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Lesson 17 - Heartburn An indicator is a molecular substance that changes color when it comes into contact with an acid or base.

The indicators color change is then shown on the pH scale. The substances on the left of the scale, or from 0 to 7, are all acids. The substances on the right side of the number line are called bases, which are from 7 to 14. The substances in the middle, or around 7, are called neutral substances, which means they are neither acids nor bases. Acids and bases are therefore classifies by their observable behavior, such as color change because they change the color of an indicator. Below is the pH scale and a few practice problems to help explain. (:

- What is the pH scale? * The pH scale is a number line that includes number values from 0 to 14 that are each assigned to acids and bases. - What does it mean to say that a substance has a neutral pH? *This means that the substance is around 7 on the pH scale, therefore not making it a base or acid.

Lesson 18 Pass the Proton This lesson was about the chemical makeup of acids and bases as well as the theories associated with each. We also learned about strong and weak acids and bases. In general, acids are substances that add H+ to a solution. On the other hand, bases are substances that add OH- to a solution. Therefore, neutral substances do not add either H+ nor OH- to a solution. The two major definition of bases are those of Arrhenius and Brnsted-Lowry. Arrheniuss definitions are that an acid is any substance that adds H+ to a solution while a base is any substance that adds OH- to a solution. Brnsted-Lowry then states that an acid is a proton donor and a base is the proton acceptor. Knowing this, we then moved on to learing about strong and weak acids and bases. Acids and bases that break apart completely in a solution are strong acids and bases. Therefore, acids and bases that do not break apart completely, or dissociate, are called weak acids and bases. Here are some practice problems to help explain further. (: - What is the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid? *A strong acid dissociates completely in a solution while a weak acid only partially dissociates. - Explain why aqueous washing soda, Na2CO3, is a basic solution. * Washing soda is a basic solution because when mixed with water (aqueous) it accepts a proton from the water, therefore creating hydroxide ion in the solution of the aqueous washing soda.

Lesson 19 pHooey! Lesson 19 focused on acid concentrations as well as the relationship between [H+] and pH as well as discussing the pH of basic solutions such as water. The major point is that pH is related to [H+] by the formula: pH = -log[H+]. Therefore, the pH scale is a logarithmic scale that describes the concentration of H+ ions in solution. We then learned that the pH of water is neutral, and therefore the pH scale number is 7. The molarity, [H+] and pH are all related for every solution. One important detail to remember is that the greater the concentration of H+ ions, the lower the pH of the solution and the more acidic it is. Another important relation to realize is that [H+][OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14. Here are some practice problems to help elaborate some. (: - What pH would you expect for the following solution: [H+] = 1.0 x 10 14 ? * I would expect the pH to be 14, because -log(1.0 x 10-14) = 14 - Determine the pH solution of the following soltuion with the H+ concentration given: [H+] = 6.0 x 10-8 M. * The pH woudl be 7.2 because.. -log(6.0 x 10-8 M) = 7.22 - What is the pH of a 2.5 M HCl solution? * The pH would be -0.40 because. -log(2.5) = -0.397

Lesson 20 Watered Down I learned about diluting acids and what happens as you approach a pH of 7. We learned that by adding water to a solution, or diluting it, you can make an acid or a base less acidic or basic. However, an acid can never be made into a base by diluting with water, nor can a base ever be made into an acid by diluting with water. Through our experiment of continually diluting hydrochloric acid, we learned that by diluting an acid, the H+ concentration will decreases and the pH becomes closer to 7. When a base is diluted, the OH- concentration decreases, meaning the H+ concentration increases and the pH decreases to be closer to 7. One last detail is that each time the H+ concentration is diluted ten fold, the pH goes up one unit. Here are some practice problems to help explain. (: - Explain why you cannot turn an acid into a base by diluting it with water. * Water has a pH of 7 so the most basic you could get an acid is only close to 7 and no higher. - Imagine you have 0.75 L of a 0.10 M HCl solution. 1) How many moles of H+ are in the 0.75 L? * 0.10 M = x / 0.75 L x = 0.075 mol 2) If you add 0.35 L of water, what is the new concentration of the solution? * 0.075 mol / (0.35 L + 0.75 L) = 0.068 M 3) What is the pH after adding the 0.35 L? * -log(0.068 M) = 1.2 pH

Lesson 22 Drip Drop I learned all about titrations in this lesson. We learned about the particle views of titrations (in the book) as well as the calculations that accompany the procedures. A titration is a procedure in which a neutralization reaction is monitored with an indicator. When the indicator shows that the equivalent point (or point at which moles of base added have neutralized acid) in a titration between a strong acid and strong base, the number of moles of H+ ions equals the number of moles of OH- ions. - What is the role of an idicator in titration? * An indicator is used to help monitor the neutralization reaction . - How many mL of 0.1 M NaOH would be required to neutralize 2.0 L of 0.050 M HCl? * 0.050 M = x / 2.0 x = 0.1 mol 0.1 M = 0.1 mol / x x = 1 L = 1,000 mL

Lesson 21 Neutral Territory Basically, a neutralization reaction is between a strong acid and a strong base in an aqueous solution. This type of reaction produces an ionic compound (salt) and water and is considered a double exchange reaction. This is because it exchanges cations during the reaction. Another important idea to remember is that when strong acids and bases mix, the pH of the product approaches 7 at 25 degrees. One exception to this neutralization is that when an acidic solution (very concentrated) mixes with a basic solution (not very concentrated) there will be leftover H+ ions after they mix because there will not be enough OH- ins to neutralize all of the H+ ions. That is mainly all of the big details for this lesson, so here are some practice problems to help explain further. (: - Predict the products of the following equation and balance it: HCl + Mg(OH)2 * HCl + Mg(OH)2 > MgCl2 + H2O - Describe two ways to make a strong acidic solution safer. * One way is to add water to increase the pH to nearly 7, or around neutral. You could also achieve this safer pH by adding a basic solution to the acidic solution to increase the pH to neutral or near it.