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GEOLOGICAL MAPPING, STRUCTURAL EVALUATION AND STRATIGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDING OF WESTERN SALT RANGE, HAZARA-MARGALLA RANGE AND TECTONIC IMPLICATIONS

OF MANSEHRA TO BESHAM AREA AND A VISIT TO TARBELA DAM.

FIELD INCHARGE
SIR ABDUL HANNAN

Author: WAQAS ARIF

(BGLFO9E021)

BS GEOLOGY 6th SEMESTER (Self Support)

DEPARTMENT OF EARHT SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA

DEDICATION
This piece of work is dedicated to the Holy Prophet HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (S.A.W.W) The real source of encouragement for me and the light of knowledge spread by Him beneficial for whole the creation. And my parents and my sisters and brother who are real sources of inspiration for me whose sacrifices made everything possible for me still.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thanks our Head of Department Dr. Muhammad Khalid to his endless support for our field trip and helps in arranging our field. To Sir Abdul Hannan who gave us a great deal of ideas on field and his precious time and knowledge that make me able to write this report. I wish to extend my grateful to my lovely classmates, who always have been in my side giving their comments and constructive criticism. Last, but by no means least, i am most grateful to my sister for giving me useful ideas about how to write an academic report; i believe without her, this report would never have been done.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER # 1 INTRODUCTION o 7 DAY GEOLOGICAL FIELD WORK IN NAMMAL GORGE, RUMLI AREA, HAZARAAREA AND NORTHERN METAMORPHIC ZONE AREA INTRODUCTION o Nammal Gorge o Rumli Area o Salghra Section (Murree),Darya Gali & Kundla o Hazara Area o Tarbela Dam Physiography & Geomorphology CHAPTER # 2 STRATIGRAPHY o General stratigraphy of Salt range and Hazara Day 1 7thJuly 2012 o NAMMAL GORGE Stratigraphy Observed in Nammal gorge: 2nd Day 8th July 2012 o RUMlLI (ISLAMABAD) Observed rock units in Rumli: Day 3 9th July 2012 o SALGHRA, DARYA GALI & KUNDLA SECTION Day 4th & 5th (10 & 11th July 2012) o HAZARA AREA o DHAMTOR TO CHANGLA GALI ROAD SECTION: Day 6th (12th July 2012) o NOTHERN METAMORPHIC ZONE CHAPTER # 3 FOSSILS &SEDIMENTARY SRUCTURES o Fossils o Sedimentary Structure CHAPTER # 4 STRUCTURE OF THE FIELD AREAS

o Tectonic Framework of Pakistan MKT (MAIN KARAKORUM THRUST) MMT (MAIN MANTLE THRUST) MCT (MAIN CENTRAL THRUST) MBT (MAIN BOUNDARY THRUST) SRT (SALT RANGE THRUST) CHAPTER # 5 GEOLOGIAL MAPPING o Geological map of Rumli(Islamabad) o Geological map of Dhamtour to NathiaGali thrust CHAPTER # 6 ECONIMICAL IMPORTANCE OF THE AREA o Introduction o Halite o Gypsum o Rock Phosphate o Limestone o Potash o Iron Ores o Clay o Fire Clay o Coal o Feldspar CHAPTER # 7 A VISIT OF TARBELA DAM o INTRODUCTION o GEOLOGY Right Bank Geology Left Bank Geology REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.0: Dor river along the Abbottabad to NathiaGali Road. Figure 1.1 : Indus River at Besham along the Karakorum highway. Figure 2.0 Contact of Chiddru Formation with Wargal limestone in Nammal gorge Figure 2.1: Permo-triassic boundary in Nammal gorge b/w Chhidru & Mianwali Formation Figure 2.2: Contact of Tredian Formation& Kingriali Formation in Nammal gorge Figure 2.3: Contact of Datta, Samana Suk & Lockhart limestone in Nammal gorge Figure 2.4: Contact of Lockhart Patala & Hangu Formation in Road section Near Nammal gorge Figure 2.4a: Murree Formation in Rumli Figure 2.5: Contact of Kuldana Formation and Chorgali Formation in Rumli Figure 2.6: Contact of Margala Hill Limestone and Chorgali Formation in Rumli Figure 2.7: Outcrop of Lumshiwal Formation in Rumli Figure 2.8: Patala Formation in Rumli Figure 2.9: Chichali Formation in Rumli Figure 2.10: Outcrop of Kuldana Formation in Rumli Figure 2.11: Outcrop of Chorgali Formation in Rumli Figure 2.12: Contact Murree & Kuldana Formation at Salghra section Figure 2.13: Kuldana Formation at Darya gali Figure 2.14: Lumshiwal Formation at Kundla section Figure 2.15: Samana Suk Formation thrusted over Kawagarh Formation at Kundla Figure 2.16: Outcrop of Samana Suk Formation at Thai Barrier Figure 2.17: Samana Suk Formation thrusted over Kawagarh Formation at NathiaGali road Figure 2.18: Contact of Hangu Formation with Kawagarh Formation at NathiaGali Road Figure 2.19: Lumshiwal Formation expose in a nala along NathiaGali Road Figure 2.20: Lumshiwal Formation (Sand Quartzite) Road section along Dor River Figure 2.21: Chichali Formation outcrop on NathiaGali Road Figure 2.22: Hazara Slate Outcrop near NathiaGali Figure 2.23: Chorgali Formation Outcrop near NathiaGali Figure 2.24: Margala Hill Limestone Outcrop near NathiaGali Figure 2.25: Kawagarh Formation Outcrop at Kala Pani. Figure 2.5.1: Contact of Hangu Lockhart and Patala Formation at NathiaGali Road Figure 2.26: Mansehra Granite at Buttle Figure 2.27: Feldspar rich Mansehra granite at AHAL Figure 2.28: Foliated granite genesis outcrop at Battagram Figure 2.29 : Outcrop of Granite gneiss representing the last part of Indian plate nearBesham Figure 2.30: Serpentinized Granite gneiss representing the MMT at Besham

Figure 3.1: Braciopod in Warghal Formation (Nammal Gorge) Figure 3.2 Ammonites in Mianwali Formation (Nammal Gorge) Figure 3.3: Oystershells in Chichali Formation (Rumli) Figure 3.4:Nummulities in Lumshiwal Formation (Rumli) Figure 3.5: Belemnites of Chichali Formation form Changla gali road section Figure 3.6: Cross bedding in Tredian Formation (Nammal Gorge) Figure 3.7: Slump structure in Tredian Formation (Nammal Gorge) Figure 3.8: Honey comb weathering in Datta Formation (Nammal Gorge) Figure 3.9: Cross bedding in Murree Formation (Rumli) Figure 3.10:Ripple Marks in Murree Formation (Rumli) Figure 3.11: Ripple marks in Murree Formation at Salghra section Figure 3.12: Burrows and Borings in Kawagarh Formation at Kundla Section Figure 3.13: Oolites in Samana Suk Formation at Thai Barrier Figure 3.14: Ripple marks in Samana Suk Formation NathiaGali Road Figure 3.15: Quartz dike in Mansehra granite at Battagram Figure 3.16: Calcite veins in Margala hill limestone (Rumli) Figure 3.17: Augen structure in Mansehra granite Figure 4.1: Formation of Thrusts Figure 4.2: Tectonic map of Pakistan (After McDoughal and Khan, 1990). Figure 4.3: Salt Range thrust in Nammal Gorge (Mianwali) Figure 4.4: MBT between Samana Suk and Lockhart Limestone at Rumli (Islamabad Figure 4.5:Duplex structure (Lockhart+Patala Formation) (Rumli) Figure 4.6: Drag fold in Lockhart and Patala Formation (Rumli) Figure 4.7: Concentric fold in Rumli Figure 4.8:Kink fold in Samana Suk Formation across the Dor River Figure 4.9:Concentric and Chevron Fold in Samana Suk Formation on NathiaGali road. Figure 4.10: Normal fault near Battagram

CHAPTER # 1

INTRODUCTION

7 DAY GEOLOGICAL FIELD WORK IN NAMMAL GORGE, RUMLI AREA, HAZARA AREA AND NORTHERN METAMORPHIC ZONE
Our department arranged a field trip of seven days for BS-6th semester (2009-13) from July 07th to 13thJuly 2012.The field trip was related to the Geological mapping, Sequence Stratigraphy, structural Geology and tectonic frame work of Pakistan. We observed the change in relief of area, rock types, sedimentary structures depositional condition, contacts of rock units and geomorphic features. Our main objective was to observe and map different rock units in Rumli and Hazara area.

AREA INTRODUCTION Nammal Gorge


This is an excellent place for studying geology of rocks of Salt range, ranging in age from upper Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Paleocene and Eocene. Nammal dam situated at the beginning of the gorge is built on Nammal Limestone. Excellent and accessible exposures of Datta Formation (Jurassic oil reservoir) are available. Maximum two hours walk from Mianwali road to Nammal dam is worth making.(Western Salt range area) Permian rock units are thrusted over Mianwali planes marking SRT. Salt range dip toward north and its strike is East-west it extends from the East-Jhelum River to the Indus River in west.

RumliArea
2nd day we field work in Rumli .Rumli area is located in the north of Quaid E Azam University (Islamabad).Rumli area is present in Margala rang which is dipping toward north and strike is East-west. Murree Formation is youngest in that area and other older Formation are present over it, which marks a thrust fault and that is MBT. Highly vegetated area and many streams are present there. Area is easily accessible by any type of vehicle and rock units can easily study along the road.

Salghra Section (Murree), Darya Gali &Kundla


3rd day we visited Salghra section near Murree, where we observed massive beds of Murree Formation and its contact with Kuldana Formation. Then we moved toward Murree at location of Darya Gali we observed Kuldana Formation and then visited Kundla section and observed Lumshiwal Formation and observed that Samana suk Formation thrusted over Kawagarh Formation at that locality. Then move toward Abbottabad. We spend 4 nights in Abbottabad.
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Hazara Area
Hazara is a region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Hazara is bounded on the north and east by the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. To the south are the Islamabad Capital Territory and the province of Punjab, whilst to the west lies the rest of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The river Indus runs through the division in a north-south line, forming much of the western border of the division. The total area of Hazara is 18,013 km 4th day we covered the road section from Abbottabad to NathiaGali .We observed the lithologies of different rock unit and mark NGT NathiaGali thrust near NathiaGali. 5th day we mapped all the road section up to NGT, also observed the Changla gali section. 6th we travel to northern metamorphic zone. We observed Mansehra granite on different localities like Buttle, Battagram, and Ahal. We observed MCT at Thakot locality and after that we traveled on Karakorum highway. At Basham we marked MMT

Tarbela Dam
7th day we visited Tarbela dam. We are briefed about the geology of the dam by the dam geologist who is very close friend of our field Incharge. Tarbela Dam on the Indus River in Pakistan is the second largest dam in the world by structural volume and the largest earth filled dam in the world. It is located in Haripur District, Hazara Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 50 kilometers (31 mi) northwest of Islamabad. The dam is 485 feet (148 m) high above the riverbed. The dam forms the Tarbela Reservoir, with a surface area of approximately 250- square-kilometer (97 sq mi). The dam was completed in 1974 and was designed to store water from the Indus River for irrigation, flood control, and the of hydroelectric power generation.

Physiography & Geomorphology Salt Range:


Salt range dip toward north and its strike is East-west it extends from the East-Jhelum River to the Indus River in west. Abrupt change in relief occurred as we entered from Punjab plane to salt range that was due to salt range thrust that is a sequence of folds and fault belts produced due to collision of Eurasian plate and Indian plate. It is youngest thrust system in Pakistan about 0.5 Ma old.

Relief
Sakaser and Tilla Jogian are the highest peaks of Salt Range.

Geomorphic Feature o Gorge


Gorge is a deep narrow passage with steep rocky sides. We observed Nammal gorge in western salt range during our field work.

o Lake
A lake is a large inland body of fresh water. We observed Nammal Lake in western salt range.

Hazara Area
Hazara is a region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It comprises six districts: Abbottabad District, Battagram District, Haripur District, Kohistan District, Mansehra District and now, since 28 January 2011, the new Tor Ghar Distric.

Geography and Climate


The Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir bound Hazara on the north and east. To the south are the Islamabad Capital Territory and the province of Punjab, whilst to the west lies the rest of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The river Indus runs through the division in a north-south line, forming much of the western border of the division. The total area of Hazara is 18,013 km

Geomorphic Features: Braided River


In Hazara, area maximum rivers have braided pattern like Dor River.We observed it alonge the Abbottabad-NathiaGali road.

Meandering River
Indus River in Hazara area has meandering pattern. We observed its pattern on Thakot Bridge and along the Karakorum highway.

Figure 1.0: Dor river along the Abbottabad to NathiaGali Road.


Figure 1.0: Dor river along the Abbottabad to NathiaGali Road.

Figure 1.1 : Indus River at Besham along the Karakorum Highway.


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CHAPTER # 2 STRATIGRAPHY

General stratigraphy of Salt Range and Hazara range


Age Salt range Hazara range

Recent

Miocene Oligocene

Alluvium Kalabagh conglomerate Soan Formation Dhok Pathan Formation Nagri Formation Chingji Formation Kamlial Formation Murree Formation Murree Formation

Eocene

Pliocene

Kuldana Formation Chorgali Formation Skasser Formation Nammal Formation Patala Formation Lockhart Formation Hangu Formation Chorgali Formation Margala hill Limestone Patala Formation Lockhart Formation Hangu Formation

Paleocene

Cretaceous

Kawagarh Formation Lumshiwal Formation Chichali Formation Samana Suk Limestone Shinawiri Formation Datta Formation Kingriali Formation Tredian Formation Mianwali Formation Chhidru Formation Wargal Formation
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Jurassic

Lumshiwal Formation Chichali Formation Samana suk Formation Datta Formation

Triassic

Late Permian

Cambrian

Amb Formation Early Permian Sardhai Formation Warcha Formation Dandot Formation Tobra Formation Baghanwala Formation Jutana Formation Kussak Formation Khewra Formation Hazira Formation Abbottabad Formation Hazara Formation Tanawal Formation

Pre Cambrian Salt range Formation

DAY 1- 7 JULY, 2012


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NAMMAL GORGE Observed Stratigraphy in Nammal Gorge:

Rock unit

Age

Sakkaser Limestone Nammal Formation Patala Formation Lockhart Limestone Hangu Formation Datta Formation Kingriali Formation Tredian Formation Mianwali Formation

Early Eocene Early Eocene Late Paleocene Middle Paleocene Early Paleocene Early Jurassic Late Triassic Middle Triassic Early Triassic Permo-Triassic boundary

Chhidru Formation Wargal limestone

Late Permian Late Permian

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Wargal Limestone
The name Wargal limestone was formalized by Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan which was introduced by Teichert (1966). The Lithology comprises limestone, dolomite of light to medium grey, brownish-grey and olive grey colors. The contact of Wargal limestone with underlying Amb Formation is well defined and is placed at the basal sandy limestone of the Formation above upper most shale unit of Amb Formation. The upper contact with Chhidru Formation is transitional. The unit was observed in Nammal gorge. Thin and thick beds represent the fluctuation in sea level (Supratidal environment), Wargal limestone h deposits in Trasngressive system tract. Fossils of Trilobites, Gastropods and Bivalves were observed. The age of unit is Late Permian on the basis of Brachiopods.

Chhidru Formation
The name Chhidru Formation was introduced by Dunbar (1932) which is now formalized by the Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan. The Formation at the base as described by Kummel and Teichert (1970) has a unit of weathered pale-yellowish grey to medium,(fresh) dark grey in color and thickness of 6 to 13 m. It contains rare at places shale overlying this unit are the beds of calcareous limestone with few sandy limestone. The top most bed of Chhidru Formation contains white sandstone with occasional ripple marks. The sandstone is medium to fine grained. Chhidru Formation was observed In Nammal gorge during our field work. The lower unit of Dolomite, upper unit of nodular limestone and whit sandstone at top was observed (figure 2.1). The contact between Chhidru and Wargal Formation has been marked. The upper most part of Chhidru Formation is white sandstone which contains remains of Ammonites (Figure 3.2). The age of Formation on the basis of Ammonites considered being late Permian.

Mianwali Formation
The name .Mianwali Series was used by Gee and later modified by Kummel (1966) into a Formation. The type section of the Formation is located in Zaluch Nala in western salt range. We observed Mianwali Formation in Nammal gorge (figure 2.1). The Formation consists of following three members
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Kathwai Member
This unit consists of dolostone in the lower part and limestone in upper part. The dolomite is finely crystalline and includes fossil fragments and quartz grains. The upper unit is grey to brownish limestone.

Mittiwali Member
The Lithology consists of grey, fine grained, non-glauconitic limestone with abundant ammonites. The basal art consist of limestone which is less then two meters thick in salt range, but up to 8 meters thick in Khisor range. The rest of unit consists of greenish to grayish shale, silty shale with some sandstone and limestone interbeds.

Narmia Member
Limestone bed of three meters thickness which is basal part of Narmia member and rest of member consist of grey to black shale with interbeds of sandstone and lenticular limestone and dolomite. The top most bed is a grey to brown, massive dolomite. Three members of Mianwali Formation was observed in Nammal gorge during our field work the contact between Mianwali and Tredian Formation has been marked. Fossils of Brachiopods were observed from Mianwali Formation. The age of Formation is Early Triassic

Permo-Triassic Boundary
Permian-Triassic boundary in salt range was placed by some at the top of the dolomite unite of Kathwai member while by others was placed in the middle of a white sandstone which is the heist bed of Chhidru Formation. Kummel and Teichert (1966) shifted it to the base of the dolomite unit of Kathwai member. Permian Triassic boundary is a paraconfromity equivalent in magnitude to at least a Stratigraphic stage. Paleontologist says that this is unconformity. We observed PT boundary in Nammal gorge (figure 2.1)

Tredian Formation
The name Tredian Formation was introduced by Gee (1945). The type locality of the Formation is in Zaluch Nala. The Formation consists of two members:

Landa Member
The Landa member consists of sandstone and shale. The sandstone is micaceous and varies in color from pinkish, reddish grey to greenish grey. It is thin to thick bedded with rile marks and
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slump structures. Tredian Formation has conformable contact with overlying Kingriali Formation (figure 2.2).

Khatkiara Member
The Khatkiara member is massive, thick bedded, white sandstone that grades into the overlying. Two members; Khatkiara member and Landa member of Tredian Formation were observed in Nammal gorge during our field work. Sedimentary structures such as cross bedding and ripple marks were found in Landa member. Khatkiara member containing concretion of iron was observed. On the basis of Stratigraphic position over Mianwali Formation of Early Triassic age, its conformable contact with overlying Kingriali Formation the age is regarded as Middle Triassic.

Kingriali Formation
The name Kingriali Dolomite was used by Gee (1945) and later formalized as Kingriali Formation because of several litho-facies are present. The Formation consists of thin to thick bedded, massive; fine to coarse textured, light greybrown dolomite and dolomitic limestone with interbeds of greenish dolomitic shale and marl in upper part the Formation is widely developed throughout the salt range. The lower contact with the Tredian Formation is marked by inter bedding of sandstone and dolomite. The upper contact with Datta Formation is disconformable. It has transitional contact with the underlying Tredian Formation or Chak Jabbi Formation and disconformable contact with the overlying Datta Formation. Sandy dolomite of Kingriali Formation was observed in Nammal Gorge during our fieldwork (figure 2.2). The contact between Kingriali and Datta Formation has been marked, which is conformable. The age of Formation on the basis of upper and lower contact is regarded as Late Triassic.

Datta Formation:
Data Formation is mainly of continental origin and consists of variegated (red, maroon, grey, green and white) sand stone, shale, siltstone and mud stone with irregularly distributed calcareous, dolomitic, carbonaceous, ferruginous glass sand and fire clay horizons. The fireclay is normally present in the lower part while upper part includes a thick bed of maroon shale easily recognizable in Salt range and Trans-Indus ranges. The Datta Formation is widely developed in the western part of Salt range and in Trans_indus ranges. The Formation is disconformable lower contact with Kingriali Formation and the upper contact with Shinawari Formation is gradational.

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Datta Formation was observed in Nammal gorge during our fieldwork, it contains thick bedded sandstone with some horizon of fireclay and concretion of sulpher. The contact between Datta Formation and Samana suk Formation has been marked (figure 2.3). The age of Formation is regarded as early Jurassic on the basis of Kingriali Formation which is of Late-Triassic.

Hangu Formation
The name Hangu Formation was formalized by Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan for Hangu sand stone of Davies (1930). The Formation consists of variegated sandstone, shale, carbonaceous shale and some nodular, argillaceous limestone in the Nammal gorge. The Formation unconformable overlies the Datta Formation and conformably underlies Lockhart limestone in the salt range. Late rite beds of Hangu Formation has been observed in Nammal gorge during our fieldwork (figure 2.4). The age of Formation is assigned as early Paleocene.

Lockhart Limestone
Davies introduced the name Lockhart Limestone for a Paleocene limestone unit in the Kohat area (1930). Lockhart Formation is consisting of nodular Limestone and at shale. The weathered color of the rock unit is pal-yellow and light grey fresh. The Formation is highly fractured. The Formation conformably and transitionally overlies the Hangu Formation and Patala Formation respectively (figure 24). The Formation is of Paleocene age.

Patala Formation
The term Patala Formation was formalized by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan for the Patala Shale of Davies and Pinfold (1937) and its usage was extended to other parts of the KohatPotwar and Hazara areas .The section exposed in Patala nala is designated as type section in western Salt range. In the Nammal, the Formation consists of shale and marl with subordinate limestone and sandstone .The shale is greenish grey and containing carbonaceous material. The limestone is white to grey and nodular. Coal seems of economic value are present in upper part. Throughout its extent, the
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Patala Formation conformably overlies the Lockhart Limestone. The Patala Formation is conformably (figure 2.4).A thin bed of bituminous shale and horizons of Fire clay, coal and sand were observed. The Formation is richly fossiliferous and contains abundant Foraminifera, mollusk sand ostracodes. The age of Formation is regarded as Late Paleocene.

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Figure 2.0 Contact of Chiddru Formation with Wargal Limestone in Nammal gorge

Figure 2.1: Permo-Triassic boundary in Nammal gorge between Chhidru Formation & Mianwali Formation.
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Figure 2.2: Contact of Tredian Formation& Kingriali Formation in Nammal gorge

Figure 2.3: Contact of Datta Formation, Samana Suk Formation Lockhart Limestone in Nammal gorge.

& Hangu Formation &

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Figure 2.4: Contact of Lockhart Formation Patala Formation & Hangu Formation in Road section Near Nammal gorge

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2 DAY- 8TH JULY 2012


ND

RUMLI (ISLAMABAD)
Observed Stratigraphy in Rumli

Rock unit

Age

Murree Formation

Early Miocene

Kuldana Formation

Middle Eocene

Chorgali Formation

Early to middle Eocene

Margala hill Limestone Patala Formation

Early Eocene Late Paleocene

Lockhart Limestone

Middle Paleocene

Lumshiwal Formation Chichali Formation

Middle Cretaceous Early Cretaceous

Samana suk Formation

Late Jurassic

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Murree Formation
Murree Formation was observed in Rumli, Islamabad during our fieldwork. The Formation consists of purple clay and greenish grey massive bedded sandstone with subordinate intraFormational conglomerate. The basal strata of the Formation consist of light greenish, grey calcareous sandstone and conglomerate. Sand stone of Murree Formation is coarse grained (figure 2.4a). The Formation unconformably overlies various Formation of Eocene age, which is a thrusted contact due to MBT. We observed many sedimentary structures like Ripple marks, Cross bedding of two styles hearing bone cross bedding and trough cross bedding was observed in Murree Formation (figure 3.9). Early Miocene is the age of that Formation.

Margala Hill Limestone


The term Margala Hill limestone of Latif has been formally accepted by Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan .The name is derived from the Margala Hills in Hazara. The Formation consists of limestone with subordinate marl and shale. The limestone is grey, weathering pale grey, fine medium grained, nodular, medium to tick bedded are rarely massive. The marl is grey to brownish grey while the shale is greenish brown to brown in color. The lower and upper contacts with the Patala Formation and Chorgali Formation are conformable (figure 2.6). Margala hill limestone was observed in Rumli (Islamabad) road section during our fieldwork. It was limestone of big nodules with subordinate shale and marl. Calcite veins are observed in that area (figure 3.16). Early Eocene Age of the Formation.

Kuldana Formation
Middle miss (1896) used the name Kuldana series, Latif called Kuldana beds to the rocks of Kuldana Formation. Kuldana Formation was observed in Rumli (Islamabad) road section during our fieldwork. It was variegated shale with occasional beds of limestone (figure 2.10).

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The Formation is composed of olive green shale and gypsum lenses. The Formation has a conformable contact with underlying Chorgali Formation and upper contact with Murree Formation is disconformable. But in Rumli, Chorgali is thrusted over Kuldana Formation (figure 2.5). Before road section observation, we also observed a large fragment of Kuldana Formation along the stream in Rumli area while it has angular unconformable contact with recent alluvial deposits. The type locality is near Kuldana village in Hazara District. Sedimentary structures are Slickenside, Striation, and step and calcite veins are present. The microfossils are present in this Formation. The small pits of marls and gypsum sheet are present.(not observed in Rumli) The age of the Formation is Middle Eocene.

Chorgali Formation:
The Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan has formalized the term Chorgali beds of Pascoe (1920) as Chorgali Formation. In Hazara area, the Formation is composed of thinly inter-bedded limestone and marl .The limestone is lightly nodular and contains chert lenses. Chorgali Formation was observed in Rumli during our fieldwork. It consists of alternative flaggy beds of shale and limestone. Tectonic nodules of Limestone was observed in Rumli area in Chorgali Formation (figure 2.11). Chorgali Formation is thrusted over Kuldana Formation in Rumli (figure 2.5). The age of the Formation is Early Eocene.

Patala Formation
Patala Formation was observed in Rumli Islamabad during our fieldwork. It was shale with grayish color having thin beds of limestone (figure 2.8). Throughout its extent, Patala Formation is conformably overlies Lockhart limestone. We observed that contact in form of Duplex structure in Rumble (figure 4.5). The age of Formation is Early Eocene.

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Lockhart Limestone
Davies (1930) introduced the term Lockhart limestone for a Paleocene limestone. Lockhart limestone was observed in Rumli Islamabad during our field work (figure 4.5). It was limestone with some shale and Calcite veins and Quartz nodules. The limestone is generally bituminous and gives off fetid odor on the fresh surface. We observed MBT between Lockhart and Samana Suk Formation in Rumli (figure 4.4).It belongs to middle Paleocene age.

Lumshiwal Formation
Massive bedded sand stone and shale are observed in Rumli .we observed three different digenetic forms of Lumshiwal Formation in that area (figure 2.7). Lumshiwal Formation belongs to middle cretaceous.

Chichali Formation
We observed dark grey to black shale with sand stone. Chichali shales have slate like behavior in Rumli, large amount of oyster shells found in Chichali Formation in that area (figure 2.9). Only upper contact is observed which is gradational with Lumshiwal Formation. It belongs to early cretaceous age.

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Figure 2.4: Murree Formation showing friable sandstone in Rumli (camera facing NE)

Figure 2.5: Contact of Kuldana Formation and Chorgali Formation in Rumli (camera facing NE)

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Figure 2.6: Contact of Margala Hill Limestone and Chorgali Formation in Rumli(camera facing NE)

Figure 2.7: Outcrop of Lumshiwal Formation in Rumli (camera facing NE)


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Figure 2.8: Patala Formation in Rumli (camera facing EAST)

Figure 2.9: Chichali Formation in Rumli (camera facing SW)


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Figure 2.10: Outcrop of Kuldana Formation in Rumli (camera facing NE)

Figure 2.11: Outcrop of Chorgali Formation showing tectonic nodules in Rumli (camera facing NE)
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DAY 3 - 9TH JULY 2012


SALGHRA, DARYA GALI & KUNDLA SECTION

OBSERVED FORMATIONS AT SALGHRA SECTION: Rock unit Murree Formation Kuldana Formation Age Early Miocene Middle Eocene

OBSERVED FORMATION AT DARYA GALI SECTION:

Rock unit

Age

Kuldana Formation

Middle Eocene

OBSERVED FORMATIONS AT KUNDLA SECTION:

Rock unit Kawagarh Formation Lumshiwal Formation

Age Late Cretaceous Middle Cretaceous

Samana suk Formation

Late Jurassic

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SALGHRA SECTION Murree Formation


Murree Formation is already observed in Rumli but here we observed a different character of Murree Formation at that locality massive bedded sand stone is observed and it has gradational contact with underlying Kuldana Formation (figure 2.12). Ripple marks were observed in Murree Formation at that locality (figure 3.11). Age of Murree Formation is Miocene.

Kuldana Formation
Middle miss (1896) used the name Kuldana series, Latif called Kuldana beds to the rocks of Kuldana Formation. The Formation is composed of olive green shale and gypsum lenses. In Hazara area, the Formation has a conformable contact with underlying Formation and upper contact with Murree Formation is disconformable but at that locality (figure 2.12). In that area, due to it incompetence a large valley develops in Kuldana Formation.

Figure 2.12: Contact between Murree Formation & Kuldana Formation at Salghra section (camera facing NW).
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DARYA GALI SECTION

Kuldana Formation
Darya gali is the type locality of Kuldana Formation. Olive green and mehron shale observed in road section. Shale has splintery character. Kuldana Formation in this area has some different character than Rumli area and Salghra section. Kuldana Formation is the only Formation which consist the sediment remnant of both north and south source. Red gypsum lenses and sand stone are observed in that area and perfect rock cleavage was observed in that sand stone (figure 2.13). Red shale represents the fluvial environment (HST), olive green shale represents the marine environment (TST) and gypsum represents the Supra tidal environment. The age of Kuldana Formation is middle Eocene.

Figure 2.13: Kuldana Formation at its type locality near Darya Gali showing red and olive green shale (camera facing North)

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KUNDLA SECTION Lumshiwal Formation


Lumshiwal Formation was also observed in Rumli but here in Kundla section it has some unique character it contain Impure glauconitic sandstone, brownish grey on fresh surface and yellowish brown on weathered surface along with some shales (figure 2.14). Iron minerals, limonite and Hematite which show that it is deposited in reducing environment in fluvial to marginal marine environment.

Kawagarh Formation
Mainly thick bedded, fine gained and medium to dark grey limestone with intercalations of marl was observed at that locality .The marly part is dark grey to yellowish grey on fresh surface and relatively more yellowish on the weathered surface. The marly part has a dark grey color on the fresh surface. Near Kundla the base of the Kawagarh Formation has a slightly irregular surface with some pebbles and few inches to about one foot long worm tracks (figure 3.12). At that locality Kawagarh Formation shows different character, it contains burrows, borings and Tempestite also observed which indicate the shallow marine environment for Kawagarh Formation (figure 2.15) Contact of Kawagarh Formation with Lumshiwal Formation is observed at Kundla section (figure 2.15)

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Figure 2.14: Outcrop of Lumshiwal Formation at Kundla section (camera facing East)

Figure 2.15 : Contact of Lumshiwal Formation and Kawagarh Formation at Kundla (camera facing North)

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DAY 4&5 (10 & 11 JULY 2012)


TH TH

HAZARA AREA Sedimentation resumed in Hazara with the development of transgressive shoreline and Hangu Formation was formed in Danian. The Hazara and Kashmir basins and adjacent areas experienced the last marine incursion at the close of Danian in which a sequence of carbonates and siliciclastics represented by Lockhart Formation, Patala Formation, Margala Hill Formation and Chorgali Formation were deposited. This was followed by main collision between India and Asia sandwiching the Kohistan Island Arc at 40 to 50Ma. This collision was followed by retreat of sea, uplift of Himalayas, development of a foredeep and deposition of a fluvial package, by meandering river system, from Himalayan provenance namely Murree Formation. DHAMTOR TO CHANGLA GALI ROAD SECTION: Rock unit Margala hill Limestone Chorgali Formation Patala Formation Lockhart Formation Hangu Formation Kawagarh Formation Lumshiwal Formation Chichali Formation Samana Suk Formation Datta Formation Hazara Formation age Late Eocene Early Eocene Late Paleocene Middle Paleocene Early Paleocene Late Cretaceous Middle Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic Early Jurassic Pre Cambrian

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Datta Formation
In the southeast Hazara the best-developed outcrop of the Formation is exposed at Jaster Gali on the Abbottabad Nathiagali Road. The Datta Formation in the south-east Hazara is composed of gritty sublithic arenites, gritty arenites, arenaceous limestones, oolitic and pelletoidal wackestones packstones with occasional dolomitic, marly and shaly horizons. The sandstones are cross-bedded at places. Microconglomerate occurs in the basal portion and contains slate clasts derived from the underlying Hazara Formation. Laterite bands and coaly layers occur at places. Fireclay is also intercalated at places. Age of Datta Formation is Early Jurassic.

Samana suk Formation


The Samana Suk Formation generally represents Tidal to supratidal environment. The Formation is generally medium grey on fresh surface.Massive beds of Samana suk Formation was exposed near Thai barriers on Dhamtor locality and observed on many localities along the and across the Dor River. Grey to yellowish limestone was observed with Oolites (figure 3.13), and yellow dolomitic patches, streaks, and bands are also present especially towards the lower and middle parts.Huge amount of limestone is extracting from that outcrop form construction material (figure 2.16). Samana suk Formation has thrusted contact with Kawagarh Formation (figure 2.170. Samana suk Formation is in highly deformed condition in that area, many types of folds and ductile deFormation observed along the Dor River. Concentric fold, Chevron folds, Kink fold, Multi Vergent fold Drag folds are observed (figure4.8, 4.9) Age of Samana suk Formation is Late Jurassic.

Chichali Formation
The unit is exposed and observed at a number of places in our studied area as thin bands (figure 2.21). However, at Changla gali and near Kundla the exposure is fairly wide. The Formation is composed of blackish grey to grey splintery shale. It weathers to brownish black to rusty grey shades. At places, shale contains rounded or elliptical variegated clayey nodules with concentric layers. At places, subordinate beds of sandstone are present. In Hazara Basin it hardly contains fossils. However, on Changla gali road section it contains belemnites (figure 3.5). Because of its incompetent nature, the shale is commonly squeezed and forms topographic depressions. The Formation was deposited in a restricted anoxic environment in Early Cretaceous time period.
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Lumshiwal Formation
Lumshiwal Formation was observed in Rumli and Kundla section, but here it has different character, the Formation comprises four principal lithologies that include sandstone/quartzite, marl/shale, arenaceous limestone and arenaceous dolomite in the Hazara basin. Some impure glauconitic sandstone, brownish grey on fresh surface and yellowish brown on weathered surface along with some shales occur also. In that area Lumshiwal Formation is observed in a nala on Nathiagali road and on Changla gali road section (figure 2.19, 2.20). Age of Lumshiwal Formation is Middle Cretaceous

Kawagarh Formation
Thick-bedded grey to olive green micritic (very fine grained) limestone with subordinate marl and calcareous shale observed in our fieldwork at locality of Kala Pani,North of NathiaGali thrust (Fig 2.25). One of the tectonically significant Formations of the Hazara Basin, the Kawagarh Formation, shows two distinct facies north and south of the Nathiagali Fault. The northern facies are exposed near Giah, Borian and Kala Pani whereas the southern facies outcrop at Changla Gali. We observed Kawagarh Formation on both localities during our field work. The Kawagarh Formation in the sections north of the Nathiagali thrust is mainly thick bedded, fine gained and medium to dark grey limestone. The basal part is relatively coarse grained on fresh surface. It is whitish grey or yellowish grey on weathered surface. The middle part is medium to thick bedded, medium to dark grey and breaks generally with conchoidal fracture. The basal portion at Kala Pani is nodular. A few yellow dolomitic bands are also present within Kawagarh Formation. South of the NathiaGali Thrust the upper part of Kawagarh Formation is marly and intercalations of marl are also present. This part is especially well developed on the Dunga Gali pipeline road and at Changla Gali. The marly part is dark grey to yellowish grey on fresh surface and relatively more yellowish on the weathered surface. The marly part has a dark grey color on the fresh surface. Near Kundla the base of the Kawagarh Formation has a slightly irregular surface with some pebbles and few inches to about one foot long worm tracks. Kawagarh Formation is marked by the occurrence of Globotruncana Helvetica followed by Globotruncana sigali at Turonian, at Giah, and Kala Pani Sections. Lower Coniacian is recognized by the presence of Globotruncana sigali in Changla Gali sections.

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Contact between Kawagarh has disconformable contact with underlying Hangu Formation and have faulted upper contact with Samana suk Formation in our field area (figure 2.18). Age of Kawagarh Formation is late Cretaceous.

Hangu Formation
We observed black shale, which marks the on set of a transgression that deposited black shale. The Formation consists of coarse to fine grained clay/iron oxides cemented quartz arenites at the base which grades to silty coal to the top. The top of the Hangu Formation contains bauxitic clays that vary in color from off-white to black and weathers to rusty grey to orange. Subordinate carbonaceous shales and sandstones are also present at places. Hangu Formation also exposed on that road section, coal is mining from Hangu Formation along the Dor River (figure 2.18). Depositional Hangu Formation is only present at Changla gali road section which is observed during our field work. Hangu Formation has disconformable contact with Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation. Age of Hangu Formation is Early Paleocene.

Lockhart Formation
Lockhart Limestone was observed on Changla gali road section and north of NathiaGali thrust (figure 2.5.1). The Formation is light grey, pale grey, bluish grey and blackish grey on fresh surface while the weathering colors are generally dirty grey with dark patches but pale grey and rusty grey patches are also seen. On the outcrop it is fine to medium grained and gives foeted smell on freshly broken surface. The limestone has a fair amount of marly intercalations. Southeast of the Nathiagali Thrust, in the section at Changla Gali, the limestone is found frequently intercalated with marls. Shales have not developed. In the areas northwest of the Nathiagali Thrust, the limestone is dark grey and weathers to bluish grey. At the base the limestone is massive, coarse grained and does not contain marly intercalations. The middle part is medium bedded and marly horizons are absent. However, towards the top the Formation is highly nodular and contains marls around the nodules. Age of Lockhart limestone is Middle Paleocene.

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Patala Formation
The Formation is composed of shale and occasional limestone bands with abundant larger benthic foraminifera. The shales are khaki, yellowish brown to yellowish grey on weathered surface and on the fresh surface they are khaki to grey. At other places, the shales are greenish brown or greenish grey on fresh surface and brown to dark brown on the weathered surface. The shales are splintery and some marly bands near the contact with the Lockhart limestone are present (figure 2.5.1).At Changla gali it has gradational contact with Lockhart limestone. Age of Patala Formation is upper Paleocene to lower Eocene age.

Chorgali Formation
The Formation outcrop observed near Changla gali, south of the Nathiagali Fault in the Hazara Basin. The Formation comprises of limestone, marls and shales. The shale is khaki to off-whitish grey. The limestones are light grey on fresh surface, weather to pale grey and are nodular. The size of the nodules is smaller than that of Lockhart limestone or Margala Hill Formations. They generally contain marl around the nodules. The limestone is rarely massive and generally shows a flaggy habit. The flaggy habit is due to the increasing marly intercalations. At places, the Limestones are fine grained and break with conchoidal fracture. Occasionally, these limestones weather to a chalky appearance. The marls are generally cream to off-white in color and sometimes give light shades of grey (figure 2.23). The Margala Hill Formation passes upwards with a gradual change of facies into the Chorgali Formation. Age of Chorgali Formation is early to Middle Eocene.

Margala Hill Limestone


The Formation is mainly a fossiliferous, medium grained to fine grained nodular limestone with marly horizons. It is bluish grey and yellowish grey on the weathered surface and on the fresh surface is generally dark to blackish grey. The lower part may contain frequent marly horizons. The nodularity of Margala Hill Limestone is more prominent as compared to the Lockhart limestone. Generally the limestone is medium grained but fine-grained horizons occur which may break with sub-conchoidal fracture. We observed this Formation near Khaira gali during our field work (figure 2.24). Age of Margala Hill Limestone is Middle to Late Eocene.

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Figure 2.16: Outcrop of Samana Suk Formation at Thai Barrier (camera facing West)

Figure 2.17: Samana Suk Formation thrusted over Kawagarh Formation at Kala Pani (camera facing NE)
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Figure 2.18: Contact of Hangu Formation with Kawagarh Formation at Kala Pani (camera facing East)

Figure 2.19: Lumshiwal Formation expose in a nala along NathiaGali Road (camera facing South)
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Figure 2.20: Lumshiwal Formation (Sand Quartzite due to digenesis) Road section along Dor River

Figure 2.21: Chichali Formation outcrop on NathiaGali Road (camera facing NE)
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Figure 2.22: Hazara Slate Outcrop near NathiaGali (camera facing NE)

Figure 2.23: Chorgali Formation Outcrop showing deformation due to NGT near NathiaGali (camera facing NE)
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Figure 2.24: Margala Hill Limestone Outcrop near NathiaGali (camera facing SW)

Figure 2.25: Kawagarh Formation Outcrop at Ghia (camera facing East)


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Figure 2.5.1: Contact of Hangu Formation and Lockhart Formation at NathiaGali Road (camera facing SE)

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NORTH

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NE

EAST

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DAY 6 -(12 JULY 2012)


TH TH

NOTHERN METAMORPHIC ZONE Abbottabad to Besham

Mansehra Granite (BATAL)


We observed Mansehra granite at different localities; firstlywe observed it at Batal where Mansehra granitealigns along the shear zone (Batal Shear zone). That was an I type granite which is formed by melting of pure basement rocks. At that locality Mansehra granite contain Quartz, slightly feldspar and tourmaline minerals.(figure 2.26)

Mansehra Granite (Ahal)


Mansehra Granite was also observed at locality of Ahal during our field work, at that locality granite is enriched with white colored feldspar mineral. Large amount of feldspar is extracting from that Outcrop. (Figure 2.27)

Mansehra Granite (Battagram)


Intensity of shearing increase at Battagram due to Batal and Battagram shear zone combine effect. Due to such a high shear, Mansehra granite transform into foliated Granite gneiss and quantity of mica increase. Mica gives granite a shiny appearance (figure 2.28). Augen and Boudinage structures are observed at Battagram (figure 3.17).

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Figure 2.26: Mansehra Granite at Batal (camera facing East)

Figure 2.27: Feldspar rich Mansehra granite at AHAL (camera facing W) 46

Figure 2.28: Foliated granite gneiss outcrop at Battagram (camera facing NORTH)

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BESHAM

Besham is the locality on Karakorum highway where Indian plate is colliding with the Eurasian plate. Main Mantle Thrust is passing from that locality; we visited Besham area during our field work. There we observed the outcrop of Granite gneiss which was representing the last portion of continental part of Indian plate and start of Higher Himalayas. That rock color was light due to abundant of quartz and was very hard, coarse grained (figure 2.29). As we move further toward Besham, that granite gneisss color changes to green which is due to addition of minerals like Serpentine, Predotite and garnet. That Serpentinized granite gneissrepresent the Main Mantle Thrust (figure2.30).

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Figure 2.29 : Outcrop of Granite gneiss representing the last part of Indian plate near Besham(camera facing NE)

Figure 2.30: Serpentinized Granite gneiss representing the MMT at Besham

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Kohistan Island Arc (KIA)


The Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) developed in response to northward-directed subduction of NeoTethys underneath Asia during late Jurassic to Cretaceous time (Tahirkheli,1979; Searle, 1987; Hamidullah & Onstot, 1992). In the NW Himalaya, collision between continental India and the KIA is interpreted as having occurred at between 50~55 Ma (Treloar, 1989). Rocks with in the suture zone, which separates the Indian Plate from the structurally overlying Kohistan island arc, include blueschist facies. The KIA represents a 40 km thick pile of mafic, ultamafic and calc-alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks and has been widely accepted as a vertical section through an intraoceanic island arc (Hamidullah & Onstot, 1992). It covers 36000 square kilometer area in western Himalayas, Karakorum and eastern Hindukush. The arc is oriented east west and comprises a variety of volcanic and plutonic rocks and subordinate sedimentary rocks that have undergone varying degrees of deFormation and metamorphism. It is divided into Ladakh and Kohistan Arc by the north-south trending Nanga Parbat - Haramosh massif and is underlain by the Indian crustal plate (Seeber & Armbuster, 1979). The MKT towards north and MMT towards south bound the Kohistan island Arc which merges laterally in India and Tibet to form a single suture, called as the Indus Tsangpo suture. In Afghanistan, towards west of the KIA, the MKT and MMT join one another and merge with the left lateral Kunar Fault.

Main Mantle Thrust (MMT)


The MMT marks the northern boundary of the northern deformed fold and thrust belt. Obduction of the Kohistan Island Arc occurred along the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) with major uplift occurring between 30-15 MA (Tahirkheli et al, 1979; Zeitler et al,1985). The MMT dips northwards between 25-45o (Malinconico, 1986) and is the southernmost thrust involving lower crust (LeFort, 1975; Bard, 1983). The MMT exhibits major swing in its trend towards northeast giving rise to a re-entrant within the Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) sequence. This re-entrant is called as Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif and is composed of more than 15 km thick Proterozoic gneisses and schists (Madin,1986). Fission track studies by Zeitler (1982) suggest that the MMT had stopped moving by 15 MA. The MMT is the westward continuation of the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone in India. The convergence which resulted in continent-arc-continent collision (KaraKorum-Kohistan-India), however, did not cease with the Formation of MMT, but rather continued since Eocene at a rate of 5 mm per year (Patriat and Archache, 1984).

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Figure 2.31: Tectonic Map of North Pakistan (modified after Pegler & Das,1998). B : Battagram BT: Batal Thrust PT: Panjal Thrust TSZ:Thakot Shear Zone MMT: Main Mantle Thrust MBT: Main boundary Thrust KF: Khannian Fault

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CHAPTER # 3 FOSSILS & SEDIMENTARY SRUCTURES

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Observed fossils:

Figure 3.1: Braciopod in Warghal Formation (Nammal Gorge)

Figure 3.2Ammonites in Mianwali Formation (Nammal Gorge)

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Figure 3.3: Oyster shells in Chichali Formation

Figure 3.4:Nummulites

Figure 3.5: Belemnites of Chichali Formation from Changla gali road section

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Observed Sedimentary structures:

Figure 3.6: Cross bedding in Tredian Formation (Nammal Gorge)

Figure 3.7: Slump structure in Tredian Formation (Nammal Gorge) 55

Figure 3.8: Honey comb weathering in Datta Formation (Nammal Gorge)

Figure 3.9: Cross bedding in Murree Formation (Rumli)

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Figure 3.10:Ripple Marks in Murree Formation (Rumli)

Figure 3.11: Ripple marks in Murree Formation Salghra section (camera facing SE)

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Figure 3.12: Burrows and Borings in Kawagarh Formation , Kundla Section (camera facing N)

Figure 3.13: Oolites in Samana Suk Formation ,Thai Barrier

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Figure 3.14: Ripple marks in Samana Suk Formation Nathia Gali Road

Figure 3.15: Quartz dike in Mansehra granite at Battagram (camera facing North)

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Figure 3.16: Calcite veins in Margala hill Limestone (Rumli)

Figure 3.17: Augen structure in Mansehra granite gneisses (Battagram) (camera facing North) 60

CHAPTER # 4

STRUCTURE OF THE FIELD AREAS

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Tectonic Framework of Pakistan


In the late Cretaceous Period about 90 million years ago, subsequent to the splitting off from Gondwanaland of conjoined Madagascar and India, the Indian Plate split from Madagascar. It began moving north, at about 20 cm/yr (8 in/yr), and is believed to have begun colliding with Asia between 50 and 55 million years ago, in the Eocene epoch of the Cenozoic Era, although this is contested, with some authors suggesting it was much later at around 35 million years ago. If the collision occurred between 50 and 55 Ma, the Indian Plate would have covered a distance of 2,000 to 3,000 km (1,200 to 1,900 mi), moving faster than any other known plate. In 2007, German geologists suggested that the reason the Indian Plate moved so quickly is that it is only half as thick as the other plates, which formerly constituted Gondwanaland. The collision with the Eurasian Plate along the boundary between India and Nepal formed the orogenic belt that created the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalaya Mountains, as sediment bunched up like earth before a plow. There are five major thrust system forms due to this collision. MKT (MAIN KARAKORUM THRUST) MMT (MAIN MANTLE THRUST) MCT (MAIN CENTRAL THRUST) MBT (MAIN BOUNDARY THRUST) SRT (SALT RANGE THRUST)

The Indian Plate is currently moving northeast at 5 cm/yr (2 in/yr), while the Eurasian Plate is moving north at only 2 cm/yr (0.8 in/yr). This is causing the Eurasian Plate to deform and the India Plate to compress at a rate of 4 m/yr (0.15 in/yr).

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Figure 4.1: Formation of Thrusts by collision of Indian plate and Eurasian plate.

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MKT (Main Karakorum Thrust)


MKT is oldest thrust system form by collision of Eurasian and Indian plates, world highest peak Mount Everest from due to Formation of MKT, and called as northern suture zone.

MMT (Main Mantle Thrust)


Main mantle thrust form after the MKT; mean its younger then MKT. higher Himalayas present between MMT & MCT. It formed by continental vs. continental collision of Indian and Eurasian plate. It contains a syntaxes structure. MMT also called as southern suture zone. We observed MMT at locality of Basham at Karakorum highway during our field work.

MCT (Main central Thrust)


MCT is present in north of MBT. Main central thrust is younger then MMT MCT is southern suture zone. WeObserved MCT at the locality of Thakot. Where Lesser Himalayas are at one side of Thakot Bridge and on other side, Higher Himalayas is present.

MBT (Main boundary Thrust)


The Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) is a regional thrust dipping northward and oriented subparallel to the MMT. It is located at the northern margin of Indian Plate and is younger to MMT in age. It comprises a set of north-dipping faults and forms a boundary between the Sub Himalayas and the Lesser Himalayas. It has generated low to moderately high and frequent seismicity, with characteristically shallow focal depths. MBT is present in the north of salt range thrust and it is older than S.R.T. During our field we marked MBT in Rumli (Islamabad) where Eocene Samana suk Formations thrusted over Paleocene Lockhart Limestone.

Panjal Thrust Structure


The Panjal Thrust structure is sited parallel to MBT on the eastern limb of the Syntaxes. The Panjal Thrust probably separates from MBT about 6 km south of Balacot and continues beneath Kaghan Valley alluvium up to Ghari Habib Ullah. Panjal Thrust is an active fault and represents southeastern tectonics of the area. Panjal Fault appears as reverse fault with strike-slip component, in the south of Abbottabad. Panjal thrust divide lesser Himalayas into two parts

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Southern sedimentary zone/Southern Hazara


Also called as Attock Hazara Fold and Thrust belt.

Northern Igneous and Metamorphic zone/Northern Hazara NathiaGali Thrust


Another thrust in between Panjal thrust and MBT that is known as NathiaGali thrust. Hazara slates are not present in south of NathiaGali thrust. NGT was marked near NathiaGali during our field work where Precambrian Hazara Formation thrusted over Eocene Chorgali Formation.

Salt Range Thrust


Salt range thrust is a sequence of folds and fault belts that produced due to collision of Eurasian plate and Indian plate. It is youngest thrust system in Pakistan about 0.5 Ma old. SRT dip toward MBT in northward and it extend from Jhelum River in the east, to Indus River in west. it bounded by Jhelum (L.L) strike slip fault in the east and Kalabagh (R.L) strike slip fault in west. We marked SRT in Nammalgorge (western part of Salt range) where Permian succession is thrust over Mianwali Plane.

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Figure 4.2: Tectonic map of Pakistan (After McDoughal and Khan, 1990).

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Structure of Field Area:


Our field work area is structurally very complex due to major thrust system. Rocks were in highly deformed and many type of structures such as folds faults were observed during our field work.

Followings are some structural features that were observed during our field work. o Salt Range Thrust in Nammal Gorge. o Main Boundary Thrust in Rumli (Islamabad). o Duplex structure in Lockhart and Patala Formation in Rumli. o Drag fold in Lockhart and Patala Formation in Rumli. o Concentric fold in Rumli. o Kink fold in Samana Suk Formation across the Dor River. o Concentric and Chevron Fold in Samana Suk Formation on NathiaGali road. o Normal fault near Battagram.

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Figure 4.3: Salt Range thrust in Nammal Gorge (Mianwali)

MBT

Figure 4.4: MBT between Samana Suk and Lockhart Limestone at Rumli (Islamabad) 68

Figure 4.5:Duplex structure (Lockhart Limestone and Patala Formation) (Rumli) (camera facing NE)

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Figure 4.6: Drag fold in Lockhart Limestone and Patala Formation (Rumli Camera facing NE)

Figure 4.7: Concentric fold in Rumli (camera facing NW)

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Figure 4.8:Kink fold in Samana Suk Formation across the Dor River

Figure 4.9:Concentric and Chevron Fold in Samana Suk Formation on NathiaGali road.(Camera facing East)

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Figure 4.10: Normal fault near Battagram (camera facing NORTH)

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CHAPTER # 5

GEOLOGIAL MAPPING

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Introduction to Geological Mapping


Map is a representation of large area and its features on a piece of paper or chart. Map is helpful in finding a particular point or an area in large outcrops. In Geology, we use topographic maps to show geography of a particular area. A base map is one on which we plot our geological observations on. During mapping we keep a certain scale like 1:25,000. This scale depends upon the distance we are mapping. Larger the distance, larger will be the scale. Pace and compass mapping is a simple type of mapping in which, by only taking bearing using the compass, we can map any area or locality. It is easy because no equipment or manpower is needed. You yourself can map any area with no trouble. It is simplest way of locating your point of interest.

Mapping Locality
We done mapping in the Rumbli (Islamabad) and Dhamtor-Nathiagali road section. The tracks were all zigzag and we took readings and noted down their features, and dip strike.At Rumbli we mapped the rock unit from Margalla Hill Limestone to Samana suk Formation.In 2nd area we map all the road section which contain rock units from Precambrian Hazara Formation, Jurassic Datta and Samana Suk Formation upto Eocene Chorgali Formation. We mark different faults in our mapping area like MBT in Rumbli between Lockhart and Sammana Suk Formation(figure 4.4).Nathiagali thrust in Hazara area between Hazara Formation and chorgali Formation. We also mark many types of folds and small faults in mapping area,we observed drag folds, carinate fold, concentric fold in Samana suk Formation on Dhamtour-NathiaGali road. A drag fold was also observed in Rumli, between Lockhart Limestone and Patala Formation.

Scale
Maps are prepared on scale of 1:25,000; mean 1 inch on map is equals to 25,000 inches on ground.

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Maps:
Geological map of Rumli (Islamabad), Lesser Himalayas. Geological map of Dhamtour to NathiaGali thrust, Hazara , Lesser Himalayas.

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CHAPTER # 6

ECONIMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE AREA

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Introduction
Economics of any country depend upon the natural resources present in it. In Pakistan nature has gifted abundant natural resources. Salt range and Hazara range contains abundant mineral deposits and building materials, which are used in industry as crude material. It has large deposits of Halite, Gypsum, Phosphate, Potash, Coal, Limestone, Dolomite, Silica sand, Iron ores, Petroleum, Radioactive minerals, clay sand etc.

Halite
The main salt production comes from Billianwala member in salt range, where several salt mines are established in the areas of Khewra, Warchha and Kalabagh. The second largest salt mine Khewra Salt Mine is present in Billianwala member of Precambrian age of Salt rage. Massive beds of Halite are embedded in red coloured marl. Salthas been mined at Khewra since 320 BC, in an underground area of about 110 square kilometers (42 sq mi). Khewra salt mine has estimated total of 220 million tonnes of rock salt deposits. The current production from the mine is 325,000 tons salt per annum. The mine-head buildings have 19 stories, with 11 below ground. Only 50% salt is extracted and50% is left as pillars to keep the mountain. The salt-mine is 288 meters (940 ft) above sea level and extends around 730 meters (2,400 ft) inside the mountains from the mine-mouth. The cumulative length of all tunnels is more than 40 kilometers (25 mi).There is seven thick salt seams with a cumulative thickness of about 150 meters. At places the rock salt is 99% pure. Salt is transparent, white, pink, reddish to beef-color red. There are beautiful alternate bands of red and white color salt.

Gypsum
Thick deposits of Gypsum are present in Bhander Kas member of Salt range Formation, through which gypsum is mined. The thickness of the Bhander kas gypsum member is more than 80.Gypsum is used primarily in the plaster-making industry. Crude gypsum is used as a fluxing agent, fertilizer, filler in paper and textiles, and retarder in Portland cement. About three fourths of the total production is calcined for use as plaster of Paris and as building materials in plaster, cement, board products, and tiles and blocks. Gypsum plasters a white cementing material made by partial or complete dehydration of the mineral gypsum, commonly with special retarders or hardeners added. Applied in a plastic state (with water), it sets and hardens by chemical recombination of the gypsum with water.

Rock Phosphate
Rock phosphate is present in the upper part of Abbottabad Formation if Paleozoic age. These phosphates occur with dolomite and cherty dolomite. It is also occur in Chichali Formation

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exposed in Kohat area. Low grade phosphatic nodules are also known from Paleozoic Patala Formation in eastern and central salt range. Phosphate rock is mined, beneficiated, and either solubilized to produce wet-process phosphoric acid, or smelted to produce elemental phosphorus. Phosphoric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce the fertilizer triple super phosphate or with anhydrous ammonia to produce the ammonium phosphate fertilizers. Elemental phosphorus is the base for furnace-grade phosphoric acid, phosphorus penta sulfide, phosphorus pent oxide, and phosphorus tri chloride. Approximately 90% of phosphate rock production is used for fertilizer and animal feed supplements and the balance for industrial chemicals. For general use in the fertilizer industry, phosphate rock or its concentrates preferably have levels of 30% phosphorus pent oxide (P2O5), reasonable amounts of calcium carbonate (5%), and<4% combined iron and aluminum oxides. In addition to phosphate fertilizers for agriculture, phosphorus from rock phosphate is also used in animal feed supplements, food preservatives, anti-corrosion agents, cosmetics, fungicides, ceramics, water treatment and metallurgy.

Limestone
Limestone is far most abundant mineral commodity in Pakistan contains vast reservoirs in many localities. In salt range Wargal Limestone, Lockhart limestone, Sakesar limestone, Nammal Formation and Chak Jabbi limestone indicated major Limestone. More than 95% limestone issued in cement making, so this is the reason that Pakistans many cement industries are present in Salt Range areas. Limestone is used in variety of purposes due to variation of composition. The more common uses for which these rocks are suitable include concrete and other aggregate, crushed rock for road metal and other uses, agricultural limestone, riprap, and building stone.

Potash
Potash is a key ingredient in fertilizers that enhances water retention of plants, increases crop yields and plants' disease resistance. In feed supplements, the key function of potash is to contribute to animal growth and milk production. Potash is also used to produce glass, ceramics, soaps etc.

Iron Ores
Sedimentary iron ore deposits are known to occur in upper Indus basin in salt range and Hazara range. The large deposits of Iron, though of low quality are found in Sakesar in Salt range. In Hazara two sedimentary iron Horizons are present, in red shale of Jurassic age at Galdanian and Chure Gali and in Hangu Formation of Paleocene age.

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Iron ore that is mined is used for making steel. Raw iron by itself is not as strong and hard as needed for construction and other purposes. So, the raw iron is alloyed with a variety of elements(such as tungsten, manganese, nickel, vanadium, chromium) to strengthen and harden it, making useful steel for construction, automobiles, and other forms of transportation such as trucks, trains and train tracks. While the other uses for iron ore and iron are only a very small amount of the consumption, they provide excellent examples of the ingenuity and the multitude of uses that man can create from our natural resources. Powdered iron: used in metallurgy products, magnets, high-frequency cores, auto parts, catalyst .Radioactive iron (iron 59): in medicine, tracer element in biochemical and metallurgical research. Iron blue: in paints, printing inks, plastics, cosmetics (eye shadow), artist colors, laundry blue, paper dyeing, fertilizer ingredient, baked enamel finishes for autos and appliances, industrial finishes. Black iron oxide: as pigment, in polishing compounds, metallurgy, medicine, magnetic inks, in ferrites for electronics industry.

Clay
The term clay is a natural, earthy, fine grained, material, largely composed of hydrous alluminium silicates. Deposits of clay are wide spreading in time and space in Pakistan. The clay is classified into four different categories: china clay, fireclay, fullers earth and bentonite. Fireclay and benonite are present in salt range and Hazara range.

Fire Clay
Fire clay deposits are reported from Datta Formation, Hangu Formation and Patala Formation in the salt range. The following reservoirs of Fire clay are present in the salt range. The principal uses of fire clay are in the manufacture of fire brick and of various accessory utensils, such as crucibles, saggers, retorts, and glass pots, used in the metalworking industries. Beds of Bentonite are known to occur in the rocks of siwalik group in upper Indus basin.

Coal
Pakistan contains large deposits of low quality coal of Tertiary age. The salt range containsmajor coal fields of the country. The salt range province contains two horizons, which areMakarwal Coal and Khushab Dandot coal fields. This coal is present in Hungu Formation ineastern part of the salt arrange and other in Patala Formation, which is formed in all over saltrange but coal of economic value is only present in central salt range area. For many centuries, coal was burned in small stoves to produce heat in homes and factories. Today, the most important useof coal, both directly and indirectly, is still as a fuel. The largest single consumer of coal as a fuel is the electrical power industry. The combustion of coal in power generating plants is used to make steam which, in turn, operates turbines and generators. Coal is no longer widely used to heat homes and buildings, as was the case a half century ago, but it is still used in 79

industries such as paper production, cement and ceramic manufacture, iron and steel production, and chemical manufacture f or heating and for steam generation. Another use f or coal is in the manufacture of coke. Coke is nearly pure carbon produced when soft coal is heated in the absence of air. In most cases, one ton of coal will produce 0.7 ton of coke in this process. Coke is of value in industry because it has a heat value higher than any form of natural coal. It is widely used in steel making and in certain chemical processes.

Feldspar
Feldspar is used in various industries, but it is mainly used in thermal industries such as in the making of pottery, porcelain, faience, glass and metal painting through functioning enamel. A little amount of it, not more than 10 %, is used for other purposes like the filling materials, painting and for the making of some sorts of soap. Feldspar is taking its economic value when found separately or when found separable. For this reason, it is accessible to extract it from the veins that contain it in the rocky base. An outcrop of feldspar is observed near Ahal during our field work (figure 2.27)

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GYPSUM

ROCK PHOSPHATE

LIMESTONE

POTASH

IRON ORE

FELDSPAR

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CHAPTER # 7

A VISIT OF TARBELA DAM

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INTRODUCTION
Tarbela Dam one of the biggest earthll dam is built on a very deep and difficult foundation of alluvium. The dam is located on the Indus River at about 70 km northwest of Rawalpindi. Special thanks to Sir Abdul Hannan and his friend (Geologist at Tarbela Dam), because of them we were able to visit the world largest storage dam The Tarbela Dam. The dam is 485 feet (148 m) high above the riverbed. The dam forms the Tarbela Reservoir, with a surface area of approximately 250-square-kilometre (97 sq mi). The dam was completed in 1974 and was designed to store water from the Indus River for irrigation, flood control, and the generation of hydroelectric power.

GEOLOGY
Tarbela Dam is located in the Hazara Hills, which are part of the mountain group Himalayas. The Hazara Hills are composed of crystalline and metamorphic rock with non-fossiliferous sedimentary deposits and gabbroic intrusions, all ranging in age from Precambrian to Permian. The present Geologic structure is the result of extensive folding, shearing and faulting associated with regional crystal deFormation arising from the northward subduction of the Indian Subcontinental Plate below the Eurasian Plate. There are three distinct geological Formations at the Tarbela dam site: the Salkhala Formation, forming the right bank; the Hazara Formation forming the bedrock base of the Indus valley; and the Kingriali Formation, forming the left bank. The general orientation of bedding indicates that the banks of the river are the limbs of an anticline, the axis of which has been eroded by the lndus River. The geological mismatch between the right and left banks is considered to be the result of displacement along a nearly vertical fault running along the right side of the valley. The right and left banks are separated by the 6000 ft. (1.8 km) wide ood plain of the Indus River. The river ows past the site in a braided stream pattern on alluvial deposite.

Right Bank Geology


The right bank is formed by the Salkhala Formation, which is characterized by an extreme variety of rock and intense tectonism. It includes a euxinic {deposited in an anaerobic environment} calcareous member which overlies a chloritic schist member. An overthrust has cut the previously folded strata of the Formation into wedges and heaped them into a pile. The resulting structure consists of a group of overturned and faulted folds, oriented generally in an upstream-downstream direction. The chloritic schist member of the Salkhala constitutes the major part of the abutment east of Gate Shaft 1. It also forms the downstream parts of the tunnels, and the foundations of the 83

stilling basins and the powerhouse. In the latter areas the chloritic schist has been juxtaposed by faulting and folding with carbonaceous schist, limestone and gypsum belonging normally to the calcareous member.

Left Bank Geology


The left bank is formed by the Kingriali Formation. The Kingriali Formation consists of dolomitic limestone with phyllite, quartzite and sills of basic igneous rock. Thick beds of quartzite and phyilite, the latter with minor intercalations of limestone, outcrop at the base of the MED left abutment and in the approach channel of the Service Spillway. The Formation continues eastward with massive dolomitic limestone and phyllite. Continuing eastward, the left abutment of dam consists of a competent and massive unit of small and medium gently folded quartzite beds. The contact between the dolomitic and quartzite units is marked by a brecciated shear zone with weathered phyllite oriented parallel to the bedding planes.

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FIGURE SHOWING TWO SPILLWAYS OF

TARBELA DAM

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REFERENCES
BENDER.K.F, RAZA.A.H,Geology of Pakistan Kazmi, A. H. and M.Q. Jan, 1997, Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan; Graphic Publishers, Karachi. Pakistan. Afzal, Jamil, and Daniels, C.H.v., 1991, Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment interpretation of the Paleocene to Eocene Patala and Nammal Formation from Khairabad-East, western Salt Range, Pakistan: Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research Haque, A.F.M.M., 1956, The Foraminifera of the Ranikot and the Laki of Nammal Gorge, Salt Range: Geological Survey of Pakistan Memoirs, Research PaperBy Shahid Jamil Sameeni On Salt Range. Research Paper By Naveed Ahsan And M.Nawaz Chaudhry On Geology Of Hettangian To Middle Eocene Rocks Of Hazara And Kashmir Basins, Northwest Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Abbasi, I. A., 1994. Clay Minerals in the Himalayan Foreland Basin Sediments: Implications for Progressive Unroofing of an Orogenic Belt. In: Geology in South Asia-I, Proceedings of the First South Asia Geological Congress Islamabad, Pakistan: February 23-27, 1992. Eds., Ahmed, R. and Sheikh, A.M., Ahsan, N., Iqbal, M. A. and Chaudhry, M.N., 1994. Deposition and Diagenesis of Kawagarh Formation, Changla Gali, Murree-Ayubia Road, Hazara, Pakistan. Pak. J. Geol., V. 2 & 3 No.1, . 41-52. Ahsan, N., Chaudhry, M N. and A.A. Khawaja, 2001c. Tithonian to Danian Sedimentation in Hazara Basin, Northern Pakistan. Abstract Vol. Third Nepal Geological Congress, Sept. 26-28, 2001 Ahsan, N., Chaudhry, M.N. and Masood, K.R., 2001d. Sedimentology and palynology of Paleocene Eocene sediments of lower Neelum valley, Northwest Lesser Himalayas, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Abstract Vol. Third Nepal Geological Congress, Sept. 26-28, 2001 Field Note Book. Notes Provided By Field Incharge

Web References
www.wikipedia.com www.scribd.com www.google.com

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