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Articles

Articles are written to give information (e.g. news reports) or express opinions (e.g. argumentative articles). They can be either formal or informal depending on the audience they are addressed to and the topic they deal with. A good article consists of: a) an eye-catching headline which suggests the topic of the article that follows; b) an interesting introduction; c) a main body consisting of two or more paragraphs in which the topic is presented in detail; and d) a conclusion which gives an appropriate ending to the article. Such pieces of writing can be found in newspapers, magazines or newsletters. Points to consider Decide on the style of the article before you start writing. Always think of a short, clear, appropriate headline which attracts the reader's interest. Each paragraph should deal with one aspect of the topic. You can use linking ideas or time expressions to join your ideas or introduce paragraphs. Avoid using simplistic adjectives (good, nice, bad, etc). Always try to use more sophisticated vocabulary instead. (splendid, gorgeous, awful, etc) Address the reader in second person (you) if the topic of the article and the style you have adopted permits this. Descriptive, narrative and argumentative techniques can be applied when writing articles.

1 Match these headlines with the topics below. There are two headlines for each topic. Which are the
most successful? Why? a Exams not necessary b Tahiti: Holidaymaker's paradise c The ferry ran onto rocks 1 You are a reporter for a newspaper. Write an article about a ferry boat which ran aground in rough seas. 2 Your school magazine has asked its readers to give their opinions on whether exams are useful as a means of testing students' knowledge. Write your article. 3 You are a reporter for a weekly magazine. Write an article describing a popular holiday resort. How to Write Headlines for News Articles A headline is a short, clear summary of the information presented in a newspaper article. To write headlines correctly, certain rules must be followed. a) use the present simple tense to describe events which have occurred very recently. Earthquake hits L.A., for example, means the earthquake has just happened, probably in the last twenty-four hours; b) omit the verb "be" when using the passive voice to describe a past event. Write: President defeated or Lost boy found not: President was defeated or Lost boy was found; c) write "to be + past participle" when using the passive voice to describe a future event, as in: Hospital to be opened by Queen (= A hospital is going to be opened by the Queen.) When using the active voice to describe a future event, write the full infinitive (to be) only, as in Queen to open hospital (= The Queen is going to open a hospital); d) omit articles (a, an, the) as in Child trapped in rubble (= A child was trapped in rubble); e) put nouns one after the other as in London factory explosion injures 27 (which means that an explosion in a factory located in London resulted in twenty-seven people being injured; f) avoid using prepositions (words like under, over, across, through). Write: Unidentified virus spreads rather than An unidentified virus has spread across the country); and g) use abbreviations like US, UN, NATO. Write: UFO sighted not: An unidentified flying object was d Exams to be banned? e Go to Tahiti for your holidays f Storm forces ferry onto rocks

seen. 2 Try to rewrite the following sentences into headlines, applying the theory above. 1 The prisoners' protest at the Tryall jail has ended. 2 Banks are planning to introduce security cameras at cashpoint machines. 3 A tanker overturned, spilling its cargo of heating oil on the M11 motorway. 4 Nutritionists have condemned new slimming drugs as very harmful. 5 The London School of Economics has won an award for being the best business school. 6 The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries has made a deal to fix oil prices. 7 The Zolosis factory was blamed for failing to protect workers against unsafe chemical levels. 8 Contaminated baby food of various brands has caused a scare in the city of Redding. 9 The director of the car company will be charged with fraud.

3 Look at the following headlines and expand them into proper sentences.
1 Queen's lost jewels found 2 Collision kills five 3 Manchester wins cup 4 Explosion destroys factory 5 Prince to wed 6 Dustmen's strike over 7 Election called by PM 8 7.5 quake kills 5000 9 Scandal threatens government 10 Hospital to be closed 11 War declared 12 Storm destroys corn crop 13 Terrorist drama ends peacefully 14 Clinton, Pope to meet 15 UN Warning: starvation in Africa

4 Read the following sentences, underline the key words, then write possible headlines.
1 Breston is becoming a busy holiday resort due to the Mayor's successful promotional campaign. 2 A mother of four won 1 million in the national lottery last week. 3 A massive earthquake has destroyed most of Clifford Bay. Forty people were killed and fifty are still missing. 4 An attempt was made on the French Ambassador's life while he was visiting Austria. The assassin, who failed in his mission, was arrested. 5 Sting is going to give a concert in London. All proceeds from the concert will go to Amnesty International. 6 Medical researchers have discovered a new treatment which will help people suffering from asthma. 7 Many teachers object to the introduction of computers in school education, as they fear that computers will eventually replace them. 8 Police seized drugs worth 1,000,000 at London's Heathrow airport last Monday.
Useful expressions and linking words / phrases

to list and add points: In the first place, To start / begin with, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally, In addition (to this), Furthermore, Moreover, Besides, etc. 2 to introduce or list advantages: The main / first / most important advantage of..., One / Another / An additional advantage of..., One point of view in favour of..., It is often suggested / believed / argued that..., Some / Many people suggest / feel / argue that..., Some / Many people are in favour of / are convinced that... etc. 3 to introduce or list disadvantages: The main / most important disadvantage / drawback of..., One / Another / An additional disadvantage of..., One point / argument against ... , Some / Many people are against ... , etc. 4 to introduce examples / reasons / results: for example / instance, such as, like, in particular, therefore, for this reason, because, as, since, as a result, etc. 5 to show contrast: On the other hand, However, still, but, Nonetheless, Nevertheless, Although, Even

though, Despite/In spite of (the fact that), etc.

to introduce a conclusion: In conclusion, To conclude/sum up, All in all, Finally, Lastly, All things considered, Taking everything into account / consideration, etc

Read the rubric, underline the key words and answer the questions. You have been invited to write an article for Screen magazine, saying whether you prefer going to the cinema or watching videos at home. Write your article, saying which you prefer and giving reasons. 1 What type of writing is this? 2 Which do you prefer - cinema or video? Why? Read the article and answer the questions. 1

CINEMA or VIDEO? by Marty Stevens


1. There has been a lot of talk in recent years about video being responsible for the death of cinema. Despite the fact that videos certainly have advantages, I much prefer going to the cinema, for a number of reasons. 2. Firstly, an evening at the cinema is an exciting outing. You can arrange to meet friends there and you can go for a meal before or after the film. It's a more entertaining way of spending your time than just sitting in your living room. 3. Secondly, modern cinemas have excellent projectors and sound equipment, so the film is much more gripping as a result. When watching adventures or science- fiction films, for example, you really feel as if you are part of the action. This is difficult l' to achieve at home, however good your television is. 4. Furthermore, I prefer the cinema because I want to see the latest releases. You sometimes have to wait a year for a film to come out on Video. By that time, most of your friends have seen it and you have heard so much about the film that it has no surprises. 5. However, videos also have certain advantages. They are cheap and convenient, and you can watch them in the comfort of your own home

Which does the writer prefer - cinema or video? 2 Write a suitable alternative introduction. 3 In which paragraphs does the writer give his/her viewpoints? How does he/she introduce each one? 4 What are the main viewpoints? What reason(s) does the writer give to support each viewpoint? 5 In which paragraph does the writer present the opposing view? What reasons are given to support this? 6 What tenses have been used in this article? 7 Underline the descriptive adjectives, then suggest suitable alternatives which could be used to replace them. 8 Write a suitable alternative conclusion. Introduction Paragraph 1 state the topic and your opinion clearly Main Body Paragraphs 2 - 4 viewpoints and reasons Paragraph 5 opposing viewpoint and reason(s) Conclusion Final Paragraph restate opinion using different words

Linking Words / Phrases


To state personal opinion: To list advantages and disadvantages: To list points: In my opinion, / In my view, / To my mind, / (Personally) I believe that / I feel (very) strongly that / It seems to me that / I think that people should be encouraged to use public transport in the city. One advantage of / Another advantage of / One other advantage of / The main advantage of / The greatest advantage of / The first advantage of having your own business is that you do not have to take orders. One disadvantage of / Another disadvantage of / One other disadvantage of / The main disadvantage of / The greatest disadvantage of / The first disadvantage of having your own business is that you have to work long hours. First(ly), / First of all, / In the first place, / To start with, / To begin with, / Secondly, / Thirdly, / Finally, everyone knows that smoking is extremely bad for one's health. BEGINNING: First, / To start with, / To begin with, / First of all, get everyone out of the building. CONTINUING: Secondly, / After this/that, / Then, / Next, call the fire brigade. CONCLUDING: Finally, / Lastly, / Last but not least keep a safe distance from the fire. What is more, / Furthermore, / Moreover, / Apart from this/that, / In addition (to this), / Besides (this), dogs are very useful in police work. Dogs are also very useful in police work. Dogs are very useful in police work too. Not only do dogs help the blind, but they are very useful in police work as well. The BBC decided not to show the programme because / due to the fact that / since / as it would upset too many people. The programme would upset too many people; for this reason / therefore the BBC decided not to show it. She won a scholarship therefore, / so / consequently, / as a consequence, / as a result, / for this reason, she was able to continue her studies. He decided to learn Russian so that he could read Tolstoy. He decided to learn Russian so as to / in order to read Tolstoy. For instance, / For example, by running, swimming or jogging three times a week you feel younger and live longer. By taking regular exercise such as / like running, swimming or jogging you feel younger and live longer. If you want to feel younger and live longer, you should take regular exercise, particularly, / in particular, / especially, running, swimming or jogging. Seatbelts are known to save lives, yet / however, / nevertheless, / but / nonetheless, many people refuse to wear them. Although / Even though / In spite of the fact that / Despite the fact that seatbelts are known to save lives, many people refuse to wear them. Turn the dial when / whenever / before / as soon as the buzzer sounds. I haven't been back home since 1982. We met as I was crossing the street. I saw him while I was crossing the street. We never see each other now that they've moved to another neighbourhood. That's the woman who lives next door to me. He's the man whose car was stolen yesterday. That's the cat which scratched me. London is the city where I was born. Finally, / Lastly, / All in all, / Taking everything into account, / On the whole, / All things considered, / In conclusion, / To sum up, no one is likely to find a cure for the common cold in the near future.

To show sequence:

To add more points on the same topic:

To show cause: To show effect / result / consequences: To show purpose:

To give examples:

To show contrast:

To show time:

Relatives:

To introduce a conclusion: