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# Jorge Travieso PHY2049L Professor Lopez June 16, 2013

2. Description In this experiment we used an elementary direct circuit to help demonstrate Ohms laws first and second law, and also to estimate the operating temperature of a light bulb. The current was measured across the light bulbs (tungsten, carbon) as a function of their voltage. Afterwards, we found the bulbs resistance at room temperature, when voltage was zero, and then at its normal operating temperature when voltage was 110 V. This difference would yield an approximation of the bulbs operating temperature. 3. Summary of Theory Ohms Law is the relationship between the current flowing through resistance, R and the potential drop across it, V. Ohms Law states the voltage or electric potential in direction proportional to the product of the current and the resistance where current is in Amps (A), voltage in volts (v), and resistance in Ohms ().

## 4. Data Tungsten (W)

V I R V mA 2.0 5.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 0.036 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.1 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 55.56 100.00 142.86 222.22 300.00 333.33 384.62 428.57 466.67 500.00 529.41 555.56 578.95

Carbon (C)
V I R V 2.0 5.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 mA 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.023 0.036 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.1 0.11 0.14 0.16 0.18 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 869.57 833.33 800.00 714.29 750.00 700.00 727.27 642.86 625.00 611.11

5. Graph

R vs V (Tungsten)
700.00 600.00 500.00 y = -0.0438x2 + 9.0301x + 96.618 400.00 300.00 200.00 100.00 0.00 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

R vs V (Carbon)
1200.00

1000.00

800.00

600.00

400.00

200.00

## 6. Sample Calculations By inspection, ( ) ( ) ( ) Finally, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ).

( ) ( ) 7. Errors a) Light bulbs resistance to the electric current. b) Voltmeter and other devices internal resistance. c) Numbers were not read correctly 8. Summary and Conclusion. After concluding this experiment, we learned how to estimate the operating temperature of a light bulb, in this case two different types of light bulb (tungsten, and carbon). We measured the electric current across the light bulb as a function of its voltage. Consequently, we found the resistance of this light bulb at room temperature and at its normal operating temperature; and the change in that resistance was used in a formula to estimate the bulbs operating temperature. However, we experienced errors such as the light bulbs internal resistance and voltmeter internal resistance to the electric current. These errors are natural parameters that we as humans cannot manipulate in order to have a better result in our calculations made.