture that has been prevalent for the past 100 years; as it assumes from the outset that any building designed using this process, will stimulate all of the senses; by using the techniques discussed in chapters 1 & 2 to elicit appropriate emotional responses. The process starts by researching what emotion the spaces should elicit. It then uses that information to generate and emotional agenda for the spaces in the building that in turn will inform the architecture. This approach will allow the architect to guide the visitor on an emotional journey that heightens their experience of the building as they make their physical progress through it.

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Conclusion

A fish does not drink up the pond in which it lives. Native American cited the Deep Hull. This dissertation has demonstrated the power of architecture to deeply affect people. Architects have the tools to choose what emotion to heighten, and what to suppress; how they want people to feel. This gives the architect immense power over those who will experience their work; however with that power comes immense responsibility. In the context of a marine conservation project architecture could be used to educate our young to have respect for the natural world; be outraged at what has and is being done to it, and be enthused and excited by the beauty and diversity of the creatures our world is home to. Suitably motivated, they can collectively change the world. With careful consideration of how the emotions of the users of buildings will be affected by the way the architect designs them, Architecture can be a tremendous force for good. If architects wish to create truly stimulating buildings, they need to carefully consider how the volumes they create and materials they used will stimulate us haptically as well as visually. The haptic sense unconsciously collects so much information from the tactile pieces of the puzzle as we navigate the spaces that are essential to building our mental map of a place. Done well, a user will navigate easily and feel at ease. Done badly a user may well feel lost and disorientated.

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Architects must consider, how they light the spaces in order to suppress or lift the spirit, bring out the textures of the materials or soften a hard edge, as they must consider the physiological and psychological effect of the colours and the sounds, that give depth to the experience. When the architect considers all of this, they can create powerful emotional responses that influence the behavior of the visitor. Conversely failure to consider the impact of architectural space on human emotions is a missed opportunity and can result I wholly inappropriate emotional response. Nevertheless, the architecture alone is not enough; as demonstrated in Eisenmans MMJE in berlin, without guidance telling how to interpret the feelings induced by the architecture, unexpected behavior may well ensue. In the context of the aquarium, whose intention is to educate and enthuse the visitor to take action, the designer must remember that the building can stimulate responses that reinforce the feelings the exhibition seeks to create. However, the content of the exhibition is also essential in providing the moral guidance to show the visitor how to interpret the feelings the architecture creates. The architecture provides the stage on which the drama is played out; it is key to education and done well can be the catalyst for change! However the play its self must tell the story and take full advantage of the feelings and emotions the architecture stimulates. When the two are integrated they can educate and enthuse visitors to go out into the world and educate others.

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Greenpeace. (2000, 1 8). Action Updates 25 Jan 2000. Retrieved 10 3, 2011, from archive.greenpeace.org: http://archive.greenpeace.org/oceans/whales/action.html Greenpeace. (2011, 06 15). http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/tags/African-Voices. Retrieved October 09, 2011 Grey, E. (1929). Eclectisism to Doubt: Dialogue between Eileen Grey and Jean Badovici,. L'Architecture Vivante. Gustafson, K. a. (n,d). Retrieved 12 3, 2011, from Gustafson Porter: http://www.gustafson-porter.com/site.html Harper Collins. (2006). Collins Desktop Plus English Dictionary. Colins English Dictionary and Thesaurus . Franklin Electronic Publishers Inc. Herssens, J. a. (2008). Haptics and Vision in Architecture. In G. M. Dr Ray Lucas (Ed.), Sensory Urbanism Proceedings 2008. Edinburgh: The Flneur Press. Holl, S. (1996). Intertwining New York. Princeton Architectural Press. Jodidio, P. (2005). Architecture Now. Koln: Tascen. Le Corbusier, 1.-1. F. (1971). The city of tomorrow and its planning;translated from the 8th French edition of 'Urbanism' by 'Frederick Etchells. (3rd Edition ed.). (F. Etchells, Trans.) London: The Architectural Press. Marberry, S. a. (1995). The Power Of Colour: Creating Healthy Interior Spaces,. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Marmot, A. (2002, 03). Architectural determinism Does design change behaviour? The British Journal of General Practice . Meerwein, G. R. (2007). Colour communication in architectural space. Basel: Birkhauser, Verlag A.G.

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Monku, A. (2010). On The Edge. Huddersfield: University Of Huddersfield. Norberg-Schulz, C. (1980). Meaning in Western architecture. London: Studio Vista. Novacek, M. (2008). Engaging the public in biodiversity issues. PNAS , 105 (1), 1,2,6. Ojeda, O. a. (2006). Colors: architecture in detail. Gloucester, Massachusetts, USA: Rockport Publishers Inc. Own, R. (2010). An Enquiry Into The Senory Aspects Of Architecture In The Last Century. Huddersfield: University Of Huddersfield. Pallasmaa, J. (2011). The Eyes of the skin. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Pearman, H. (2002). The Deep: The Worlds Only Submarium - An Icon For Hull. London: Wordsearch Ltd. Rasmussen, S. (1964). Experiencing Architecture (Second Edition ed.). Cambridge, Massechusetts, USA: MIT Press. Rawlinson, K. a. (n.d). Research. Retrieved 12 8, 2011, from stagingthehenriciancourt Bringing early modern drama to life: http://stagingthehenriciancourt.brookes.ac.uk/research/the_great_ha ll.html Roman, A. (n.d). Resources. Retrieved 12 8, 2011, from The Five Senses: http://questgarden.com/120/25/4/110228114848/tresources.htm savethesea.org. (n,d). http://savethesea.org/STS%20ocean_facts.htm. Retrieved OCTOBER 09/10/2011, 2011, from http://savethesea.org: http://savethesea.org/S TS%20ocean_facts.htm

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Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. (n,d). Retrieved 10 9, 2011, from http://www.seashepherd.org/uk/uk.html Seifert, D. (2011, 10). Dive Magesine. Retrieved 10 24, 2011, from http://www.divemagazine.co.uk/marine-life/sharks/5620-worldwithout-sharks-.html Simoula, S. (2009). Colouring Architecture. Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield. Smith. (2002). Imperial War Museum North Guidebook. Belmont Press. Spiers, J. M. (2005). Made of light : the art of light and architecture. Basel: Birkhuser. Steane, M. (2011). The architecture of light : recent approaches to designing with natural light. London: Routledge. Stevens, Q. (2009). Nothing More Than Feelings. Architectural Theory Review , 14 (2), 156-172. Stevens, Q. (2008, 12). Why Berlin's Holocaust Memorial is such a popular playground. (K. H. Tim Avermaete, Ed.) OASE 77: Into The Open: Accomodating The Public (77), pp. 71-79. Studio Daniel Libeskind. (2011). Retrieved 11 16, 2011, from daniellibeskind.com: http://daniel-libeskind.com/projects/imperial-warmuseum-north tanizaki, j. (2001). In Praise Of Shadows. (T. J. Seidensticker, Trans.) London: Vintage. The Cove Movie. (2009). Retrieved 10 10, 2011, from http://www.thecovemovie.com/ The Sharks Trust. (n,d). Retrieved 10 10, 2011, from http://www.sharktrust.org/v.asp?level2id=6160&rootid=6160&depth =1

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Turner, J. (1994). Lighting : an introduction to light, lighting and light use. London: Batsford. Wright, A. (2008 - 11). Colour Pschycology. Retrieved 12 06, 2011, from Colour Affects: http://www.colour-affects.co.uk/psychologicalproperties-of-colours WSPA. (n,d). (W. s. animals, Producer) Retrieved 10 10, 2011, from http://www.wspa.org.uk/wspaswork/whaling/default.aspx xedos4. Image: xedos4 / FreeDigitalPhotos.net. Planet Earth. Freedigital photos.net.

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Appendix A: What Are We Doing to Our World?

A fish does not drink up the pond in which it lives. Native American cited the Deep Hull. The human race has evolved over millennia and thrived in every part of the world. We have come to dominate all the other creatures that share our world and have often seen its bounty as inexhaustible. Over the past 200 years in particular we have developed amazing technology that has and continues to revolutionise how we live. The West enjoys a level of affluence not dreamed of only a couple of generation ago. The developing economies of Asia, China and India in particular are catching up fast and so increasing the demand for the Earths animal and mineral resources. However our ability to harvest the natural biological and mineral resources of the planet on an industrial scale has left many species we take for food in crisis, natural resources depleted and the environment polluted. The oceans are vast; consequently they have been seen as an inexhaustible source of food and a convenient dumping ground for our waste. But many species face extinction if we continue to exploit the oceans in the same way and we simply do not know the damage our dumping of toxic waste is doing to complex interconnected ecosystems of our seas.

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Fig 47. The Earth (xedos4, 2010)

The oceans cover 71% of the Earth's surface and contain 99% of the Earth's living space. This is the largest space in our universe known to be inhabited by living organisms, most of which we know very little about. The relentless exploitation of the seas has brought many species to the edge of extinction and is now threatening food security for some of the poorest people on Earth, who rely on the sea for their survival (Greenpeace, 2011).

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Commercial Whaling
Indigenous peoples including the Inuit and Polynesians have

historically hunted whales sustainably for their own needs. However, industrial scale commercial whaling brought many species to the edge of extinction. The moratorium ending commercial whaling was only agreed in the 1982 and implemented four years later in 1986. As a result numbers are recovering very slowly and a new industry of whale watching (Eco Tourism) has developed in many parts of the world. However despite commercial whaling having been banned for more than 20 years and an international ban in the trade of endangered species, Norway Iceland and Japan, continue to hunt whales.

Fig 48. Greenpeace boat trying to disrupt Japanese whale hunt (Greenpeace, 2000)

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This means around 2500 whales are still killed every year in cruel and unnecessary hunts, under the guise of research and their meat is sold commercially for human consumption. (WSPA, n,d) However, as a result of harassment by the Sea Shepherd ship which made life progressively more difficult for the whaling fleet each year by sending faster and better-equipped boats and a reduced demand in Japan for whale meat (there is a 6000 ton mountain of unsold meat equivalent to 1000 minke whales in storage) this years (2011) hunt has been cut short. The Sea Shepherd has announced on its web site that the killing of whales in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary is over for this season and the whalers did not even take 10% of their quota. Sea Shepherd estimates that over 900 whales have been saved this year (Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, n,d). The recent Hollywood documentary movie, The Cove highlighted the plight of thousands of dolphins, which are cruelly slaughtered for their meat in a hidden cove in Taiji Japan. What the unsuspecting Japanese consumer doesnt know is that dolphin meat contains very high levels of mercury which causes sever health problems if eaten). The mercury in the dolphins came from the fish they have eaten which has been poisoned by mercury in chemical waste dumped in the sea by man. (The Cove Movie, 2009) Japan kills more than 20,000 dolphins each year, which is sold in Japanese markets at 1000 Yen per Kilo. The lowest quality Tuna available costs three times that amount. (Bloomberg, 2010)

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Since the large scale commercial hunting of large Cetaceans (The great Whales) was banned in the early 1980s the main Whaling nations have simply turned their attention to the smaller Cetaceans (Dolphins, Porpoises and Pilot Whales) as a source of cheap Whale meat, which is sold often unmarked to their public.

Fig 49. Slaughtered Pilot Whales (Anon, E2NT, 1999-2011)

Consequently, Large numbers of Dolphin, Porpoise and Pilot Whales are killed each year in Japan and the Norwegian Faroe Islands for human consumption.

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Fisheries
The sea provides the biggest source of wild or domestic protein in the world. Each year some 70 to 75 million tons of fish are caught in the ocean. Of this amount around 29 million tons is for human consumption. The global fish production exceeds that of cattle, sheep, poultry, or eggs. Fifteen out of seventeen of the world's largest fisheries are so heavily exploited that the reproduction can't keep up. With the result that many fish populations are decreasing rapidly. Species of fish endangered by overfishing are: tuna, salmon, haddock, halibut, and cod. In the 19th century, cod weighing up to 200 pounds used to be caught. Nowadays, a 40-pound cod is considered a giant. Reason: overfishing. (savethesea.org, n,d)

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Fig 50. Cod In Crisis (Anon, 1.bp.blogspot.com/, n,d)

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Common Fisheries Policy

Fig 51. Net sizes catch immature fish (Anon, Environment, 1996-2011)

EU quotas dont work. A net size to catch adult mackerel will also catch juvenile fish that have not had a chance to spawn of most other commercially valuable species. These cannot be landed and are dumped back into the sea dead. Other EU countries fish local waters where UK fishermen are going out of business, yet huge amounts of fish are caught which cant be landed once the quota for that species is reached and are thrown back dead into the sea.

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Fig 52. Dead fish that cannot be landed are thrown back into the sea. (Anon, Fishfight.net, n,d)

Many of Europe's fishing fleets have the capacity to fish two to three times more than the sustainable level. This overcapacity has led to the current dire state of European fisheries, where an estimated 88% of European fish stocks are in a poor state. . The EU has progressively been increasing their capacity in seas beyond its own to meet the growing global demand for seafood and to keep their fleets in business. Several of Europe's largest vessels are currently operating in waters of some of the world's poorest nations through fisheries partnership agreements or joint ventures, undermining local food security by failing to adequately consider the local communities need for local fish as a source of protein and income. (Greenpeace, 2011)

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Sharks; we are wiping them out for soup!

Fig 53. Schooling Hammerhead Sharks. (Galapagos Islands) (Anon, sharkdiving.us, 2006)

The sharks have been around for 200 million years and are an apex predator perfectly adapted to their environment. But as Asia is becoming more affluent, the increasing demand for shark fin soup is threatening their extinction in many parts of the UK world including many species,

which are still not protected.


Fig 54. Shark Fin Soup (Anon,

stopsharkfinning.net, n,d)

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The sharks are hunted only for their fins. The rest of the shark is typically dumped back into the sea often still alive. Sharks mature slowly and are being taken before they have a chance to reproduce. There is no protection for sharks, which to many are seen as mindless killers. Sharks rank amongst the most endangered species on the planet. As apex predators sharks fulfill a key role in marine ecosystems. However their life history strategy of slow growth, late maturity, and few offspring renders them intrinsically vulnerable to exploitation. Recent assessments by the IUCN Shark Specialist Group ranked the sharks of the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea with the worst conservation status of all assessed regions. Thirty percent of EU and fifty percent of UK shark species are listed as threatened and some species are reported to have declined by ninety nine percent. Populations continue to decline under the intense pressure of unmanaged modern fisheries practices, driven by global consumer demand for shark-based products. (The Sharks Trust, n,d) At least 21 species of shark occur around the coasts of Britain, from the Small-spotted Catshark to the large streamlined Blue Shark and plankton eating Basking Shark. (The Sharks Trust, n,d) The value of Shark fins in the Asian market is now so high that even protected marine parks are not safe and our UK sharks are being targeted for their fins.

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Fig 55. Finless Hammerhead Shark (Anon, madmermaids.com, n,d)

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Taiwanese South American and European boats have been caught hunting sharks in the protected Galapagos Islands marine reserve on several occasions. On the 16th of September 2011, the Reina del Cisne, an industrial fishing vessel from Manta, was caught by the Ecuadorian Navy fishing 6 nautical miles inside the reserve and was found to have 69 thresher sharks, 11 blue sharks, and one silky shark. Some of these sharks were only a few months old, a truly sad sight. Thresher sharks are valued for their long fins, which unfortunately bring in a lot of money in the Asian market. Thresher sharks are also known for having small litters of two to four sharks per birth. This low reproduction rate combined with the extensive overfishing for their fins has resulted in thresher sharks being listed as vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). (Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, n,d) Clearly, where the market puts a high enough price on an animals head, there will be no shortage of people looking to make a profit from its death even in protected marine reserves. Once they are all gone, its on to the next species! Once a Predator has been removed, history shows that the damage is often unpredictable and irreversible. Unfortunately, the effect of the removal of a predator does not become apparent until the predator has been removed. Scientists studying the role of the wolf as apex predator in Yellowstone National Park in the US state of Wyoming, 121

discovered that without the presence of wolves, not only had deer and elk populations increased substantially but they had overgrazed to such an extent that only older trees of the forest had survived, the younger shoots and saplings completely decimated by runaway consumption, leaving no long-term future for the forest only an inevitable decline towards extinction, unless predators were reintroduced. By contrast, an older, analogous ecosystem on an island in Scotland, where wolves had been made extinct in the area some 200 to 500 years previously and had once been a thriving forest, is now treeless and barren. (Seifert, 2011)

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Pollution & Industrial Waste Dumping


The dumping by ships of, radioactive waste, sewage sludge, and dredge spoils has occurred in deep-sea areas for several decades.

Fig 56. Rijnborg Dumpship (North Atlantic : 1982) (Anon, www.greenpeace.org, n,d)

The disposal of radioactive waste into the deep sea is now banned, but occurred throughout the north-east Atlantic between 1949 and 1982, with a total of 220,000 drums of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste dumped by European countries.

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Fig 57. Russian ship TNT27 dumping nuclear waste in the Sea of Japan (East Sea). 18 October 1993. (Anon, Greenpeace.org, n,d)

All of this shows that we are still treating the oceans and their inhabitants as a resource to be plundered and a dumping ground for our waste. Fig 13 Shows chemical burns

suffered by a dolphin and though to be caused by mustard gas shells dumped by the US Government in the 1950s

Fig 58. Chemical burns (Anon, scienceblogs.com, 2006-2011).

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Appendix B: Extinction is not inevitable; it is not too late to change our ways
For hundreds of years the whales were slaughtered; the hunters romanticized in stories like Moby Dick; baby seals were killed in the Arctic for their white fur; Elephants were hunted for their Ivory and tigers were shot for sport by wealthy big game hunters, their skins displayed as trophies. However, as a direct result of the power of public opinion, following their being educated, initially by determined conservationists and journalists who shone a spotlight on what was happening far away and out of sight, change has happened. The court of public opinion is powerful and once the public is educated and motivated, politicians and big business can be forced to change their policies and practices, or risk loosing votes or profits. Not long ago the supermarkets argued it was too expensive to stock free range eggs and meat arguing that it would raise prices and no one would buy it. Buy when we are given the choice, how many of us choose to eat meat reared in the UK and to UK standards of welfare. The author certainly does. As a result the market for ethically produced free-range animal products is growing. This is better for us, better for our farmers and better for the animals. Once the public was made aware of the plight of the great whales, public opinion demanded they were protected, and despite the best efforts of vested interests, large-scale commercial whaling was banned in the early 1980s.

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Wherever whales are near enough to shore a worldwide industry of whale watching has developed. This brings economic benefits to those costal communities who might otherwise have hunted the whales.

Fig 59. Humpback Whale and Her Calf Taken Raratonga Cook Islands Sep 2001 (Authors photograph, 2001)

A return to public acceptance of the previous slaughter is almost unimaginable. There is a common sense of disgust at those countries that still continue to kill whales in large numbers under the guise of Research.

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Fig 60. Grey Seal: Farne Islands (Anon, http://scubadivingstaffordshire.co.uk, 2009)

In the UK, we have a large population of grey seals the largest being in The Farne Islands, where fishermen in the past called for a cull arguing that they ate all the fish. Many of those same fishermen, now make their livings taking sightseers on boat trips out to see them or act as dive charters, taking scuba divers from all over the country to dive with the seals, a Magical experience the author has been lucky enough to enjoy many times. The BSAC, British Sub Aqua Club of which the author is a member and Instructor, has over 50,000 members worldwide and there are many other national organizations promoting the sport of scuba diving in other countries and PADI schools in virtually every holiday resort throughout the world, all introducing people to the underwater world, which is growing in popularity. Divers travel all over the world to experience the different underwater environments and all the 127

creatures that live there first hand. Diving on coral reefs and seeing sharks is high on most divers wish lists. Therefore ultimately, those countries that protect their underwater habitats, will gain financially from the money the divers bring.

Fig 61. Basking Shark (Divernet.com, 2008)

The Basking sharks in the UK are now protected and attracting sharkspotting trips, where previously they would have been hunted for their meat and liver oil. Their cousin the whale sharks (The worlds biggest fish at 40 feet long) is protected in the Maldives which relies on tourism, yet in the Philippines, the same shark is still hunted for its meat which is sold in Japan for a high price. However, there are project theyre trying to persuade the locals that the giant fish is more valuable alive, as tourists will come to see them than sliced up into cubes.

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Walkers Key in the Bahamas is famous for pioneering shark feeding dives, something that has successfully been repeated in many parts of the world. There is concern that this may be altering the sharks behavior but I think so long sharks are being studied and the feeding is done responsibly i.e. the sharks are fed the food they would naturally eat, it is a good thing.

Fig 62. Oceanic white tip shark and the author in Moorea (Dive in Paradise, 2001)

In order to protect the marine environment and the livelihoods of those who rely on the sea, Marine reserves that act, as nurseries for the surrounding waters, where no fishing is allowed need to be established all around our coats. These reserves would also be the perfect sites for dive centres and aquaria where new generations could be inspired to understand and conserve our marine environment. This brings money into the local

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economies, offering alternatives to fishing, but also will help preserve the fish stocks ensuring economic and food security for the future.

Medes Islands Marine Park Spain Unlike much off the Mediterranean, which has been over fished, there is extraordinary biodiversity surrounding this small archipelago, about one mile from the town of Lstartit, right in the middle of the Costa Brava. This abundance of life, make this a unique spot very popular with Scuba divers because of the rich underwater life. This is good for the local economy and populates the surrounding water with fish that can be caught.

Fig 63. IMAGES OF MARINE PARK AND HEALTHY FISH (Anon, Diving at Estartit and The Illes Medes, n,d)

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This Natural Park is a 7-island archipelago covering 21.5ha of land and 511 ha of pristine underwater habitat was first protected in 1983 with an Order from the Catalonian Parliament. In 1985 a resolution established the Natural Parks standards in 1990, Law 19/1990, creating the legal framework to protect and conserve the flora and fauna of the marine floor in the Medes. (DIVING CENTER LA SIRENA, n,d) The practice of killing baby seals in the arctic for their fur was banned, and the wearing of fur, which used to be the height of fashion and a display of wealth is now looked at with disgust in the west. It this discussion the author hopes to have shown there are alternatives to simply continually taking from the sea, which offer long-term conservation of the seas resources and long-term economic benefits for those who rely on the sea.

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Appendix C: Designing for emotion

Fig 64. Process for designing for emotion (Authors Flowchart, 2011)

How to design to elicit an emotional response


Architect needs to immerse in subject to understand the message the building will convey. Needs to feel and understand the emotions the subject arouses. Identify an appropriate emotional agenda from the research that will inform the emotions the spaces should arouse.

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Using knowledge of which techniques stimulate which emotions design each space to communicate by bringing out the desired emotions. By designing a series of connected spaces each designed to communicate the desired emotions the visitor can be taken on an emotional journey as they physically navigate the series of spaces in the building. Remember that without guidance the feelings brought out by the architecture behaviour. Eisenmans MMJE demonstrated that feelings of claustrophobia or disorientation can stimulate a playful response that is opposite from the intended response of sadness or foreboding. The feelings the architecture creates and the message the exhibition presented must support each other. This gives guidance how to interpret the feelings aroused by the architecture can be misinterpreted and result in unexpected

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