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Haba gran movimiento en la Plaza Mayor, ese foro de la antigua Ciudad de los Reyes.

Los artesanos disfrutaban de la frescura de la tarde y los vendedores circulaban entre la muchedumbre, pregonando a grandes voces la excelencia de sus mercancas.

The general direction of the throng was toward the grand square, the Plaza Mayor, the forum of the ancient City of the Kings.The same cool atmosphere which tempted the population to an evening stroll had the effect of bringing out the various hawkers, who threaded their way amidst the crowds shouting aloud the praises of their different wares.

Julio Verne
Martn Paz

Dicen que hubo alguna vez, una Lima sandunguera, alfombra, jacarand, que tena su quimera, soleada cerca a los cerros, y mojada junto al mar, dicen que hubo alguna vez, una Lima de bandera.

It is said there once was a charming Lima, filled with fancy, her carpet of jacaranda flowers. Sunny close to the hills, and wet next to the ocean. It is said there was once a superb Lima.

Chabuca Granda
Ze Manu

mando que se llame desde agora para siempre jamas la cibdad de los Reyes el qual hizo y poblo en nombre de la Santisima Trinidad padre hijo e espiritu santo tres personas e un solo dios verdadero

I command that this city, which has been created and populated, be called the City of the Kings from now until forever more in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, the Holy Trinity, three persons in one true God

Acta de fundacin de la ciudad de Lima


Founding document of the city of Lima

Una ciudad, mil espacios


Mihi tecum Petre Aaron uetus, et constans beniuolentia, familiaritas et consuetudo, tanta ut nullo cum homine coniunctus uixerim. Fecit hoc quidem singularis erga me tuus amor ingenii suauitas, et eximia uirtus, quae tibi iamdiu locum inter claros nostri seculi homines celebrem dedit, ut ego non parum amicitia, et familiaritate tua me assecutum putem. Fuit sermo inter nos saepius non insuauis, neque ieiunus de litteris, deque litteratis huiusce temporis hominibus: inter quos tu amice quidem scio, an satis uere nescio, me numerandum putas, et tuo iudicio, et uirorum excellentis doctrinae testimoniis, que te non latent, in eam oppinionem adducetis. In quem sermonem cum proximis diebus incidissemus (eramus tum forte domi meae) ac tibi ostendissem poeticos nostros libellos, quos Bononiae nuper impressos (uti nosti) edidimus, laudis, et famae (sicut uidere potui) dulcedine tactus mihi quidem gratulatus plurimum, et non paucis uerbis gaudium, quod tu ex ea re caperes, egregie testatus es. Reticuisti postmodum, et uultu in terram defixo aliquamdiu cogitabundo similis fuisti. Feci ego statim coniecturam, quid in animo uolueres, ac subridens. Age inquam mi Petre, quid te sic tristem ex gaudio, et tam suspenium repente uideo? Respondes, Felicem te Flamini: qui adhuc uiuens partam tibi nominis imortalitatem uides, et per hora hominum uolitas. Tunc ego, Non ne et tu ea iam parasti monumenta, propter quae tua fama, quae te etiam uiuo celebris est, posteris commendetur? Legi ego egregium illud opus tuum, quod de arte musica scripsisti, pulcherrimum quidem, ac utilissimum, tantaeque expectationis ut omnes iamdiu illud efflagitent.

Alberto Alegra
Lima Visin

One city, a hundred espaces


Mihi tecum Petre Aaron uetus, et constans beniuolentia, familiaritas et consuetudo, tanta ut nullo cum homine coniunctus uixerim. Fecit hoc quidem singularis erga me tuus amor ingenii suauitas, et eximia uirtus, quae tibi iamdiu locum inter claros nostri seculi homines celebrem dedit, ut ego non parum amicitia, et familiaritate tua me assecutum putem. Fuit sermo inter nos saepius non insuauis, neque ieiunus de litteris, deque litteratis huiusce temporis hominibus: inter quos tu amice quidem scio, an satis uere nescio, me numerandum putas, et tuo iudicio, et uirorum excellentis doctrinae testimoniis, que te non latent, in eam oppinionem adducetis. In quem sermonem cum proximis diebus incidissemus (eramus tum forte domi meae) ac tibi ostendissem poeticos nostros libellos, quos Bononiae nuper impressos (uti nosti) edidimus, laudis, et famae (sicut uidere potui) dulcedine tactus mihi quidem gratulatus plurimum, et non paucis uerbis gaudium, quod tu ex ea re caperes, egregie testatus es. Reticuisti postmodum, et uultu in terram defixo aliquamdiu cogitabundo similis fuisti. Feci ego statim coniecturam, quid in animo uolueres, ac subridens. Age inquam mi Petre, quid te sic tristem ex gaudio, et tam suspenium repente uideo? Respondes, Felicem te Flamini: qui adhuc uiuens partam tibi nominis imortalitatem uides, et per hora hominum uolitas. Tunc ego, Non ne et tu ea iam parasti monumenta, propter quae tua fama, quae te etiam uiuo celebris est, posteris commendetur? Legi ego egregium illud opus tuum, quod de arte musica scripsisti, pulcherrimum quidem, ac utilissimum, tantaeque expectationis ut omnes iamdiu illud efflagitent.

Alberto Alegra
Lima Visin

sumario
Historia las huacas de Lima
history . the archaeological sites of Lima

25 60

Arquitectura la ciudad de Pizarro


arquitecture . the city of Pizarro

Tradiciones del puente a la alameda


traditions . from the bridge to the boulevard

80 102

Gastronoma la capital del sabor


cuisine . the capital of flavor

summary

Luis Repetto

ihi tecum Petre Aaron uetus, et constans beniuolentia, familiaritas et consuetudo, tanta ut nullo cum homine coniunctus uixerim. Fecit hoc quidem singularis erga me tuus amor ingenii suauitas, et eximia uirtus, quae tibi iamdiu locum inter claros nostri seculi homines celebrem dedit, ut ego non parum amicitia, et familiaritate tua me assecutum putem. Fuit sermo inter nos saepius non insuauis, neque ieiunus de litteris, deque litteratis huiusce temporis hominibus: inter quos tu amice quidem scio, an satis uere nescio, me numerandum putas, et tuo iudicio, et uirorum excellentis doctrinae testimoniis, que te non latent, in eam oppinionem adducetis. In quem sermonem cum proximis diebus incidissemus (eramus tum forte domi meae) ac tibi ostendissem poeticos nostros libellos, quos Bononiae nuper impressos (uti nosti) edidimus, laudis, et famae (sicut uidere potui) dulcedine tactus mihi quidem gratulatus plurimum, et non paucis uerbis gaudium, quod tu ex ea re caperes, egregie testatus es. Reticuisti postmodum, et uultu in terram defixo aliquamdiu cogitabundo similis fuisti. Feci ego statim coniecturam, quid in animo uolueres, ac subridens, Age inquam mi Petre, quid te sic tristem ex gaudio, et tam suspenium repente uideo? Respondes, Felicem te Flamini: qui adhuc uiuens partam tibi nominis imortalitatem uides, et per hora hominum uolitas. Tunc ego, Non ne et tu ea iam parasti monumenta, propter quae tua fama, quae te etiam uiuo celebris est, posteris commendetur? Legi ego egregium illud opus tuum, quod de arte musica scripsisti, pulcherrimum quidem, ac utilissimum, tantaeque expectationis ut omnes iamdiu illud efflagitent. Tu tamen cunctabundus, ac haesitanti similis pulsatum diu limen egredi non sinis ac hominum uota moraris. Scio in quis, esse quam plurimos, qui dillatam editionem meam mirentur ac moleste ferant. Sed morae diuturnioris duae fuerunt causae, quarum [-f.Biv-] altera est, quod horatiani praecepti memor supprimenda diutius scripta, nec temere uulganda putaui. Altera quod me quidam pudor impediit quod eos libellos forte non insulsos, neque contemptibiles propter illustrem materiam quam complexi sunt, latino sermone non si mediturus. Scio enim quantum illis ob hanc rem absit, et quantam illius autoritatem, pondus, et gratiam latina oratio potuerit addere. Tunc ego nonne inquam latinos facere poteras? Poteram inquis, sed neque mihi plene, neque tui similibus facturus eram satis, Fateor enim ingenue non esse mihi eam dicendi facultatem, ac sermonis elegantiam latini, quam tam grandis materia posceret, et ob id quidem communi potius et uernaculo sermone scribendos arbitratus sum, et hac una re tandem mihi displiceret, neque alia de causa editionem differo.

14 | Lima

15

16 | Lima

ihi tecum Petre Aaron uetus, et constans beniuolentia, familiaritas et consuetudo, tanta ut nullo cum homine coniunctus uixerim. Fecit hoc quidem singularis erga me tuus amor ingenii suauitas, et eximia uirtus, quae tibi iamdiu locum inter claros nostri seculi homines celebrem dedit, ut ego non parum amicitia, et familiaritate tua me assecutum putem. Fuit sermo inter nos saepius non insuauis, neque ieiunus de litteris, deque litteratis huiusce temporis hominibus: inter quos tu amice quidem scio, an satis uere nescio, me numerandum putas, et tuo iudicio, et uirorum excellentis doctrinae testimoniis, que te non latent, in eam oppinionem adducetis. In quem sermonem cum proximis diebus incidissemus (eramus tum forte domi meae) ac tibi ostendissem poeticos nostros libellos, quos Bononiae nuper impressos (uti nosti) edidimus, laudis, et famae (sicut uidere potui) dulcedine tactus mihi quidem gratulatus plurimum, et non paucis uerbis gaudium, quod tu ex ea re caperes, egregie testatus es. Reticuisti postmodum, et uultu in terram defixo aliquamdiu cogitabundo similis fuisti. Feci ego statim coniecturam, quid in animo uolueres, ac subridens, Age inquam mi Petre, quid te sic tristem ex gaudio, et tam suspenium repente uideo? Respondes, Felicem te Flamini: qui adhuc uiuens partam tibi nominis imortalitatem uides, et per hora hominum uolitas. Tunc ego, Non ne et tu ea iam parasti monumenta, propter quae tua fama, quae te etiam uiuo celebris est, posteris commendetur? Legi ego egregium illud opus tuum, quod de arte musica scripsisti, pulcherrimum quidem, ac utilissimum, tantaeque expectationis ut omnes iamdiu illud efflagitent. Tu tamen cunctabundus, ac haesitanti similis pulsatum diu limen egredi non sinis ac hominum uota moraris. Scio in quis, esse quam plurimos, qui dillatam editionem meam mirentur ac moleste ferant. Sed morae diuturnioris duae fuerunt causae, quarum [-f.Biv-] altera est, quod horatiani praecepti memor supprimenda diutius scripta, nec temere uulganda putaui. Altera quod me quidam pudor impediit quod eos libellos forte non insulsos, neque contemptibiles propter illustrem materiam quam complexi sunt, latino sermone non si mediturus. Scio enim quantum illis ob hanc rem absit, et quantam illius autoritatem, pondus, et gratiam latina oratio potuerit addere. Tunc ego nonne inquam latinos facere poteras? Poteram inquis, sed neque mihi plene, neque tui similibus facturus eram satis, Fateor enim ingenue non esse mihi eam dicendi facultatem, ac sermonis elegantiam latini, quam tam grandis materia posceret, et ob id quidem communi potius et uernaculo sermone scribendos arbitratus sum, et hac una re tandem mihi displiceret, neque alia de causa editionem differo. Tunc ego appraehensa manu tua

Luis Repetto

17

Flaminius meus mihi praestiterit. Iterum me recipio praestiturum et ubi uelis aggressurum. Aderat tum forte Phileros meus Achilles Bocchius iuuenis candidissimus, et graece, latineque doctissimus utriusque nostrum familiaris.

M ihi tecum Petre Aaron uetus, et constans beniuolentia, familiaritas et consuetudo, tanta ut nullo cum homine coniunctus uixerim. Fecit hoc quidem singularis erga me tuus amor ingenii suauitas, et eximia uirtus, quae tibi iamdiu locum inter claros nostri seculi homines celebrem dedit, ut ego non parum amicitia, et familiaritate tua me assecutum putem. Fuit sermo inter nos saepius non insuauis, neque ieiunus de litteris, deque litteratis huiusce temporis hominibus: inter quos tu amice quidem scio, an satis uere nescio, me numerandum putas, et tuo iudicio, et uirorum excellentis doctrinae testimoniis, que te non latent, in eam oppinionem adducetis. In quem sermonem cum proximis diebus incidissemus (eramus tum forte domi meae) ac tibi ostendissem poeticos nostros libellos, quos Bononiae nuper impressos (uti nosti) edidimus, laudis, et famae (sicut uidere potui) dulcedine tactus mihi quidem gratulatus plurimum, et non paucis uerbis gaudium, quod tu ex ea re caperes, egregie testatus es. Reticuisti postmodum, et uultu in terram defixo aliquamdiu cogitabundo similis fuisti. Feci ego statim coniecturam, quid in animo uolueres, ac subridens, Age inquam mi Petre, quid te sic tristem ex gaudio, et tam suspenium repente uideo? Respondes, Felicem te Flamini: qui adhuc uiuens partam tibi nominis imortalitatem uides, et per hora hominum uolitas. Tunc ego, Non ne et tu ea iam parasti monumenta, propter quae tua fama, quae te etiam uiuo celebris est, posteris commendetur? Legi ego egregium illud opus tuum, quod de arte musica scripsisti, pulcherrimum quidem, ac utilissimum, tantaeque expectationis ut omnes iamdiu illud efflagitent. Tu tamen cunctabundus, ac haesitanti similis pulsatum diu limen egredi non sinis ac hominum uota moraris. Scio in quis, esse quam plurimos, qui dillatam editionem meam mirentur ac moleste ferant. Sed morae diuturnioris duae fuerunt causae, quarum [-f.Biv-] altera est, quod horatiani praecepti memor supprimenda diutius scripta, nec temere uulganda putaui. Altera quod me quidam pudor impediit quod eos libellos forte non insulsos, neque contemptibiles propter illustrem materiam quam complexi sunt, latino sermone non si mediturus. Scio enim quantum illis ob hanc rem absit, et quantam illius autoritatem, pondus, et gratiam latina oratio potuerit addere. Tunc ego nonne inquam latinos facere poteras? Poteram inquis, sed neque mihi plene, neque tui similibus facturus eram satis, Fateor enim ingenue non esse mihi eam dicendi facultatem, ac sermonis elegantiam latini, quam tam grandis materia posceret, et ob id quidem communi potius et uernaculo sermone scribendos arbitratus sum, et hac una re tandem mihi displiceret, neque alia de causa editionem differo.

18 | Lima

M ihi tecum Petre Aaron uetus, et constans beniuolentia, familiaritas et consuetudo, tanta ut nullo cum homine coniunctus uixerim. Fecit hoc quidem singularis erga me tuus amor ingenii suauitas, et eximia uirtus, quae tibi iamdiu locum inter claros nostri seculi homines celebrem dedit, ut ego non parum amicitia, et familiaritate tua me assecutum putem. Fuit sermo inter nos saepius non insuauis, neque ieiunus de litteris, deque litteratis huiusce temporis hominibus: inter quos tu amice quidem scio, an satis uere nescio, me numerandum putas, et tuo iudicio, et uirorum excellentis doctrinae testimoniis, que te non latent, in eam oppinionem adducetis. In quem sermonem cum proximis diebus incidissemus (eramus tum forte domi meae) ac tibi ostendissem poeticos nostros libellos, quos Bononiae nuper impressos (uti nosti) edidimus, laudis, et famae (sicut uidere potui) dulcedine tactus mihi quidem gratulatus plurimum, et non paucis uerbis gaudium, quod tu ex ea re caperes, egregie testatus es. Reticuisti postmodum, et uultu in terram defixo aliquamdiu cogitabundo similis fuisti. Feci ego statim coniecturam, quid in animo uolueres, ac subridens, Age inquam mi Petre, quid te sic tristem ex gaudio, et tam suspenium repente uideo? Respondes, Felicem te Flamini: qui adhuc uiuens partam tibi nominis imortalitatem uides, et per hora hominum uolitas. Tunc ego, Non ne et tu ea iam parasti monumenta, propter quae tua fama, quae te etiam uiuo celebris est, posteris commendetur? Legi ego egregium illud opus tuum, quod de arte musica scripsisti, pulcherrimum quidem, ac utilissimum, tantaeque expectationis ut omnes iamdiu illud efflagitent. Tu tamen cunctabundus, ac haesitanti similis pulsatum diu limen egredi non sinis ac hominum uota moraris. Scio in quis, esse quam plurimos, qui dillatam editionem meam mirentur ac moleste ferant. Sed morae diuturnioris duae fuerunt causae, quarum [-f.Biv-] altera est, quod horatiani praecepti memor supprimenda diutius scripta, nec temere uulganda putaui. Altera quod me quidam pudor impediit quod eos libellos forte non insulsos, neque contemptibiles propter illustrem materiam quam complexi sunt, latino sermone non si mediturus. Scio enim quantum illis ob hanc rem absit, et quantam illius autoritatem, pondus, et gratiam latina oratio potuerit addere. Tunc ego nonne inquam latinos facere poteras? Poteram inquis, sed neque mihi plene, neque tui similibus facturus eram satis, Fateor enim ingenue non esse mihi eam dicendi facultatem, ac sermonis elegantiam latini, quam tam grandis materia posceret, et ob id quidem communi potius et uernaculo sermone scribendos arbitratus sum, et hac una re tandem mihi displiceret, neque alia de causa editionem differo. Tunc ego appraehensa manu tua

Flaminius meus mihi praestiterit. Iterum me recipio praestiturum et ubi uelis aggressurum. Aderat tum forte Phileros meus Achilles Bocchius iuuenis candidissimus, et graece, latineque doctissimus utriusque nostrum familiaris.

19

a
las huacas de Lima
history . the archaeological sites of Lima

22 | Lima

La huaca Pucllana, en el corazn de Miraflores, fue construida por la cultura Lima en los siglos III y VIII d.C. temple in the heart of Miraflores, was built from the 3rd to the 8th centuries A.D. by the Lima culture.

Huaca Pucllana, a Pre-Hispanic

Historia history | 23

history . the archaeological sites of Lima

as primeras huellas del hombre en Lima fueron encontradas en Ancn, a 50 km al norte de la ciudad, donde fueron hallados restos de 10 mil aos de antigedad. Estos primeros limeos eran cazadores y recolectores que poblaron las lomas circundantes como Lachay y Lcumo las cuales posean abundantes recursos. Hace seis mil aos, los pobladores de la zona se asentaron y construyeron centros poblados, como los que descubri Federico Engel en Cerro Paloma. Se trata de viviendas de planta circular, sostenidas por caas y huesos de ballena cubiertas con grama y juncos. La agricultura y la ganadera llevaron a la civilizacin limea a construir grandes templos y centros administrativos como el de Caral, la ciudad ms antigua de Amrica, con ms de cinco mil aos de antigedad, adelantndose en 1.500 aos a la sociedad Chavn. Poco a poco, el proceso civilizatorio se extendi a todos los valles de Lima, y en el 1.500 a.C. aproximadamente se construye en el valle del Rmac el templo de Garagay, en el que encontramos ciertas similitudes al arte chavn, sobre todo en sus frisos que representan felinos. Se trata de cinco edificios en forma U y una plaza circular en el centro, tpicos de este periodo en la costa. Entre los siglos I y VII d.C., el tiempo de los desarrollos regionales, el valle del Rmac fue dominado por la cultura Lima, que domin desde el valle de Chancay hasta el de Lurn. Muchas de sus construcciones, pirmides truncas de adobe con rampas de acceso, como las de Maranga, Pucllana y Huallamarca, guardan algunas similitudes con las mochica, en la costa norte. Hacia el fin del primer milenio de nuestra era, la zona fue influenciada por Tiahuanaco-Huari, como lo atestiguan algunas construcciones de Pachacamac, Cajamarquilla y Ancn, as como las kullkis o recintos circulares de piedra, de Rpac, en las alturas del ro Chilln. Hacia el siglo XIV se produjo otro movimiento regional importante, el seoro de Ichma o Ichimay, que gobern los valles de Lurn y Rmac hasta la llegada de los incas, en el siglo XV. Durante su dominio cobr importancia el santuario de Pachacamac, que los incas respetaron a causa del prestigio y poder de su orculo. Los cusqueos, al mando del hijo y sucesor de Pachactec, Tpac Yupanqui, levantaron en Lima varios centros administrativos y religiosos como Mateo Salado, Avillay, Tambo Inca y los templos del Sol y la Luna, en Pachacamac. Cuando llegaron los espaoles, gobernaba el valle del Rmac un curaca llamado Taulichusco, que fue desalojado de su palacio para establecer all la nueva casa de gobierno, donde se asentara el poder de la Colonia. El primer espaol en entrar al valle fue Hernando Pizarro, en 1533, quien se diriga al Cusco desde Cajamarca. A pesar de haber fundado la capital en Jauja, Francisco Pizarro mud su centro de operaciones al valle a causa de su cercana al mar. As naci Lima, un 18 de enero de 1536, bajo la advocacin de los tres reyes magos, por lo cual se conocera como la Ciudad de los Reyes.

24 | Lima

las huacas de Lima

Historia history | 25

Entre los siglos I y VII d.C., el tiempo de los desarrollos regionales, el valle del Rmac fue dominado por la cultura Lima, que domin desde el valle de Chancay hasta el de Lurn.

Huaca Pucllana, cultura Lima, siglos III-VIII d.C. culture: 3rd to 8th centuries A.D.
26 | Lima

Huaca Pucllana, Lima

Detalle de ser mitolgico hallado en la Huaca Pucllana, Miraflores. Detail of a mythological being found in Huaca Pucllana. Miraflores.

Detalle de cermica Chancay. Museo Andrs del Castillo. Chancay ceramic piece. Andres del Castillo Museum.

Detail of a

Edificio principal de huaca Huallamarca, San Isidro. the Huallamarca archaeological site. San Isidro.

Main structure of

Between the 1st and 7th centuries A.D., the time of regional developments, the Rimac River Valley was ruled by the tribe bearing the same name, and their power stretched from the Chancay to the Lurin river valleys.

Historia history | 27

28 | Lima

he first traces of humans in the department of Lima were found in Ancon, 50 kilometers north of the city, the age of which having been determined to be 10,000 years. These first Limeos (residents of Lima) were hunters and collectors, and they lived in nearby hilly regions, like the Lomas de Lachay or Lucumo, which were filled with abundant resources. Four thousand years later, humans began to build settlements in the hills, like the one Federico Engel discovered in Cerro Paloma. There, the houses were circular shaped and their structure supported by cane or whale bones and then covered with grasses or rushes. Once Limeos learned how to farm and to domesticate livestock, they began to construct large temples and administrative centers, like the city of Caral, oldest in the Americas. Dr. Ruth Shady, who discovered the city, estimates the city is five thousand years old, existing even before the Chavin culture. Civilization progressively spread throughout all the fertile river valleys of Lima, and then, around 1500 B.C., the Garagay Temple was built in the Rimac River Valley. Here, we find certain similarities with the art found in Chavin, especially its cat-like friezes.This site is comprised of five buildings laid out in a U-shape with one circular plaza in the center, a typical coastal design for this period. Between the 1st and 7th centuries A.D., the time of regional developments, the Rimac River Valley was ruled by the tribe bearing the same name, and their power stretched from the Chancay to the Lurin river valleys. Moreover, their construction mimicked certain features of the northern Mochica culture: truncated adobe pyramids with access ramps, like those found in the Maranga, Pucllana, and Huallamarca archeological sites. Towards the end of the first millennium, the area fell under the influence of the Tiahuanaco-Huari expansion, as borne out by some of the buildings in the Pachacamac, Cajamarquilla, and Ancon complexes, not to mention the kullkis (round storehouses made of stone) at Rupac in the mountainous area of the Chillon River. Around the 14th century, a new and important regional development took place: the Ichma or Ichimay took control of the Lurin and Rimac river valleys until they were conquered by the Incas in the 15th century. It was during the formers reign that Pachacamac took on more significance, and even when the Incas had installed themselves there, they respected the prestige and power of the Pachacamac oracle.The Incas, under the command of Tupac Yupanqui, son and successor to the empire builder Pachacutec, also built several administrative and religious centers in the area of Lima, such as Mateo Salado, Avillay, Tambo Inca, and the Temples of the Sun and the Moon in Pachacamac. At the arrival of the Spanish on the shores of Lima, the Rimac River Valley was under the sway of a local chieftain named Taulichusco, who was evicted from his palace so the new house of government could be established there, seat of power for the Spanish Colony. The first Spaniard to set foot in the valley was Hernando Pizarro in 1533, who was on his way to Cusco from Cajamarca where Atahualpa had just been put to death. Although Francisco Pizzaro had founded the capital of Peru in Jauja, he moved his center of operations to the Rimac River Valley because it was closer to the ocean. Thus, Lima was born one January 18th, 1536, under the protection of the biblical Three Kings, for which it would be called the City of the Kings.

las huacas de Lima


history . the archaeological sites of Lima
Historia history | 29

El santuario de Pachacamac fue el ms poderoso de su tiempo, al punto que los incas lo respetaron cuando conquistaron la regin. Arriba: rplica del dolo de madera que habitaba el orculo y fue destruido por los espaoles en el siglo XVI. The Pachacamac Sanctuary was the most important ceremonial site during its time, so much so that even the Incas respected it when they conquered the region. Above: replica of the wooden idol that was worshipped in Pachacamac. The Spanish destroyed it in the 16th century.

30 | Lima

Historia history | 31

32 | Lima

Anfiteatro de la ciudad de Caral, ubicada al norte de Lima. Considerada la civilizacin ms antigua de Amrica, su descubrimiento oblig a replantear la cronologa cultural del Per. Amphitheater in the city of Caral. Situated in a valley north of the city of Lima, it is considered the oldest civilization in the Americas, and its discovery forced Perus cultural development timeline to be reconfigured.

Historia history | 33

las huacas de Lima


La ciudad moderna que hoy es Lima conserva una gran cantidad de vestigios de su pasado prehispnico. Ocultos en medio del mar de cemento, templos de adobe, centros urbanos y grandes patios ceremoniales persisten a pesar de los siglos transcurridos desde su construccin. En algunos casos, como el de las huacas Pucllana y Huallamarca, los monumentos han sido puestos en valor y hoy atraen en miles de turistas nacionales y extranjeros, mientras que en otros casos, como en Mateo Salado y Garagay, el olvido y la imparable urbanizacin los han arrinconado y hasta causado su desaparicin. No es raro que al caminar por la ciudad encontremos huacas en lugares impensados: en medio de viejos barrios como la de Huantile, en Magdalena; formando parte del parque zoolgico ms grande la ciudad, como la Huaca Maranga; o en el campus de la Universidad de San Marcos, como la Huaca de Pando, cuya integridad ha sido puesta en discusin por un proyecto municipal. Dos casos exitosos de manejo de estos testimonios del pasado son la Huaca Pucllana o Juliana, en Miraflores, y la de Huallamarca, en San Isidro. Gracias al trabajo del Instituto Nacional de Cultura, y patronatos creados para salvaguardar el patrimonio estas dos huacas han sido revalorizadas y en ella se han llevado a cabo extensos trabajos arqueolgicos que han permitido comprender su exacta situacin en el tiempo, as como conocer mejor la vida de sus pobladores. Gran parte de las huacas de Lima fue construida por la cultura del mismo nombre, durante el periodo Intermedio Temprano (I-VII d.C.), y fueron luego transformadas durante la influencia Tiahuanaco-Huari primero y la ocupacin inca despus. Muchas de ellas poseen el patrn tpico de construccin con adobitos, pequeos ladrillos de adobe que eran colocados como si fueran libros dentro de una biblioteca. As, tambin tenemos pirmides truncas, templos en forma de U, plazas circulares y grandes patios ceremoniales, que nos hablan de estados rgidos, con un gran control social, quizs influenciado por la cultura mochica de la costa norte. Con la llegada de los espaoles, las huacas de la ciudad fueron destruidas y saqueadas, o usadas como cementerios a falta de camposantos. Luego, durante la repblica, estas fueron invadidas o destruidas para construir viviendas; hasta que recin en las ltimas dcadas del siglo XX comenzaron a ser revaloradas. Actualmente el Instituto Nacional de Cultura ha registrado 250 huacas en Lima Metropolitana, un patrimonio que debemos preservar y poner valor, pues constituye una parte importante de nuestra larga historia.

Grandes constructores de templos, la cultura Lima ha dejado numerosos vestigios de su presencia en el valle, y muchos de ellos conviven con la modernidad de una ciudad en crecimiento. The Lima were a temple building culture, having left several traces of their presence in the valley, many of which coexist today next to the modern skyline of the sprawling city of Lima.

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Temple mounds of Lima


Lima, the modern city we know today, still houses a large number of ruins of its Pre-Hispanic past. Tucked away amidst a sea of cement, despite the centuries that have passed since their construction, are adobe temples, urban centers, and large ceremonial patios. In some cases, grand temple mounds, like Huaca Pucllana and Huaca Huallamarca, have been restored and are attracting thousands of domestic and foreign tourists, while others, such as Mateo Salado and Garagay, have been forgotten and the unstoppable force of urbanization has bottled them up and even erased them from the map. There is nothing out of the ordinary to be walking in the city and to find these mounds in the most unlikely of places: in the middle of old neighborhoods, like Huantile, in Magdalena, or as part of the citys largest zoo, like Huaca Maranga, or on a university campus, like Huaca de Pando, which sits on the grounds of the National University of San Marcos and whose integrity is being discussed on account of a city project. Two successful cases of managing these testimonies of the past are Huaca Pucllana (also called Huaca Juliana) and Huaca Huallamarca, both in the district of San Isidro. Due to work by the National Institute of Culture and councils created for safeguarding cultural and historical heritage, these two temple mounds have been restored and undergone extensive archeological studies so that we know exactly where they sit on the timeline of Lima cultural development and better how their inhabitants lived. For the city of Lima itself, a large majority of its mounds were constructed by the culture with the same name that flourished during the Early Intermediate (1st-7th centuries A.D.). These were later transformed by two grand influences: first the Tiahuanaco-Huari and then the Incas. Many of them are built along the same lines, using what are known as adobitos (small adobe bricks) that are laid as if they were books in a library. There are also truncated pyramids, U-shaped temples, circular plazas, and large ceremonial patios, which tell us they belonged to unyielding states whose rulers tightly controlled society, perhaps being influenced by the Mochica culture in the north. As the Spanish spread out into Lima, the mounds within the city limits were destroyed and sacked or were used as cemeteries since there were none at that time. Later, during the so-called Republican Era, the land upon which they were built was seized and houses constructed on it. It has only been recently, during the last few decades of the 20th century, that they have begun to be restored. Currently, the National Institute of Culture has a list of 250 temple mounds in Metropolitan Lima, heritage we are obligated to preserve and to restore since it represents a huge part of our long history.

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la ciudad de Pizarro

arquitecture . the city of Pizarro

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Por el clebre patio de Letras de la Universidad de San Marcos han pasado grandes figuras de la cultura nacional como Mario Vargas Llosa, Ral Porras Barrenechea, Jorge Basadre y Alfredo Bryce. Renowned representatives of our culture, like Mario Vargas Llosa, Raul Porras Barrenechea, Jorge Basadre, and Alfredo Bryce, have walked this famous courtyard of the National University of San Marcos.

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a fundacin de ciudades en el Per fue el hecho que marc la verdadera ocupacin espaola del territorio conquistado. Segn lo estipulaban las leyes ibricas, la construccin de poblados en las regiones anexadas a la Corona deba seguir el estilo impuesto en Espaa. Esto mandaba a trazar cuadrculas a partir de una plaza ubicada al centro de la ciudad; es el famoso estilo de damero que tan bien conocemos los limeos. Rodeando la plaza se deba construir la iglesia, el cabildo y la casa del gobernador, as como las viviendas de los ciudadanos principales, sobre todo aquellos que haban participado activamente en el proceso de conquista; es el caso de la casa de Juan de Aliaga compaero de Francisco Pizarro desde la isla del Gallo que hasta hoy se mantiene en pie junto al Palacio de Gobierno. Pocos son los ejemplos que hasta hoy sobreviven de la arquitectura primigenia de la ciudad que fund Pizarro en 1536, sobre todo a causa de los terremotos de 1687 y 1746 que asolaron la ciudad colonial, sin embargo, contamos con notables monumentos de los siglos XVII y XVIII, que constituyen verdaderas joyas del arte colonial americano. En el siglo XVII el barroco lleg a nuestro pas y encontr a los alarifes como se llamaba a los maestros de obra en plena madurez artstica, tras casi dos siglos de obras ininterrumpidas a lo largo de los Andes. La reinterpretacin dada al barroco por los arquitectos peruanos brind a las ciudades coloniales una marca distintiva. A los esquemas tradicionales importados desde Europa, los artistas peruanos sumaron mucho de las tcnicas e iconografa prehispnica, lo cual se puede apreciar claramente en el denominado barroco mestizo de Arequipa y los Andes del Sur. De otro lado, con la llegada de la Contrarreforma religiosa del siglo XVII, la construccin de iglesias tambin sufri cambios significativos; las viejas plantas isabelinas fueron cambiadas por plantas en forma de cruz latina, con objeto de acentuar el simbolismo en el culto cristiano. De esta poca datan las iglesias de San Francisco, La Merced y San Agustn, conos del arte colonial americano. La arquitectura civil no se qued atrs durante la Colonia; casas solariegas compuestas por un zagun que permaneca abierto todo el da para recibir a vendedores y visitantes, patios abiertos y habitaciones de techos altos que los rodeaban son caractersticas de la poca. Otro detalle que dio fama a la ciudad son los balcones cerrados que impusieron una marca distintiva a la ciudad. Durante los siglos XVII y XVIII, estos eran elaborados con celosas, el clsico balcn de la tapada limea, y luego, con la llegada del neoclsico, fueron adornados con ventanas de guillotina. Gracias a las gestiones ediles de los ltimos veinte aos, la ciudad de Lima exhibe sus monumentos arquitectnicos coloniales con orgullo. En 1991, la UNESCO declar al centro histrico de Lima un total de 608 sitios histricos, entre ellos sus clsicos balcones como Patrimonio de la Humanidad. Un justo reconocimiento a una de las ciudades ms bellas de Amrica.

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he founding of cities in Peru was the act that truly solidified Spanish occupation of that conquered territory. Nonetheless, as laid out in Spanish law of the time, urban planning in regions annexed by the king had to follow the style imposed by him. Part of that included a design those of us from Lima know so well: the famous checkerboard pattern of streets, starting with the main square at the center of town. Around the main square, city planners had to make certain they built the obligatory structures: a church, municipal building, governors house, and homes of the most prominent citizens, especially those who had participated actively in the Conquest. Such is the case of the residence of Juan de Aliaga, one of the thirteen men who faithfully followed Francisco Pizarro from Gallo Island; the house is still standing on the exact spot where he built it, next to Perus Government Palace (equivalent of the White House). Unfortunately for us, there are very few original examples of architecture from the period directly after Pizarro founded the city in 1536, primarily due to the 1687 and 1746 earthquakes which destroyed the city. However, there are exceptionally notable landmarks from the 17th and 18th centuries that are veritable masterpieces of Spanish Colonial architecture. When Baroque architecture landed in Peru in the 17th century, it found fully developed master builders, the product of having nearly two centuries of uninterrupted work throughout the Andes to learn from. These architects took the Baroque style, reinterpreted it, and then completed works in our Colonial cities that gave them a distinctive flavor. Not only did they apply traditional European designs, but they also used many Pre-Hispanic techniques and incorporated much of its imagery in structures that follow a style called Mestizo Baroque, clearly visible in the city of Arequipa and others in the southern Andes. Along different lines, once the Counter Reformation was in full swing, something that also took place in the 17th century, church construction underwent significant changes.Their builders switched from the medieval floor plan to incorporate a Latin cross plan as a way of accentuating the cult of Christ. Examples of this style of church architecture in Lima are the San Francisco, La Merced, and San Agustin churches, icons of Spanish Colonial art. Civil architecture was not forgotten during the Spanish Colony either. Stately homes from that period are characterized by having one entryway open the entire day to receive merchants and visitors and open patios surrounded by rooms with tall ceilings. Another detail which makes the city famous and granted it a distinctive flair is its enclosed balconies. In the 17th and 18th centuries, these were decorated with elaborate fretwork that would hide its occupants but allow them to see out and known as the balcon de la tapada (balcony of the veiled lady, in reference to the manner of dress for women in Lima at that time), and later on, with the influence of the Neo-classic, they were built with double hung windows. Thanks to the work of Limas mayors over the past twenty years, the city is proudly showing off her architectural landmarks from the Spanish Colonial era. In 1991, UNESCO placed the historic center of Lima on its World Heritage List. That is a total of 608 historic monuments, some of them its classic balconies. Well deserved recognition for one of the most beautiful cities in the Americas.

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Las torres de la iglesia de San Francisco se alzan como custodios de la Casa del Oidor, una de las ms antiguas de la ciudad. Aqu habitaba un asesor del virrey enviado por la Corona espaola. The towers of the San Francisco Church seem to stand guard over the Casa del Oidor (the Listeners House), one of the oldest in the city. Here is where the viceroys specially-appointed legal consultant and envoy of the king resided.

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Detalle de los edificios que rodean la plaza San Martn, recientemente restaurados. Smbolo de la ciudad, este espacio pblico forma parte del centro histrico de la ciudad y por lo tanto es considerado Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad. Recently restored buildings on the San Martin Square. A symbol of the city, this public area is part of the historic center of Lima and so is also World Heritage.

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Clock tower donated by the German colony in the Parque Universitario. Izquierda: Portada barroca del templo de San Agustn. Spanish Colonial balcony on the facade of Limas City Hall Left: San Agustins Church baroque facade.

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Trazada por Francisco Pizarro en persona, la Plaza Mayor de Lima concentra los tres poderes principales de la ciudad: la catedral, el municipio y el palacio de gobierno. De ella escribe el padre Bernab Cobo: ...la cual es la ms capaz y bien formada que yo he visto, ni en Espaa Designed by Francisco Pizarro himself, Limas Main Square is the seat of its three main powers: the church, represented by the Cathedral, local government, represented by the City Hall, and national government, represented by the Government Palace. Father Bernabe Cobo described this square as the finest and best designed I have ever seen, even in Spain

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En 1991, la UNESCO declar al centro histrico de Lima un total de 608 sitios histricos, entre ellos sus clsicos balcones como Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

Techo de la capilla de Nuestra Seora de Loreto, hoy saln de grados de la universidad San Marcos. Ceiling of the Our Lady of Loreto Chapel. Now it serves as the National University of San Marcos Hall of Graduates.

Vitral del saln de los pasos perdidos del Palacio de Justicia de Lima. Stained glass window in the Hall of Lost Steps, Lima courthouse.

Detalle del vitral ubicado en el hall principal del Hotel Bolvar. Detail of the stained glass window in the main hall of the Bolivar Hotel.

Frontis de la iglesia de San Marcelo.

Faade of the San Marcelo Church.

Thanks to the work of Limas mayors over the past twenty years, the city is proudly showing off her architectural landmarks from the Spanish Colonial era. In 1991, UNESCO placed the historic center of Lima on its World Heritage List.

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La Plaza San Martn fue construida por el presidente Augusto B. Legua en 1921, como parte de las celebraciones por el centenario de la emancipacin. En 1850 funcionaban en el lugar el hospital de San Juan de Dios y la estacin de trenes. San Martin Square was built by the order of the president Augusto B. Leguia in 1921 as part of Perus centennial celebration. In 1850, this was the site of the San Juan de Dios Hospital and the train station.

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la plaza mayor

Trazada por la espada de Francisco Pizarro, fundador de la ciudad, la Plaza Mayor de Lima, es sin duda alguna, uno de los mayores tesoros arquitectnicos de Amrica. Aunque poco es lo que se conserva de original en la Plaza Mayor, sobre todo a causa de los violentos terremotos que azotaron la capital, su impronta colonial nos recuerda la importancia de Lima durante los siglos XVI y XIX, cuando adems de ser la capital del virreinato del Per, era el principal puerto de las Indias occidentales, y la ciudad ms fastuosa de entre los territorios ganados por los espaoles. Cuentan las crnicas y las viejas tradiciones que en la plaza de Lima se realiz la primera corrida de toros de Amrica, y que incluso Pizarro en persona alance un toro diestramente esa tarde. Sabemos tambin que entre vivanderas y puestos de venta ambulante, el tribunal de la Santa Inquisicin utilizaba el permetro para realizar sus autos de fe.

En 1578, el virrey Francisco deToledo mand a construir la primera pileta de la plaza, que luego sera suplantada en 1651, por la que encarg el virrey Garca Sarmiento de Sotomayor, que con ciertas modificaciones es la que hasta hoy observamos en el centro de la plaza. Siguiendo la tradicin hispnica, la Plaza Mayor de Lima est flanqueada por los tres smbolos del poder colonial: la iglesia, el cabildo y la casa de gobierno. La Catedral, fue levantada en 1535, y declarada como tal mediante una bula papal emitida por Paulo II en 1543. Tras dos reconstrucciones, el edificio de estilo plateresco adquiri su apariencia actual en 1758. Por su parte, el Palacio de Gobierno, ubicado al este de la plaza, fue la casa de Pizarro y se erigi sobre el palacio de Taulichusco, ltimo cacique del valle del Rmac. Su actual configuracin data de 1928. Otros edificios notables que completan el cuadriltero de la Plaza Mayor son la Casa del Oidor, el Palacio Arzobispal ubicado junto a la catedral y el Club de La Unin.

La antigua calle de Pescadera comunica la Plaza Mayor con la estacin de Desamparados y el complejo religioso de San Francisco. Pescaderia Street connects the main square with Desamparados Station and the San Francisco Church complex.

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The Main Square

With his sword in hand, Francisco Pizarro, founder of the city of Lima, traced in the dirt the actual lines which make up its Main Square, beyond a shadow of a doubt one of the greatest architectural treasures in the Americas. While little remains intact from the original elements of the Main Square, especially in light of the horrific earthquakes which devastated Lima, the stamp the Spanish Colonial period left on it reminds us of how important the city was during the 16th and 17th centuries; lest we forget, it was the capital of the viceroyalty of Peru, one of the main port cities in the West Indies, and the most magnificent city in the entire empire carved out by the Spaniards in the New World. Fachada del Palacio Arzobispal, ubicado al costado de la Catedral; en sus instalaciones funciona el Archivo General de la nacin. Facade of the Archbishops Palace, located next to the cathedral. The offices of the National Archives operates here. Spanish historians and old traditions tell us that Limas Main Square was site of the first bullfight in the Americas and that even Pizarro himself showed off his skill with the lance that afternoon. We also know that the Holy Inquisition used the perimeter between the street vendors and sidewalk stalls as the scene for their acts of faith (the public reading of the sentences of those found guilty by the court).

Viceroy Francisco de Toledo, in 1578, ordered construction of the first fountain in the Main Square. Under the order of Viceroy Garcia Sarmiento de Sotomayor in 1651, that fountain was taken out and replaced by another, the same one we see today in the middle of the plaza, with just a few minor adjustments. Following Spanish tradition, the Main Square is flanked by the three symbols of power in the colony: the church, the city hall, and the governors mansion. The Cathedral of Lima was built in 1535 and granted that distinction through a papal bull issued by Pope Paul II in 1543. The Plateresque building went through two reconstruction phases, the last one in 1758. The Government Palace is on the east side of the square and was Pizarros residence, built overtop the house that belonged to the last chieftain of the Rimac River Valley, Taulichusco. Its final touches were given in 1928. Other noteworthy buildings found on the Main Square are the Casa del Oidor, Archbishops Palace (side by side with the Cathedral), and the premises of the La Union Club.

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Los edificios de la Municipalidad de Lima y el Club de La Unin resaltan en la Plaza Mayor. Club are two of the dominant features of the Main Square.

The Lima City Hall and premises of the La Union

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Construido en durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI por el lusitano Constantino de Vasconcellos, el complejo religioso de San Francisco es uno de los ms grandes de la ciudad y su arquitectura se mezclan los estilos barroco, mudjar y manierista. The San Francisco Church complex was built during the second half of the XVI century under the architectural direction of Constantino de Vasconcellos, a Portuguese architect: it is one of the largest in the city and combines elements of Baroque, Mudejar and Mannerism.
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En el convento de San Francisco funcion el primer cementerio de la ciudad, hoy conocido como las Catacumbas. citys first cemetery and are located under the San Francisco Convent.

The catacombs were the

Vista del patio central y una de las torres del templo de San Francisco desde los patios interiores del claustro. patio and one of its towers as seen from inner patios of the cloister.

San Francisco Church main

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Balcn de estilo colonial en la fachada de la Municipalidad de Lima. Izquierda: Interior del balcn principal del palacio de Torre Tagle, hoy sede de la Cancillera. Spanish Colonial balcony on the facade of Limas City Hall. Left: Interior of the main balcony of the Torre Tagle Palace, current headquarters of the Foreign Affairs Ministry.

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Izquierda: el Palacio Arzobispal y la Catedral de Lima estn ubicados en la manzana que originalmente Francisco Pizarro destin al sacerdote, tras la fundacin de la ciudad. Arriba: mausoleo de Pizarro en el interior de la Catedral. Left: The Archbishops Palace and the Cathedral of Lima are located on the same city block Francisco Pizarro originally gave to the Church after founding the city. Above: Pizarros tomb inside the cathedral.

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El altar mayor de la catedral, realizado en el siglo XVII, es una obra maestra de ebanistera. Se encuentra rodeado por una sillera de estilo renacentista, tallada por Pedro de Noguera. The Cathedrals high altar, built in the XVII century, is a masterpiece in wood. On either side sit the
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Renaissance choir stalls carved by Pedro de Noguera.

Detalle de los balcones del patio principal de la casa Riva-Agero. Detail of the main patio balconies in the Riva-Aguero mansion

Detalle del mobiliario original del palacio de Torre Tagle. the original furniture in the Torre Tagle Palace

Detail of

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Vitral del Palacio de Justicia de Lima. Limas courthouse.

Stained glass window in

Base de una lmpara de hierro en la entrada del Hotel Bolvar. of the iron lamp at the entrance of the Bolivar Hotel.

Base

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Capilla de Nuestra Seora de Loreto, hoy Saln de Grados de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Su techo est profusamente decorado con imgenes que representan a la virgen Mara y a santos y doctores de la iglesia catlica. Izquierda: Portada barroca de la sala capitular del convento de San Francisco. En su interior encontramos dos hileras de asientos y, al centro, la ctedra principal o tribuna, coronada por el escudo de la orden. Our Lady of Loreto Chapel. Today, it is the National University of San Marcos Hall of Graduates. The ceiling is profusely decorated with images of the Virgin Maria, saints, and doctors of the church. Left: Baroque facade of the San Francisco Convent chapter house. Inside, we see two rows of benches and the cathedra, or bishops throne, in the center, crowned with the coat of arms of the order.

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Patio de ingreso de la antigua casona Beln, ubicada en la plaza San Martn, hoy restaurada y convertida en el museo Andrs del Castillo. Front patio of the old Belen mansion on the San Martin Plaza. It has been restored and converted to the Andres del Castillo Museum.

Sala de los Tratados y patio interior del palacio de Torre Tagle, uno de los edificios mejor conservados de la Lima colonial. and inner patio of the Torre Tagle Palace, one of the best preserved examples of Colonial architecture in Lima.
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Treaty Room

Patio de ingreso de la casona Riva Agero, hoy sede de un centro cultural de la Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Per. the Riva Agero mansion, now the Pontifical Catholic University of Perus cultural center.

Front patio of

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Cae la tarde sobre la casa del Oidor, en la calle de Pescadera, a un lado de la Plaza Mayor de Lima. on Pescaderia Street next to the Main Square.

Evening descends on the Casa del Oidor

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Inaugurado en diciembre de 1924, el Palacio Arzobispal es uno de los primeros ejemplos del estilo neocolonial que apareci en Lima a principios del siglo XX. Opened in December 1924, the Archbishops Palace is one of the first Neo-classical buildings to have been constructed in Lima during the beginning of the 20th century.

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Pabelln morisco ubicado en el Parque de la Exposicin. Fue construido durante la gestin del presidente Augusto B. Legua a inicios del siglo XX. Derecha: balcones en un patio interior del palacio de Torre Tagle. The Moorish Pavilion in the Parque de la Exposicion. It was built during Augusto B. Lequias first administration in the early 20th century. Right: inner patio balconies of the Torre Tagle Palace.

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Arriba: detalle de la portada del templo de San Agustn; derecha: querubn del altar mayor del templo de San Francisco. Pgina siguiente: torre del templo de Santo Domingo, primera sede de la Universidad San Marcos. Above: main entrance to the San Agustin Church. Right: a cherub on the high altar of the San Francisco Church. Overleaf: the Santo Domingo Church tower, original site of the National University of San Marcos.

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San Francisco

El ms grande conjunto religioso de la ciudad fue construido durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVII por el lusitano Constantino de Vasconcellos. La iglesia y el convento, donde se mezclan los estilos barroco, mudjar y manierista, estn ubicados en una plazoleta y rodeados por los templos de La Soledad y El Milagro. Las almohadillas de la fachada, que cubren hasta las torres, son sus elementos ms resaltantes. En su interior, de tres naves, destacan sus 14 altares laterales de estilos barroco y neoclsico y la sillera del coro, tallada en cedro de Nicaragua. El claustro que perdi parte de su extensin debido a la construccin de la avenida Abancay presenta amplios patios interiores, rodeados por arqueras de piedra, cuyos pasadizos conservan parte de su artesonado y los azulejos de los zcalos, as como restos de pintura mural; tambin destaca una gran cpula mudjar de madera en su escalera principal. Otros espacios notables del convento son la biblioteca, que conserva varios miles de volmenes, entre ellos

varios incunables; la sala capitular, que posee una exquisita portada y en su interior dos hileras de sillas de madera finamente labradas; los salones de andas y De Profundis, y el refectorio, en donde se conserva una original versin de La ltima cena. Durante la colonia, y a falta de un cementerio en la recin fundada Ciudad de los Reyes, el templo de San Francisco fue usado para enterrar no solo a los monjes que habitaban el convento, sino tambin a los vecinos notables y miembros de la nueva nobleza, bajo la antigua creencia de que mientras ms cerca quedase uno de suelo sagrado ms cerca se estara del cielo. El cementerio funcion hasta 1810, cuando se construy el camposanto de Presbtero Maestro. En 1951, las llamadas catacumbas fueron descubiertas con cerca de 80 mil cuerpos y abiertas al pblico desde entonces, en lo que constituye uno de los circuitos ms visitados del centro histrico.

Cpula de estilo mudjar que corona la escalera principal del convento de San Francisco. Fue construida en 1625 con madera de cedro trada de Nicaragua, por Fray Miguel de Huerta. The Mudejar cupola above the main staircase at the San Francisco Convent. It was built out of Nicaraguan cedar in 1625 by Fray Miguel de Huerta.

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San Francisco Church

The largest church complex in the city was built during the second half of the 17th century under the direction of Portuguese architect, Constantino de Vasconcellos. The church and convent, located on a small city square and flanked by two other churches, La Soledad and El Milagro, were designed using a combination of architectural styles: Baroque, Mudejar, and Mannerist. Yet its most eye catching detail is the intricate stonework of the faade that even covers its two towers. On the inside of the church are three naves, an impressive fourteen Baroque and Neo-classical side altars, and the choir stall carved from Nicaraguan cedar. Moving to the cloister, which lost some of its original area to the construction of Avenida Abancay, it features large inner patios that are surrounded by stone arcades which still exhibit part of its original coffered-ceiling, hand-painted Spanish tiling, and vestiges of wall paintings. The main staircase boasts a large wooden Mudejar cupola. There are other important rooms scattered throughout the convent, as well, such as the library that stores

thousands of volumes, some of which are precious incunables, the chapterhouse with a striking entryway and two rows of finely carved wooden benches, a prayer room and the refectory, the latter displaying a curious painting of The Last Supper, and a storage area for different litters used to carry images in procession. In the early years of the Spanish colony in Peru and just after the City of the Kings had been founded, Lima was experiencing a problem: there was no cemetery. As a result, the dead were buried beneath the San Francisco Church, and not just the monks who lived in the convent, but also upstanding neighbors and members of the new aristocracy, for people used to believe that the closer a body rested to holy ground, the closer to heaven that person would be. It continued to operate thus until 1810, at which time the first cemetery was installed in the city: Presbitero Maestro. In 1951, the so-called catacombs were discovered, housing the remains of some 80,000 people. It has been opened since then, and now ranks among one of the most visited landmarks in the historic city center.

Sillera del antiguo coro de la Catedral, construida en el siglo XVIII por Pedro de Noguera. Tallada en cedro, posee representaciones de santos y personajes ilustres vinculados a la iglesia catlica. Cathedral of Lima choir stall, carved in the 17th century by Pedro de Noguera and featuring images of saints and personages associated with the Catholic Church.

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Vista del patio central, desde el claustro superior del convento de San Francisco. En las galeras de esta seccin se encuentran las celdas o habitaciones usadas por los monjes. cells or rooms are located.
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San Francisco Convent central patio as seen from the upper cloister. These galleries are where the monks

Retablo barroco en la sala capitular del convento de San Francisco. La imagen central, que representa a la Inmaculada Concepcin, ha sido trabajada en una pieza de madera y pertenece a la corriente escultrica de Alonso Cano. Alonso Cano sculptoric tradition. Baroque retablo (altar) in the San Francisco Convent chapterhouse. The altars center piece is a representation of the Immaculate Conception and is of carved wood following the

Arriba: nave central del templo de San Francisco desde el coro. Derecha: custodia trada del Cusco en la sala De Profundis. Francisco Church center nave taken from the choir. Right: Custodia brought from Cusco in the prayer room off the main refectory.

Derecha: San

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Las catacumbas de San Francisco constituyeron el primer cementerio de la ciudad colonial, cuando la gente pensaba que enterrarse bajo las iglesias aseguraba el pasaje al cielo. The San Francisco Catacombs were the first cemetery of Colonial Lima. People used to believe that if
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you were buried underneath a church, your entrance to heaven would be assured.

La ltima cena, atribuida al jesuita Diego de la Puente, en el refectorio del convento de San Francisco. Note la presencia en la mesa de comida peruana como cuyes y rocotos. Painting of The Last Supper in the San Francisco Convent refectory. It is attributed to Diego de la Puente and features Peruvian dishes and condiments, like a Guinea pig and rocoto chilies.

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Interior de las catacumbas o criptas de San Francisco. Fueron utilizadas hasta principios del siglo XIX tras la construccin del cementerio Presbtero Maestro. Interior of the San Francisco Catacombs. Their use ended at the beginning of the 19th century with the opening of the Presbitero Maestro Cemetery.

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La biblioteca del convento de San Francisco posee ms de 25 mil volmenes, entre ellos varios incunables, como el primer Diccionario editado por la Real Academia de la Lengua Espaola, la clebre Biblia Regia, editada en Amberes entre 1571-1572 y ms de 6.000 pergaminos. San Francisco Convent library holds more than 25,000 volumes, some of which are incunables, like a first edition Spanish dictionary published by the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language or the famous Biblia Regia printed in Antwerp between 1571 and 1572. There are also more than 6000 scrolls.

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Ubicado en la esquina de los jirones ncash y Huallaga, la Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes es un smbolo de la ciudad. Fue inaugurada en 1918 en la antigua casona de Las Recogidas. The National School of Fine Arts, located at the corner of Jiron Ancash and Jiron Huallaga, is a symbol of the city. It was opened in 1918 at what used to be the Las Recogidas mansion.

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La parroquia de San Marcelo fue levantada donde fuera la primera sede de los agustinos en el Per. Es uno de los templos ms antiguos de la ciudad, pues su primera construccin data de 1551. The San Marcelo Church was the first Augustinian headquarters in Peru. It is also one of the oldest churches in Lima with the first building having been raised in 1551.

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La arquitectura civil no se qued atrs durante la Colonia; casas solariegas compuestas por un zagun, patios abiertos y habitaciones de techos altos que los rodeaban son caractersticas de la poca.

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Civil architecture was not forgotten during the Spanish Colony either. Stately homes from that period are characterized by having one entryway open the entire day to receive merchants and visitors and open patios surrounded by rooms with tall ceilings.

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Pabelln bizantino en el parque de la Exposicin. Tras la destruccin de la muralla que circundaba Lima, el presidente Jos Balta orden la construccin del parque para la Exposicin Internacional de Lima de 1872. The Byzantine Pavilion in the Parque de la Exposicion. When the citys protective wall was dismantled, the then president, Jose Balta, ordained the building of a park for the Lima International Expo in 1872.

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Obra de Claudio Sahut inaugurada en 1929, el teatro Coln fue el primer cine de Lima equipado para presentar pelculas sonoras. Actualmente se planea convertirlo en un centro cultural. Colon Theater, designed by Claudio Sahut and open for business in 1929. It was the first cinema in Lima to show talkies. Now, there are plans for turning it into a cultural center.

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La casa de Aliaga

Contador Real al momento de la fundacin de Lima y compaero de armas de Francisco Pizarro tras cruzar la clebre lnea trazada por el conquistador en la isla del Gallo, Jernimo de Aliaga fue premiado por su valor en la batalla con un solar ubicado junto a la casa de gobierno, sobre el adoratorio del antiguo palacio de Taulichusco. Con el correr de los aos, esta se convertira en la casa ms antigua de la ciudad y la nica que ha sido habitada por descendientes directos de un conquistador por 17 generaciones. Natural de Segovia, el joven Jernimo se aventur a las Indias Occidentales con apenas 16 aos, a donde parti desde el puerto de Sanlcar de Barrameda en 1524. Una vez en Panam, se uni al proyecto de conquista del entonces gobernador Francisco Pizarro, a quien conoci en 1531. Junto con Pizarro particip de la captura del inca Atahualpa en Cajamarca y de la fundacin de las ciudades de Tangarar, Cusco y Jauja, para luego trasladarse a Pachacamac, antes de ingresar al valle del Rmac en calidad de Contador Real, para fundar la ciudad de Lima el 18 de enero de 1535.

Jernimo de Aliaga comenz a levantar su casa antes de cumplirse el primer mes de la fundacin de Lima segn lo prueban los documentos presentados ante el alcalde Juan Tello de Guzmn el 12 de febrero, en los que declararon entre otros testigos el gobernador Francisco Pizarro y el capitn Hernando de Soto. En referencia a su hogar, Jernimo de Aliaga expres en un documento: y al tiempo que se fund esta ciudad de los Reyes [el gobernador Francisco Pizarro] me seal mi solar, a donde al presente o vivo o tengo mi casa proveda como persona de honra. Actualmente, la Casa de Aliaga sigue ocupada por sus descendientes directos y est abierta al turismo. Recorrer sus amplios patios y habitaciones es un verdadero viaje al tiempo de los virreyes, y un recordatorio de que Lima fue en algn tiempo la ciudad ms importante de Amrica.

La casa de Aliaga es la nica propiedad del centro histrico que ha sido heredada por familiares directos desde su construccin. El solar, a un costado del Palacio de Gobierno, fue adjudicado a don Jernimo de Aliaga, uno de los Trece del Gallo, por Pizarro en retribucin a su lealtad. The Aliaga House, the only property in downtown Lima that can boast an unbroken line of inheritance since its construction. Francisco Pizarro gave the plot that sits to one side of the

Informacin extrada de: www.casadealiaga.com

Government Palace to Jeronimo de Aliaga, one of his 13 loyal followers, as compensation for his allegiance.

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The Aliaga House

For his courage in battle, Jeronimo de Aliaga, Royal Accountant at the founding of the city and brother in arms to Francisco Pizarro, one of the famous thirteen who crossed the line the Conquistador drew in the sand on Gallo Island, was awarded a plot of land next to the one where the governors house was to be built and on top of Taulichuscos palace shrine. As the years passed, it has become the oldest house in the city and the only one whose line of inheritance has remained unbroken since Aliaga received the land a total of seventeen generations ago. Jeronimo was born in Segovia, and he left Spain at the age of sixteen to seek his fortune in the West Indies, leaving from the port city of Sanlucar de Barrameda in 1524. Once in Panama, he joined the conquest of then governor Francisco Pizarro who he had met in 1531. He helped Pizarro capture the Inca Atahualpa in Cajamarca and establish the cities of Tangarara, Cusco, and Jauja. Later on, he moved to Pachacamac before going to the Rimac River Valley as the Royal Accountant to found the city of Lima on January 18, 1535.

He started construction on his house before the conclusion of the first month after the founding of Lima, as stated in documents submitted to Mayor Juan Tello de Guzman on February 12, 1535, and witnessed by none other than Francisco Pizarro and Captain Hernando de Soto, among others. In a document penned by Jeronimo de Aliaga, he talked about his house, stating on the day the City of the Kings was founded (Governor Francisco Pizarro) showed me my plot on which I am now living and where I have my house as a person of honor. Right now, Aliagas direct descendents are living there still and have opened it to tourists. To walk through its large patios and rooms is truly like a trip back in time to when the viceroys ruled Peru; it is a living memory of what Lima was when it was the most important city in the Americas.

Habitada por la familia de Aliaga desde hace cuatro siglos, la casona ha sido testigo del devenir de nuestra capital. the transformations of our capital. For four centuries, the Aliaga family has lived in the house that has witnessed

Source: www.casadealiaga.com

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La familia de Aliaga, que an habita el solar, ha realizado un enorme esfuerzo de conservacin que ha permitido rescatar esta verdadera joya de nuestro pasado colonial. keeping alive a true gem from our Colonial past. The Aliaga family still lives in the house and has done a remarkable job preserving it and

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El templo jesuita de San Pedro, consagrado en 1658, fue el predilecto de la aristocracia limea durante el siglo XVIII. El diseo exterior, de carcter renancentista, es obra del jesuita Martn de Aizpitarte, a imitacin de la iglesia del Corazn de Jess en Roma. Izquierda: Fachada neogtica del templo de La Recoleta, ubicada en la plaza Francia, un obsequio de la colonia gala al Per. Al lado de la iglesia se encuentra la casa de mujeres vergonzantes. Jesuit church of San Pedro, opened in 1658. It was the favorite of Limas aristocracy during the 18th century. The Renaissance exterior is the work of the Jesuit, Martin de Aizpitarte, and imitates the Church of the Sacred Heart in Rome. Left: Neo-gothic faade of the La Recoleta Church, found in the Francia Plaza, a gift from the French colony to Peru. Next to the church stands the house of the mujeres vergonzantes, a home for women impoverished during different wars.

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Una clsica casona republicana de quincha y madera se yergue al pie del clsico Puente de los Suspiros, en Barranco, el distrito bohemio por excelencia de la ciudad. Classic example of Perus Republican period architecture, this house of quincha and wood stands at the foot of the Puente de los Suspiros (a site for lovers to go) in the district of Barranco, famous for its Bohemian charm.

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Detalle de los ranchos de estilo republicano construidos en la bajada a los baos, en Barranco. Nuevos restaurantes y bares estn realzando este sitio que hace un siglo era visitado por la crema y nata de la ciudad. Detalle de los ranchos de estilo republicano construidos en la bajada a los baos, en Barranco. Nuevos restaurantes y bares estn realzando este sitio que hace un siglo era visitado por la crema y nata de la ciudad. Detalle de los ranchos de estilo republicano construidos en la bajada a los baos, en Barranco. Nuevos restaurantes y bares estn realzando este sitio que hace un siglo era visitado por la crema y nata de la ciudad. Detail of Republican style ranch houses built along the path leading to the beaches in Barranco. Today, there are restaurants and bars that add new life to this area, which a century ago was the weekend getaway spot for Limas high society.

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La bajada de los baos es una quebrada natural que permita llegar a las playas de la Costa Verde a los baistas y pescadores. En un inicio boles de olivo adornaron el camino pero fueron cambiados por los sauces que hoy vemos. Izquierda: Torre de la parroquia de la Santsima Cruz, en la plaza de armas de Barranco. Path leading from the cliffs to ocean. This was the way swimmers and fishermen would reach the Costa Verde beaches. At one point in time, it was lined with olive trees, but they were dug up and replanted with the willows we see in the picture today. Left: Tower of Santisima Cruz Church (Holy Cross) on the Barranco Main Square.

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La zona conocida como el Salto del fraile, en Chorrillos, hace honor a una vieja leyenda que habla del amor prohibido entre dos hermanastros que son separados por sus padres. l se convierte en monje y muere despeado al querer alcanzar a su amor que se va en un buque. The spot in Chorrillos, known as the Salto de Fraile (the Friars Leap), is named for an old legend that speaks of the forbidden love between stepsiblings that were separated by their parents. The boy becomes a monk, yet when the ship carrying his love is sailing away, he kills himself, jumping into the ocean in the attempt to reach her.

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La Costa Verde, llamada as por la vegetacin que creca en los acantilados, es el circuito de playas de Lima que recorre los distritos de Chorrillos, Barranco, Miraflores, San Isidro, Magdalena y San Miguel. Barranco, Miraflores, San Isidro, Magdalena, and San Miguel. The Costa Verde (Green Coast) is thus named because the cliffs overlooking the coastline were once covered in green vegetation. It is one long line of beaches that runs through the Lima districts of Chorrillos,

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Hoy, Lima es una ciudad que tambin mira al mar, y grandes hoteles, como el Marriott, as como centros comerciales se han establecido de cara el ocano Pacfico. the Pacific Ocean. Today, Lima also looks to the sea. Shopping malls and luxury hotels, like the Marriott, have been built overlooking

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El espign del restaurante La Rosa Nutica es un smbolo de la ciudad, sobre todo en las interminables tardes del verano. La amplia baha de Miraflores es un excelente mirador y hoy cuenta con un extenso sistema de parques. The pier upon which sits the restaurant, La Rosa Nautica, is yet another symbol of the city, particularly during long summer afternoons. Cliffs along the extensive Miraflores Bay make excellent overlooks, and the city has installed a large system of parks.

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Caminito chalaco. El barrio de Chucuito se ha sacudido la mala fama y recibe hoy a los turistas con orgullo. Casas de mil colores, el mar y buena comida esperan a los viajeros.
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A stroll in Callao. The neighborhood of Chuchuito has ridden itself of its bad reputation and is now

welcoming tourists with pride. Houses shimmering in a thousand different bright colors, the ocean, and excellent food are waiting.

El puerto del Callao ofrece paseos cortos en bote o travesas ms largas hacia las islas de San Lorenzo y Palomino para observar lobos marinos. In Callao, Limas main port, there are services offering short boat trips to longer excursions out to different islands (San Lorenzo and Palomino) to observe sea lions.

Detalle de un torren del Real Felipe, una fortaleza de origen colonial que defenda la ciudad de Lima. Derecha: detalle del barrio de Chucuito. Detail of the tower at the Royal Felipe Fort, built during the Spanish Colony to defend the city of Lima. Right: Photo of the neighborhood of Chucuito.
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Construido durante la colonia como zona de esparcimiento de la nobleza, el Rmac posee numerosos vestigios de la ciudad antigua, como el paseo de Aguas (pgina opuesta) levantado por el virrey Amat en honor de su amante Micaele Villegas, la Perricholi. Derecha: detalle del templo de Nuestra Seora de Copacabana; arriba: casas en el cerro San Cristbal, cono de la ciudad desde tiempos de la Colonia. The district of Rimac, construction of which began during the Spanish Colony to be a place where the nobles could go and get away from it all, contains many vestiges of the old city, like the Paseo de Aguas (overleaf), which Viceroy Amat commanded be built in honor of his lover, Micaela Villegas, known as the Perricholi. Right: Detail of the church, Our Lady of Copacabana. Above: houses on the San Cristobal Hill, symbol of the city since the Spanish Colony.

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Escultura de mrmol de Carrara en la Alameda de los Descalzos, que representa a uno de los signos del zodiaco. La alameda fue construida por el virrey Juan de Mendoza y Luna entre 1609 y 1611. Izquierda: El convento de los Descalzos, al final de la alameda del mismo nombre, fue construido en 1592, y tuvo como primer guardin a san Francisco Solano, en 1602. Posee un museo de arte religioso. One of the zodiac signs sculpted in Carrara marble and found along the Alameda de los Descalzos. This street was built at the command of Viceroy Juan de Mendoza y Luna between 1609 and 1611. Left: In 1592, the Convent of the Descalzos (Barefoot friars), located at the end of the street bearing the same name, was built. First patron was San Francisco Solano in 1602. Inside is a museum of religious art.

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Construido en 1872 para la Exposicin Internacional de Lima, el actual de Museo de Arte de Lima fue abierto en 1959 y alberga una exposicin permanente de arte contemporneo peruano. The building housing the Lima Museum of Art was built in 1872 for the Lima International Expo, yet the museum itself did not open until 1959. On permanent exhibit are works from contemporary Peruvian artists.

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Inaugurado en 2007, en el parque de La Reserva, el Circuito Mgico del Agua, es uno los principales atractivos modernos de la ciudad. Entre ellos destaca una fuente de 80 metros de altura. Opened in 2007 on the grounds of the Parque de la Reserva sits the Magic Water Circuit, a fantastic collection of water fountains. It is one of the main modern attractions in the city. One of fountains jets water to a height of 80 meters.

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Detalle del Palacio de Gobierno, sede del poder ejecutivo, fue remodelado en 1938. Hasta la primera mitad de la dcada de 1980, el ala izquierda del edificio era ocupado por el Ministerio de Justicia. Detail of the Government Palace, residence of the president and seat of power. It was remodeled in 1938. Until the first half of the 1980s, the left wing was occupied by the Ministry of Justice.

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traditions . from the bridge to the boulevard

traditions . from the bridge to the boulevard

oleada cerca e los cerros y mojada junto al mar, como alguna vez escribi y cant la gran Chabuca Granda, Lima es una ciudad de tradiciones por donde se la mire. Entre la invencin del turrn de doa Pepa y un escolar comprando zanguito en la puerta de su colegio hay siglos de historias que involucran a madres querendonas, santos de toda laya, virreyes enamorados, glotones y frailes que saltan al vaco, calles y plazas que han sido reinventadas por la literatura, y das del calendario que tienen nombre propio. Lima fue desde su fundacin espaola, una ciudad profundamente religiosa, esto se refleja en tres de las ms recurridas manifestaciones populares de raigambre limea: la multitudinaria procesin del Seor de los Milagros de octubre, el culto a Santa Rosa de Lima, que ha trascendido las fronteras de la ciudad, y la fe en San Martn de Porres, el conocido santo de la escoba smbolo de la negritud e imagen perfecta de la bonhoma. Pero adems de los santos reconocidos por el clero, Lima tiene a Sarita Colonia, protectora de los olvidados, de los presidiarios y de los que nunca tendrn voz. Abominada por la iglesia y querida por el pueblo, Sarita es, sin duda, uno de los smbolos de la ciudad. Menos santos son los acordes del viejo valse criollo, otra de las tradiciones de la ciudad colonial. Nacido como una interpretacin de los clsicos valses vieneses que se bailaban en los grandes salones, el criollo es una cancin que destila melancola, celos, odio y venganza por la traicin del ser amado. Es meloda que brota de los barrios populares, en los callejones de un solo cao, en donde se celebraban las mticas jaranas, fiestas con guitarra y cajn que podan durar das enteros, de comida, msica y bebida. De la Colonia nos llegan viejos vivanderos y vendedores ambulantes, como las tamaleras, los emolienteros o las monjitas que venden humitas en las puertas de las iglesias; o el hombre sin edad que an hasta hoy vende revolucin caliente, msica para los dientes azcar clavo y canela, para rechinar la muela. A estos se unen los anticucheros de barrio, que humean las esquinas nocturnas con rachis y panchitas.Y los que tienen algunos aos a cuestas pueden recordar el inconfundible sonido del metal chocando contra una botella que anunciaban la diaria llegada del lechero. Ciudad de tradiciones, Lima tambin es un conjunto de historias, al punto que podemos encontrar viejas leyendas en cada parque, en cada esquina, en cada pequea calle de barrio. Suma de historias que hace de la capital del Per un libro abierto que solo debemos aprender a mirar.

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Tarde de toros. La feria anual del Seor de los Milagros, que se realiza cada noviembre, atrae un cartel de lujo. An afternoon of bulls. The annual Seor de los Milagros bullfighting season runs through November and attracts some of the worlds best bullfighters.
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Estampas taurinas. El coso de Acho, uno de los principales de Amrica se construy entre 1765 y 1768, durante la gestin del virrey Amat y Juniet. Bullfighting images. The Acho Bullring, one of the main sites for this spectacle in the Americas, was built from 1765 to 1768 during the rule of Viceroy Amat y Juniet.

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Los caballos de paso y la marinera son viejas tradiciones limeas. Cada ao en Mamacona se celebra el concurso nacional que congrega a miles de seguidores y criadores de estos elegantes caballos peruanos. Peruvian paso horses and the dance, the Marinera, are old Lima traditions. Each year, at the Mamacona hacienda, they hold a national horse show which attracts thousands of enthusiasts and breeders of this elegant animal.

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Dos ms y me voy. Bares y huariques, muchos de ellos con ms de un siglo de existencia, son punto de reunin obligada de la bohemia limea. Izquierda: taberna Queirolo, en Pueblo Libre; derecha: restaurante Cantarrana, Barranco. Two more and Im outta here. Bars and restaurants, many of which having operated for more than a century, are favorite places for people to gather in free spirited Lima. Left: the Queirolo Tavern in Pueblo Libre. Right: Cantarrana, a restaurant in Barranco.

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unny by the hills and wet by the ocean Immortal words of the great Peruvian singer/songwriter Chabuca Granda as she sung about Lima, a city of traditions no matter where you cast your eyes. Between the creation of the ultra sweet turron de Doa Pepa and a student buying a portion of zanguito (another Peruvian dessert) at the entrance of his school live hundreds of years of stories whose protagonists are beloved mothers, saints from all walks of life, smitten viceroys, gluttons, and cliff diving friars, streets and plazas that have been reinvented in literature, and days of the week with their own names. Since its official Spanish founding, Lima has been a profoundly religious city, which is reflected in three of its most popular and traditional religious manifestations: one is the mega-procession for the Seor de los Milagros, congregating thousands of faithful in Lima every October, second is the devotion to Saint Rose of Lima, whose followers are found throughout the globe, and third is the faith of Saint Martin of Porres, so-called saint of the broom, a symbol of Afro-Peruvianism and a fitting image of all that is good and kind. Yet, besides the official Catholic Church recognized saints, Lima boasts Sarita Colonia, protector of the forgotten, convicts, and those who never had a voice. Hated by the Church, yet beloved by the people, Sarita is beyond question one of the symbols of the city. Somewhat less saintly are the chords of the old Creole waltz, another tradition hailing from the Colonial city. Born from an interpretation of classic Austrian waltzes that were danced in the grand ballrooms of times past, the Creole version is a blending of melancholy, jealously, hate, and vengeance caused by a lovers betrayal. It is a song that was invented in popular neighborhoods, in slums, where people used to celebrate the jarana, mythical parties that would last for days, filled with guitar music and the beat of the cajon, food, and drink. Walking the streets of Lima, one can see people performing occupations that began when it was a Spanish Colony, like tamaleras and emolienteros, sidewalk vendors who sell, respectively, tamales and emolientes, a hot drink reputed to cure what ails you, nuns who sell humitas (a sweet or salty tamale) at the church door, or an ageless gentleman who even now sells a treat called revolucion caliente (a type of crunchy cookie), plying his wares in a loud voice Music for the teethsugar, cloves, and cinnamon! For your teeth to grind! There are also the neighborhood anticucheros, who nightly set up their barbecues on street corners and cook up spicy beef heart kabobs, intestines, and tripe, their rich odor wafting on the smoke rising from the embers. And those people old enough to remember will bring to mind that unmistakable clank of metal against glass, announcing the daily arrival of the milkman. City of traditions. Lima is also a city of stories, so much so that we can find old legends in every park, corner, and small neighborhood street. Together, they make the capital of Peru an open book, and to read it, all we have to do is learn to look.

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conos del santoral peruano en el altar lateral del templo de Santo Domingo: Santa Rosa y San Martn de Porres, cuya fama y milagros ha trascendido el pas. Pgina opuesta: das de carnaval en el palacio de Torre Tagle. Two icons of Peruvian sainthood: Rose of Lima and Martin of Porres, in a side altar of the Santo Domingo Church. Their fame has moved beyond the borders of Peru. Overleaf: Carnival at the Torre Tagle Palace.

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Seor de los milagros


La concentracin religiosa ms grande y ms antigua del Per atrae durante el mes de octubre a decenas de miles de devotos al pie de una imagen capaz de congregar a todas las razas y clases que conforman nuestra nacin. Corra el ao de 1651 y Lima no era lo grande que es hoy; contaba solamente con 35 mil almas y un virrey. Era el tiempo en que los esclavos africanos congos, angolas, carabales y cambundas llegaban a la capital colonial para servir en las haciendas o como servidumbre de casa. Reunidos en cofradas o hermandades de raza, los africanos cantaban a sus dioses y santos, y recordaban su libertad perdida a la vez que asimilaban las creencias del Nuevo Mundo. Los angolas, precisamente, haban hecho suyo un lugar llamado pachacamilla antes habitado por indios venidos de Pachacamac ubicado donde actualmente se encuentra el templo de Las Nazarenas. Uno de ellos, cuyo nombre qued perdido en el tiempo, pint en uno de sus altos muros de adobe una tosca imagen de Cristo crucificado para de esta forma rendirle tributo. Un comienzo sin gloria para el futuro patrn de la ciudad. Las pruebas La tarde del 13 de noviembre de 1655 un terremoto asol Lima y el Callao, dejando la ciudad en ruinas. Pocas casas sobrevivieron y los muertos se contaron por miles. Perdido entre tanto desastre, el muro de adobe pintado por el angoleo haba resistido a la catstrofe, salvando la imagen de Cristo. Abandonado por sus autores, la imagen esper hasta 1670 para ser descubierta por un vecino del lugar, Antonio len, quien construy una pequea ermita en el lugar. Cuentan las crnicas que el Seor le concedi entonces un milagro. Poco a poco, el culto al seor milagroso se fue extendiendo en Lima hasta llegar a ser una manifestacin nutrida que llam la atencin de las autoridades eclesiales, quienes vieron con malos ojos la prctica y convencieron al virrey Conde de Lemos, que mandara a destruir la imagen. Entonces, otro milagro obr en Pachacamilla, pues los encargados de borrar la imagen se sintieron tan fascinados por la pintura que no pudieron realizar el trabajo. Enterado el Conde de Lemos, decidi visitar personalmente el lugar, e igualmente asombrado, orden su conservacin. Con los aos, el Seor de los Milagros, de los Temblores o de las Maravillas, como tambin le llaman, adquiri un templo propio y una hermandad de cargadores, cantoras y sahumadoras a la par que los fieles comenzaron a ser miles. Es imposible sustraerse ante la fuerza de la multitud y las incontables demostraciones de fe que se suscitan durante las procesiones de octubre. Es una marea de color morado que avanza lentamente al ritmo de los cnticos a travs de las calles de la ciudad antigua. Un rito que se ha mantenido invariable desde 1715 que une al pueblo a travs de la fe.

Un ejrcito de sahumadoras acompaa fielmente al Seor de los Milagros en su recorrido anual. inquis, latini fiant? et cuius opera. Tunc ego appraehensa manu tua quid mi Aaron, quid inquam, si paucis diebus latini fiant? Paucis diebus,

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Lord of the miracles


Every October, Perus largest and oldest religious gathering attracts tens of thousands of devotees to the feet of an image which possesses the power to bring together all races and social classes that make up our nation. The year was 1651, and Lima was not nearly as large as it is today; only 35,000 people lived in her streets, and she was ruled by a viceroy. It was also the time of slavery in Peru, when Congos, Angolas, Carabalis, and Cambundas were brought to the colonial capital to be field hands or house slaves. The slaves would assemble together in groups, according to their ethnic background, to sing to their gods and saints and to remember their lost freedom; yet, they also absorbed the beliefs of the New World.The slaves from Angola had already carved out an area in Lima for themselves, called Pachacamilla, where once lived Indians who had come from an area of Peru known as Pachacamac and where now stands the Church of the Nazarenes. One of those Africans, whose name has been lost in the mists of time, painted a crude image of the crucified Christ on one of its high walls as a way of honoring him.Very humble beginnings for the future patron of the city. The proof In the afternoon of November 13, 1655, a terrific earthquake shook Lima and Callao to their foundations, leaving the cities in ruins. Few houses survived, and the dead numbered in the thousands. Standing lost in the midst of such a disaster, though, was the adobe wall the slave had painted; it had withstood the catastrophe, and so the image of the Christ was saved. Abandoned by he who had painted it, the image waited until 1670 to be discovered by a new neighbor.Antonio Leon. He had built a small hermitage in that spot. The history books state that God had thus granted him a miracle. Little by little, devotion to the miracle-granting image of Christ began to spread throughout Lima until it turned into such a large manifestation that it caught the attention of the church authorities.They disapproved of the popular devotion and hence convinced the viceroy, the Count of Lemos, to have the image destroyed. However, another miracle was soon to be demonstrated in Pachacamilla; the men charged with the task of ridding the city of the image were so struck by it that they could not carry out their duty. Once this fact was reported to the Count, he decided to visit the location personally and was equally amazed. His next command was nothing less than to have the image preserved. As the years passed, the image, called el Seor de los Milagros (Lord of Miracles) or de los Temblores (of Earthquakes) or de las Maravillas (of Marvels), has been given its own church and, as the devotees began to number in the thousands, gained a brotherhood of litter bearers and a sisterhood of cantors and incense bearers. It is impossible to turn your back on the weight of the crowd and the never ending list of acts of faith that take place during the October processions. It is a purple tide that slowly advances through the streets of the old city to the rhythm of the chants, a rite that has remained unchanged since 1715 and that unites a people through faith.

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Acto de fe. Durante ms de trescientos aos, el Seor de los Milagros ha recorrido las calles de Lima trayendo un mensaje de fe y tradicin. Decenas de miles de fieles siguen al Cristo Morado en una celebracin que mezcla religin con turrones de doa Pepa, anticuchos y msica criolla. An act of faith. For more than 300 years, the image of the Seor de los Milagros has been carried through the Lima streets, bringing with it a message of faith and tradition. Tens of thousands of faithful follow the Purple Christ or Cristo Morado, as it is called in Peru, in a celebration that combines religion, traditional food, like turron de Doa Pepa (a tasty dessert) and anticuchos (grilled marinated beef hearts), and local music.

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la capital del sabor

cuisine . the capital of flavor

cuisine . the capital of flavor

ima es una ciudad de comelones y antojadizos. Es el reino del sanguchito despus de la oficina, o del cebiche veraniego de medioda, del sancochado reparador del domingo, y del pan con chicharrn del desayuno familiar. Es el reino pantagrulico del tacu tacu y el cau cau, del tamalito que se compra en la puerta de la panadera, del suspiro y la chanfaina. Tierra de aromas, sabores y texturas donde se ha juntado lo mejor del Per con las influencias culturales de los inmigrantes que a travs de la historia recalaron en el puerto del Callao. Por un feliz acierto de la historia, por Lima pasaron primero los espaoles y los moros, los africanos y los chinos despus, seguidos por italianos, judos, ingleses y japoneses; todos dejaron un recuerdo en la olla y, en algunos casos, instituyeron toda una tradicin culinaria como en el caso de los chifas. Bien narra una dicho popular que en el Per, el que no tiene de inga tiene de mandinga. Pues es una verdad del tamao de una catedral, que adems podemos reafirmar en nuestras ollas; comemos a diario en casas y restaurantes lomos y tallarines saltados inventados por los chinos, tiraditos de influencia japonesa, pastas y milanesas (sabanas) de influencia italianas; arroz, vino y uvas trados por los espaoles; somos fanticos del arroz y pan, ambos inexistentes antes de la conquista, y nuestros postres ms famosos fueron inventos de mujeres moras y espaolas que aterrizaron su sabor en las cocinas coloniales. Lima es tambin una ciudad de golosos; saciamos la ansiedad de la tarde con mazamorra y arroz con leche, nos regodeamos en un suspiro a la limea, nos creemos condes y marqueses cuando hundimos el diente en un ranfaote o en las delicadas ponderaciones. Caminamos los domingos con un budn en la mano o le invitamos al ser amado una mazamorra de cochino, o unos imbatibles picarones, siempre comprados en una esquina, siempre al amparo de un viejo farol. Hoy, nuevos cocineros han reelaborado la vieja carta criolla y han inventado una nueva cocina limea, en donde a las viejas influencias e insumos se le ha agregado tcnicas de la cocina internacional. As, se ha rescatado, se ha modernizado y se ha exportado una propuesta variada y exuberante como pocas. Una cocina de clase mundial que hoy est generando la que quizs se la prxima revolucin culinaria.

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la capital del sabor

Por un feliz acierto de la historia, por Lima pasaron primero los espaoles y los moros, los africanos y los chinos despus, seguidos por italianos, judos, ingleses y japoneses; todos dejaron un recuerdo en la olla y, en algunos casos, instituyeron toda una tradicin culinaria.

Cau cau limeo.

Arroz Chaufa.

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Papas rellenas y salsa criolla.

Carapulcra limea.

Flaminius meus mihi praestiterit. Iterum me recipio praestiturum et ubi uelis aggressurum. Aderat tum forte Phileros meus Achilles Bocchius iuuenis candidissimus, et graece, latineque doctissimus utriusque nostrum familiaris.

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ima is a city filled with people who are crazy about food. It is the kingdom of the after work sanguchito (sandwich), of the cebiche at noon in summertime, of the Sunday morning pick-me-up-after-a-night-onthe-town sancochado (hearty vegetable beef soup), of the deep fried pork sandwich breakfast eaten with the family, of the enormous tacu tacu (refried beans and rice) and cau cau (tripe), of the tamale your purchase at the bakery entrance, of the suspiro (dessert), and the chanfaina (beef lung). It is the land of aromas, flavors, and textures, where the best of Peru is assembled, with cultural influences from the immigrants who have, throughout its history, passed through the port of Callao. By some lucky chance of history, Lima became the filter through which the Spanish, Moors, and Africans passed, later on the Chinese, Italians, Jews, Brits, and Japanese, each of these adding something to the saucepan, and in some cases, having their addition turn into a culinary tradition, like that of the chifa (Peruvian-Chinese food). We have a popular saying in Peru that sums up this reality perfectly: If you dont have Indian blood running through your veins, then you certainly have African. It is a truth as big as a mountain, which certainly applies to our cooking. In our homes and in restaurants, we daily feast on stir fry dishes invented by the Chinese (lomo saltado and tallarines saltados), raw fish delicacies (tiradito) influenced by the Japanese, pastas and Milanese from the Italians, and rice, wine, and grapes brought by the Spanish. We are rice and bread fanatics, both of which were unheard of before the Conquest. And of course, our most famous desserts were concoctions thought up by Moorish and Spanish women who seasoned the Colonial kitchens with their flavors. Lima is also a city of dessert lovers. We soothe our afternoon worries with a delicious mazamorra (purple corn pudding) or a healthy serving of arroz con leche (rice pudding), relish the intense sweetness of a suspiro a la limea (mousse), and believe we are royalty each time we sink our teeth into a ranfaote or a delicate ponderacion. We take our Sunday strolls with a slice of bread pudding in our hand or we offer our sweetheart some of our mazamorra de cochino or a bite of those matchless picarones, the vendors of which can always be found selling the fruits of their labor on any street corner, underneath the golden light of an old lamp post. Today, new chefs are reworking our traditional Creole dishes, inventing a new cuisine proper to Lima, where age old influences and ingredients are matched with international cooking techniques. In that way, they are resurrecting, modernizing, and exporting a huge variety of never before tasted, yet very familiar dishes. It is a world class cuisine that is perhaps the ushering in the next culinary revolution.

la capital del sabor


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cuisine . the capital of flavor

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Los limeos somos dulceros por naturaleza, y nuestra incansable bsqueda del azcar ha resultado en postres de polendas: arroz con leche y suspiro de limea son solo la punta de un iceberg goloso como pocos. Lima residents are sweet-toothed by nature, and our never ending search for sugar has produced incredibly sweet concoctions: arroz con leche (rice pudding) and suspiro de limea (manjar blanco mousse topped with meringue). These are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to desserts few can boast of.

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Doa Sonia Bahamonde, su esposo Freddy Guardia, y su hija Sonia conforman una de las familias ms famosas entre los comensales limeos. En sus mesas con sabor a mar han alimentado a presidentes, artistas de Hollywood y cuando personaje ilustre ha recalado por la ciudad.
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Sonia Bahamonde, her husband Freddy Guardia, and her daughter Sonia are one of the most famous families for lovers of fine food. Their

seafood restaurant has charmed Peruvian presidents, Hollywood artists, and other famous VIPs that stay in the city.

Al maestro, con cario. Javier Wong es, sin duda alguna, el mejor cebichero del pas. Medio poeta, medio filsofo y amante de la cocina, sentares en su pequeo restaurante de Balconcillo es algo as como peregrinar a La Meca. making a pilgrimage to Mecca.
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To sir, with love. Javier Wong is definitely the best

cebiche chef in the country. Part poet, part philosopher, and lover of high cuisine. To sit in his tiny restaurant in the district of Balconcillo is much like

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Sabia combinacin de la comida peruana y nikkei, el tiradito es un plato delicado que fusiona un cebiche con un sashimi. Puro mar que hoy invade las mesas del mundo entero. The tiradito: perfect intersection of Peruvian and Japanese. A delicate dish fusing cebiche and sashimi. Simply pure seafood that is conquering the worlds tables.

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Ubicado al lado de Palacio de Gobierno, y abierto a principios de siglo por inmigrantes espaoles, el viejo Bar Cordano ha visto pasar parte importante de la historia republicana. En sus mesas se han sentado personalidades como Martn Adn, el poeta; Luis Alberto Snchez, escritor y poltico; el pintor Vctor Humareda y todos los presidentes del Per desde su apertura. Located next to the Government Palace, in operation since the dawning of the 20th century, and opened by Spanish immigrants, the Cordano Bar has witnessed the better part of Perus socalled Republican era. Its tables have also been graced by celebrities, like the poet Martin Adan, the writer and politician Luis Alberto Sanchez, the painter Victor Humareda, and every Peruvian president since the establishment opened its doors.

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Ubicado en el corazn de Barranco, el Juanito es uno de los rincones ms queridos por la bohemia limea. Tiene ms de 50 aos ofreciendo unos snguches inolvidables y en sus mesas la vida sabe mejor. El Juanito, beloved little nook in unconventional Lima, is located in the heart of Barranco. Its been in business for more than fifty years offering its clients finger licking sandwiches. Life just tastes better at its tables.

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No me traigas la cuenta. Arriba: Amrico invita choritos a la chalaca en La Preferida, rincn por excelencia de la bohemia miraflorina Dont bring the bill just yet. Above: Americo brings some choritos a la chalaca (Callao-style mussels) in the restaurant, La Preferida, the standard for Bohemian Miraflores.

Juicioso corte de jamn del pas en el Cordano; manos sabias de Lucho Cordero, en el restaurante Kapallaq. A juicy cut of country ham in the Cordano Bar. The knowing hands of Lucho Cordero in the Kapallaq restaurant.
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Levntate y anda. El clsico sancochado limeo trae todo tipo de carnes, verduras, camote, papa y yuca, palto ideal para el domingo despus de fiestas que se sirve desde la poca colonial. Get up and go. The classic Lima soup, the hearty sancochado is made with all types of meat, vegetables, sweet potatoes, potatoes, and cassava. The perfect dish for a Sunday morning after a Saturday of partying. Its been served since the Spanish Colony.
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El huarique

Qu es un huarique? se deben haber preguntado miles de limeos. Su definicin es escurridiza y muchas veces equvoca al querer otorgar tremendo ttulo nobiliario a sitios pobretones e indecentes. Pero vamos a ensayar una definicin que luego gue a la Real Academia. Un huarique es un restaurante atendido por sus propietarios, quienes siempre deben estar tras las ollas; un lugar discreto, a veces escondido y visible solo para los amigos y los conocedores, digamos que para los cazadores del placer gastronmico. Muchas veces, el huarique tiene una carta pequea, a veces ni siquiera eso, y deben su fama a uno o dos platos bandera; normalmente estn ubicados en zonas populares y cuando uno entra es llamado por su nombre, es decir, no es solo un cliente, es un habitu, alguien que puede husmear por la cocina sin exponerse al desalojo. Eso y ms es un huarique. Son verdaderos templos del sabor, defensores de la tradicin la mayora de las

veces, y siempre depositarios de secretos y tcnicas que han sido heredados de madres y abuelas. Son espacios para las matronas de mandil, pero tambin para la experimentacin de cocineros jvenes, o para gente que adems de sazonar sabe de poesa y de msica, para amantes del mar y criollos de la vieja guardia. Para gente con corazn. Un huarique es un refugio, un lugar para olvidarse de la rutina, para dejar de lado el Facebook, el chat y el telfono mvil, para quemar los e-mails y la agenda electrnica. Para abominar del Blackberry. Es ese sitio donde existe la mesa de los amigos, la famosa bola al centro, el plato compartido, la cerveza a deshoras, esa tarde para excusarse porque se va a llegar tarde de almorzar. Un huarique es, por ltimo, el bastin que nos libra de la posmodernidad, ese lugar ntimo en el que podemos estar a salvo hasta de nosotros mismos, unidos por la sagrada comunin de la buena comida.

Con ms de seis dcadas en actividad, don Pedro Solari, es una leyenda de la gastronoma limea. Tentado por el mismo Aristteles Onassis para trabajar como rey en la isla de Skorpio, don Pedro prefiri la libertad absoluta que le permite las tres mesas de su pequeo huarique. With more than six decades working as a chef, Pedro Solari is a legend in Lima gastronomy. He was once tempted by Aristotle Onassis to work as a king on Skorpios Island, but he preferred the absolute freedom which the three tables of his tiny corner restaurant affords him.

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The huarique

hat is a huarique? That is a hard question even for true blue Lima residents. Thousands must have asked themselves that very question, yet their definition is somewhat vague, and many times they err in their desire to put some tremendously noble name to an establishment downright unsophisticated. So, lets try out a definition the Royal Spanish Academy can use as a draft for subsequent editions of its dictionary. A huarique is a restaurant where customers are waited on by its owners, who must always be standing behind some pot or pan. It is a discrete locale, at times hidden, visible only to friends and acquaintances of lets see now, a seeker of incredible culinary pleasures.
Vicente Furghiele es un argentino perdido en indias que hace veinte aos abri uno de los mejores huariques de la ciudad: el Cantarrana, pescados, mariscos y pastas en un lugar inolvidable que ms que un restaurante parece un centro cultural. Vicente Furghiele is an Argentine who came to visit Lima and ended up staying. Twenty years ago, he opened one of the best eateries in town: the Cantarrana: seafood and pasta in one unforgettable location that is more than a restaurant. It seems like a cultural center.

This is what a huarique is, and so much more.They are true cathedrals of flavor, most of the time defenders of traditions, and always a treasure chest of cooking secrets and techniques that were passed down by mothers and grandmothers. They are the stage upon which apron clad matrons shine, but they are also laboratories for young, upcoming chefs to experiment in, or places for people who are not just adept at cooking, but at poetry and music as well, and for lovers of the sea and of old time Creole music. They are for people with heart. A huarique is a refuge, a place to go and escape from the routine, to purposefully forget to bring your digital connections to the world: Facebook, chat room, cell phone, to burn your emails and electronic calendar, and to hate your Blackberry. It is the place where you and your friends have your table, where you find the famous bola al centro, the shared dish, the early morning beer, and that you use as your excuse for returning late for work after lunch. Lastly, a huarique is the fortress that protects us from the post modern world we live in, the cherished place where we can be safe from ourselves, united by the sharing of good food.

Many times, its menu is quite limited in it offering, and sometimes, it just does not use one, owing its reputation to one or two outstanding dishes. Normally, they are located in popular districts, and when you enter them, you are greeted by name; in other words, you are not just a client but a regular, someone who can poke around the kitchen without running the risk of being tossed out on his ear.

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Edicin general / General editing Coordinacin general / General coordination Edicin ejecutiva / Executive editing Fotografas / Photographs Textos / Texts Diagramacin / Layout Asistencia de edicin / Editing assistance Traduccin / Translation Pre-prensa e impresin / Printing

Walter H. Wust Natali Wust Gabriel Herrera / Wust Ediciones Walter H. Wust Gabriel Herrera Dessir Valdez / Wust Ediciones Nelly de Robles, Jhonny Parihuamn, Jorge Mendoza Zevallos Alejandra Llosa Pomposini Grfica Biblos S.A. Jr. Morococha 152, Surquillo

Hecho el Depsito Legal en la Biblioteca Nacional del Per N 2009-15582 ISBN: 978-612-4017-03-2 Todos los derechos reservados de acuerdo con el D.L. 882 (Ley sobre el Derecho de Autor). Prohibida la reproduccin total o parcial de este libro.

Walter H. Wust Ediciones SAC Calle Alcal 119, oficina 203. Miraflores Primera edicin. Noviembre 2009 www.walterwust.com