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1.

Introduction
The main components of the experiment were the photodiode,
lock-in amplifier and the L.E.D. A brief working of each is
given:

Photodiode
A photodiode generates voltage across its p-n junction
(certain elements found in Group IV and VI, are p and n
elements respectively). A photon of sufficient energy is
capable of exciting electrons. An excited electron with
sufficient energy becomes free of the atom. The electric field
applied from the battery makes the free electrons move and
add to the current.

The photodiode has the following V-I characteristics:
When there is no light falling on the photodioode, the
current follow the curve 1.
When light falls on the photodiode, the current curve
shifts to curve 2 and 3. [A]


Fig. 01: Represents V-I characteristics of a photodiode under
forward and reverse bias with exposure to light.


From the Figure 01 we observe that after a certain current the
voltage does not change and remains constant. Consequently
the power (the product of voltage and current) is proportional
to just I i.e.:
P I (1)
where P and I are the power and current of the photodiode,
respectively.

Lock-in Amplifier
A lock-in amplifier can be used to compare an input signal
with a reference signal. The lock-in amplifier produces a
phase difference between the reference and the input signal. It
also measures the amplitude of the input signal across its own
internal resistance. Noise has a minimal effect on the
mesaured output. The time delay between the input and the
reference signal can also be found by the relation described
below:

= T (2)

where is the phase difference, T is the time delay between
the input and the signals and is the angular frequency of the
reference signal.

Light Emiting Diode (L.E.D)
A L.E.D is essentially a semi-conductor doped with
impurities such that they form a p-n junction. The doping
causes there to be holes and valence electrons in the semi-
conductor which flow upon influence of an external voltage.
When the electron meets with a hole the energy of the
electron drops and is released in the form of light. The
frequency of light depends on the gap of energy between the
hole and the electron. This is known as the band gap.

The same amount of energy occupies more space when
spread for a point source of light. The intensity of the light is
given by [B]:
o =
Pi
4nR
2
, (3)
where o is the intensity, P the power of the L.E.D and R is
the radius from the source. In ideal conditions (in vacuum)
the intensity of the light remains constant.


2. Method

The apparatus was setup as shown:

Fig. 02: Represents the apparatus connections and the flow of
current in these devices.

The signal generator was setup as a sine-wave of frequency
16.78 kHz and then the following experiments were done:

Change in voltage while varying distance between
photodiode and the L.E.D:
Setup: Took a meter stick and pressed two circuit boards
against it, one of which had a LED attached to it and the other
a photodiode. The setup was such that the light from the
L.E.D fell on the photodiode.
Characteristics of a Light Emitting Diode (L.E.D)

Anant Saxena
L2 Laboratory Skills and Electronics, Lab Group B, Lab Day: Friday
Date of experiment: 15
th
February, 2013

The various characteristics of a L.E.D were studied using a lock-in amplifier, signal generator and a
photodiode. The characteristics studied include the voltage and phase difference of the L.E.D against
signal amplitude and signal frequency of the signal generator, radial and angular displacement between
the photodiode and L.E.D.
Page 2 Anant Saxena
Varied the distance (in increments of 0.5 cm) and noted the
output of the lock-in amplifier. The sensitivity of the lock-in
amplifier was 100mV.
Repeated the same experiment with different colors of L.E.D.

Change in output voltage while changing input signal
amplitude:
Removed the meter stick and from the above setup. Increased
the amplitude of of the input signal by the signal generator in
increments 0.5V and noted the output voltage across the
resistor.

Change in phase and voltage while changing photodiode
angle between L.E.D:
Drew a semi-circle with a radius of 5.25 cm with the L.E.D at
its centre. Moved the photodiode along this arc in increments
of 10 degrees. Measured the voltage and phase in the lock-in
amplifier.

3. Results

Change in voltage while varying distance between
photodiode and the L.E.D:
The voltage increases linearly as a function of , for
all colors (red,green and yellow) of L.E.D.



Fig. 03, 04, 05: Represents the voltage variation versus

Inverse-
square of
distance
(100)/ cm
2

Error in
Inverse-
Square/
cm
2

Voltage /(V)
Green Red Yellow
44.44 14.81
0.50 1.54 0.58
25.00 6.25
0.45 1.13 0.53
16.00 3.20
0.41 0.88 0.50
11.11 1.85
0.38 0.66 0.47
8.16 1.16
0.36 0.55 0.46
6.25 0.78
0.34 0.4 0.43
4.93 0.58
0.33 0.38 0.40
4.00 0.40
0.32 0.35 0.38


Change in output voltage while changing input signal
amplitude:
The current (measured as voltage across the load
resistor) through the photodiode is directly propotional
to the input signal voltage.


Fig. 06: The variation of voltage of the signal generator and the
voltage across the load of the photodiode

Signal Voltage/.5V Voltage/V
1 12.9
2 13.06
3 13.11
4 13.25
5 13.33
6 13.48
7 13.61
8 13.74

Change in phase and voltage while changing photodiode
angle between L.E.D:
There is no phase difference with different angular
displacements. The phase remains constant at 133
degrees.
There is voltage varaiton with angular displacement.

Page 3 Anant Saxena

Fig. 07: The variation of voltage with change in angular
displacement between the photodiode and the L.E.D

Angle/degree Magnitude/V Phase/degree
0 1.0 133
10 1.0 133
20 1.0 132
30 1.0 133
40 1.1 133
50 1.1 133
60 1.1 132
70 1.1 133
80 1.2 132
90 1.2 133
100 1.2 133
110 1.2 132
120 1.1 133
130 1.1 133
140 1.1 132
150 1.1 133
160 1.0 133
170 1.0 133
180 1.0 133

4. Discussion

Change in voltage while varying distance between
photodiode and the L.E.D
The power received at the photodiode is:
(4)
Where is the intensity, A is the area of the photodiode and
P is the power of the photodiode. The power is also directly
propotional to the current I from (1) and from ohms law we
know current is directly propotional to voltage across the
resistor. From (3) we also know that is directly propotional
to . Hence, we conclude:
v
Where V is the voltage across the resistor and R is the
distance between the photodiode and the L.E.D.
A plot of is used in the x-axis where 100 is a scaling
factor in Fig.03 to Fig.05.

The voltage at infinity (theoretically) for Fig .03, .04 and .05
ought to be zero as the intensity at infinity will also be zero
(according to equation (2)). Ideally, this value should
approach zero which in actual experiment was found to be
0.4V, 0.32V, 0.3V respectively.

By Plancks equation we also know the power is directly
propotional to frequency so we expect to see similar slopes in
all three figures. Fig.03 & Fig.05 do share this feature. In fact,
they share the exact same slope of 4.5 x 10
-3
V/cm
2
. However,
Fig. 04 does not share this feature. This was because of the
fact that these observations shown in figure .04 were carried
out on a different day when the room temperature was
different. The photodiodes characterisitcs are affected with
change in temperature. [C]

Change in voltage while changing signal amplitude:
This observation can be explained by combining equations (3)
and (4). We obtain both powers must be propotional to each
other and from Ohms Law we know current is directly
propotional current is directly to voltage across the resistor.

P P
=> I I
=> V V (5)

Change in phase and voltage while changing photodiode
angle between L.E.D:
The L.E.D had a parabolically shaped covering. This covering
of glass acts as a lens and gives rise to the unequal
distribution of light [D].

While this shows equation (3) to be untrue the power its
principle still holds and the intensity should still be inversely
proportional to the distance square.

No change in phase can be explained by the fact there is no
time delay in receiving the signal.

5. Conclusions

The intensity of the L.E.D is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance from the L.E.D
The intensity of light does change with the angular
displacement from the L.E.D.
The power of an L.E.D is directly proportional to the
current passing through it.

References
[A]http://unicorn.ps.uci.edu/H2A/handouts/PDFs/photodiode.
pdf
[B] Paschotta, Rdiger, Optical Intensity, Encyclopedia of
Laser Physics and Technology. RP Photonics.
[C] Jacob Millman, Christos C. Halkias, Electronic Devices
and Circuits, international student edition, McGraw-Hill
Inc.,US.
[D]http://zeisscampus.magnet.fsu.edu/articles/lightsources/led
s.html












Appendix

Distance/cm Calculation
100
R
2
cm
2
Rounded
100
R
2
cm
2

1.5
1uu
(1.S)(1.S)

44.44444 44.44
2
1uu
(2)(2)

25 25
2.5
1uu
(2.S)(2.S)

16 16
3
1uu
(S)(S)

11.11111 11.11
3.5
1uu
(S.S)(S.S)

8.163265 8.16
4
1uu
(4)(4)

6.25 6.25
4.5
1uu
(4.S)(4.S)

4.938272 4.93
5
1uu
(S)(S)

4 4


(
100
R
2
)=
200(AR)
R
3

Distance/cm Error/cm
R
Calculation
(
100
R
2
)cm
2

1.5 .25 2uu(.2S)
(1.S)(1.S)(1.S)

14.81
2 .25 2uu(.2S)
(2)(2)(2)

6.25
2.5 .25 2uu(.2S)
(2.S)(2.S)(2.S)

3.2
3 .25 2uu(.2S)
(S)(S)(S)

1.85
3.5 .25 2uu(.2S)
(S.S)(S.S)(S.S)

1.16
4 .25 2uu(.2S)
(4)(4)(4)

0.78
4.5 .25 2uu(.2S)
(4.S)(4.S)(4.S)

0.54
5 .25 2uu(.2S)
(S)(S)(S)

0.40