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You are on page 1of 4

Introduction

The main components of the experiment were the photodiode,

lock-in amplifier and the L.E.D. A brief working of each is

given:

Photodiode

A photodiode generates voltage across its p-n junction

(certain elements found in Group IV and VI, are p and n

elements respectively). A photon of sufficient energy is

capable of exciting electrons. An excited electron with

sufficient energy becomes free of the atom. The electric field

applied from the battery makes the free electrons move and

add to the current.

The photodiode has the following V-I characteristics:

When there is no light falling on the photodioode, the

current follow the curve 1.

When light falls on the photodiode, the current curve

shifts to curve 2 and 3. [A]

Fig. 01: Represents V-I characteristics of a photodiode under

forward and reverse bias with exposure to light.

From the Figure 01 we observe that after a certain current the

voltage does not change and remains constant. Consequently

the power (the product of voltage and current) is proportional

to just I i.e.:

P I (1)

where P and I are the power and current of the photodiode,

respectively.

Lock-in Amplifier

A lock-in amplifier can be used to compare an input signal

with a reference signal. The lock-in amplifier produces a

phase difference between the reference and the input signal. It

also measures the amplitude of the input signal across its own

internal resistance. Noise has a minimal effect on the

mesaured output. The time delay between the input and the

reference signal can also be found by the relation described

below:

= T (2)

where is the phase difference, T is the time delay between

the input and the signals and is the angular frequency of the

reference signal.

Light Emiting Diode (L.E.D)

A L.E.D is essentially a semi-conductor doped with

impurities such that they form a p-n junction. The doping

causes there to be holes and valence electrons in the semi-

conductor which flow upon influence of an external voltage.

When the electron meets with a hole the energy of the

electron drops and is released in the form of light. The

frequency of light depends on the gap of energy between the

hole and the electron. This is known as the band gap.

The same amount of energy occupies more space when

spread for a point source of light. The intensity of the light is

given by [B]:

o =

Pi

4nR

2

, (3)

where o is the intensity, P the power of the L.E.D and R is

the radius from the source. In ideal conditions (in vacuum)

the intensity of the light remains constant.

2. Method

The apparatus was setup as shown:

Fig. 02: Represents the apparatus connections and the flow of

current in these devices.

The signal generator was setup as a sine-wave of frequency

16.78 kHz and then the following experiments were done:

Change in voltage while varying distance between

photodiode and the L.E.D:

Setup: Took a meter stick and pressed two circuit boards

against it, one of which had a LED attached to it and the other

a photodiode. The setup was such that the light from the

L.E.D fell on the photodiode.

Characteristics of a Light Emitting Diode (L.E.D)

Anant Saxena

L2 Laboratory Skills and Electronics, Lab Group B, Lab Day: Friday

Date of experiment: 15

th

February, 2013

The various characteristics of a L.E.D were studied using a lock-in amplifier, signal generator and a

photodiode. The characteristics studied include the voltage and phase difference of the L.E.D against

signal amplitude and signal frequency of the signal generator, radial and angular displacement between

the photodiode and L.E.D.

Page 2 Anant Saxena

Varied the distance (in increments of 0.5 cm) and noted the

output of the lock-in amplifier. The sensitivity of the lock-in

amplifier was 100mV.

Repeated the same experiment with different colors of L.E.D.

Change in output voltage while changing input signal

amplitude:

Removed the meter stick and from the above setup. Increased

the amplitude of of the input signal by the signal generator in

increments 0.5V and noted the output voltage across the

resistor.

Change in phase and voltage while changing photodiode

angle between L.E.D:

Drew a semi-circle with a radius of 5.25 cm with the L.E.D at

its centre. Moved the photodiode along this arc in increments

of 10 degrees. Measured the voltage and phase in the lock-in

amplifier.

3. Results

Change in voltage while varying distance between

photodiode and the L.E.D:

The voltage increases linearly as a function of , for

all colors (red,green and yellow) of L.E.D.

Fig. 03, 04, 05: Represents the voltage variation versus

Inverse-

square of

distance

(100)/ cm

2

Error in

Inverse-

Square/

cm

2

Voltage /(V)

Green Red Yellow

44.44 14.81

0.50 1.54 0.58

25.00 6.25

0.45 1.13 0.53

16.00 3.20

0.41 0.88 0.50

11.11 1.85

0.38 0.66 0.47

8.16 1.16

0.36 0.55 0.46

6.25 0.78

0.34 0.4 0.43

4.93 0.58

0.33 0.38 0.40

4.00 0.40

0.32 0.35 0.38

Change in output voltage while changing input signal

amplitude:

The current (measured as voltage across the load

resistor) through the photodiode is directly propotional

to the input signal voltage.

Fig. 06: The variation of voltage of the signal generator and the

voltage across the load of the photodiode

Signal Voltage/.5V Voltage/V

1 12.9

2 13.06

3 13.11

4 13.25

5 13.33

6 13.48

7 13.61

8 13.74

Change in phase and voltage while changing photodiode

angle between L.E.D:

There is no phase difference with different angular

displacements. The phase remains constant at 133

degrees.

There is voltage varaiton with angular displacement.

Page 3 Anant Saxena

Fig. 07: The variation of voltage with change in angular

displacement between the photodiode and the L.E.D

Angle/degree Magnitude/V Phase/degree

0 1.0 133

10 1.0 133

20 1.0 132

30 1.0 133

40 1.1 133

50 1.1 133

60 1.1 132

70 1.1 133

80 1.2 132

90 1.2 133

100 1.2 133

110 1.2 132

120 1.1 133

130 1.1 133

140 1.1 132

150 1.1 133

160 1.0 133

170 1.0 133

180 1.0 133

4. Discussion

Change in voltage while varying distance between

photodiode and the L.E.D

The power received at the photodiode is:

(4)

Where is the intensity, A is the area of the photodiode and

P is the power of the photodiode. The power is also directly

propotional to the current I from (1) and from ohms law we

know current is directly propotional to voltage across the

resistor. From (3) we also know that is directly propotional

to . Hence, we conclude:

v

Where V is the voltage across the resistor and R is the

distance between the photodiode and the L.E.D.

A plot of is used in the x-axis where 100 is a scaling

factor in Fig.03 to Fig.05.

The voltage at infinity (theoretically) for Fig .03, .04 and .05

ought to be zero as the intensity at infinity will also be zero

(according to equation (2)). Ideally, this value should

approach zero which in actual experiment was found to be

0.4V, 0.32V, 0.3V respectively.

By Plancks equation we also know the power is directly

propotional to frequency so we expect to see similar slopes in

all three figures. Fig.03 & Fig.05 do share this feature. In fact,

they share the exact same slope of 4.5 x 10

-3

V/cm

2

. However,

Fig. 04 does not share this feature. This was because of the

fact that these observations shown in figure .04 were carried

out on a different day when the room temperature was

different. The photodiodes characterisitcs are affected with

change in temperature. [C]

Change in voltage while changing signal amplitude:

This observation can be explained by combining equations (3)

and (4). We obtain both powers must be propotional to each

other and from Ohms Law we know current is directly

propotional current is directly to voltage across the resistor.

P P

=> I I

=> V V (5)

Change in phase and voltage while changing photodiode

angle between L.E.D:

The L.E.D had a parabolically shaped covering. This covering

of glass acts as a lens and gives rise to the unequal

distribution of light [D].

While this shows equation (3) to be untrue the power its

principle still holds and the intensity should still be inversely

proportional to the distance square.

No change in phase can be explained by the fact there is no

time delay in receiving the signal.

5. Conclusions

The intensity of the L.E.D is inversely proportional

to the square of the distance from the L.E.D

The intensity of light does change with the angular

displacement from the L.E.D.

The power of an L.E.D is directly proportional to the

current passing through it.

References

[A]http://unicorn.ps.uci.edu/H2A/handouts/PDFs/photodiode.

pdf

[B] Paschotta, Rdiger, Optical Intensity, Encyclopedia of

Laser Physics and Technology. RP Photonics.

[C] Jacob Millman, Christos C. Halkias, Electronic Devices

and Circuits, international student edition, McGraw-Hill

Inc.,US.

[D]http://zeisscampus.magnet.fsu.edu/articles/lightsources/led

s.html

Appendix

Distance/cm Calculation

100

R

2

cm

2

Rounded

100

R

2

cm

2

1.5

1uu

(1.S)(1.S)

44.44444 44.44

2

1uu

(2)(2)

25 25

2.5

1uu

(2.S)(2.S)

16 16

3

1uu

(S)(S)

11.11111 11.11

3.5

1uu

(S.S)(S.S)

8.163265 8.16

4

1uu

(4)(4)

6.25 6.25

4.5

1uu

(4.S)(4.S)

4.938272 4.93

5

1uu

(S)(S)

4 4

(

100

R

2

)=

200(AR)

R

3

Distance/cm Error/cm

R

Calculation

(

100

R

2

)cm

2

1.5 .25 2uu(.2S)

(1.S)(1.S)(1.S)

14.81

2 .25 2uu(.2S)

(2)(2)(2)

6.25

2.5 .25 2uu(.2S)

(2.S)(2.S)(2.S)

3.2

3 .25 2uu(.2S)

(S)(S)(S)

1.85

3.5 .25 2uu(.2S)

(S.S)(S.S)(S.S)

1.16

4 .25 2uu(.2S)

(4)(4)(4)

0.78

4.5 .25 2uu(.2S)

(4.S)(4.S)(4.S)

0.54

5 .25 2uu(.2S)

(S)(S)(S)

0.40

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