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KERN & Sohn GmbH

Ziegelei 1 D-72336 Balingen E-Mail: info@kern-sohn.com Tel: +49-[0]7433- 9933-0 Fax: +49-[0]7433-9933-149 Internet: www.kern-sohn.com

Operating Instructions Density Determination Set for Analytical Balance KERN ABT
KERN ABT-A01
Version 1.0 02/2007 GB

ABT-BA-e-0710

KERN ABT-A01
GB
Version 1.0 2/2007 Operating Manual Density Determination Set for Analytical Balance KERN ABT

Contents:
1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 4 1.1 2 3 SCOPE OF DELIVERY ................................................................................................................. 5

INSTALLING THE DENSITY DETERMINATION SET .................................................................. 7 PRINCIPLE OF DENSITY DETERMINATION............................................................................... 9 3.1 INFLUENCING MAGNITUDES AND ERROR SOURCES .................................................................... 10

DENSITY DETERMINATION OF SOLIDS................................................................................... 11 4.1 4.2 4.3 ACTIVATE FUNCTION ............................................................................................................... 12 ENTERING DENSITY FOR FLUID................................................................................................ 13 CARRYING OUT MEASUREMENT .............................................................................................. 14

DETERMINING DENSITY OF LIQUIDS ...................................................................................... 14 5.1 5.2 5.3 ACTIVATE FUNCTION ............................................................................................................... 14 ENTERING DENSITY OF GLASS PLUMMET ................................................................................. 16 CARRYING OUT MEASUREMENT .............................................................................................. 17

PRECONDITIONS FOR PRECISE MEASUREMENTS............................................................... 18 6.1 CALCULATION OF RESULTS ..................................................................................................... 18 6.2 INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR MEASUREMENT ERRORS ................................................................. 19 6.2.1 Air bubbles ....................................................................................................................... 19 6.2.2 Solid Specimen ................................................................................................................ 19 6.2.3 Liquids.............................................................................................................................. 19 6.2.4 Surface............................................................................................................................. 19 6.2.5 Glass Plummet for Measuring Fluids............................................................................... 20 6.3 GENERAL INFORMATION .......................................................................................................... 20 6.3.1 Density / Relative Density................................................................................................ 20 6.3.2 Drift of Balance Display ................................................................................................... 20

7 8 9

DENSITY TABLE FOR FLUIDS................................................................................................... 21 UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT FOR DENSITY DETERMINATION OF SOLIDS............ 22 USER INSTRUCTIONS................................................................................................................ 23

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1 Introduction
Safety instructions: In order to guarantee a safe and smooth operation of this instrument, you have to comply with the precautions below. 1. Carefully read the operating instructions. 2. Handle this set and the balance with care as they are precision instruments. This set contains parts made of glass. Protect all parts against shocks and impacts. 3. Do not disassemble this set nor the balance.

KERN ABT-A01 Density determination set for analytical balances of the KERN ABT series (readability d = 0.1 mg). This set is designed for the efficient determination of the density of solids by means of an analytical balance. In addition the density of fluids may be determined by means of an additional plummet.

These operating instructions only describe the operation of the density determination set. For further information on how to operate your balance please refer to the operating instructions supplied with each balance.

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1.1 Scope of delivery

SAMPLE DISH

SAMPLE DISH

FILTER BOWL

FILTER BOWL

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MONTAGE THERMOMETER:

No. Designation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Platform assembly (sample dish and sifting bowl), 2 x Weighing platform with rack Beaker Platform for glass beaker Thermometer Holder for thermometer -Glass plummet

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2 Installing the density determination set


1. Turn off and disconnect the power supply for the balance 2. Open the lateral glass doors of the weighing space of the balance and remove the grading ring, the weighing plate and the support of the weighing plate.

3. Carefully insert the weighing platform with rack onto the floor of the weighing space.

4. Place the platform for the glass beaker above it without touching the weighing platform, as shown.

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5. Attach the platform assembly (sample dish and sifting bowl) to the rack of the weighing platform. In doing so, bear in mind that the centering of the upper sample dish matches the notch in the upper part of the weighing platform.

6. Close the glass doors and connect the power supply for the balance. Wait for the auto test of the balance and the display message "oFF. Some models additionally carry out an automatic adjustment before displaying oFF. (Connect the balance to the platform assembly but without any fluid in the glass beaker. ) 7. Turn on the balance by pressing the [ON/OFF] key, so that gram appears on the display. 8. Attach the holder with thermometer to the glass beaker. Fill the glass beaker with known fluid (for density determination of solids) or test fluid (for density determination of fluids). 9. To be able to place the glass beaker in the centre of the platform, the platform assembly must first be removed from the rack. 10. Reattach the platform assembly to the rack and ensure that the sifting bowl does not touch the glass beaker. 11. Observe the waiting time until the test fluid, the known fluid, the instruments or the plummet have the same temperature. For the balance also observe the required warm-up time. (For details please refer to the operating instructions for the balance)

Attention:

The platform for the beaker must not touch the frame! When the density set is installed, correct adjustment is not possible. To achieve correct adjustment reinsert the weighing plate.

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3 Principle of Density Determination


Three physical magnitudes are the volume and the mass of bodies as well as the density of matter. In density mass and volume are related. Density [ ] is the relation of mass [ m ] to volume [ V ].

= m
V

SI-unit of density is kilogram divided by cubic meter (kg/m). 1 kg/m equals the density of a homogenous body that, for a mass of 1 kg, has the volume of 1 m. Additional frequently applied units include:
1 g cm ,
3

kg m ,
3

g l

The application of this density determination set in combination with the KERN ABT balance provides fast and safe determination of solids and fluids. Our set uses the "Principle of Archimedes" to determine density:
BUOYANCY IS A FORCE. IT AFFECTS A BODY THAT IS IMMERSED INTO A FLUID. THE BUOYANCY OF THE BODY EQUALS THE WEIGHT FORCE OF THE DISPLACED FLUID. THE FORCE OF BUOYANCY ACTS VERTICALLY UPWARDS.

Thus, density is calculated according to the formulae below: Density determination of solids: This balance enables weighing of solids in air [ A ] as well as water [ B ]. If the density of the buoyancy medium is known [ o ] the density of the solid [ ] is calculated as follows:

=
A B o

A o A-B

= density of sample = weight of the sample in air = weight of sample in measuring fluid = density of measuring fluid

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Determining density of liquids: The density of a fluid is determined with the help of a plummet providing a known volume [ V ]. The plummet is weighed in air [ A ] as well as in the sample fluid [ B ]. According to the Archimedes Principle a body immersed in a fluid experiences a force of buoyancy [ G ]. This force equals the weight force of the fluid displaced by the volume of the body. The volume [ V ] of the immersed body equals the volume of the displaced fluid.

= G
V
G = buoyancy of plummet Buoyancy of plummet = Weight of the sinker in air [ A ] - weight sinker in sample liquid [ B ] From this follows:

= A-B + L
V

A B V L

= density of sample fluid = weight of plummet in air = weight of plummet in sample fluid = volume of plummet = air density (0.0012 g/cm)

3.1 Influencing magnitudes and error sources


Air pressure Temperature Volume deviance of the sinker ( 0.005 cm3) Surface tension of the liquid Air bubbles Immersion depth of the sample dish of sinker Porosity of the solid

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4 Density determination of solids


Prepare balance as described in chapter 2 "Installation of density determination set".

Install holder for the thermometer on beaker rim. Suspend thermometer Fill your measuring liquid, whose density o is known, into the beaker. Filling height should be approx. of the capacity. Place beaker in the centre of the platform Suspend sample dish from the centre of the frame Heat measuring liquid until temperature is constant.

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4.1 Activate function


Press several times the [UNIT] key to change the display between activated units, piece counting, percentage and density determination mode. This does not require additional software.

Settings have to be activated in the menu:

Repeatedly press the [CAL] key until "FUnC.SEL" appears.

Press [TARE] key Repeatedly press the [CAL] key until "Unit.SEL" appears.
(Example)

Press [TARE] key Use the [CAL] key, to select the settings below: U- ,d ( , this is an upside down triangle) Current settings are indicated by the standstill display ( ). Confirm your selection by pressing the [TARE] key. The [TARE] key is also used to deactivate a unit or function if the corresponding setting with standstill display is shown in the display. Repeatedly press the [ON/OFF] key. This takes you back to the menu/weighing mode.

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4.2 Entering Density for Fluid

Press the [CAL] key repeatedly until "SettinG" appears.

Press the [TARE] key. Repeatedly actuate the [CAL] key until "LSG SEt" appears Press the [TARE] key. The currently set density for the liquid to be measured appears. In the upper part of the display panel, the symbol and the # symbol appear in order to indicate numerical input status. The leftmost digit blinks. Enter density for the liquid to be measured. When the [UNIT] key is pressed, the numerical of the blinking digit increases by 1 at a time. You can determine the value of the flashing digit, or shift the flashing digit by one position to the right, by pressing the [PRINT] key. Confirm your setting by pressing the [TARE] key. Repeatedly press the [ON/OFF] key until the balance is in weighing mode.

(Example)

(Example)

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4.3 Carrying Out Measurement


Repeatedly press the [UNIT] key until the balance is in density determination mode for solids ",d". Note that g also appears during weight measurement in air. Press the [TARE] key. Place the object to be measured on the sample dish. When standstill control is complete, press the [CAL] key. Place the item to be measured on the immersed sifting bowl. The display is showing the density of the measured item. dSP oL may be displayed when nothing is on the weighing pan, which is normal. To start next measurement, press the [CAL] and the [ TARE ] key and place the object to be measured on the weighing tray.

5 Determining density of liquids


Prepare balance as described in chapter 2 "Installation of density determination set". Install holder for the thermometer on beaker rim. Suspend thermometer Fill your measuring liquid into the beaker. Filling height should be approx. of the capacity. Heat measuring liquid until temperature is constant. Prepare glass sinker

5.1 Activate function


Press several times the [UNIT] key to change the display between activated units, piece counting, percentage and density determination mode. This does not require additional software.

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Settings have to be activated in the menu:

Repeatedly press the [CAL] key until "FUnC.SEL" appears.

Press [TARE] key Repeatedly press the [CAL] key until "Unit.SEL" appears.
(Example)

Press [TARE] key Use the [CAL] key, to select the settings below: U- d Current settings are indicated by the standstill display ( ). Confirm your selection by pressing the [TARE] key. The [TARE] key is also used to deactivate a unit or function if the corresponding setting with standstill display is shown in the display. Repeatedly press the [ON/OFF] key. This takes you back to the menu/weighing mode.

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5.2 Entering Density of Glass Plummet

Press the [CAL] key repeatedly until "SettinG" appears.

Press the [TARE] key. Repeatedly actuate the [CAL] key until "Sv SEt" appears Press the [TARE] key. The currently set density for the body to be immersed appears. In the upper part of the display panel, the symbol and the # symbol appear in order to indicate numerical input status. The leftmost digit blinks. Enter density for your body to be immersed. When the [UNIT] key is pressed, the numerical of the blinking digit increases by 1 at a time. You can determine the value of the flashing digit, or shift the flashing digit by one position to the right, by pressing the [PRINT] key. Confirm your setting by pressing the [TARE] key. Repeatedly press the [ON/OFF] key until the balance is in weighing mode.

(Example)

(Example)

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5.3 Carrying Out Measurement


Remove the platform assembly and the glass beaker from the platform. Repeatedly press the [UNIT] key until the balance is in density determination mode for liquids "d". Note that g also appears during weight measurement in air. Press the [TARE] key. To carry out a measurement in air, attach the glass plummet to the rack. When standstill control is complete, press the [CAL] key

Remove the glass plummet. Place the glass beaker containing the test fluid on the platform for the glass beaker. Reattach the glass plummet to the rack and immerse it completely in the fluid without producing bubbles. The display is showing the density of the sample. If no glass plummets are available the message dSP oL might appear which is normal.

To start the next measurement, press the [CAL] key and [TARE] key and reattach the glass plummet to the rack without the glass beaker, in order to carry out a measurement in air. Ensure that the glass beaker is dry and clean each time you fill it with test fluid. The same applies to the glass plummet.

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6 Preconditions for Precise Measurements


There are numerous error possibilities during density determination. Accurate knowledge and caution are required to achieve precise results when applying this density set in combination with the balance.

6.1 Calculation of Results


The balance displays results for density determination by giving four decimal places. However, this does not mean that the results are accurate down to the last decimal place as this would be the case for a calculated value. Therefore all weighing results used for calculations have to be examined closely. Example for density determination of solids: To ensure high-grade results, numerators as well as common denominators of the formula below must show the desired accuracy. If either of them is instable or flawed, the result, too, will be instable or flawed.

=
A B o

A o A-B

= density of sample = weight of the sample in air = weight of sample in measuring fluid = density of measuring fluid

The use of a heavy specimen contributes to the accuracy of a result because this increases the numerical value. The use of a light-weight specimen, too, contributes to the accuracy of a result because this increases buoyancy (A-B). As a consequence, the result of the common denominator increases. Bear also in mind that the accuracy of the density of the measuring fluid o enters into the common denominator and, thus, has considerable influence on the accuracy of the result. The result for the density of the specimen cannot be more accurate than the least accurate of the aforementioned individual entities. This fact applies equally to the determination of density for fluids and glass plummet adjustment.

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6.2 Influence Factors for Measurement Errors


6.2.1 Air bubbles A small bubble of, for example, 1mm3 will have a considerable influence on the measurement if the specimen is small. Buoyancy will be increased by approximately 1mg resulting immediately in an error of 2 digits. Hence, it has to be ensured that no air bubbles cling to the solid immersed in the fluid. The same applies to the glass plummet that is immersed in the test fluid. Take great care when removing air bubbles by swirling, to prevent the fluid from spurting out and splashing onto the sifting bowl. Moisture on the suspension bracket of the sifting bowl results in increased weight. Do not touch the solid sample or glass plummet with bare fingers. An oily surface causes air bubbles when immersing the specimen in fluids. Do not place solid specimens (in particular flat objects) in the sifting bowls as this would result in air bubbles when immersed together. For this reason examine the bottom of the sifting bowl for air bubbles after the specimen had been immersed in fluid. 6.2.2 Solid Specimen A specimen possessing too great a volume that is immersed in fluid will result in an increase in fluid level inside the glass beaker. As a result, part of the suspension bracket of the sifting bowl will also be immersed causing buoyancy to increase. As a consequence the weight of the specimen in the fluid will drop. Specimens that change the volume or assimilate fluid are unsuitable for measurement. 6.2.3 Liquids Water temperature is another factor to be taken into consideration. The density of water changes by c. 0.01% per degree Celsius. A temperature measurement showing an error of 1 degree Celsius results in an inaccurate fourth decimal place. If the specimen absorbs the fluid or dissolves during the measurement in the fluid, a different fluid should be chosen. Additionally take into consideration that the fluid might evaporate. 6.2.4 Surface The suspension bracket of the sifting bowl penetrates the surface of the fluid. This state undergoes continuous change. If the specimen or the glass plummet is relatively small, the surface tension will impair repeatability. The addition of a small amount of detergent makes the surface tension negligible and increases repeatability.

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6.2.5 Glass Plummet for Measuring Fluids To save test fluids used for density determination of fluids, use a small glass beaker and an accordingly sized glass plummet. However, it needs to be pointed that a large glass plummet achieves higher accuracy. It is desirable that the buoyancy and the volume of the glass plummet are determined as accurately as possible. For the determination of fluid density these results are applied to the common denominator as well as the numerator of the formula.

6.3 General information


6.3.1 Density / Relative Density Relative density follows from the weight of a specimen divided by the weight of water (at 4 Celsius) of the same volume. For this reason relative density does not have a unit. Density equals mass divided by volume. The application of the relative density instead of the density of a fluid in a formula produces an incorrect result. In the case of fluids only their density is physically meaningful.

6.3.2 Drift of Balance Display The drifting of a balance does not influence the final result of the density determination although the shown weight of weighing in air is affected. Accurate values are merely required if the density of fluids is determined by means of a glass plummet. For this purpose some of the models carry out auto-adjustment.

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7 Density Table for Fluids

Temperature Density p [g/cm3] [C] Water 10 0.9997 11 0.9996 12 0.9995 13 0.9994 14 0.9993 15 0.9991 16 0.9990 17 0.9988 18 0.9986 19 0.9984 20 0.9982 21 0.9980 22 0.9978 23 0.9976 24 0.9973 25 0.9971 26 0.9968 27 0.9965 28 0.9963 29 0.9960 30 0.9957 31 0.9954 32 0.9951 33 0.9947 34 0.9944 35 0.9941

Ethyl alcohol 0.7978 0.7969 0.7961 0.7953 0.7944 0.7935 0.7927 0.7918 0.7909 0.7901 0.7893 0.7884 0.7876 0.7867 0.7859 0.7851 0.7842 0.7833 0.7824 0.7816 0.7808 0.7800 0.7791 0.7783 0.7774 0.7766

Methyl alcohol 0.8009 0.8000 0.7991 0.7982 0.7972 0.7963 0.7954 0.7945 0.7935 0.7926 0.7917 0.7907 0.7898 0.7880 0.7870 0.7870 0.7861 0.7852 0.7842 0.7833 0.7824 0.7814 0.7805 0.7896 0.7886 0.7877

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8 Uncertainty of Measurement for Density Determination of Solids


This table shows the approximate readability of the balance in connection with the density set. In doing so take into consideration that these theoretically calculated values may vary according to ambient conditions. In addition observe chapter 6.

Example to table below: Test of a solid weight of 5 gram and a density of 3 g/cm3. The minimum display value for density is 0.0004 g/cm3. Thus the last display digit of the display (readability of 0.0001) is not relevant for this measurement.

Approximative readability at the density determination (when using the 0.1mg range)
Weight (g) of the specimen Density of the specimen (g/cm3)

10

100

200

300

1 3 5 8 10 12 20

0.001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.002 0.0004 0.0003 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.003 0.001 0.0004 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.004 0.001 0.0006 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.005 0.001 0.0008 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.006 0.002 0.001 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.01 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001

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9 User Instructions

To form a reproducible mean value several density measurement are necessary Remove fat from solvent-resistant sample / /glass sinker /beaker. Regularly clean sample dishes/glass sinker/beaker, do not touch immersed part with your hands Dry sample/glass sinker/pincers after each measurement. Adjust sample size to sample dish (ideal sample size > 5 g). Only use distilled water. When immersing for the first time, lightly shake sample dishes and sinker, in order to Dissolve air bubbles. Always ensure that, when re-immersing into the liquid no additional bubbles adhere; it is better to use pincers to place the sample. Remove firmly adherent air bubbles with a fine brush or a similar tool. To avoid adherent air bubbles smoothen samples with rough surface. Take care that no water drips onto the upper sample dish when weighing with the help of tweezers. In order to reduce the surface tension of water and the friction of the liquid on the wire, add three drops of a common detergent (washing-up liquid) to the measuring liquid (density modification of dest. water occurring due to the addition of tensides can be ignored). Oval samples can be held more easily with pincers when you cut grooves into them. The density of porous solids may only be determined approximately. Buoyancy errors occur when not all the air is eliminated from the pores during immersion in the measuring fluid. To avoid great vibrations of the balance, place sample carefully. Avoid static charge, e. g. dry glass plummet with cotton cloth only. If the density of your solid only deviates slightly from that of distilled water, ethanol may be used as measuring fluid. However, check beforehand whether the sample is solvent-proof. In addition you must observe the applicable safety regulations when working with ethanol. Handle glass sinker with care (no warranty claims in case of damage).

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