m
Rotor slot pitch angle (mechanical)
Rotor slot pitch,
m
, controller angle
f
i
Differential average MMF over the barrier no. i (i = 1, ...,
k) due to mmf
q
, which is equal to ( fq
i+1
fq
i
)
II. INTRODUCTION
ORQUE RIPPLE and other secondary effects such as
rotor iron losses, vibration and noise, are important
issues in Synchronous Reluctance Machine [1] (SynRM)
design [2]  [24], similar to the Induction Machine (IM),
[25] and [26] and Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM)
machine [10], [16], [17] and [20]  [23].
An analytical study of torque ripple and its main root
cause is addressed in [2], [4]  [9], [11], [12], [15]  [17]
and [20]  [23]. A Finite Element based Method (FEM)
investigation on torque ripple is presented in [3], [4], [6] 
[11], [14], [20] and [22].
Some methods proposed by different authors to reduce
the side effect of the SynRM torque ripple can be found in
[2]  [11], [14], [16]  [20], [23] and [24]. These studies
show the complexity of the problem, especially if the iron
losses are considered, [4], [13], [21] and [22]. For example
[22] describes a possible tradeoff between torque ripple
and iron losses which has to be made while designing
SynRM. An important conclusion is that there is a strong
coupling between the stator and rotor structures. Interaction
between the stator, specially the stator slots, and the rotor
slots and its magnetic reaction to the stator Magneto Motive
Force (MMF), plays an important role in the torque ripple
developed by the machine [2], [5]  [9], [11], [15]  [18],
[20] and [22]  [24].
Torque ripple minimization/optimization of SynRM is
discussed in this paper. A novel, simple and systematic
method for ripple reduction in SynRM suitable for and
compatible with the torque maximization procedure that
has been discussed in [27] is introduced in this paper, [4]
and [28]. The decoupling between stator and rotor structure
during the torque ripple minimization is another goal. This
can be achieved by development of a general method that
minimizes the ripple independent of the stator structure,
specially the slots number of the stator, and the number of
barriers in the rotor or rotor slots number. Furthermore, it
will be shown that torque maximization and torque ripple
minimization are independently possible in the SynRM
design. This method is a novel generalized form of the
method that has been presented in [6], [11] and [22].
III. OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY AND METHODOLOGY
The torque ripple and torque quality is an important
macroscopic characteristic of the SynRM. Like any other
electrical machine, SynRM rotor slot pitch, see m in Fig. 1,
has a big influence on torque ripple. The second most
important factors are the constant rotor slot pitch [2], [4],
[6], [11], [17] and [22] and a rotor with a homogeneous
anisotropic structure [2], [15], [17] and [27]. The constant
Novel Rotor Design Optimization of Synchronous
Reluctance Machine for Low Torque Ripple
Reza  Rajabi Moghaddam, Freddy Magnussen, Chandur Sadarangani
T
9781467301411/12/$26.00 2012 IEEE
718
o ~ m
Y q
1
S1
S2
d
q
ld
o ~ m
2
~
om
2 1
3 2 1
1 1 W W l axis q in air total
S S S
l axis q in iron total
a
y
+ = =
+ + =
=
) 2 1 (
2 1
d d
d d
W W ld
W W
ly
lad
wd
k
+
+
=
=
A
=
Sb1
) 1 (
11 W
12 W
l l y a
+ S1
o +
d W2
S2

d
W1
p 2
t
( ) A
( ) B
S3
S
3
) 2 ( = k
Sb2
3 2 1
2 1
1 1
S S S
W W
ly
la
wq
k
+ +
+
=
A
=
Fig. 1. Proposed rotor geometry and related microscopic and macroscopic
parameters definition for SynRM with two interior barriers.
rotor slot pitch is a general accepted rule for all
conventional electrical machines including general purpose
(GP) machines, but this is not the only way for ripple
minimization, some examples can be found in [3]  [5], [7]
 [10], [14], [16], [18], [23] and [24].
In SynRM the idea of using
m
= cte. was for the first
time used by Vagati et al. for torque ripple control [2], [5],
[6], [11] , [15] and [22]. Even the Kostkos design, the first
SynRM, somehow considers the constant rotor slot pitch
[1]. Vagati et al. s idea was based on the selection of a
suitable number of barriers, assuming constant rotor slot
pitch is used. This takes place, in the most famous case
described by him, when 2 =
m
in Fig. 1 and the number
of the stator slots is known [6] and [11]. His claim is that
the torque ripple is minimized if there is a relation between
the rotor and the stator slot numbers and the rotor slot pitch
is kept constant.
An intelligent idea that Vagati et al. used for adapting
the constant rotor slot pitch to the SynRM unsymmetrical
rotor structure especially in the qaxis region of the rotor
geometry is the definition of an imaginary rotor slot
opening in each pole of the machine. This imaginary slot
opening is placed in the last segment, here S3 area, and one
end of the opening is represented by point B in Fig. 1.
According to Vagati et al. s idea [6] and [11], if the
completely constant rotor slot pitch concept is followed,
when 2 =
m
, then for each stator structure there will be a
specific number of barriers that gives a rotor with minimum
torque ripple.
One difficulty that arises in such a condition is that the
rotor optimization for minimum torque ripple is inter
connected to the stator shape through optimization. The
situation gets more complicated if some Permanent Magnet
(PM) materials are introduced inside the flux barriers of the
rotor, such a machine is known as Interior PM machine
(IPM) and/or PM assisted SynRM (PMaSynRM). In
PMaSynRM/IPM machine the PM material also introduces
MMF and consequently distortion in the resultant airgap
flux density, then the Vagati et al.'s idea for torque ripple
reduction will be distorted too, and faces new problem.
A possibility that comes to mind for generalizing Vagati
et al.'s method is to keep the rotor slot pitch constant
mainly in the daxis for barriers number 1 to k, see Fig. 1
and Fig. 2, while 2 is allowed to vary () for a certain
number of barriers (k).
o +
( ) B
S1 S2 S3 Sk
p 2
t
2
om
0
2
3om
2
5om
2
) 1 2 ( o k
m
2
) 1 2 ( o + k
m
...
...
om

d mmf
d
,
Sk 1 +
( ) A
fd
1 fd
2
fd
3
fd
4
fd
k
fd
k 1 +
...
) ( o p Cos
D1 D2 D3
Dk
o +
( ) B
S1
S2
S3 Sk
p 2
t
2
om
0
2
3om
2
5om
2
) 1 2 ( o k
m
2
) 1 2 ( o + k
m
...
...
om

d mmf
q
,
Sk 1 +
( ) A
fq
1
fq
2
fq
3
fq
4
fq
k
fq
k 1 +
...
q
f A
1
f A
2
f A
3
f
k
A
1
f
k
A
) ( o p Sin
D1 D2 D3
Dk
Fig. 2. (top) Perunit MMF distribution over segments in the qaxis MMF,
(bottom) perunit MMF distribution of the daxis MMF over the segments,
for the geometry in Fig .1.
Introducing this method does not change the equal rotor
slot pitch rule for the major part of the rotor, except those
imaginary slots that are near to the qaxis. However, the
interlock between the ripple and the number of the barriers
according to the Vagati et al.s idea is eliminated and for
any number of barriers and any stator structure the ripple
can be minimized by performing some limited number of
FEM sensitivity analysis on angle , for any machine type
such as SynRM, IPM and PMaSynRM. Using this method,
the rotor slot pitch is kept constant in most part of the rotor
that contributes to torque ripple reduction. However, by
adjusting
m
with angle the optimal slot pitch for any
number of barriers can be found for ripple minimization.
Another parameter that can be used to reduce the ripple
further is for example adjusting the rotor slot pitch by
choosing a suitable radial position of the barrier in the q
axis Y
q
, see Fig. 1. For example, see the effect of this
parameter on torque ripple in [4] when the optimal
insulation ratio is determined. For torque ripple
minimization other techniques are possible, for example
selecting independently different slot opening position for
719
different barriers instead of equal rotor slot pitch in the d
axis, this kind of optimization is considered in [7]  [10],
[16], [23] and [24] or adjusting the airgap dimension for
controlling the airgap permeance [16], [19], [23] and [24]
or using different pole pitch sizes in different poles [18] or
using mutual harmonic cancelation [8]  [10], [22].
IV. TORQUE RIPPLE MINIMIZATION OF MULTIPLE FLUX
BARRIER GEOMETRY
The effect of angle on a specific SynRM machine is
investigated to demonstrate the torque ripple variation due
to this design parameter change. As was shown earlier, a
SynRM with 4 barriers rotor structure exhibits a high
torque ripple when a constant rotor slot pitch, 2 =
m
, is
used, see torque ripple of this machine in [4] when the
number of barriers is 4.
As a first step, assume that is known and as a starting
point the constant rotor slot pitch is suggested. Then, based
on the number of barriers k, which is 4 here, and assumed
, the position of end points of barriers in the airgap,
points D
i
(for i = 1, ..., k), will be as shown in Fig. 2. For
this conditions the rotor slot pitch,
m
, can be determined
using Equation (1).
2
1
2
+
=
k
p
m

t
o
(1)
The f
i
= fq
i+1
fq
i
over each barrier due to the qaxis
MMF, mmf
q
, and the fd
i
over each segment due to daxis
MMF, mmf
d
, can be calculated based on Fig. 2, if the end of
barriers, points D
i
(for i = 1, ..., k), are known.
Consider that f
i
for each barrier and fd
i
for each
segment are calculated, then it is straight forward to
calculate each barrier and segment size in the qaxis using
proposed method in [4], [27], first by distributing the iron,
l
y
, (magnetic material) between different segments
according to the Equation (2), note that (l
y
+ l
a
) is known:
,
1
) (
, ,..., 2
,
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
wq
k
i
i
i i
k
la ly
ly S
k i
fd
fd
S
S
fd
fd
S
S
+
+
= =
= =
=
+
=
+ +
(2)
second by distributing the insulation, l
a
, (air) between
different barriers according to the Equation (3):
.
1
1
) (
1
, ,..., 2
1
1
1
2
1 1
wq
k
i
i
i i
k
la ly
la W
k i
f
f
W
W
+
+
= =
=


.

\

A
A
=
=
(3)
Each barrier dimension in the daxis also can be
calculated according to Equation (4), if barrier dimension
in the qaxis and insulation ratio in the daxis are known.
k i
W
W
W
Wi
axis q
i
axis d
d
d
,..., 2
1
1
1
1
= =
(4)
Finally, after positioning the barriers and segments in
the rotor, if there is a small discrepancy between the
calculated and the actual end point position in the airgap,
the parameter Y
qi
for each barrier is changed until the end
points of the barrier i in the airgap are adjusted to the
position of the calculated daxis constant rotor slot pitch
angle according to Fig. 2.
The insulation ratio in the daxis, k
wd
, and the qaxis,
k
wq
, see their definition in Fig. 1, are kept constant and
equal to the optimum values for maximum torque. Optimal
k
wd
is 0.3 and k
wq
is 0.7 for specific machine with 4 barriers
structure.
The effect of on torque and torque ripple for the 4
barrier machine is shown in Fig. 3. Actual machine
structure variation due to changing is also demonstrated
in Fig. 4. The simulated (FEM) variation of torque versus
time for some cases is also plotted in Fig. 5. In Fig. 3, the
corresponding angle for constant rotor slot pitch is 4.5
mechanical. By increasing torque ripple (peaktopeak) is
reduced from 40%, for around 4.5, to 13%, for
around 8. Angle has a negligible effect on the average
torque see Fig. 3 (top), because the insulation ratios are the
same here for all values of , k
wd
is 0,3 and k
wq
is 0,7.
The torque ripple minimization in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4
shows that, torque maximization and torque ripple
minimization, for a certain number of barriers and stator
structure, can be achieved independently. This is achieved
by optimizing the angle with equal rotor slot pitch in the
daxis. The rotor slot pitch in the daxis is the most
effective parameter for the reduction of torque ripple
without significantly affecting the average torque, but this
is not true for the rotor slot pitch in the qaxis, see Fig. 4.
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
t
o
r
q
u
e
[
N
.
m
]
[] @ kwd = 0,3 & kwq = 0,7
Average torque
Torque Ripple pp
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
t
o
r
q
u
e
r
i
p
p
l
e
[
%
]
[] @ kwd = 0,3 & kwq = 0,7
Torque Ripple [%]
Fig. 3. (top) Simulated (FEM) torque and torque ripple (peaktopeak
(pp)) curves for a SynRM with 4pole, 4 barriers rotor structure, see Fig. 4,
as a function of , and (bottom) corresponding torque ripple (pp) in
percentage of the average torque, when k
wd
is 0.3 and k
wq
is 0.7, and end
points D
i
(for i = 1, ..., k) are adjusted by Y
q
.
720
Fig. 4. Effect of on the rotor geometry structure when k
wd
is 0.3 and
k
wq
is 0.7, see Fig. 3, end points are adjusted by Y
q
.
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
t
o
r
q
u
e
[
N
.
m
]
Time [s]
= 0 = 4.5 = 8.5 = 15
Fig. 5. Simulated (FEM) torque versus time for a SynRM with 4pole, 4
barriers rotor structure, see Fig. 4, for different angles.
V. CONCLUSION
A novel torque ripple reduction method is presented in
this study. A new design parameter for torque ripple
reduction was introduced in the rotor structure of the
SynRM (IPM and PMaSynRM). The effect of this design
parameter on machine torque ripple shows its effectiveness
in the rotor structure design with minimum ripple and
simultaneously without interfering with the machine torque
capability.
VI. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Authors special thanks go to Heinz Lendenmann and
Reino Savela (ABB) for their support and the fruitful
technical discussions.
VII. REFERENCES
[1] J. K. Kostko, "Polyphase reaction synchronous motors", Journal
Amer. Inst. Elect. Engrs, 1923, Vol. 42, pp: 11621168.
[2] T. A. Lipo, T. J. E. Miller, A. Vagati, I. Boldea, L. Malesani, and T.
Fukao, "Synchronous reluctance drives" tutorial presented at IEEE
IAS Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, Oct. 1994.
[3] J. Haataja, "A comparative performance study of fourpole induction
motors and synchronous reluctance motors in variable speed drives",
Ph. D., Lappeenranta Uni. of Tech., ISBN 9517647727, ISSN
14564491, Lappeenrannan teknillinen yliopisto, Digipaino, 2003.
[4] R. R. Moghaddam, "Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM)
Design", Master Thesis in power electrical engineering, Royal
Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden, April 2007.
[5] A. Fratta, G. P. Troglia, A. Vagati, F. Villata, " Evaluation of torque
ripple in high performance synchronous reluctance machines", IEEE
IAS Annual meeting, Toronto (Canada), October 1993, Vol. I, pp:
163  170.
[6] A. Vagati, "Synchronous Reluctance Electrical Motor having a low
torque ripple design", USA patent No. 5,818,140, Oct. 6, 1998.
[7] N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, D. Bon, M. Dai Pre, "Torque Harmonic
Compensation in a Synchronous Reluctance Motor", 37th IEEE
Power Electronics Specialists Conf., June 18  22, 2006, Jeju, Korea.
[8] N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, D. Bon, M. Dai Pre, "Rotor flux  barrier
design for torque ripple reduction in synchronous reluctance motors",
Industry Appl.s Conf., 41st IAS Annual Meeting, Conf. Record of
the IEEE, Vol. 3, 812 Oct. 2006, pp: 1193  1200.
[9] N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, D. Bon, M. Dai Pre, "Torque Harmonic
Compensation in a Synchronous Reluctance Motor", IEEE Tran. on
Energy Conversion, Volume 23, Issue 2, June 2008, pp: 466  473.
[10] S. Ooi, S. Morimoto, M. Sanada, Y. Inoue, "Performance Evaluation
of a High Power Density PMASynRM with Ferrite Magnets", Energy
Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 1722 Sept. 2011, pp :
4195 4200.
[11] A. Vagati, M. Pastorelli, G. Francheschini, S. C. Petrache, "Design of
low torqueripple synchronous reluctance motors", IEEE Trans. on
Industry Appl., Vol. 34, Issue 4, JulyAug. 1998, pp:758  765.
[12] I. V. Hrabovcova, J. Pyrhonen, J. Haataja, "Reluctance Synchronous
motor (RSM) and its performances", Lappeenranta University of
Technology, May 2005.
[13] B. J. Chalmers, L. Musaba, "Design and fieldweakening
performance of a synchronous reluctance motor with axially
laminated rotor", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications,Vol.
34, Issue 5, Sept.Oct. 1998, pp:1035  1041.
[14] J. M. Park, S. J. Park, M. M. Lee, J. S. Chun, J. H. Lee, "Rotor
Design on Torque Ripple Reduction for a Synchronous Reluctance
Motor with concentrated winding using response surface
methodology", XVII ICEM 06, Sept. 25, China, Crete, Greece.
[15] A. Vagati, G. Franceschini, I. Marongiu, G. P. Troglia, "Design
criteria of high performance synchronous reluctance motors",
Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Conference Record
of the IEEE, vol. 1, 4  9 Oct., 1992, pp: 66 73.
[16] A. Fratta, "Synchronous Electrical Machine", USA patent No. US
2005/0258700 A1, Nov. 24, 2005.
[17] N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, A. Consoli, T. M. Jahns, R. D. Lorenz, E.
C. Lovelace, S. Morimoto, A. Vagati, "Design Analysis and Control
of Interior PM Synchronous Machines", IEEE ind. Appl. Society,
Annual Meeting, Seattle, USA, October 3rd, 2004.
[18] LG Electronics Inc, "Synchroner Reluktanzmotor mit
Magnetflussbarriere", Bundesrepublik Deutschland patent No. DE
100 04 175 A1, 20010405.
[19] A. Ishizaki, "Reluctance Motor and Generator", USA patent No. US
5 418 415, 19950523.
[20] S. H. Han, T. M. Jahns, W. L. Soong, "Torque Ripple Reduction in
Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Using the
Principle of Mutual Harmonics Exclusion", Industry Applications
Conference, 42nd IAS Annual Meeting, Conference Record of the
2007 IEEE, 2007, pp: 558  565.
[21] S. H. Han, T. M. Jahns, Z. Q. Zhu, "Analysis of Rotor Core Eddy
Current Losses in Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Machines",Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2008, IAS
08, IEEE, pp: 1  8.
[22] G. Pellegrino, P. Guglielmi, A. Vagati, F. Villata, "Core loss and
torque ripple in IPM machines: dedicated modeling and design trade
off", Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2009, ECCE
2009, IEEE, pp: 1911  1918.
[23] A. Fratta, "Synchronous Electric Machine", USA patent No. US
2004/0130231 A1, Jul. 8th, 2004.
[24] M. Sanada, K. Hiramoto, S. Morimoto, Y. Takeda, "Torque ripple
improvement for synchronous reluctance motor using asymmetric
flux barrier arrangement", Industry Applications Conference,
Conference Record of the 38th IAS Annual Meeting, vol, 1, 1216
Oct. 2003, pp: 250  255.
[25] P. L. Alger, "The Nature of Polyphase Induction Machines", New
York, Wiley, 1951.
[26] C. Sadarangani, "Electrical machines: Design and Analysis of
induction and permanent magnet motors", division of electrical
machines and power electronics, school of electrical engineering,
Royal Institute of Tech. (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, Feb., 2006.
721
[27] R. R. Moghaddam, F. Magnussen, C. Sadarangani, "Novel Rotor
Design Optimization of Synchronous Reluctance Machine for High
Torque Density", PEMD 2012 conference, March 2012, Bristol, UK.
[28] Reza Rajabi Moghaddam, "Rotor for a synchronous reluctance
machine", patent pending No. WO/2010/102671, 16.09.2010.
VIII. BIOGRAPHIES
Reza Rajabi Moghaddam received the B.Sc. degree in electrical power
engineering from Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 1997
and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Royal
Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, in 2007 and 2011,
respectively. During 1997 through 2005, he worked in different industries
in Iran as an Electrical Engineer in areas such as distribution system
(medium voltage and low voltage) design, lighting design, cubicle
construction and design, installation (power plants, gas insulated
switchgearhigh voltage substation, etc.), and offshore installation, and as
a Field Electrical Engineer and Consultant. Since 2006, he has been with
ABB Corporate Research, Vsters, Sweden, as a Research Engineer and
Scientist in various development projects, especially in investigating and
developing the SynRM's technology. His interests include electrical
machines and drives with electrical machine design orientation.
Freddy Magnussen received the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering
from Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1994
and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the Royal Institute of
Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, in 2004. Since 1996 till 2010, he has
been with ABB Corporate Research, Vsters, Sweden, as a Research
Engineer and Project Manager in various development projects. Now he is
with ABB Motors and Generators, Vsters, Sweden, as R&D Manager,
since 2010. His research interests include electrical machines and drives.
Chandur Sadarangani received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering
from Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden, in 1979. In
1979, he joined ASEA Motors, Vsters, Sweden. In 1984, he moved to
ABB Corporate Research, Vsters, and worked as a Research Engineer
and Senior Scientist, where he is currently afliated. In 1992, he became a
Chair of electrical machines and drives with the Royal Institute of Science
and Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden. His research interests
include the design of electrical machines, power electronics, and control.
722
Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)