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SAFETY IN WORKSHOP

1. Always wear a shield or safety mask suitable for arc welding to protect eyes from arc rays. 2. Wear proper attire to protect face and body from head radiation and molten metal. 3. Make sure the working place is clean and tidy. 4. Move all flammable materials from working place or cover it with fireproof materials. 5. Make sure all electric connection is properly placed and tighten and dry. 6. Make sure that all line holder, earth clip and connection placed on good place. 7. Avoid welding cable from be in contact with hot metal, water, oil and grease. 8. Turn off the welding machine when not in use. 9. All equipment such as hammer, chisel, brush and others must be well taken care of. 10. Make sure that the welding machine is earthen. 11. Do not ever scratch arc on top of gas cylinder.

INRODUCTION
Arc welding is the fusion of two pieces of metal by an electric arc between the pieces being joined the work pieces and an electrode that is guided along the joint between the pieces. The electrode is either a rod that simply carries current between the tip and the work, or a rod or wire that melts and supplies filler metal to the joint. The basic arc welding circuit is an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) power source connected by a work cable to the work piece and by a hot cable to an electrode. When the electrode is positioned close to the work piece, an arc is created across the gap between the metal and the hot cable electrode. An ionized column of gas develops to complete the circuit.

BASIC WELDING CIRCUIT

The arc produces a temperature of about 3600C at the tip and melts part of the metal being welded and part of the electrode. This produces a pool of molten metal that cools and solidifies behind the electrode as it is moved along the joint. There are two types of electrodes. Consumable electrode tips melt, and molten metal droplets detach and mix into the weld pool. Non-consumable electrodes do not melt. Instead, filler metal is melted into the joint from a separate rod or wire. The strength of the weld is reduced when metals at high temperatures react with oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form oxides and nitrides. Most arc welding processes minimize contact between the molten metal and the air with a shield of gas, vapour or slag. Granular flux, for example, adds deoxidizers that create a shield to protect the molten pool, thus improving the weld.

OBJECTIVES
After completing this project, students will be able to: 1. To give a brief introduction to engineering students about metal arc welding. 2. To give a real life experience of metal arc welding to engineering students 3. To teach the student about the safety in working in welding workshop.

Tools And Equipment


Welding Machine.
Alternating Current-AC This machine is good for use in workshop and farm workshop. It is specially designed for small voltage work. It is needed for welding work in all places no matter the voltage is small or large. This machine is cheap, easy to be taken care of and do not produce a lot of noise. It is mobile but it can only use limited amount of electrode. It does not have moving parts and cannot be used on aluminium electrode. It uses only one level of electricity

Figure

Electrode Holder.
It is used to electricity from welding machine to work metal. It is also used to hold the electrode during the welding process. It has a spring as its parts so that it can hold and let go off the electrode easily. Electrode holder must be lightweight, have good rubber coating and easy to handle for quite a long time.

Tools And Equipment


Earth Holder.
It is connected to the earth cable and clipped to the work metal or to work table. It has a spring so that is can be easily clipped and unclipped.

Figure

Chipping Hammer.
It is made from an old punch, chisel or spring metal. Shape like a chisel at one end and has a sharpened end at the other one. Its holder is made from welded soft metal. It is used commonly to break off slag excess stringer from the surface of the work metal.

Wire Brush.
It is used to clean the surface of the stringer bead after the slag is chipped away and to remove dirt from the surface of work metal before welding can be done.

Glove.
It must be made from high quality leather. Use to protect your hand from fire-bolt and hot metal welding.

Pliers.
Use to hold hot work metal after welding process.

Tools And Equipment


Head Shield.
It is made from fireproof material. In the middle of the shield there is a bright glass coated with dark colours glass. It is used to protect you from fire-bolt and harmful rays. There are two types of shield, one is the helmet type and the other one is the hand held type.

Figure

Leather Jacket.
Leather jacket is used to protect the user from the intense heat produced during welding operations. It is made of high quality leather to provide greater comfort to the user.

Safety Boots.
A steel-toe boot (also known as a safety boot, steel-capped boot or safety shoe) is a durable boot or shoe that has a protective reinforcement in the toe which protects the foot from falling objects or compression, usually combined with a mid sole plate to protect against punctures from below.

Electrode.
In arc welding an electrode is used to conduct current through a work piece to fuse two pieces together..

Pieces of Metal.

CONCLUSION
Arc welding is the fusion of two pieces of metal by an electric arc between the pieces being joined. In the conclusion, students are able to give a brief introduction to engineering students about metal arc welding. Furthermore students also have experience real life experience of metal arc welding to engineering students. Besides, student has learnt a very important thing about the safety in workshop during working at the workshop. At the end of this workshop session, student has learnt on how to joints of arc welding such as line weld, butt joint, lap joint and tee joint. Although we only know the technique on how to do an arc welding, but we actually have done well on this project and have completed the workshop.

REFERENCE
1. Google Search / Google Image 2. Wikipedia

SUGGESTION
1. The instructors should train students to the weld properly before starting the project. 2. Renewal of the welding machine so that students can do the project properly without encountering any problems.

3. Renewal of the welding tools that cannot be used anymore so welding work to be completed on time. 4. Creating an enabling environment so that students can perform welding work comfortably.